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Sample records for lens particle glaucoma

  1. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An experimental contact lens design releases a glaucoma medicine at a steady rate for up to ...

  2. New Management of Malignant Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Posterior Chamber Foldable Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeJian; GuoY

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation in the management of malignant glaucoma. Patients and Methods:Fourteen patients with malignant glaucoma diagnosed in the Department of Glaucoma were enrolled in the study.12 patients developed malignant glaucoma after filtration surgery.1 developed after peripheral iridectomy.1 patient developed malignant glaucoma without any clear cause.Cataract phacoemulsification was performed.Posterior chamber intraocular foldable lens was implanted in 10 cases of patients.Results:All 14 patients were cured wiht normal intraocular pressure,normal anterior chamber depth and increased visual acuity.Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation is a good alternative in treating malignant glaucoma.

  3. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  4. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge; Yan Guo; Yizhi Liu; Mingkai Lin; Yehong Zhuo; Bing Chen; Xiuqi Chen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants: In 36 eyes with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), there were 18 eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), 14 eyes with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCCG), 3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (SCCG).Intervention: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative visual acuity, IOP, axial anterior chamber depth.Results: After a mean postoperative follow-up time of 8.81 ± 7.45 months, intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81 ± 17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54 ± 4. 73 mmHg ( P = 0. 001 ). Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75 ± 0.48 mm preoperatively and 2.29 ± 0.38 mm postoperatively ( P = 0. 000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 7 (20/200 to 20/30) postoperatively, which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4 (20/50) ( P= 0. 000).Conclusion: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:22 ~ 28.

  5. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Folable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianGE; YanGuo; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOIL)implantation.Design:Retrospective,noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants:In 36 eyes with angle -closure glaucoma(ACG).there were 18eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma(PACG),14 eyes with primary chonic angle -closure glaucoma(PCCG),3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle -closure glaucoma(SCCG).Intervention:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures:Postoperative visual acuity,IOP,axial anterior chamber depth.Results:After a mean postoperative follow -time of 8.81±7.45 months,intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81±17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54±4.73mmHg(P=0.001).Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75±0.48 mm preoiperatively and 2.29±0.38mm postoperatively(P-0.000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0.01 to 0.7(20/200 to 20/30)postoperatively,which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4(20/50)(P=0.000).Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma.Eye Science2000;16:22-28.

  6. The effect of lens parameters on the development of the primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui Feng; Naixue Sun; Aiyi Zhou; Donggang Han; Yun Long; Zhao Wang; Xiaohua Wang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role the lens dimensions played on the pathogenesis of primary angle-closure glaucoma.Methods:38 eyes of 20 patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and 35 eyes of 22 normal individuals without ocular abnormalities were examined. The anatomical parameters of the lens and other structures of the anterior segment were calculated using B ultrasound, computer image processing and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The parameters were compared between the patients and normal subjects. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the radii of curvature of the anterior lens surface (RCALS) and the other parameters of the anterior segment. Results:Compared with the normal eyes, the eyes of PACG had thicker lens, steeper curvature of anterior lens surface, decreased depth of the anterior chamber, narrower chamber angle, and more anterior position of the ciliary bodies and lens. All these differences were significant(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In the PACG group, the RCALS had significantly negative correlation with the central and peripheral lens thickness (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively), and had positive correlation with relative lens position, anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle-open distance at 500 um(AOD500), trabecular iris angle(TIA) and trabecular ciliary processes distance(TCPD, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ). Conclusion:The occurrence of PACG is relevant to the abnormal anatomical structures of the anterior segment. Among all factors, the lens parameters play an important role in the pathogenesis. Increased lens thickness, relative more anterior position of lens, especially steepened curvature of anterior lens surface are predisposing factors of the pathologic phenomenon in PACG including pupillary blockage, shallow anterior chamber, secondary closure of chamber angle and elevation of intraocular pressure.

  7. Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Lens Thickness to Axial Length Factor in Primary Closure Angle Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonic biometry was done in 232 normal eyes and 138 eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma (ACG), using Ultrascan Digital B System IV (10 MHz). The ratio between the lens thickness and the axial length (lens thickness to axial length factor, LAF) was evaluated as a biometric index for assessing the eye with primary ACG in Chinese. LAF of 2.00 was found to be ideal point of demarcation between ACG and normal eyes (i.e., lens thickness equals to 1/5 of axial length). It appears that LAF is helpful i...

  8. Effect of phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy on angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wu; Li-Li Hao; Wen-Xuan Tao; Chun-Xiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract. Methods:A total of 80 patients with angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given trabeculectomy. The vision, intraocular pressure, central anterior chamber depth, and visual field before operation, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after operation in the two groups were detected.Results: In the control group, 1 month after operation, while in the observation group, 1 week after operation, the vision was significantly improved, the intraocular pressure was significantly reduced, the central anterior chamber depth was significantly increased, and the average visual field defect value and average standard deviation value were significantly improved when compared with before operation (P<0.05); moreover, the improved degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract can effectively increase the central anterior chamber depth, reduce the intraocular pressure, and improve the vision; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  9. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurdeep

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extraction with can-opener capsulectomy was done in all the cases with placement of a sulcus-fixated modified J-loop Sinskey design intraocular lens. With a mean follow-up period of two years, all patients (100% maintained a normal postoperative intraocular pressure of less than 20 mm Hg without any additional medical therapy. The final best-corrected visual acuity in 4 cases (80% was 6/12 or better, while in one case it was 6/24 due to a senile maculopathy. These results show that ECCE with PC IOL implantation is a safe and efficacious method of visual rehabilitation in cases of phacolytic glaucoma

  10. Mitochondrial oxygen metabolism in primary human lens epithelial cells: Association with age, diabetes and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M; Shui, Y B; Liu, M; Bai, F; Huang, A J; Ma, N; Beebe, D C; Siegfried, C J

    2016-08-01

    The hypoxic environment around the lens is important for maintaining lens transparency. Lens epithelial cells (LECs) play a key role in lens metabolism. We measured oxygen consumption to assess the role of human LECs in maintaining hypoxia around the lens, as well as the impact of systemic and ocular diagnosis on these cells. Baseline cellular respiration was measured in rabbit LECs (NN1003A), canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), trabecular meshwork cells (TM-5), and bovine corneal endothelial cells (CCEE) using a XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, North Billerica, MA), which measures oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in vitro. Following informed written consent, lens capsule epithelial cells were obtained from patients during cataract surgery and were divided into small explants in 96-well plates. Capsules were removed when LECs became confluent. OCR was normalized to the number of cells per well using rabbit LECs as a standard. The effect of patient age, sex, race, and presence of diabetes or glaucoma on oxygen consumption was assessed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate regression analysis. Primary LECs were obtained from 69 patients. The OCR from donors aged 70 and over was lower than that of those under 70 years (2.21±1.037 vs. 2.86±1.383 fmol/min/cell; pOCR than non-diabetic patients (2.02±0.911 vs. 2.79±1.332fmol/min/cell; pOCR than non-glaucoma patients (2.27±1.19 vs. 2.83±1.286 fmol/min/cell; pOCR, independent of other variables. Gender and race had no significant effect on OCR. The lower oxygen consumption rate of human LECs in older donors and patients with diabetes or glaucoma could contribute to cataract development. Diabetes and glaucoma are particularly important factors associated with decreased OCR, independent of age. Ongoing studies are examining pO2 at the anterior surface of the lens in vivo and oxygen consumption in the patient's LECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve. It is a leading ... no symptoms at first. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral, or side vision. ...

  12. A prospective study of 413 cases of lens-induced glaucoma in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Damodar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the frequency and types of lens-induced glaucoma (LIG, reasons for late presentation and outcome of current management. Methods: Prospective case series of 413 patients/eyes with LIG over a 12-month period in 1998; 311 of these patients underwent cataract surgery. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP were pre-and postoperatively assessed. Results: Four hundred and thirteen (1.5% of 27,073 senile cataracts seen in the outpatient department of Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Nepal presented with LIG. There were 298 (72% phacomorphic cases and 115 (28% phacolytic glaucoma. Pain for more than 10 days was reported by 293 (71% patients. The majority, 258 (62.4%, travelled a distance of more than 100 kms to the hospital. The major reasons for late presentation were "no escort" in 143 (34.6% and "lack of money" in 128 (31.0% cases. At presentation the IOP was more than 30 mm Hg in 327 (79% eyes. Following cataract surgery, 251 (80.7% had 21 mm Hg or less at discharge. The visual acuity was hand-movement or less before surgery in all eyes; at discharge 120 of 311 operated eyes (38.6% achieved 6/60 or better, 97 (31.2% less than 6/60, and 94 (30.2% less than 3/60. The main causes for poor outcome in 94 cases were optic atrophy in 32 (34% eyes, uveitis in 25 (26.6%eyes and corneal oedema in 24 (25.5% eyes. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of visually disabling cataract. There is a need to educate both the patient and the cataract surgeon of the dangers of lens-induced glaucoma and of the poor outcome if treatment is delayed.

  13. Phacoemulsification using iris-hooks for capsular support in high myopic patient with subluxated lens and secondary angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of angle closure glaucoma in a 78-year-old highly myopic female patient. The patient did not show any preoperative signs of subluxation of lens. However, the capsular bag was noted to be unstable during surgery. The patient was managed with phacoemulsification of lens using a novel method of iris hooks for stabilization of capsular bag during surgery.

  14. GLAUCOMA. ' ~ '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trabeculoplasty as primary therapy for glaucoma has been a matter of debate and research for many years. Arguments ... angle closure glaucoma (26.6%), 300,000 children. (1.3%) have .... The results from this study mirror the guidelines in the ...

  15. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headache, eye pain and blurred vision. Schedule eye exams Open-angle glaucoma gives few warning signs until ... doctor about an appropriate exercise program. Limit your caffeine. Drinking beverages with large amounts of caffeine may ...

  16. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ...

  17. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Dilated Exam Grants and Funding Extramural ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video ...

  18. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded video ...

  19. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded ...

  20. Pigment dispersion glaucoma induced by the chafing effect of intraocular lens haptics in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Sun, Yan-Xiu; Qi, Hong; Zhou, Ji-Chao; Hao, Yan-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    To study the possible mechanism and treatment for pigment dispersion glaucoma (PDG) caused by single-piece acrylic (SPA) intraocular lens (IOL) ciliary sulcus fixation in Asian eyes. Patients referred for PDG caused by SPA IOL ciliary sulcus fixation to our hospital from April 2005 to June 2011 were included. The patients' general information, IOL type, interval between initial surgery and PDG occurrence, examination findings, antiglaucoma medicine regimen and surgical interventions were recorded. In total, six eyes from five Chinese patients were included in this study. The intraocular pressure (IOP) increased 19-30 days after cataract surgery and was not satisfactorily controlled with antiglaucoma medication. Dense pigmentation was deposited on the IOLs and on the anterior chamber angle. IOL haptic chafing was noted on the rear iris surface. IOL repositioning in the capsular bag was performed in three eyes and was combined with trabeculectomy in two eyes with progressive glaucoma. An IOL exchange with three-piece IOL ciliary sulcus fixation was performed in the other three eyes. Scanning electron microscopy of the explanted IOLs demonstrated a rough edge on the IOL haptics. SPA IOLs were not suitable for ciliary sulcus fixation. The chafing effect of the IOL haptics on the posterior iris pigment epithelium could induce PDG in Asian eyes. IOLs should be positioned in the capsular bag or a three-piece IOL should be used instead.

  1. CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF LENS INDUCED GLAUCOMA: STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, DURATION OF SYMPTOMS, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND VISUAL ACUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataratnam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens Induced Glaucoma is a common cause of ocular morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was to know the Epidemiological factors, Duration of Symptoms, Visual Acuity and Intraocular Pressure in the clinical Presentation of Lens Induced Glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This w as a tertiary hospital based prospective study in the department of Glaucoma, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad over a period from March 2015 to August 2015. 50 Patients clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied with the data of Age, Sex, literacy, Laterality and Rural / Urban status with the duration of symptoms, Intraocular pressure and Visual Acuity. The data was analyzed by simple statistical methods. RESULT S: 50 patients, clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied. Age group distribution was 1(2.0% in 40 - 50yrs, 13 ( 26.0% in >50 - 60yrs, 26(52.0% in >60 - 70yrs and 10(20.0% in > 70 yrs. Sex distribution was 23(46.0% of Males and 27(54.0% of Females. Urban / Rural status was 15(30.0% of Urban and 35(70.0% of Rural. Literacy status was 7(14.0% of Literate and 43(86.0% of Illiterate. Laterality was RE in 24(48.0% and LE in 26(52.0%. Duration of the presenting symptoms before re porting to the Hospital was 12.0% in 2wks. Intraocular pressure (IOP in mm of Hg showed no case (0.0% in 20 – 40, 27(54.0% in >40 - 60 and 5(10.0% >60 wit h the Mean IOP of 42.12 mm of Hg. Visual Acuity (VA was PL +ve in 24(48.0 and HM - 3/60. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, female gender, rural, illiterate, and delayed reporting to the hospital after the pre senting symptoms were the common risk factors with increased Intraocular pressure and poor visual acuity in the clinical presentation of Lens induced Glaucoma.

  2. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  3. Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Vicente de Almeida

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A palavra glaucoma é utilizada desde os tempos de Hipócrates, o qual, num de seus aforismas, proclama que nesta doença ocular “a pupila se torna cor do mar, a cegueira se instala e geralmente o outro olho também é afetado”. A formação da palavra encerra alguns mistérios.

  4. Early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma: an economic evaluation based on data from the EAGLE trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Ramsay, Craig; Cooper, David; Cochran, Claire; Norrie, John; Scotland, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cost-effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) compared to standard care. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a multicentre pragmatic two-arm randomised controlled trial. Patients were followed-up for 36 months, and data on health service usage and health state utility were collected and analysed within the trial time horizon. A Markov model was developed to extrapolate the results over a 5-year and 10-year time horizon. Setting 22 hospital eye services in the UK. Population Males and females aged 50 years or over with newly diagnosed PACG or primary angle closure (PAC). Interventions Lens extraction compared to standard care (ie, laser iridotomy followed by medical therapy and glaucoma surgery). Outcome measures Costs of primary and secondary healthcare usage (UK NHS perspective), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for lens extraction versus standard care. Results The mean age of participants was 67.5 (8.42), 57.5% were women, 44.6% had both eyes eligible, 1.4% were of Asian ethnicity and 35.4% had PAC. The mean health service costs were higher in patients randomised to lens extraction: £2467 vs £1486. The mean adjusted QALYs were also higher with early lens extraction: 2.602 vs 2.533. The ICER for lens extraction versus standard care was £14 284 per QALY gained at three years. Modelling suggests that the ICER may drop to £7090 per QALY gained by 5 years and that lens extraction may be cost saving by 10 years. Our results are generally robust to changes in the key input parameters and assumptions. Conclusions We find that lens extraction has a 67–89% chance of being cost-effective at 3 years and that it may be cost saving by 10 years. Trial registration number ISRCTN44464607; Results. PMID:28087548

  5. Lens-free imaging of magnetic particles in DNA assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Frederik; Vercruysse, Dries; Peeters, Sara; Liu, Chengxun; Stakenborg, Tim; Lagae, Liesbet; Del-Favero, Jurgen

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel opto-magnetic system for the fast and sensitive detection of nucleic acids. The system is based on a lens-free imaging approach resulting in a compact and cheap optical readout of surface hybridized DNA fragments. In our system magnetic particles are attracted towards the detection surface thereby completing the labeling step in less than 1 min. An optimized surface functionalization combined with magnetic manipulation was used to remove all nonspecifically bound magnetic particles from the detection surface. A lens-free image of the specifically bound magnetic particles on the detection surface was recorded by a CMOS imager. This recorded interference pattern was reconstructed in software, to represent the particle image at the focal distance, using little computational power. As a result we were able to detect DNA concentrations down to 10 pM with single particle sensitivity. The possibility of integrated sample preparation by manipulation of magnetic particles, combined with the cheap and highly compact lens-free detection makes our system an ideal candidate for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  6. Gravitational Lens Modeling with Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimizers

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing of an extended object is described by a mapping from source to image coordinates that is nonlinear and cannot generally be inverted analytically. Determining the structure of the source intensity distribution also requires a description of the blurring effect due to a point spread function. This initial study uses an iterative gravitational lens modeling scheme based on the semilinear method to determine the linear parameters (source intensity profile) of a strongly lensed system. Our 'matrix-free' approach avoids construction of the lens and blurring operators while retaining the least squares formulation of the problem. The parameters of an analytical lens model are found through nonlinear optimization by an advanced genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). These global optimization routines are designed to explore the parameter space thoroughly, mapping model degeneracies in detail. We develop a novel method that determines the L-curve for each solution automa...

  7. Reduced expression of Pax6 in lens and cornea of mutant mice leads to failure of chamber angle development and juvenile glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeber, Markus; Davis, Noa; Holzmann, Silvia; Kritzenberger, Michaela; Shelah-Goraly, Michal; Ofri, Ron; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Tamm, Ernst R

    2010-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in PAX6 are causative for aniridia, a condition that is frequently associated with juvenile glaucoma. Defects in morphogenesis of the iridocorneal angle, such as lack of trabecular meshwork differentiation, absence of Schlemm's canal and blockage of the angle by iris tissue, have been described as likely causes for glaucoma, and comparable defects have been observed in heterozygous Pax6-deficient mice. Here, we employed Cre/loxP-mediated inactivation of a single Pax6 allele in either the lens/cornea or the distal optic cup to dissect in which tissues both alleles of Pax6 need to be expressed to control the development of the tissues in the iridocorneal angle. Somatic inactivation of one allele of Pax6 exclusively from epithelial cells of lens and cornea resulted in the disruption of trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal development as well as in an adhesion between iris periphery and cornea in juvenile eyes, which resulted in the complete closure of the iridocorneal angle in the adult eye. Structural changes in the iridocorneal angle presumably caused a continuous increase in intraocular pressure leading to degenerative changes in optic nerve axons and to glaucoma. In contrast, the inactivation of a single Pax6 allele in the distal optic cup did not cause obvious changes in iridocorneal angle formation. We conclude that the defects in iridocorneal angle formation are caused by non-autonomous mechanisms due to Pax6 haploinsufficiency in lens or corneal epithelial cells. Pax6 probably controls the expression of signaling molecules in lens cells that regulate the morphogenetic processes during iridocorneal angle formation.

  8. The Clinical Analysis of Secondary Glaucoma Following Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    We present 14 patients with secondary gluacoma following the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (lOLs). All patients were u-nilateral gluacoma , which developed within 1 month following the IOL implantation in 10 cases, and from 1 to 3 years in 4 cases. The angle of anterior chamber was open in 8 patients, and close in 6 ones. Seven patients required treatment of antiglaucomatous medicine; 4 patients underwent laser indecto-my and 3 patients required antiglaucoma surgery. The results s...

  9. Use of a Toric Intraocular Lens and a Limbal-Relaxing Incision for the Management of Astigmatism in Combined Glaucoma and Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Allister

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report the surgical management of a patient with glaucoma undergoing cataract surgery with high preexisting astigmatism. A combination of techniques was employed for her astigmatism management. Methods A 76-year-old female with 5.5 dpt of corneal astigmatism underwent surgery in her left eye consisting of one-site trabeculectomy, phacoemulsification, toric intraocular lens implantation and a single inferior limbal-relaxing incision. Results Intraocular pressure control was achieved with no medication at 11 mm Hg; before the filtering procedure, the pressure was 16 mm Hg on two topical drugs. Astigmatism was reduced to 0.75 dpt, and both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved. Conclusions Astigmatism management can have a good outcome in combined procedures. We encourage surgeons to address astigmatism in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing glaucoma surgery associated with phacoemulsification. PMID:27293408

  10. Nano-lens diffraction around a single heated nano particle

    CERN Document Server

    Markus, Selmke; Frank, Cichos

    2011-01-01

    The action of a nanoscopic spherically symmetric refractive index profile on a focused Gaussian beam may easily be envisaged as the action of a phase-modifying element, i.e. a lens: Rays traversing the inhomogeneous refractive index field n(r) collect an additional phase along their trajectory which advances or retards their phase with respect to the unperturbed ray. This lens-like action has long been understood as being the mechanism behind the signal of thin sample photothermal absorption measurements [1, 2], where a cylindrical symmetry and a different lengthscale is present. In photothermal single (nano-)particle microscopy, however, a complicated, though prediction-wise limited, electrodynamic (EM) scattering treatment was established [3] during the emergence of this new technique. Our recent study extended [4] this EM-approach into a full ab-initio model describing the reality of the situation encountered and showed for the first time that the mechanism behind the signal, despite its nanoscopic origin,...

  11. Development of an optical lens based alpha-particle imaging system using position sensitive photomultiplier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koki; Oka, Miki; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2017-02-01

    We developed an optical lens based alpha-particle imaging system using position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The alpha-particle imaging system consists of an optical lens, an extension tube and a 1 in. square high quantum efficiency (HQE) type PSPMT. After a ZnS(Ag) is attached to subject, the scintillation image of ZnS(Ag) is focused on the photocathode of the PSPMT by the use of the optical lens. With this configuration we could image the alpha particle distribution with energy information without contacting to the subject. The spatial resolution and energy resolution were 0.8 mm FWHM and 50% FWHM at 5 mm from the optical lens, respectively. We could successfully image the alpha particle distribution in uranium ore. The developed alpha-particle imaging system will be a new tool for imaging alpha emitters with energy information without contacting the subject.

  12. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  13. Effect of yellow-tinted intraocular lens on standard automated perimetry and short wavelength automated perimetry in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Nilforushan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In mild to moderate glaucoma patients with cataracts, the perimetry indices of SWAP testing improved after phacoemulsification and yellow-tinted IOL implantation. This suggests that the yellow-tinted IOLs have less effect on SWAP testing than visually significant cataracts.

  14. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  15. Predicting the film and lens water volume between soil particles using particle size distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M. H.; Meskini-Vishkaee, F.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe develop four conceptual approaches to quantify the volume of water lenses between soil particles (ɛi) and adsorbed water films (δi) coating soil particles based on soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) data. Method 1 is based on expression of the ɛi as matric suction independent pendular rings and method 2 is based on expression of the ɛi as function of matric suction. Methods 3 and 4 are based on the coupling of δi estimated with van der Waals and electrostatic forces, with ɛi estimated with methods 1 and 2 respectively. We show that the filling angle of the lens water is independent of surface tension but increases with the porosity. The four methods are applied to predict effects of ɛi and δi on Soil Moisture Characteristics (SMC) in eighty soil samples selected from UNSODA database. The total component of the ɛi in soil water content ranged from 0.0111 (L3 L-3) to 0.1604 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0703 (L3 L-3) for method 1 and from 0.0082 (L3 L-3) to 0.0523 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0237 (L3 L-3) for method 2. The component of δi is less than 0.0121 of each pore water content. Results showed that for methods 1 and 2, the component of the ɛi in the soil water content was partially relevant for the prediction of SMC, especially in dry range. Moreover, the accuracy of the method 1 was slightly greater than that of the method 2. We attribute the methods error to the roughness of soil particles, high surface energy content of clay particles and, to the simplified pore geometric concepts that does not effectively reflect the pore geometry. We conclude that the main advantage of the present approaches is developing two different methods for estimation of the volume of the lens water by using only the PSD data and bulk density which are measured easily.

  16. Acoustophoretic separation of airborne millimeter-size particles by a Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Ahmet; Korozlu, Nurettin; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate acoustophoretic separation of spherical solid particles in air by means of an acoustic Fresnel lens. Beside gravitational and drag forces, freely-falling millimeter-size particles experience large acoustic radiation forces around the focus of the lens, where interplay of forces lead to differentiation of particle trajectories with respect to either size or material properties. Due to the strong acoustic field at the focus, radiation force can divert particles with source intensities significantly smaller than those required for acoustic levitation in a standing field. When the lens is designed to have a focal length of 100 mm at 25 kHz, finite-element method simulations reveal a sharp focus with a full-width at half-maximum of 0.5 wavelenghts and a field enhancement of 18 dB. Through numerical calculation of forces and simulation of particle trajectories, we demonstrate size-based separation of acrylic particles at a source sound pressure level of 153 dB such that particles with diameters larger than 0.5 mm are admitted into the central hole, whereas smaller particles are rejected. Besides, efficient separation of particles with similar acoustic properties such as polyethylene, polystyrene and acrylic particles of the same size is also demonstrated. PMID:28252033

  17. Characterization of an aerodynamic lens for transmitting particles > 1 micrometer in diameter into the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Williams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and characterized a new inlet and aerodynamic lens for the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS that transmits particles between 80 nm and more than 3 μm in diameter. The design of the inlet and lens was optimized with computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling of particle trajectories. Major changes include a redesigned critical orifice holder and valve assembly, addition of a relaxation chamber behind the critical orifice, and a higher lens operating pressure. The transmission efficiency of the new inlet and lens was characterized experimentally with size-selected particles. Experimental measurements are in good agreement with the calculated transmission efficiency.

  18. Identification of origin of single aerosol particles using polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com; Liu Zhiguo; Zhu Guanghua; Liu Hui [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Sun Hongbo; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-01-15

    A micro X-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a laboratory X-ray source was designed to carry out the XRF analysis of single aerosol particles. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of this Micro-XRF spectrometer was 9 ppm for the Fe-K{alpha}. The percentage of the particles of vehicle exhaust among aerosol particles was studied in Beijing, Chinese capital, during the test of odd-even driving restrictions for Beijing 2008 Olympics Games. This Micro-XRF spectrometer had potential applications in the analysis of single aerosol particles.

  19. Glaucoma Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMPORTANT RESEARCH FINDING First Cellular Model of Exfoliation Glaucoma Research is advancing in the quest to find ... cure for exfoliation syndrome and its associated exfoliation glaucoma, the current focus of The Glaucoma Foundation. Exfoliation ...

  20. Hard convex lens-shaped particles: Densest-known packings and phase behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinacchi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.cinacchi@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Física de la Materia Condensada (IFIMAC), Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Torquato, Salvatore, E-mail: torquato@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Program for Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    By using theoretical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, this work investigates dense ordered packings and equilibrium phase behavior (from the low-density isotropic fluid regime to the high-density crystalline solid regime) of monodisperse systems of hard convex lens-shaped particles as defined by the volume common to two intersecting congruent spheres. We show that, while the overall similarity of their shape to that of hard oblate ellipsoids is reflected in a qualitatively similar phase diagram, differences are more pronounced in the high-density crystal phase up to the densest-known packings determined here. In contrast to those non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis crystals that are the densest-known packings of hard (oblate) ellipsoids, hard convex lens-shaped particles pack more densely in two types of degenerate crystalline structures: (i) non-(Bravais)-lattice two-particle basis body-centered-orthorhombic-like crystals and (ii) (Bravais) lattice monoclinic crystals. By stacking at will, regularly or irregularly, laminae of these two crystals, infinitely degenerate, generally non-periodic in the stacking direction, dense packings can be constructed that are consistent with recent organizing principles. While deferring the assessment of which of these dense ordered structures is thermodynamically stable in the high-density crystalline solid regime, the degeneracy of their densest-known packings strongly suggests that colloidal convex lens-shaped particles could be better glass formers than colloidal spheres because of the additional rotational degrees of freedom.

  1. Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsas, George Emanuel Avraam [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the historical development and CLASSICAL properties of the BLACK HOLES, we discuss how our present knowledge of some of their QUANTUM properties shed light on the very concept of ELEMENTARY PARTICLE. As an illustration, we discuss in this context the decay of accelerated protons, which may be also relevant to astrophysics.

  2. New Receiving Mode of Extinction for Determining Particle Size and Density without Convex Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Weiliang; CHEN Hanping; CAI Xiaoshu; WANG Naining

    2002-01-01

    In this article a new receiving mode for scattering light by particle is theoretically discussed. Using this receiving mode the convex lens can be omitted during determining the extinction of particle. Therefore the extinction coefficient of sphere particles is redefined by extrapolating the conventional one. In terms of the calculation results of light scattering the definition of near-field extinction coefficient of a swarm particle is depicted. Through the error analysis it is proved that the error coming from the new definition of extinction coefficient is acceptable for engineering application. In addition, a technique for determining the particle size and density is presented in this article and the advantage using this receiving mode is described.

  3. Glaucoma therapy by extended release of timolol from nanoparticle loaded silicone-hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Jung; Abou-Jaoude, Michelle; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2013-01-10

    Glaucoma is the second major cause of blindness in the world after cataract. Glaucoma management through eye drops that reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) has major deficiencies including low patient compliance and low bioavailability. Extended wear contact lenses that deliver glaucoma drugs for extended periods could increase patient compliance, while also increasing the bioavailability. To develop extended wear contact lenses that can also provide extended glaucoma therapy, we disperse nanoparticles of PGT (propoxylated glyceryl triacylate) that contain a glaucoma drug timolol. The particles can also be loaded into prefabricated lenses by soaking the lenses in a solution of particles in ethanol. The particle loaded gels can release timolol in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for about a month at room temperature. The most likely rate controlling mechanism is hydrolysis of the ester bond that links timolol to the PGT matrix, but other mechanisms such as water and drug diffusion, drug dissolution, drug-polymer chain cleavage, time-dependent drug permeability within the polymeric matrix, etc. may also be important. Nanoparticle incorporation in the silicone hydrogels results in reduction in ion and oxygen permeabilities, and an increase in modulus, and the impact on each of these properties is proportional to the particle loading. A gel with 5% particle loading can deliver timolol at therapeutic doses for about a month at room temperature, with a minimal impact on critical lens properties. Preliminary animal studies in Beagle dogs conducted with lenses in which particles are loaded by soaking the lenses in ethanol show a reduction in IOP.

  4. Unusual Presentation of Phacolytic Glaucoma: Simulating Microbial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnoses for phacolytic glaucoma are acute angle closure glaucoma, open angle glaucoma with uveitis, neovascular glaucoma, and glaucoma secondary to trauma. We report an unusual case where the dislocated cataractous lens firmly adherent to the corneal endothelium evoked a cellular reaction similar to phacolytic glaucoma but clinically appeared like a deep corneal abscess. The 73-year-old lady presented with severe photophobia, pain, and redness in the left eye for two months despite being on antibiotics and antifungals. Anterior chamber wash revealed a cataractous lens buried within the infiltrate, which was removed and sent for histopathological examination. Postoperatively she was treated with topical ofloxacin, homatropine, dorzolamide, timolol, and tapering dose of steroids. Histological confirmation of inflammation, histiocytic response, and giant cells around the lens material confirmed the ongoing phacolytic process. Photophobia, pain, and redness subsided following removal of the lens and surrounding cellular reaction. At her last visit, four months after surgery, she was comfortable.

  5. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Normal-Tension Glaucoma Share this: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Don't miss ... and Glaucoma: What You Should Know Driving a car is for some synonymous with independence and is ...

  6. Glaucoma (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaucoma is a condition of increased fluid pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure causes compression of ... nerve which can eventually lead to nerve damage. Glaucoma can cause partial vision loss, with blindness as ...

  7. Beam Dynamics in an Electron Lens with the Warp Particle-in-cell Code

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Redaelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are a mature technique for beam manipulation in colliders and storage rings. In an electron lens, a pulsed, magnetically confined electron beam with a given current-density profile interacts with the circulating beam to obtain the desired effect. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for beam-beam compensation, for abort-gap clearing, and for halo scraping. They will be used in RHIC at BNL for head-on beam-beam compensation, and their application to the Large Hadron Collider for halo control is under development. At Fermilab, electron lenses will be implemented as lattice elements for nonlinear integrable optics. The design of electron lenses requires tools to calculate the kicks and wakefields experienced by the circulating beam. We use the Warp particle-in-cell code to study generation, transport, and evolution of the electron beam. For the first time, a fully 3-dimensional code is used for this purpose.

  8. Glaucoma after Congenital Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Panahi Bazaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery (CCS in children under age of 15 Methods: This prospective cohort (since 2006 consisted of children less than 15 years of age who underwent cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL implantation. The role of the following factors on the development of glaucoma after CCS including age at surgery, gender, laterality of the cataract, IOL implantation, congenital ocular anomalies, intra- and postoperative complications, length of follow-up, central corneal thickness (CCT as well as the effect of the age of onset, time to development of glaucoma, and response to treatment were evaluated. Results: Overall, 161 eyes of 96 patients were included in this study of which 28 eyes developed glaucoma. Incidence of glaucoma was 17.4%. Mean±SD age at surgery was 9.3±6.9 (range, 1-24 months in glaucomatous and 40.4±41.1 (range, 1 m-13.6 year months in non-glaucomatous group (p<0.001. All glaucoma patients had the operation under two years of age. In group 1, 9 (60% and in group 2, 24 (30% patients were female (p=0.001. In group 1, 17 eyes (60.7% and in the group 2, 41 eyes (30.8% were aphakic (p=0.001. Mean time to diagnosis of glaucoma was 111.2 days (range 30-1200 days. Mean follow-up time was 3.1 years (range, 1-6 years. In 22 (78.6% eyes glaucoma was diagnosed within six months after surgery. Glaucoma was controlled with medications in 23 eyes (82% and with surgery in five eyes. Conclusion: In this study the incidence of glaucoma after CCS was 17.4% over a follow-up period of six years. Younger age at the time of lensectomy increases the risk of secondary glaucoma. IOL implantation may protect against glaucoma. Female gender was affected more than male.

  9. Glaucoma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... born with glaucoma. Read her story » Learn About Glaucoma Glaucoma is a complicated disease in which damage ... Booklet Vision Loss Progression healthy advanced Tips for Glaucoma Care We've worked with patients, researchers, and ...

  10. Malignant glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about pathophysiology and clinical, therapeutic and prophylactic approaches for malignant glaucoma. This type of glaucoma can occur after different surgical procedures. It can also occur in aphakic, phakic and pseudophakic eyes and develop spontaneously in individuals with no ocular surgical history, or associated with topical miotics. Currently, the ultrasound biomicroscopy has provided many interesting and useful findings for diagnosis and monitoring the treatment of malignant glaucoma. It occurs more often in short eyes in which pre operative measurements of the anterior chamber depth and axial length are extremely important for its prophylaxis and diagnosis.

  11. Feline Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gillian J; Teixeira, Leandro B C

    2015-11-01

    Feline glaucoma is often insidious in onset and slowly progressive with very subtle clinical signs. As a consequence, it is likely that the disease in cats is underdiagnosed. As cats typically present late in the course of disease, prognosis for long-term maintenance of vision is poor. Patient and owner compliance with frequent application of topical medications can be a limiting factor, and represents a serious clinical challenge. This review outlines the clinical features, classification, and pathophysiology of the feline glaucomas and provides current evidence on which to base the selection of appropriate treatment strategies for cats with glaucoma.

  12. Glaucoma medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates.

  13. Molecular Genetics in Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yutao; Allingham, R Rand

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of diseases whose pathology is defined by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Clinically, glaucoma presents as a distinctive optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), chronic angle closure glaucoma (ACG), and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) are the most prevalent forms of glaucoma globally and are the most common causes of glaucoma-related blindness worldwide. A host of genetic and environmental factors contribute to gl...

  14. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  15. OCULAR BIOMETRY IN ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND SENILE CATARACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-lan; SHENG Yao-hua; YE Xiang-yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare ocular biometric values in angle closure glaucoma and cataract in senile population.Methods Ocular biometry was performed in eyes classified to have angle closure glaucoma (29 eyes) and senile cataract (31 eyes). Ocular biometry readings between two groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Intraocular pressure was also recorded before and after lens extraction.Results Anterior chamber depth was shallower in patients with angle closure glaucoma group [(1.79±0.56) mm] compared with senile cataract group [(2.69±0.40) mm] (P<0.01). Lens thickness was greater in angle closure glaucoma group [(5.30±0.61) mm] than that in senile cataract group [(3.84±0.61) mm] (P<0.01). Phacoemusification was performed in 5 patients with persistent acute attack of angle closure glaucoma. IOPs were controlled in all five cases after lens extraction.Conclusion Eyes with angle closure glaucoma seems to have significantly shallow anterior chamber and greater lens thickness compared to senile cataract eyes in the same age. Lens extraction might be effective in those cases with such anatomy features.

  16. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  17. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Taylor ... aoa.org/ When were you finally diagnosed with glaucoma? Not until 1969, after a game of basketball. ...

  18. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-associated cataract and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao-Kung; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Chou, Joe Ching-Kuang

    2006-12-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  19. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  20. 超声乳化联合人工晶体植入术治疗闭角型青光眼合并白内障临床观察%Cataract extraction combined with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of angle closure glaucoma with cataract clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡开东

    2012-01-01

    Objective Observation of cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation forangle closure glaucoma patients with cataract treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis from June 2008 to April 2010 54 cases of angle-closure glaucoma and cataract patients, the implementation of cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation (phacoemulsification in 31 cases, a small incision extracapsular cataract extraction 23 cases). Follow-up period of 1 month to 1 year. Results Postoperative visual acuity improved to varying degrees, intraocular pressure control in 11 ~20mmHg. Anterior chamber deepened, widened to varying degreesangle. Conclusion Cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation can be effective in treating angle-closure glaucoma and cataract patients.%目的 观察白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入术治疗闭角型青光眼合并白内障的患者的疗效.方法 回顾性分析2008年6月~2010年4月54例闭角型青光眼合并白内障患者,实施白内障摘除术联合人工晶体植入术(超声乳化术31例,小切口囊外摘除术23例)的疗效.结果 术后视力不同程度提高,眼压控制在11~20mmHg,前房加深,房角不同程度增宽.结论 白内障摘除术联合人工晶体植入术可有效治疗闲角型青光眼合并白内障的患者.

  1. 超声乳化白内障吸除术联合人工晶状体植入术治疗闭角型青光眼的临床疗效%Clinical efficacy of phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation for angle-closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨超声乳化白内障吸除术联合人工晶状体植入术治疗闭角型青光眼的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析闭角性青光眼38例(43眼)的临床资料,所有患者采用超声乳化白内障吸除术联合后房型折叠式人工晶状体植入术治疗。分析患者临床疗效。结果术后患者眼压显著下降,前房深度显著提高(P<0.01)。与术前比较,术后患者矫正视力得到显著提高(P<0.01)。结论超声乳化白内障吸除术联合人工晶状体植入术治疗闭角型青光眼能够显著降低眼压,改善患者视力,值得临床推广。%Objective To discuss clinical efficacy of phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation for angle-closure glaucoma. Methods Selected 38 cases(43 eyes) with angle-closure glaucoma were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were treated by phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Clinical efficacy was analyzed. Results Intraocular pressure after operation was decreased apparently compared with that of before operation(P<0.01). Corrected visual acuity after operation was increased apparently compared with that of before operation(P<0.01). Conclusion Phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation for angle-closure glaucoma can decrease intraocular pressure and increase corrected visual acuity, worthy of clinical application.

  2. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  3. [Lens platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  4. Combined extracapsular cataract extraction with ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in phacomorphic glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jaya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a retrospective analysis of a combined procedure of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with heparin surface modified (HSM posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation along with primary Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation in an attempt to optimize visual acuity gains and intraocular pressure (IOP control in patients with phacomorphic glaucoma. Methods: ECCE with HSM PC IOL and AGV implantation was performed through two separate incisions in 15 patients diagnosed with phacomorphic glaucoma. Postoperative improvement in visual acuity and IOP control were monitored. Results: A steady control of IOP was maintained in all patients with minimum anti-glaucoma medications. The average visual acuity was approximately 6/24 at 3 months. Conclusion: Superior preoperative IOP control and a shorter phacomorphic attack resulted in better postoperative vision. The successful maintenance of IOP within the desired range in this study suggests that the procedure should be performed under similar conditions.

  5. Two cases of malignant glaucoma unresolved by pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoda Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoshikatsu Hosoda, Tadamichi Akagi, Nagahisa YoshimuraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: Malignant glaucoma, which is characterized by a shallow or flat anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure, can usually be resolved by pars plana vitrectomy with anterior hyaloidectomy. We describe two cases in which malignant glaucoma was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy. Case one an 88-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy and subsequently developed malignant glaucoma. Four months after transient recovery by pars plana vitrectomy, the malignant glaucoma recurred. She underwent peripheral iridectomy and local zonulectomy with successful control of her intraocular pressure. In case two, an 85-year-old man had a history of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Seven months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, he developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent peripheral iridectomy, goniosynechialysis and trabectome surgery resulting in the successful control of his intraocular pressure. In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy with or without local zonulectomy is a reasonable and minimally invasive surgical procedure.Keywords: malignant glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy

  6. Clinicians' perspectives on the use of drug-eluting contact lenses for the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Elise V; Kalout, Patricia; Pasquale, Louis R; Kohane, Daniel S; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-10-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The perspective of clinicians who treat the disease is important and may ultimately dictate the adoption of new treatment modalities, such as drug-eluting contact lenses. Recent advances have enabled contact lenses to serve as a sustained-release drug-delivery platform capable of treating glaucoma. This review covers the medical treatment of glaucoma, suboptimal adherence rates to treatment, and factors that may influence the clinical applicability of drug-eluting contact lenses. Ophthalmologists who treat glaucoma were surveyed to determine their perspective on treatment adherence, bandage contact lens use and the use of a drug-eluting contact lens to treat glaucoma. Given the challenge of treating glaucoma and the clinical need for improved drug delivery, drug-eluting contact lenses appear to be a promising treatment option.

  7. Peripapillary and Macular Choroidal Thickness in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare choroidal thickness (CT between individuals with and without glaucomatous damage and to explore the association of peripapillary and submacular CT with glaucoma severity using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: Ninety-one eyes of 20 normal subjects and 43 glaucoma patients from the UCLA SD-OCT Imaging Study were enrolled. Imaging was performed using Cirrus HDOCT. Choroidal thickness was measured at four predetermined points in the macular and peripapillary regions, and compared between glaucoma and control groups before and after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results: The average (± standard deviation mean deviation (MD on visual fields was −0.3 (±2.0 dB in controls and −3.5 (±3.5 dB in glaucoma patients. Age, axial length and their interaction were the most significant factors affecting CT on multivariate analysis. Adjusted average CT (corrected for age, axial length, their interaction, gender and lens status however, was not different between glaucoma patients and the control group (P=0.083 except in the temporal parafoveal region (P=0.037; nor was choroidal thickness related to glaucoma severity (r=−0.187, P=0.176 for correlation with MD, r=−0.151, P=0.275 for correlation with average nerve fiber layer thickness. Conclusions: Choroidal thickness of the macular and peripapillary regions is not decreased in glaucoma. Anatomical measurements with SD-OCT do not support the possible influence of the choroid on the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  8. Clinical characteristics and current treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura P; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-06-02

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder in which degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGC) produce significant visual disability. Clinically, glaucoma refers to an array of conditions associated with variably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that contributes to RGC loss via mechanical stress, vascular abnormalities, and other mechanisms, such as immune phenomena. The clinical diagnosis of glaucoma requires assessment of the ocular anterior segment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, which allows the clinician to recognize signs of conditions that can produce elevated IOP. After measurement of IOP, a specialized prismatic lens called a gonioscope is used to determine whether the angle is physically open or closed. The structural manifestation of RGC loss is optic nerve head atrophy and excavation of the neuroretinal rim tissue. Treatment is guided by addressing secondary causes for elevated IOP (such as inflammation, infection, and ischemia) whenever possible. Subsequently, a variety of medical, laser, and surgical options are used to achieve a target IOP.

  9. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome associated with recurrent vitreous hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Muñoz-Morales, A

    2015-08-01

    A 61-year-old pseudophakic male with recurrent blurred vision episodes associated with uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage. Iris transillumination defects and apposition of the optic and iris were found. The patient was diagnosed with Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphema (UGH) Syndrome. Mechanical irritation of the iris is a consequence of intraocular lens malposition and causes UGH Syndrome. Occasionally it is associated with vitreous hemorrhage. Lens malposition is detected by optical coherence tomography and/or ultrasound biomicroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  11. Glaucoma Treatments and Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Previous Secondary Glaucoma Share this: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Don't miss ... and Glaucoma: What You Should Know Driving a car is for some synonymous with independence and is ...

  12. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  13. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  14. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Glaucoma The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Glaucoma . This final recommendation statement ...

  15. Single clear corneal incision for glaucoma drainage device shortening in pediatric glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Phillip M; Bitrian, Elena; Grajewski, Alana L

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma drainage devices are commonly used for management of glaucoma in adults and children. With time, the position of the tube can change and cause damage such as corneal scarring, iris or lens contact, and uveitis. Most of these problems can be improved with tube shortening and/or excision of adherent iris or fibrous tissue. We describe a surgical technique that uses a single clear corneal incision to externalize and trim the shunt in pediatric patients. The technique has a short surgical. We review the indications and outcomes for this procedure in 13 eyes of 12 children who required shunt revision.

  16. SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA IN RURAL POPULATION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhutuja A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in patients aged 40 years and above attending Tertiary Care Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Visual acuity, anterior segment examination and anterior chamber depth assessment by slit lamp, digital tension, non-contact tonometry, confrontation field test, fundus examination, direct ophthalmoscopy and fundus imaging was done. Gonioscopy and automated perimetry was done in glaucoma suspects. RESULTS 7600 eyes of 3800 patients were examined, 108 eyes were diagnosed to have glaucoma. Based on the best corrected visual acuity, 15(13.8% eyes and 8(0.22% persons had visual impairment and 33(30.5% eyes and 20(31.7% persons were blind. The prevalence of glaucoma in eyes was 1.42%. The prevalence of blindness due to glaucoma in eyes was 0.43% and person was 0.52%. The prevalence of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in eyes was 1%, Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in eyes was 0.15%, Neovascular glaucoma in eyes was 0.07%, Lens Induced Glaucoma in eyes was 0.17% and Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma in eyes was 0.03%. IOP>20mmHg was present in 50(36.1% glaucomatous eyes, majority of the eyes being in Open Angle Glaucoma 24(31.5% eyes; 58(53.7% glaucomatous eyes had IOP in the range 11-20mmHg, among them 38 eyes were on treatment and 20 eyes were operated. CONCLUSION Being an irreversible disease if diagnosed early, blindness can be avoided. So screening is very important for early diagnosis and their proper management thereon.

  17. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  18. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Xing Wang

    Full Text Available To examine subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT in eyes with glaucoma, using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography.The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range: 50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT with enhanced depth imaging for measurement of SFCT, and assessment of fundus photographs for presence of glaucoma. In addition, the group of patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (ACG from the Beijing Eye Study (n = 37 was merged with a group of patients with chronic ACG from the Tongren hospital (n = 52.Assessments of SFCT and glaucoma were available for 3232 (93.2% subjects. After adjusting for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, SFCT was not significantly associated with presence of glaucoma (P = 0.08; regression coefficient B:-15.7. As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, axial length and intraocular pressure, presence of glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.20. If only open-angle glaucoma was considered, multivariate analysis revealed no significant association between SFCT and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.44. As a corollary, in logistic regression analysis, open-angle glaucoma was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.91. In a similar manner if only ACG was taken into account, SFCT was not significantly associated with the presence of ACG (P = 0.27 in multivariate analysis. As a corollary in binary regression analysis, presence of ACG was not significantly associated with SFCT (P = 0.27.In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, axial length, gender, anterior chamber and lens thickness, neither OAG nor ACG was associated with an abnormal SFCT.

  19. Genetic bases for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Nobuo

    2010-05-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness throughout the world. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG; MIM 137760) is the main type of glaucoma in most populations, and more than 20 genetic loci for POAG have been reported. Only three causative genes have been identified in these loci, viz. myocilin (MYOC), optineurin (OPTN), and WD repeat domain 36 (WDR36). However, mutations in these genes account for only a small percentage of the patients with POAG. Some of these glaucoma cases have a Mendelian inheritance pattern, and a considerable fraction of the cases result from a large number of variants in several genes each contributing small effects. Glaucoma is considered to be a common disease such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease, Crohn disease, and several( )common cancers. The main technological approaches used to identify the genes associated with glaucoma are the candidate gene approach, linkage analysis, case-control association study, and genome-wide association study. Association studies have found about 27 genes related to POAG, but the glaucoma-causing effects of these genes need to be investigated in more detail. The current trend is to use case-control association studies or genome-wide association studies to map the genes associated with glaucoma. Such studies are expected to greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis of glaucoma, and to provide information on the effectiveness of glaucoma therapy. This review gives an overview on the genetic aspects of glaucoma.

  20. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  1. Study on effects of cataract extraction combined with intraocular lens implantation for treating angle-closure glaucoma%白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入治疗闭角型青光眼的疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇红; 李立刚; 高作书; 傅刚; 郭小博

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入的手术方式治疗闭角型青光眼合并白内障的疗效。方法将收治的白内障合并闭角型青光眼的患者108例(126眼)随机分成对照组和观察组,对照组选择白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入术联合小梁切除术进行治疗,观察组选择白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入术进行治疗,对两组的治疗效果数据进行分析。结果治疗后,观察组患者视力的提高明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的眼压由(25.29±5.33)mm Hg降至(14.23±4.11)mm Hg ,对照组的眼压由(25.74±5.12)mm Hg降至(14.36±4.02)mmHg ,两组眼压均有明显降低。观察组术后并发症的发生率(12.5%)明显低于对照组(37.1%)。结论白内障摘除联合人工晶体植入治疗闭角型青光眼合并白内障,能够有效提高患者的治疗效果及生活质量,可作为临床较为理想的治疗白内障合并青光眼的方案之一。%Objective To investigate the effect of cataract extraction combined with intraocular lens implanta‐tion for treating cataract complicating angle‐closure glaucoma .Methods 108 cases (126 eyes) of cataract complica‐ting angle‐closure glaucoma were allocated into the control group and the observation group .The control group was treated with cataract extraction combined with intraocular lens implantation and trabeculectomy ,while the observa‐tion group was treated with cataract extraction combined with intraocular lens implantation .The treatment effects were analyzed and compared between the two groups .Results The vision improvement after treatment in the obser‐vation group was obviously higher than that in the control group ,and the difference was statistically significant .The intraocular pressuregop(IOP) in the obserration group was decreased from (25 .29 ± 5 .33)mm Hg to (14 .23 ± 4 .11) mm Hg .IOP

  2. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  3. Natural history of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ying

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present an overview of the recent observations and research that shed light on the understanding of open and closed angle glaucoma. Methods: Literature review. Results: Glaucoma is a major eye problem afflicting millions of people worldwide. As the population increases, the number of people with glaucoma also increases, with glaucoma becoming an increasing public health concern. This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fi elds as well as the risk factors for progression. Conclusions: This present review highlights the magnitude of glaucoma globally and the need for a greater understanding of this disease and its natural progression.

  4. Approach for simultaneous measurement of two-dimensional angular distribution of charged particles. III. Fine focusing of wide-angle beams in multiple lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Daimon, Hiroshi; Tóth, László; Matsui, Fumihiko

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides a way of focusing wide-angle charged-particle beams in multiple lens systems. In previous papers [H. Matsuda , Phys. Rev. E 71, 066503 (2005); 74, 036501 (2006)], it was shown that an ellipsoidal mesh, combined with electrostatic lenses, enables correction of spherical aberration over wide acceptance angles up to ±60° . In this paper, practical situations where ordinary electron lenses are arranged behind the wide-angle electrostatic lenses are taken into account using ray tracing calculation. For practical realization of the wide-angle lens systems, the acceptance angle is set to ±50° . We note that the output beams of the wide-angle electrostatic lenses have somewhat large divergence angles which cause unacceptable or non-negligible spherical aberration in additional lenses. A solution to this problem is presented showing that lens combinations to cancel spherical aberration are available, whereby wide-angle charged-particle beams can be finely focused with considerably reduced divergence angles less than ±5° .

  5. The choroid in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitt, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies have not conclusively established a relationship between the choroid and glaucoma. The development of an enhanced imaging technique for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has allowed for measurements of choroidal thickness that are more accurate than previously possible. Therefore, the SD-OCT may be capable of documenting the changes in the choroid as they relate to glaucoma. When applied to the SD-OCT, the technique of enhanced depth imaging allows for reproducible measurements of choroidal thickness. Nine reports have been published about choroidal thickness within the macula, as measured by OCT, in eyes with glaucoma. In six publications, there was no significant difference between the macular choroidal thicknesses of patients with glaucoma compared with those without glaucoma. Additional five studies have reported on peripapillary choroidal thickness in glaucoma patients. Although three of the studies determined that the peripapillary choroid is thinner in glaucoma patients, two others failed to establish this relationship. The SD-OCT is capable of reproducibly measuring choroidal thickness in the peripapillary and macular areas. In those with glaucoma, choroidal thickness does not change within the macula. In a few subsets of glaucoma, the peripapillary choroid is thinner when compared with normals.

  6. Methylphenidate (Ritalin-associated Cataract and Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kung Lu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  7. Under direct looking at the ciliary photocoagulation for treatment of secondary glaucoma after traumatic lens dislocation%直视下睫状突光凝术治疗外伤性晶状体脱位继发青光眼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪波; 杨向红; 翁晓春

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价在玻璃体切割手术中行直视下睫状突光凝术治疗外伤性晶状体脱位继发青光眼的疗效.方法 对2010年10月至2014年6月在濮阳光明医院及安阳市眼科医院就诊的11例(11只眼)外伤性晶状体脱位继发青光眼行玻璃体切割+晶状体切割(或超声粉碎)术,术中在眼内照明直视睫状突情况下,用红外810 nm半导体激光器导管头对睫状突行3到6个时钟位光凝.术后观察眼压、眼前段组织的反应等,平均随访时间11个月.结果 患者术前眼压与术后最后一次随访眼压[(42.45±5.79vs17.82±4.42) mmHg]比较,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000).未发现术后眼压过低、眼球萎缩.术中术后未发现出血、患者疼痛反应脉络膜脱离等并发症.术后3月时行UBM检查术区睫状突萎缩.结论 在玻璃体切割手术中行直视下睫状突光凝术治疗外伤性晶状体脱位继发青光眼能有效降低眼压,操作简单,费用低,安全,值得推广.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct looking at the ciliary photocoagulation treatment of secondary glaucoma after traumatic lens dislocation in the vitrectomy.Methods Eleven cases (11 eyes) of secondary glaucoma after traumatic lens dislocation received vitrectomy plus lens ultrasonic grinding operation.Intraoperative in intraocular lighting look ciliary processes,ciliary was photocoagulated processes 3 to 6 clock with 810nm infrared laser guide line baldheaded.Before and after the surgery,the intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as the outer appearance of anterior segment was evaluated.The mean follow-up period was 11 months.Results The IOP at the last visit was (17.82±4.42)mmHg,which was significantly lower than that before the surgery [(42.45±5.79)mmHg,P =0.000].No low postoperative IOP was found.Atrophy of the ciliary processes was observed 3 months after the surgery by UBM.Conclusions It is efficacy and safety of direct looking at the ciliary photocoagulation

  8. [Glaucoma and retinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Geerling, G; Zierhut, M; Klink, T

    2010-05-01

    In the therapeutic approach to complex glaucomas different initial situations were considered: pre-existing glaucoma, induction of glaucoma after vitreoretinal surgery and antiglaucomatous procedures. In pre-existing glaucoma and after filtering surgery maintenance of the filtering bleb requires a vitreoretinal approach for conjunctiva preservation with techniques such as pneumatic retinopexy or small gauge vitrectomy. After vitreoretinal surgery an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is common. Secondary glaucoma may occur after scleral buckling and after vitrectomy with or without gas or silicone oil tamponade as well as after application of steroids. Angle closure glaucoma after scleral buckling develops because of congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body. Vitreous tamponades with expansive or saturated gases may cause angle-closure glaucoma with or without pupillary blockage and may critically shorten ocular perfusion. Postoperative checks, immediate action and a ban on boarding aircraft over the period of intraocular gas tamponade prevent permanent damage to the eye. The majority of secondary glaucomas can effectively be controlled by topical medication and adequate postoperative posture of the patient. Besides the temporary use of systemic antiglaucomatous medication or laser therapy, very rarely in cases of massive swelling or overfill, a direct intervention, such as partial gas or silicone oil removal is required. A prophylactic inferior peripheral iridectomy prevents pupillary blockage in aphakic eyes with intraocular tamponade. In cases of heavy silicone oil use, the peripheral iridectomy is placed in the superior position. Nd:YAG laser application will regulate IOP in cases of occlusion. Secondary glaucoma due to silicone oil emulsification overload is treated by trabecular meshwork aspiration and lavage. In refractory glaucoma repetitive cyclophotocoagulation and drainage implants represent an approved method for long-term IOP regulation

  9. [Music and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Genetic Epidemiology of Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.E. van Koolwijk (Leonieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies that have in common an accelerated degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, a subsequent typical excavation of the optic disc and a concomitant pattern of irreversible visual field loss. Glaucoma affects approximately

  11. Painless Treatment for Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    1995-01-01

    People with glaucoma may soon have a safe, painless alternative to surgery,say researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. The researchers are using an enzyme to treat the condition. In patients with glaucoma,the duct that normally drains excess fluid from inside the eyeball is blocked,and pressure within the eye slowly increas-

  12. Diabetes and Your Eyesight (Glaucoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Research Foundation www.glaucoma.org 251 Post Street, Suite 600 San Francisco , CA 94108 (415) 986-3162 (800) 826-6693 question@ glaucoma.org Informacion en Español Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions of Use Photography Credits What is Glaucoma? Care and Treatment Research ...

  13. Glaucoma Genes and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Janey L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have yielded important genes contributing to both early-onset and adult-onset forms of glaucoma. The proteins encoded by the current collection of glaucoma genes participate in a broad range of cellular processes and biological systems. Approximately half the glaucoma-related genes function in the extracellular matrix, however proteins involved in cytokine signaling, lipid metabolism, membrane biology, regulation of cell division, autophagy, and ocular development also contribute to the disease pathogenesis. While the function of these proteins in health and disease are not completely understood, recent studies are providing insight into underlying disease mechanisms, a critical step toward the development of gene-based therapies. In this review, genes known to cause early-onset glaucoma or contribute to adult-onset glaucoma are organized according to the cell processes or biological systems that are impacted by the function of the disease-related protein product.

  14. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation.

  15. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Daniel [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  16. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  17. ACUPUNCTURE AND GLAUCOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; HU Shi-xing; BAI Peng

    2006-01-01

    It is to recognize glaucoma in view of Chinese medicine and synthesize the treatments and mechanisms of acupuncture on glaucoma in the paper. It is indicated in the results that acupuncture plays the importance in lowering ocular tension, improving ocular circulation and protecting optic nerve. Additionally,acupuncture inhibits probably the cellular apoptosis of optic ganglion and provides definite actions on psychological factors of glaucoma. Acupuncture cannot replace operation and medicinal therapy in lowing ocular tension, but their coordinated and auxiliary effects are quite clear and definite.

  18. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Single-particle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  19. Lensectomy, vitrectomy, and transvitreal ciliary body photocoagulation as primary treatment for glaucoma in microspherophakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Neha; Sharma, Ravi; Sawhney, Amrita; Mandal, Madhullika; Choudhry, Reena M

    2015-08-01

    Microspherophakia is a rare, bilateral developmental anomaly of the crystalline lens. It can occur in isolation or as a component of a familial disorder. It has been associated with the Weill-Marchesani syndrome and Marfan syndrome. Angle clousure glaucoma can occur in microspherophakia and is the primary cause of visual loss. We describe the management of 2 sisters with bilateral microspherophakia and advanced angle closure glaucoma.

  20. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Postoperative Glaucoma and Its Treatment in Paediatric Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataftsi, Asimina

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative glaucoma is perhaps the most feared complication after paediatric cataract surgery, as it is difficult to control. Paediatric glaucoma is also challenging to diagnose, and different definitions of glaucoma have led to a rather big range of reported incidences of this disease. It can occur soon after surgery, in which case it is usually closed-angle glaucoma, or it can have a late onset, even more than a decade after surgery, and its aetiopathogenesis remains unclear to this day. There is significant controversy as to what the risk factors are for developing it, especially regarding intraocular lens implantation. The vast majority of studies show that an earlier age at surgery confers a higher risk. Medical and surgical treatment of aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma can be successful; however, management often requires repeated procedures with or without multiple medications, and the prognosis is guarded. The visual outcome depends on sufficient intraocular pressure control and management of concurrent amblyopia.

  1. Size-resolved source apportionment of aerosol particles using polycapillary X-ray lens with a plateau in its focal spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi, E-mail: stxbeijing@163.co [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Key Laboratory of Evidence Science of Ministry of Education, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu Zhiguo; Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Zhu Guanghua [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Evidence Science of Ministry of Education, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Ma Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Lin Xiaoyan; Liu Hui; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Teng Yuepeng; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Evidence Science of Ministry of Education, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A laboratory micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer based on a special polycapillary X-ray lens (PXRL) was used to carry out the source apportionment of aerosol particles. In the curve of the distribution of the X-ray intensity in the focal spot of the special PXRL, there was a plateau with a diameter of 21.3 {mu}m in which the distribution of the X-ray intensity was homogeneous. The gain in flux density in the plateau of the PXRL is 1490. The uniformity of this plateau was 2.9%. This was helpful for the quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of a single aerosol particle with smaller size than that of the plateau of the PXRL. The fingerprint database of aerosol particles with given sizes from various air pollution sources was established with the single particle analysis method. The size-resolved source apportionment of aerosol particles in haze in Beijing city was performed with this fingerprint database.

  2. Natural history of glaucoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Ying; Varma, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fields as well as the risk factors for progression...

  3. Objective perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A; Graham, S L

    2000-12-01

    Objective perimetry in glaucoma is described using the multifocal pattern visually evoked potential (VEP). A multichannel recording technique was used to improve signal detection in healthy volunteers and assess its ability to detect glaucoma and early changes in patients with suspected glaucoma. Prospective, case-control study. Thirty healthy volunteers, 30 patients with suspected glaucoma, and 30 patients with glaucomatous visual field defects were tested. The VEP was recorded using cortically scaled, multifocal, pseudorandomly alternated pattern stimuli with the VERIS system (Electro-Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., San Francisco, CA). An array of four bipolar occipital electrodes provided four differently oriented channels for simultaneous recording. Signals were compared for different locations within the field up to 26 degrees of eccentricity. Healthy volunteers, patients with suspected glaucoma, and glaucoma patients with established visual field defects were tested, and results were compared with Humphrey visual fields (Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA) performed on the same day. For reproducibility, five healthy volunteers were each tested on four separate days. The patients with suspected glaucoma and the established glaucoma patients were analyzed for intereye asymmetry of signals, and these data were compared with the asymmetry values of the healthy volunteers. Multiple recording channels significantly enhanced the recording of signals from parts of the visual field not reliably sampled with a single channel technique in all healthy volunteers, particularly along the horizontal meridian (P: < 0.001). Signal amplitude did not decline with age in healthy volunteers. Recordings showed good reproducibility within individuals. In all 30 glaucoma patients, the Humphrey visual field defects were well demonstrated by the VEP, and topographic location was strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.79). Despite large interindividual variations in amplitude, scotomas were well

  4. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  5. Phacoemulsification in Patients with Secondary Glaucoma Caused by Uveitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingkai Lin; Jian Ge; Yizhi Liu; Yuqing Lan; Yehong Zhou

    2001-01-01

    Purposes: To evaluate the effect of phacoemulsification in the patients with uveitis,secondary glaucoma and complicated cataract. Methods: Phacoemulsification and implantation of a foldable intraocular len was performed in 12 patients(13 eyes) with uveitis, secondary glaucoma and complicated cataract. The complications, intraocular pressures (IOP), and visual acuity were observed postoperatively. Results: No severe complication was found in the patients postoperatively or within the operation procedure. The visual acuity was improved after the operation ( P < 0.05) .The intraocular pressures and/or the number of antiglaucoma medications reduced in 3months of the follow-up time. Conclusion: phacoemulsification is the best way to treat the patients with secondary glaucoma and complicated cataract caused by uveitis. Eye Science 2001; 17: 8 ~ 10.

  6. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Doozandeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss and visual field defects. It is known that in some glaucoma patients, death of RGCs continues despite intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Neuroprotection in the field of glaucoma is defined as any treatment, independent of IOP reduction, which prevents RGC death. Glutamate antagonists, ginkgo biloba extract, neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, calcium channel blockers, brimonidine, glaucoma medications with blood regulatory effect and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors are among compounds with possible neuroprotective activity in preclinical studies. A few agents (such as brimonidine or memantine with neuroprotective effects in experimental studies have advanced to clinical trials; however the results of clinical trials for these agents have not been conclusive. Nevertheless, lack of compelling clinical evidence has not prevented the off-label use of some of these compounds in glaucoma practice. Stem cell transplantation has been reported to halt experimental neurodegenerative disease processes in the absence of cell replacement. It has been hypothesized that transplantation of some types of stem cells activates multiple neuroprotective pathways via secretion of various factors. The advantage of this approach is a prolonged and targeted effect. Important concerns in this field include the secretion of unwanted harmful mediators, graft survival issues and tumorigenesis. Neuroprotection in glaucoma, pharmacologically or by stem cell transplantation, is an interesting subject waiting for broad and multidisciplinary collaborative studies to better clarify its role in clinical practice.

  7. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, K A

    2001-04-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye. Nutrients to increase glutathione levels and activity include lipoic acid, vitamins E and C, and selenium. Cataract patients also tend to be deficient in vitamin A and the carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. The B vitamin riboflavin appears to play an essential role as a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a co-factor for glutathione reductase activity. Other nutrients and botanicals, which may benefit cataract patients or help prevent cataracts, include pantethine, folic acid, melatonin, and bilberry. Diabetic cataracts are caused by an elevation of polyols within the lens of the eye catalyzed by the enzyme aldose reductase. Flavonoids, particularly quercetin and its derivatives, are potent inhibitors of aldose reductase. Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in some but not all cases. Some patients with glaucoma have normal IOP but poor circulation, resulting in damage to the optic nerve. Faulty glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis or breakdown in the trabecular meshwork associated with aqueous outflow has also been implicated. Similar to patients with cataracts, those with glaucoma typically have compromised antioxidant defense systems as well. Nutrients that can impact GAGs such as vitamin C and glucosamine sulfate may hold promise for glaucoma treatment. Vitamin C in high doses has been found to lower IOP via its osmotic effect. Other nutrients holding some potential benefit for glaucoma include lipoic acid, vitamin B12, magnesium, and melatonin. Botanicals may offer some therapeutic potential. Ginkgo biloba increases circulation to the optic nerve; forskolin (an extract from Coleus forskohlii) has been used successfully as a topical agent to lower IOP; and intramuscular injections of Salvia miltiorrhiza have shown benefit in improving visual acuity and

  8. New Tool to Predict Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section A New Tool to Predict Glaucoma email Send this article ... determine if a patient has glaucoma. Recently, a new tool has become available to eye care specialists ...

  9. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma Infographic Leer en Español: La Marihuana y el Glaucoma Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  10. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  11. [Dyslipidaemia and glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünemann, A G; Huchzermeyer, C; Rejdak, R; Hohberger, B

    2014-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Dyslipidaemia as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction is associated with glaucoma and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In additional to a genetic disposition, a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction could be an additive effect of several risk factors, like dyslipidaemia, smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinaemia. This paper reviews the literature concerning the association between dyslipidaemia and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of dyslipidaemia for the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. The role of exogeneous modifiable risk factors for prevention and therapy of glaucoma and their neutralisation by changing life style like weight reduction, modifications of nutrition and physical activity, are discussed.

  12. Pediatric glaucoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Marchini, Marco Toscani, Francesca Chemello Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Abstract: “Childhood glaucoma” is a heterogeneous group of severe pediatric conditions often associated with significant visual loss and characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and optic-disk cupping. Successful IOP control is crucial but challenging and most often achieved surgically, with medical therapy playing a supportive role. There are many classifications of childhood glaucoma, but they can simply be divided into primary, in which a developmental abnormality of the anterior chamber angle only exists, and secondary, in which aqueous outflow is reduced due to independent mechanisms that secondarily impair the function of the filtration angle. The worldwide prevalence of childhood blindness ranges from 0.03% in high-income countries to 0.12% in undeveloped countries. The majority of cases do not have an identified genetic mutation and, where the mutation is known, the genes often account for only a small proportion of cases. Several pathogenetic mechanisms are known to contribute to the development of childhood glaucoma. Whatever the cause, it results in a reduced aqueous outflow at the level of the trabecular meshwork. Age of onset and magnitude of the elevated IOP largely determine the clinical manifestation the high variability of clinical manifestations. Glaucoma from any cause in a neonate and infant is characterized by the classic triad of epiphora, photophobia, and blepharospasm, and could be associated with eye enlargement (buphthalmos and Haab striae. The eye examination, usually performed under general anesthesia, includes: tonometry, anterior-segment examination, gonioscopy, corneal diameter and axial length measurement, dilated fundoscopy with optic-nerve-head evaluation. Medical therapy, considering the high frequency of side effects, is generally used as

  13. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Neovascular Glaucoma (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netland, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery in neovascular glaucoma and control patients. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, we reviewed 76 eyes of 76 patients, comparing the surgical outcomes in control patients (N=38) to matched neovascular glaucoma patients (N=38). Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 mm Hg and ≤21 mm Hg, without further glaucoma surgery, and without loss of light perception. Results: Average follow-up for control and neovascular glaucoma patients was 18.4 and 17.4 months, respectively (P = .550). At last follow-up, mean IOP was 16.2 ± 5.2 mm Hg and 15.5 ± 12.5 mm Hg (P = .115) in control and neovascular glaucoma patients, respectively. Life-table analysis showed a significantly lower success for neovascular glaucoma patients compared with controls (P = .0096), with success at 1 year of 89.2% and 73.1%, at 2 years of 81.8% and 61.9%, and at 5 years of 81.8% and 20.6% for control and neovascular glaucoma eyes, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed neovascular glaucoma as a risk factor for surgical failure (odds ratio, 5.384, 95% CI, 1.22–23.84, P = .027). Although IOP control and complications were comparable between the two groups, visual outcomes were worse in neovascular glaucoma patients, with 9 eyes (23.7%) with neovascular glaucoma compared with no controls losing light perception vision (P = .002). The majority with loss of vision (5 of 9) had successful control of IOP during the postoperative period. Conclusion: Neovascular glaucoma patients have greater risk of surgical failure after Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery compared with controls. Despite improved mean IOP with drainage implants, visual outcomes may be poor, possibly due to progression of underlying disease. PMID:20126506

  14. Glaucoma Monitoring in a Clinical Setting Glaucoma Progression Analysis vs Nonparametric Progression Analysis in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Heeg, Govert P.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Objective: To compare prospectively 2 perimetric progression detection algorithms for glaucoma, the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial algorithm (glaucoma progression analysis [GPA]) and a nonparametric algorithm applied to the mean deviation (MD) (nonparametric progression analysis [NPA]). Methods:

  15. [Corneal endothelium in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, C; Nicolae, Miruna; Pop, Adina

    2012-01-01

    It is a clinical, observational, retrospective, randomised study, performed on 34 eyes with hipertensive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) drug equilibrated and 18 eyes with normotensive POAG. We have evaluated the endothelial cells number variation in the hypertensive POAG and normotensive POAG.

  16. OCT Imaging in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Jessica E.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

    The precise micron scale quantification of ocular structures provided by OCT turn this technology to be a valuable tool in clinical evaluation of glaucoma patients. This chapter describes the clinical utility of OCT from choosing the scan pattern and scan location to the interpretation of the test outcome.

  17. Primary Chronic Angle-closure Glaucoma in Chinese——A Clinical Exploration of Its Pathogenesis And Natural Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Fourty-three cases (86 eyes) of primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma were randomly selected. An additional 44 cases (77 eyes) of primary acute angle-closure glaucoma and 30 normal subjects (34 eyes) were also randomly enrolled as control groups for comparison in the clinical study. Ultrasonic biometric measurements of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and axial length of the eyeball were performed. Using an potic microgauge attached to the slit-lamp, the entrance of anterior chamber angle was...

  18. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms and Diagnosis Glaucoma can develop in one or ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions early-onset glaucoma early-onset glaucoma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  20. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. MEMS glaucoma monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Smitha; Austin, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Glaucoma is a serious disease, affecting millions of people worldwide requiring continuous monitoring of Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) to avoid the risk of blindness. Current laboratory measurements are infrequent, intrusive and do not indicate the progression of the disease. The paper reports on the development of an implantable Glaucoma monitoring system that can monitor IOP in the eye to indicate any elevation in risk to the patient. A mathematical model of the anterior chamber of the eye was used to analyze the complex fluid flow and pressure balance in the eye. This was done in order to determine the performance requirements of the actuator, sensor and transmission electronics that could be integrated on a single microchip using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, to carry out the testing internally. The accuracy of the system was theoretically tested against results from external medical tests. The results were found to be comparable.

  2. [Hearing disorders with glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmer, S; Anastassiou, G; Selbach, J M

    2014-02-01

    One of the most common sensory impairments of elderly people is hearing loss. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Hearing and vision loss typically increase with older age. There is scientific evidence that the coincidence of hearing and vision loss is more frequent than expected by the prevalence of individual disorders. With regards to demographic changes and an aging population, in future, it is probable that the incidence of combined hearing and vision impairments will increase, representing a particular challenge not only for doctors and nurses but also a high burden for the private environment of the patients. Therefore, it is of particular importance to diagnose and to treat hearing and vision loss (dual sensory loss) as early as possible. The treatment of hearing disorders and glaucoma as well as possibly underlying systemic diseases such as circulatory disturbances is as important as responsible rehabilitation measures and the supply of hearing and low vision aids. During the last years, knowledge about the molecular biological background of hearing loss and glaucoma has continuously increased but it is currently still at the level of laboratory and animal experiments. Therefore, it remains to be seen whether and to what extent a real therapy for the underlying genetic, immunological and in particular mitochondrial disorders may be accessible in the future.

  3. Ceratoplastia penetrante e glaucoma Penetrating keratoplasty and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Eulálio Barreto Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir os conhecimentos atuais sobre a abordagem clínica e terapêutica da ceratoplastia penetrante e do glaucoma a ela associado.The aim of this article is to make a review about glaucoma associated with penetrating keratoplasty, describing since its incidence and risk factors until the different options for treatment.

  4. 急性原发性闭角型青光眼%Acute Primary Closed Angle Glaucoma(Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acute primary closed angle glaucoma is fast becoming one of the most important causes of blindness in the 21 st Century. World bhnding statistics show that there are 60 million people suffering from glaucoma. Of these,approximately 6 million are blind and 1.5 million (25%) are due to acute closed angle glaucoma. With the aging population, the number of patients blind from glaucoma will continue to increase.Attacks from acute primary closed angle glaucoma can lead to irreversible blindness to the affected eye.Blindness can be effectively prevented in acute primary closed angle glaucoma because the severity of symptoms will draw the attention of the patient who will then seek for medical care. Therefore, it is essential to educate the public,doctors and healthcare workers about the danger and symptoms of acute glaucoma. With early diagnosis and treatment to the affected eye and laser iridotomy to the fellow eye-bilateral blindness from acute glaucoma can be prevented.This paper highlights important clinical advances in the management of acute primary closed angle glaucoma and also poses several questions for discussion.(1) What evidence is there to suggest that bilateral blindness from acute primary closed angle glaucom is preventable?(2) In what way is Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy (UBM) useful in clinical research in glaucoma?(3) Will UBM be important in clinical diagnosis in primary closed angle glaucoma?(4) What is the scientific basis of treatment in acute primary closed angle glaucoma?(5) What are the essential procedures to preserve vision in chronic primary closed angle glaucoma?(6) What are the reasons for blindness after laser iridotomy?(7) What is the mechanism of laser iridoplasty?(8) What are the reasons why laser iridoplasty should be combined with laser iridotomy?(9) Why there is an intraocular pressure increase in 50% of eyes within 3 months after laser iridoplasty?(10) Can UBM explain the changes in the angle after lens removal in primary closed angle

  5. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  6. The medical management of glaucoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical and surgical interventions are accessible in the management of glaucoma. ... carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, beta antagonists, alpha 2 adrenergic agonists, ... and closed angle glaucoma in relation to the drainage systems within the anterior ... central corneal thickness in the presence of risk factors is suggestive.

  7. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  8. Aggravation of glaucoma with fluvoxamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Ortí-Pareja, M; Zurdo, J M

    2001-12-01

    To report a case of aggravation of glaucoma associated with the use of fluvoxamine. A 66-year-old while woman diagnosed with narrow-angle glaucoma showed an increase in intraocular pressure and experienced orbital pain and blurred vision after the initiation of fluvoxamine for tension-type headache. These symptoms disappeared and intraocular pressure normalized after withdrawal of this drug. Aggravation of narrow-angle glaucoma is a well-known adverse effect of tricyclic antidepressants. Because this adverse effect had been rarely reported to date with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and fluoxetine), we used fluvoxamine in our patient. The disappearance of ocular symptoms and the normalization of intraocular pressure two days after stopping fluvoxamine suggest a possible relationship between fluvoxamine and aggravation of glaucoma. Fluvoxamine should be considered as a drug that can induce or aggravate narrow-angle glaucoma.

  9. The future of glaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsham Sheybani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma surgery is ripe for innovation. In the last few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of devices approaching commercialization. While not all that is new is necessarily good, the role of these devices in changing glaucoma surgery is equally important in terms of both success and failure. Trabeculectomy, the most commonly performed incisional filtration surgery for glaucoma, is subjective by nature and certainly has risks. As devices aim to standardize glaucoma surgery, specifically subconjunctival filtration surgery, predictability and in turn safety should theoretically improve. This may allow the glaucoma surgeon to intervene earlier in the disease process, prevent more advanced vision loss and potentially decrease the burden of medications.

  10. Primary open-angle glaucoma genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of glaucoma has a genetic basis. About 5% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is currently attributed to single-gene or Mendelian forms of glaucoma (ie glaucoma caused by mutations in myocilinor optineurin). Mutations in these genes have a high likelihood of leading to glaucoma and are rarely seen in normal subjects. Other cases of POAG have a more complex genetic basis and are caused by the combined effects of many genetic and environmental risk factors, each of whic...

  11. Gene therapy in glaucoma-3: Therapeutic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Despite new and improving diagnostic and therapeutic options for glaucoma, blindness from glaucoma is increasing and glaucoma remains a major public health problem. The role of heredity in ocular disease including glaucoma is attracting greater attention as the knowledge and recent advances of Human Genome Project and the HapMap Project have made genetic analysis of many human disorders possible. Glaucoma offers a variety of potential targets for gene therapy. All risk factors for glaucom...

  12. A Rare Manifestation of Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Inês; Faria, Mun Yueh; Pinto, Luís Abegão

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: To report a case of a patient who developed uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome after an uneventful cataract surgery and to discuss risk factors, diagnostic challenges, management options, and clinical implications. Background: Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome is a rare but potentially serious cataract surgery complication. Clinical manifestations include increased intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber inflammation, and recurrent hyphema or microhyphema. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Plus syndrome also includes accompanying vitreous hemorrhage. Although classically associated with rigid anterior chamber intraocular lenses (lOLs), cases of malpositioning and subluxated posterior chamber lOLs have also been described as possible triggers. Case description: We report a case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who developed UGH Plus syndrome after an uneventful cataract surgery with an lOL implanted in the capsular bag. During postoperative follow-up, persistent intraocular inflammation, increased IOP, hyphema, and vitreous hemorrhage were consistent with this diagnosis. Slit-lamp examination demonstrated progressive localized iris atrophy, compatible with chafing of the posterior iris by the IOL haptic as the trigger for UGH syndrome. A pars plana vitrectomy was performed and a retropupillary intraocular lens was implanted. No further complications occurred during follow-up. Conclusion and clinical significance: Given the increasing prevalence of single-piece lOLs implanted in the capsular bag, it is important to recognize UGH syndrome as a rare but potentially serious complication. How to cite this article: Sousa DC, Leal I, Faria MY, Pinto LA. A Rare Manifestation of Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema Syndrome. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(2):76-78. PMID:27536051

  13. Direct writing of micro/nano-scale patterns by means of particle lens arrays scanned by a focused diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Ana; Wang, Zengbo; Whitehead, David; Li, Lin

    2010-11-01

    A practical approach to a well-known technique of laser micro/nano-patterning by optical near fields is presented. It is based on surface patterning by scanning a Gaussian laser beam through a self-assembled monolayer of silica micro-spheres on a single-crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. So far, the outcome of this kind of near-field patterning has been related to the simultaneous, parallel surface-structuring of large areas either by top hat or Gaussian laser intensity distributions. We attempt to explore the possibility of using the same technique in order to produce single, direct writing of features. This could be of advantage for applications in which only some areas need to be patterned (i.e. local area selective patterning) or single lines are required (e.g. a particular micro/nano-fluidic channel). A diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system (wavelength of 532 nm, pulse duration of 8 ns, repetition rate of 30 kHz) with a computer-controlled 3 axis galvanometer beam scanner was employed to write user-defined patterns through the particle lens array on the Si substrate. After laser irradiation, the obtained patterns which are in the micro-scale were composed of sub-micro/micro-holes or bumps. The micro-pattern resolution depends on the dimension of both the micro-sphere’s diameter and the beam’s spot size. The developed technique could potentially be employed to fabricate photonic crystal structures mimicking nature’s butterfly wings and anti-reflective “moth eye” arrays for photovoltaic cells.

  14. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  15. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  16. Glaucoma-inducing Procedure in an In Vivo Rat Model and Whole-mount Retina Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Cynthia A; Linn, David M; Linn, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the central nervous system affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). RGC axons making up the optic nerve carry visual input to the brain for visual perception. Damage to RGCs and their axons leads to vision loss and/or blindness. Although the specific cause of glaucoma is unknown, the primary risk factor for the disease is an elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma-inducing procedures in animal models are a valuable tool to researchers studying the mechanism of RGC death. Such information can lead to the development of effective neuroprotective treatments that could aid in the prevention of vision loss. The protocol in this paper describes a method of inducing glaucoma - like conditions in an in vivo rat model where 50 µl of 2 M hypertonic saline is injected into the episcleral venous plexus. Blanching of the vessels indicates successful injection. This procedure causes loss of RGCs to simulate glaucoma. One month following injection, animals are sacrificed and eyes are removed. Next, the cornea, lens, and vitreous are removed to make an eyecup. The retina is then peeled from the back of the eye and pinned onto sylgard dishes using cactus needles. At this point, neurons in the retina can be stained for analysis. Results from this lab show that approximately 25% of RGCs are lost within one month of the procedure when compared to internal controls. This procedure allows for quantitative analysis of retinal ganglion cell death in an in vivo rat glaucoma model.

  17. Advanced glaucoma: Management pearls

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    Girum W Gessesse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of glaucoma patients present late, particularly in the developing world, and unfortunately, in an advanced stage of the disease. They are at imminent danger of losing remaining vision, and may also be afflicted with various socioeconomic and health challenges. The encounter with such a patient is typically characterized by anxiety/fear and sometimes hopelessness from the patient′s perspective. The physician may also feel that they are in a difficult position managing the patient′s disease. When dealing with such cases, we suggest a holistic, individualized approach taking into account the ′biopsychosociospiritual′ (BPSS profile of each patient. The BPSS model takes into account relevant ocular as well as systemic biology (factors such as the mechanism of glaucoma, level of intraocular pressure [IOP], rate of progression, life expectancy, general health, psychological considerations (e.g., fear, depression, socio-economic factors and spiritual/cultural values and beliefs before being able to decide with the patient and their care partner(s what treatment goals should be and how they can best be approached. Treatment for advanced glaucoma can be highly effective, and patients and their care partners should be informed that aggressive IOP lowering to the low teens or even single digits offers the best chance of protecting remaining vision. This can be achieved safely and effectively in most cases with trabeculectomy (including an antimetabolite, and in some cases with medical and/or laser therapy. Vision rehabilitation and psychosocial support should also be considered in order to optimize remaining vision, replace fear with hope as appropriate, and thus improve the overall quality of life.

  18. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  19. Evaluation of a glaucoma patient

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    Thomas Ravi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of glaucoma is usually made clinically and requires a comprehensive eye examination, including slit lamp, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and dilated stereoscopic evaluation of the optic disc and retina. Automated perimetry is obtained if glaucoma is suspected. This establishes the presence of functional damage and provides a baseline for follow-up. Imaging techniques are not essential for the diagnosis but may have a role to play in the follow-up. We recommend a comprehensive eye examination for every clinic patient with the objective of detecting all potentially sight-threatening diseases, including glaucoma.

  20. Management of neovascular glaucoma.

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    Ajvazi, Halil; Goranci, Ilhami; Lutaj, Pajtim

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is an atrophic optic neuropathy resulting from the neovascularization of the iridocorneal angle increasing the intraocular pressure. To show the incidence of NVG in comparison to the other types of glaucoma and to compare with the relevant literature data and other referent clinics. In this study were included 116 patients with NVG, of whom 75 or 64.7% male and 41 or 35.3% female, treated from January 2003 until February 2013. Visual acuity damages from NVG, were classified as big damages with 84.7% of cases and minor damages with 15.3% of cases. Cases with heavy damages were the cases with blindness, L+P+/- up to V = 0.3 and cases with slightly damages with V = 0.4-1.0. NVG caused by PDR with 52 cases or 44.8% and CRVO with 12 cases or 10.3%. We should be focused on prevention of diabetic retinopathy which requires interdisciplinary cooperation. In cases when diabetic retinopathy is present, we have to advise patients to undergo PRP as soon as possible, since it is the only way to prevent NVG and heavy consequences.

  1. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  2. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

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    Tanuj Dada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  3. [Current trends in neovascular glaucoma treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancea, P P; Abu-Taleb, A

    2005-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is divided in three clinical stages: rubeosis iridis, secondary open-angle glaucoma, and synechia of the angle-closure glaucoma. 36% of neovascular glaucomas occurs after central retinal vein occlusion, 32% after diabetic proliferative retinopathy, and 13% occurs after carotid artery obstructive. The key of success in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma is the early and rightly diagnosis, the treatment is aimed mainly at relieving pain, as the prognosis for maintaining visual function is extremely poor. The most important surgical procedures are trabeculectomy, artificial drainage shunts and cyclo-distraction by trans-scleral diode laser. This essay presents a synthesis of modern principle data concerning neovascular glaucoma.

  4. Intraocular pressure following ECCE and IOL implantation in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Dulaney, D D; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-08-01

    Patients with glaucoma may suffer optic nerve head damage due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after any intraocular procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the IOP data in 82 consecutive patients (103 eyes) with glaucoma after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Nine eyes had previous trabeculectomy and three eyes required combined trabeculectomy with ECCE and PC-IOL. The average follow-up period is 1.5 years (range 0.5 to 6 years). The postoperative IOP rise of 8 mm Hg over baseline or above 23 mm Hg was observed in 45 eyes (49.5%). Two eyes needed argon laser trabeculoplasty and one required trabeculectomy to control postoperative IOP elevation. Most of the patients required the same or lesser number of medications for IOP control after surgery. Results suggest that ECCE with PC-IOL may be a relatively safe procedure in cataract patients with preexisting glaucoma.

  5. Millimeter-Scale Chemistry of Observable Endmembers with the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer and Mars Hand Lens Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy; Berger, Jeff; Campbell, Iain; Edgett, Ken; McBride, Marie; Minitti, Michelle; Desouza, Elstan; Boyd, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a bulk chemistry instrument conducting high-precision in-situ measurements of Martian rocks and soils onboard both active NASA rovers [1]. Mounted at the end of the Curiosity rover arm, the APXS can conduct multi-spot (raster) investigations in a single morning or evening. Combining APXS raster spectra and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) images, a modeled terrain is developed in which the positions of APXS field of views (FOV) can be localized, thereby mitigating arm placement uncertainty. An acquired APXS spectrum is the result of the weighted sum of the signals from within the FOV. The spatial sensitivity of the APXS consists of an off-nadir contribution in addition to a vertical separation (standoff with respect to the APXS detector) contribution [2, 3]. MAHLI images and focus merge (MFM) products facilitate a 3D surface model of the target [4] compensating for the effects of sample relief in an APXS spectrum. Employing a MFM relief map, APXS placement is modeled in three-dimensions, permitting variable APXS docking (standoff, deployment angle). Through minimization, we arrive at millimeter-scale chemistry of veins, diagenetic features and dust-free rock endmembers of Martian targets. Several rasters have been conducted with Curiosity's APXS on Mars including a study of the Garden City outcrop. The area is characterized by its contrasting light and dark veins of cm-scale surface relief. Three-dimensional localization and minimization indicated calcium sulfate as the major component of the light vein while the dark vein is enriched in CaO (without accompanying SO3), MnO, Ni and Zn, with respect to average Mars composition. References: [1] Gellert et al. (2014), LPSC XLV, #1876. [2] VanBommel et al. (2015), LPSC XLVI, #2049. [3] VanBommel et al. (2016), XRS #2681. [4] Edgett et al. (2015), MAHLI Tech Rept 0001. Acknowledgements: The MSL APXS is financed and managed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) with Mac

  6. Extended drug delivery by contact lenses for glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Burke, Michael T; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2012-08-20

    We combine laboratory-based timolol release studies and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies in beagle dogs to evaluate the efficacy of glaucoma therapy through extended wear contact lenses. Commercial contact lenses cannot provide extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs and so the studies here focused on increasing the release duration of timolol from ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses by incorporating vitamin E diffusion barriers. The efficacy of timolol delivered via extended wear contact lenses was then compared to eye drops in beagle dogs that suffer from spontaneous glaucoma. The lenses were either replaced every 24h or continuously worn for 4 days, and the pharmacodynamics effect of changes in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of timolol from the ACUVUE TruEye contact lenses can be significantly increased by incorporation of vitamin E. The in vivo studies showed that IOP reduction from baseline by pure contact lens on daily basis was comparable with that by eye drops but with only 20% of drug dose, which suggested higher drug bioavailability for contact lenses. In addition, by inclusion of vitamin E into the lenses, the IOP was reduced significantly during the 4-day treatment with continuous wear of lens.

  7. Novel surgical procedures in glaucoma: advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopoulos, Theodoros; Rhee, Douglas J

    2008-03-01

    Despite late modifications and enhancements, traditional penetrating glaucoma surgery is not without complications and is reserved for patients in whom pharmacologic treatment and/or laser trabeculoplasty do not suffice to control the intraocular pressure. This article critically reviews recent advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery with particular attention paid to two novel surgical approaches: ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome and implantation of the Ex-PRESS shunt. Ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome) achieves a sustained 30% reduction in intraocular pressure by focally ablating and cauterizing the trabecular meshwork/inner wall of Schlemm's canal. It has a remarkable safety profile with respect to early hypotonous or infectious complications as it does not generate a bleb, but it can be associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may necessitate additional glaucoma surgery. The Ex-PRESS shunt is more commonly implanted under a partial thickness scleral flap, and appears to have similar efficacy to standard trabeculectomy offering some advantages with respect to the rate of early complications related to hypotony. Penetrating glaucoma surgery will continue to evolve. As prospective randomized clinical trials become available, we will determine the exact role of these surgical techniques in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium.

  8. Normal-tension glaucoma (Low-tension glaucoma

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    Anderson Douglas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is now considered an abnormal physiology in the optic nerve head that interacts with the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, with the degree and rate of damage depending on the IOP and presumably the degree of abnormal physiology. Diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, defined as glaucoma without a clearly abnormal IOP, depends on recognizing symptoms and signs associated with optic nerve vulnerability, in addition to absence of other explanations for disc abnormality and visual field loss. Among the findings are a halo or crescent of absence of retinal pigment epithelium around the disc, bilateral pre-chiasmal visual field defects, splinter hemorrhages at the disc margin, vascular dysregulation (low blood pressure, cold hands and feet, migraine headache with aura, and the like, or a family history of glaucoma. Possibly relevant, is a history of hemodynamic crisis, arterial obstructive disease, or sleep apnea. Neurological evaluation with imaging is needed only for atypical cases or ones that progress unexpectedly. Management follows the same principle of other chronic glaucomas, to lower the IOP by a substantial amount, enough to prevent disabling visual loss. However, many NTG cases are non-progressive. Therefore, it may often be wisein mild cases to determine whether the case is progressive and the rate of progression before deciding on how aggressivene to be with therapy. Efforts at neuroprotection and improvement in blood flow have not yet been shown effective.

  9. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Siva; Reddy

    1992-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most important cause of permanent blindness in the Asia Pacific region. Thus it is very important to identify epidemiological and other risk factore which are associated with open angle glaucoma. The risk for glaucoma optic nerve damage increases with the age and with the level of the intraocular pressure. In this paper, I will highlight our study of several risk factors for development of the open angle glaucoma like (1) elevated intraocular pressure, (2) myopi...

  10. A new classification of glaucomas

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    Bordeianu CD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constantin-Dan Bordeianu Private Practice, Ploiesti, Prahova, Romania Purpose: To suggest a new glaucoma classification that is pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical.Methods: After discussing the logical pathway used in criteria selection, the paper presents the new classification and compares it with the classification currently in use, that is, the one issued by the European Glaucoma Society in 2008.Results: The paper proves that the new classification is clear (being based on a coherent and consistently followed set of criteria, is comprehensive (framing all forms of glaucoma, and helps in understanding the sickness understanding (in that it uses a logical framing system. The great advantage is that it facilitates therapeutic decision making in that it offers direct therapeutic suggestions and avoids errors leading to disasters. Moreover, the scheme remains open to any new development.Conclusion: The suggested classification is a pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical classification that fulfills the conditions of an ideal classification. The suggested classification is the first classification in which the main criterion is consistently used for the first 5 to 7 crossings until its differentiation capabilities are exhausted. Then, secondary criteria (etiologic and clinical pick up the relay until each form finds its logical place in the scheme. In order to avoid unclear aspects, the genetic criterion is no longer used, being replaced by age, one of the clinical criteria. The suggested classification brings only benefits to all categories of ophthalmologists: the beginners will have a tool to better understand the sickness and to ease their decision making, whereas the experienced doctors will have their practice simplified. For all doctors, errors leading to therapeutic disasters will be less likely to happen. Finally, researchers will have the object of their work gathered in the group of glaucoma with unknown or uncertain pathogenesis, whereas

  11. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

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    Betsy Sleath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  12. View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inbox. Sign up View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision Normal Vision This is an example of normal vision. This is also an example of how someone ... gradual and often imperceptible failing of side (peripheral) vision. Intermediate Glaucoma As glaucoma progresses, the center of ...

  13. Modern technologies of refractory glaucoma treatment. Review

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    A. Yu. Rascheskov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this article presents a review of available literature concerning basic directions of refractory glaucoma treatment. the surgical management of refractory glaucoma is presented by two main groups of surgical techniques: filtering surgery (including surgery with the use of antimetabolites and implants and cyclodestructive procederes. types of glaucoma drainages are described, modern valve drainage system is presented.

  14. Gene therapy in glaucoma-3: Therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman

    2010-09-01

    Despite new and improving diagnostic and therapeutic options for glaucoma, blindness from glaucoma is increasing and glaucoma remains a major public health problem. The role of heredity in ocular disease including glaucoma is attracting greater attention as the knowledge and recent advances of Human Genome Project and the HapMap Project have made genetic analysis of many human disorders possible.Glaucoma offers a variety of potential targets for gene therapy. All risk factors for glaucoma and their underlying causes are potentially susceptible to modulation by gene transfer. As genetic defects responsible for glaucoma are identified and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the disease are recognized, new methods of therapy can be developed. Genetic tests are indicated for treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, and research purposes; however, there is significant overlap among them. One of the important genetic tests for glaucoma is OcuGene. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the glaucoma specialists to be familiar with and understand the basic molecular mechanisms, genes responsible for glaucoma, and the ways of genetic treatment.Recently, several promising genetic therapeutic approaches had been investigated. Some are either used to stop apoptosis and halt further glaucomatous damage, wound healing modulating effect or long lasting intraocular pressure lowering effects than the conventional commercially available antiglaucoma medications. METHOD OF LITERATURE SEARCH: The literature was searched on the Medline database using the PubMed interface. The key words for search were glaucoma, gene therapy, and genetic diagnosis of glaucoma.

  15. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

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    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  16. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma as a presentation of isolated microspherophakia in an adult: case report

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    Gupta Amod

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral simultaneous angle closure glaucoma is a rare entity. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to isolated microspherophakia in an adult. Case presentation A 45-year-old woman presented with bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma, with a patent iridotomy in one eye. Prolonged miotic use prior to presentation had worsened the pupillary block. The diagnosis was not initially suspected, and the patient was subjected to pars-plana lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy for a presumed ciliary block glaucoma. The small spherical lens was detected intraoperatively, and spherophakia was diagnosed in retrospect. She had no systemic features of any of the known conditions associated with spherophakia. Pars-plana lensectomy both eyes controlled the intraocular pressure successfully. Conclusion This case demonstrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of isolated microspherophakia in any case of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma. Lensectomy appears to be an effective first-line strategy for managing these patients.

  17. Long-term change in central corneal thickness from a glaucoma perspective

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    Nikhil S Choudhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the longitudinal change in central corneal thickness (CCT over 3 years in patients with glaucoma. Materials and Methods: The Chennai Glaucoma Follow-up Study, an offshoot of the Chennai Glaucoma Study, was designed to evaluate the progression of glaucoma. A cohort of participants in the Chennai Glaucoma Study that were suffering from glaucoma or were at a higher risk for glaucoma underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation at the base hospital at 6-month intervals during the years 2004 to 2007. The CCT (average of 10 readings was measured between 11 am and 1 pm on any given day using an ultrasonic pachymeter. Patients with a history of ocular surgery, corneal disease and usage of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor were excluded. No patient was a contact lens wearer. Results: One hundred and ninety-six patients (84 male, 112 female met the inclusion criteria. We analyzed data from the right eye. The mean age of the patients was 59.97 ± 9.06 years. Fifty-nine (30.1% of the patients were diabetic. The mean change in CCT (CCT at first patient visit - CCT at last patient visit was 3.46 ± 7.63 μm. The mean change in CCT was 0.75 μm per year (R 2 = 0.00. Age, gender, intraocular pressure at the first patient visit and diabetic status had no significant influence on the magnitude of change in CCT. Conclusion: A carefully obtained CCT reading by a trained examiner need not be repeated for at least 3 years as long as the ocular and systemic factors known to affect the measurement of CCT are constant.

  18. Clinical experience of phacoemulsification for cataract patients with angle-closure glaucoma in 29 cases

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    Yong-Hui Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation on cataract with angle-closure glaucoma. METHODS: Twenty-nine cases(29 eyesof angle-closure glaucoma with cataract underwent phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation, and the data of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy and complications after operation were statistically analyzed.RESULTS:Postoperatively, 28 eyes(96.5%visual acuity were improved. Intraocular pressure of 25 eyes(86.2%were maintained at a normal level without any IOP lowering drug, intraocular pressure of 3 eyes(10.3%were controlled by IOP lowering eye drops, intraocular pressure of 1 eye(3.5%returned to normal by trabeculectomy. The chamber depth of 29 eyes was increased. 8 eyes were suffered from mild corneal edema, and returned to normal after treatment. CONCLUSION: Characterized by decreasing intraocular pressure, opening anterior chamber, and raising visual acuity, phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation is a good operative therapy for primary angle-closure glaucoma complicated with cataract with preoperative goniosynechia closed ≤270°.

  19. Chinical Analysis of Steroid Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingxunKong; ChengZhang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:The authors accumulated 15cases(26eyes)of steroid glaucoma due to topical administration of dexamethasone or prednisolone.Methods:From1970to 1990,26eyesin 15cases were observed(Bilateral11cas-es,unilateral4cases)including 12right eyes and 14left eyes.10cases were male and 5cases female with age ranging from14to52years averaging 28years.25eyes had the manifestation of chronic open angle glaucoma in the clinical coures,and 1eye simulated an acute glaucoma attack.Results:All patents had taken antiglaucoma medication before coming to our ohs-pital,but theIOPwas over6.7kPa in9eyes.TheC/Dration was equal to or over0.6in 9cases(16eyes).and the values were inconsistent between both eyes in 55%of the patients.Treatment for glaucoma was immediate discontinuation of the steroids with antiglaucoma medication if necessary.Three eyes received filter-ing operations and 2eyes had the removal of subconjunctival residual steroid.Normal IOPwas restored in monyths up to a year.Conclusion:Dexamethasone of prednisolone were the easiest to induce steroid glaucoma when the patients had long0term use of steroid eyedrops.

  20. Glaucoma de pressão normal Normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maynart Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O glaucoma de pressão normal é neuropatia óptica caracterizada por diminuição da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, aumento da relação escavação/disco e defeito de campo visual, porém sem evidência de aumento da pressão intra-ocular. Os pacientes com glaucoma de pressão normal constituem um grupo heterogêneo em que várias condições sistêmicas podem ser encontradas e apresentam sinais clínicos oculares somente facilmente identificados nos estágios muito avançados da doença. E seu tratamento apresenta desafios maiores do que os existentes no tratamento dos glaucomas hipertensivos. O presente texto propõe uma revisão da patogênese e do diagnóstico diferencial, discutindo os aspectos vasculares, reumáticos, neurológicos e genéticos que devem ser investigados, assim como do tratamento dessa doença. Os autores pesquisaram os bancos de dados do PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane Library (CENTRAL.Normal tension glaucoma is an optic neuropathy in which the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is reduced, the optic nerve is pathologically excavated, and the visual field is disturbed, although intraocular pressure is classified as normal. Patients with normal tension glaucoma are a heterogeneous group in which many systemic pathologic conditions may be present, and presenting ocular clinical signs that are difficult to be identified in the early stages of the disease. Treatment is more challenging than in hypertensive glaucomas. The authors sought to review the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of this condition assessing vascular, rheumatic, neurological and genetic aspects that should be studied, as well as its treatment. The sources of references are PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL databases.

  1. Ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vital P; Harris, Alon; Anderson, Douglas; Stodtmeister, Richard; Cremasco, Fernanda; Kergoat, Helene; Lovasik, John; Stalmans, Ingborg; Zeitz, Oliver; Lanzl, Ines; Gugleta, Konstantin; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-06-01

    This review article discusses the relationship between ocular perfusion pressure and glaucoma, including its definition, factors that influence its calculation and epidemiological studies investigating the influence of ocular perfusion pressure on the prevalence, incidence and progression of glaucoma. We also list the possible mechanisms behind this association, and discuss whether it is secondary to changes in intraocular pressure, blood pressure or both. Finally, we describe the circadian variation of ocular perfusion pressure and the effects of systemic and topical medications on it. We believe that the balance between IOP and BP, influenced by the autoregulatory capacity of the eye, is part of what determines whether an individual will develop optic nerve damage. However, prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to better define the role of ocular perfusion pressure in the development and progression of glaucoma.

  2. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present. PMID:27625878

  3. A retrospective survey of childhood glaucoma prevalence according to Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Hoguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN classification system and describe the prevalence of each subtype according to this classification. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, the medical records of 205 consecutive childhood glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients at an urban tertiary care center were reviewed. The initial diagnosis and new diagnosis according to CGRN classification were recorded. Results: All patients fit one of the seven categories of the new classification. Seventy-one percent of diagnoses were changed upon reclassification. Twenty-three percent of patients had primary glaucoma (juvenile open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma [PCG]; 36% had secondary glaucoma (glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies; glaucoma associated with nonacquired systemic disease or syndrome; glaucoma associated with acquired condition; and glaucoma following cataract surgery; and 39% were glaucoma suspect. Of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, PCG was the most common diagnosis, seen in 32% of patients. Conclusion: The CGRN classification provides a useful method of classifying childhood glaucoma.

  4. Glaucoma secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Huang Wenbin; Gao Xinbo; Che Huixin; Yu Keming; Zhang Xiulan

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucoma secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (") an uncommon but serious complication that threatens vision and therefore cannot be neglected.A few cases of secon(ca)ry glaucoma resulting from lupus-induced or iatrogenic ocular impairments have been reported in association with SLE.However,a systematic analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma secondary to SLE has not been reported in the literature.The aim of this study is to further investigate the relationship between glaucoma and SLE.Methods In this study,we reviewed nine eyes of five patients diagnosed with secondary glaucoma associated with SLE,including one case of neovascular glaucoma and four cases of steroid-induced glaucoma.Results Neovascular glaucoma was successfully treated by Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation surgery with adjunctive ranibizumab intravitreal injection,followed by panretinal photocoagulation (PRP).The steroid-induced glaucoma in eight eyes of four cases were controlled by trabeculectomy along with antiproliferative agents.Conclusion Regular follow-up ocular examinations should be conducted to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of secondary glaucoma in SLE patients to improve the prognosis of vision.

  5. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  6. Soft wearable contact lens sensor for continuous intraocular pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Zhen; Chan, Ion-Seng; Leung, Leo K K; Lam, David C C

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary indicator of glaucoma, but measurements from a single visit to the clinic miss the peak IOP that may occur at night during sleep. A soft chipless contact lens sensor that allows the IOP to be monitored throughout the day and at night is developed in this study. A resonance circuit composed of a thin film capacitor coupled with a sensing coil that can sense corneal curvature deformation is designed, fabricated and embedded into a soft contact lens. The resonance frequency of the sensor is designed to vary with the lens curvature as it changes with the IOP. The frequency responses and the ability of the sensor to track IOP cycles were tested using a silicone rubber model eye. The results showed that the sensor has excellent linearity with a frequency response of ∼8 kHz/mmHg, and the sensor can accurately track fluctuating IOP. These results showed that the chipless contact lens sensor can potentially be used to monitor IOP to improve diagnosis accuracy and treatment of glaucoma.

  7. [Iritis with destabilization of the intraocular pressure due to dislocation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, D M

    2012-04-01

    This report concerns the case of a 67-year-old male patient who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). After an interval of 2 months the patient developed iritis together with an uncontrollable increase in intraocular pressure. After a detailed examination a dislocated haptic of the IOL was identified as the cause of the symptoms. The dislocation had led to uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome although no hemorrhage was observed. In addition to this complication the haptic had arroded the zonular complex which made implantation of an anterior chamber lens necessary. Although improvements in operating techniques, lens materials and designs have been made uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome has to be kept in mind. Surgical intervention is the only therapeutic option.

  8. Cataract Surgery for Tilted Lens in Peters' Anomaly Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayuki Nishide

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cases of cataract surgery without penetrating keratoplasty in patients with Peters' anomaly are very rare. We report a case of Peters' anomaly type 2 with tilted lens due to synechia between the lens and iris that was treated with cataract surgery without penetrating keratoplasty. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old girl had Peters' anomaly in both eyes. Corneal opacity was severe in the left eye due to high-grade dysgenesis of the anterior segment. In the right eye, corneal opacity had spread from the center of the cornea to the inferotemporal side, and there was synechia between the iris and corneal endothelium from the inferonasal side to the inferotemporal side. Opacity was observed in the anterior pole of the lens, and there was synechia between the anterior iris and the lens. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed that the lens was tilted because of synechia. The tilted lens induced astigmatism, which reduced visual acuity to 20/250, in conjunction with a cataract. Cataract surgery was performed; the synechia between the lens capsule and the iris was severed, an intraocular lens was inserted, and the tilt was repaired. UBM was used postoperatively to confirm that the lens capsule synechia had been corrected and that the intraocular lens was not tilted. As a result, visual acuity improved to 20/100; glaucoma and expansion of corneal opacity were not observed. Conclusions: Severing of the synechia between the cataract and iris, during cataract surgery, in a patient with Peters' anomaly type 2 resulted in favorable postoperative visual acuity.

  9. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other profes

  10. SQSTM1 Mutations and Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Scheetz

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. One subset of glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma (NTG occurs in the absence of high intraocular pressure. Mutations in two genes, optineurin (OPTN and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1, cause familial NTG and have known roles in the catabolic cellular process autophagy. TKB1 encodes a kinase that phosphorylates OPTN, an autophagy receptor, which ultimately activates autophagy. The sequestosome (SQSTM1 gene also encodes an autophagy receptor and also is a target of TBK1 phosphorylation. Consequently, we hypothesized that mutations in SQSTM1 may also cause NTG. We tested this hypothesis by searching for glaucoma-causing mutations in a cohort of NTG patients (n = 308 and matched controls (n = 157 using Sanger sequencing. An additional 1098 population control samples were also analyzed using whole exome sequencing. A total of 17 non-synonymous mutations were detected which were not significantly skewed between cases and controls when analyzed separately, or as a group (p > 0.05. These data suggest that SQSTM1 mutations are not a common cause of NTG.

  11. The cellular and molecular biology of the iris, an overlooked tissue: the iris and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Terete

    2014-01-01

    Located between the cornea and the lens, the Iris is fully immersed in aqueous humor. During exfoliation syndrome, a disorder of the elastic fibers, an abnormal fibrillar material (XFM) is deposited on the anterior lens capsule underneath the pigment epithelium of the Iris. Release of this material to the aqueous humor reaches the trabecular meshwork where its presence is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Ultrastructural studies suggest that the XFM material is produced by the lens capsule, lens epithelial and iris pigment epithelial cells (IPE). The involvement of the IPE in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma has not been extensively addressed. Immunohistochemistry studies have shown higher levels of LOXL1 and clusterin in the IPE extracellular space of specimens from exfoliation patients. But studies using IPE cells to understand the formation of the XFM in vitro and/or in vivo are scarce. A focus on the Iris and its IPE cells would be key for the elucidation of XFM and the understanding of the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

  12. What is the Real Cause of Glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mehdizadeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have a characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss in common. Intraocular pressure has been considered to be the only causal factor for glaucoma and the only factor that can be manipulated to alter the course of the disease. But considering high intraocular pressure as the only factor responsible for glaucoma confronts us with two problems. First, measurement methods of intraocular pressure are based on superficial pressure of the cornea, therefore, some factors such as corneal thickness and geometrical errors of measurement are included. Second, risk of glaucoma damage changes by changing scleral thickness and size of the eye globe even with equal intraocular pressures. So, there should be some other factors than pressure, which are responsible for glaucoma. Hypothesis: Here, this hypothesis is proposed: stress is responsible for glaucoma and intraocular pressure is just one of the determinants of stress, whereas stress is also dependent on other factors including radius and thickness of sclera. Stress causes strain and obstruction of retinal vessels. Discussion: In fact, a series of factors together determine whether an individual will be affected with glaucoma or not. These factors include intraocular pressure, scleral thickness, radius of the eye globe, and optic nerve head compliance against increased stress. Our hypothesis can explain the existence of normal-pressure glaucoma. It presents a better method for screening of glaucoma and new modalities for glaucoma treatment.

  13. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; la Cour, Morten; Nielsen, Søren; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling of AQP7 and AQP9 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and the staining intensities were significantly decreased in glaucoma eyes (p = 0.003; p = 0.018). AQP7 expression in the Müller cell endfeet was increased (p = 0.046), and AQP9 labelling of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) showed decreased intensity (p = 0.037). No difference in AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9 expression was found in the optic nerve fibres. This study is the first investigating AQPs in human glaucoma eyes. We found a reduced expression of AQP9 in the retinal ganglion cells of glaucoma eyes. Glaucoma also induced increased AQP7 expression in the Müller cell endfeet. In the ciliary body of glaucoma eyes, the expression of AQP7 and AQP9 was reduced. Therefore, the expression of AQPs seems to play a role in glaucoma.

  14. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn,S.A.; Korenev, S.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Gallardo, J.C.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.

    2008-06-23

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-energy lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma for optimum focusing. The plasma lens is immersed in an additional solenoid magnetic field to facilitate the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. Plasma lenses have the additional advantage of negligible pion absorption and scattering by the lens material and reduced neutrino contamination during anti-neutrino running. Results of particle simulations using plasma lens will be presented.

  15. Environmental standards for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B A; Kaufman, D V

    1984-02-01

    Successful implantation of prosthetic devices depends upon their freedom from postoperative inflammation and infection. Techniques and lessons learned in orthopaedic and other implant surgery should be applied to intraocular lens implantation. The avoidance of contamination by particles and micro-organisms is one essential principle of the surgical procedure. Practical steps are described to reduce both types of contamination. These measures taken together are recommended for adoption as a standard of environmental safety for lens implantation.

  16. Determination of morphological, biometric and biochemical susceptibilities in healthy Eurasier dogs with suspected inherited glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, Thomas; Rosolen, Serge G; Dulaurent, Thomas; Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1-3 years old), adult males and adult females (4-8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the

  17. Determination of morphological, biometric and biochemical susceptibilities in healthy Eurasier dogs with suspected inherited glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Boillot

    Full Text Available In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP, which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs, a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1-3 years old, adult males and adult females (4-8 years old. Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for

  18. Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt in treatment of refractory glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Suzana; Čanović, Samir; Didović, Ana; Kolega, Marija Škara; Bašić, Jadranka Katušić

    2015-03-01

    Refractory glaucoma in a complicated type of glaucoma of different ethyologies with one same characteristic--intraocular pressure of great resistance to therapy. There are different methods of treatment in such glaucomas, primary surgical options. Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt implantation was our treatment of choice. In our group of patients we achieved stabile intraocular pressure values in 4 month period of time with no serious or unexpected complications.

  19. [Neovascular glaucoma--etipathogeny and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călugăru, D; Călugăru, M

    2012-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is defined as an iris and/or anterior chamber angle neovascularization associated with increased intraocular presure. It is a secondary glaucoma most frequently determined by a severe retinal ischemia. The most common diseases responsible for the development of neovascular glaucoma are diabetic retinopathy, ischemic central retinal vein occlusion and ocular ischemic syndrome; the uncommon causes include ocular radiation, ocular tumors, uveitis and other miscellaneous conditions. Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important and probably predominant agent in the pathogenesis of both intraocular neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. The evolution of clinical and histopathological changes from predisposing conditions to the occurrence of rubeosis iridis as well as neovacular glaucoma is divided into four grades that is prerubeotic, preglaucomatous, open-angle and angle closure glaucoma stages.

  20. Scleral suspension pars-plana lensectomy for ectopia lentis followed by suture fixation of intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sandip

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a simple technique of scleral suspension-pars plana lensectomy (SS-PPL in acquired and congenital ectopia lentis and scleral fixation of intraocular lens (IOL. Materials and Methods: Twenty eyes of 16 patients (12 unilateral and 4 bilateral cases of "essential familial lens subluxation" aged 10-40 years (mean 25 years underwent SS-PPL with implantation of scleral fixated IOL. Indications for surgery were best-corrected visual acuity <6/18, bisection of pupil by the lens, and lens-induced glaucoma. Prerequisites for SS-PPL were, visibility of part of the lens in the pupillary area and soft lens. Results: Postoperative visual acuity ranged from 6/6 - 6/36. Lens tilt in 3 cases(15% and small decentration in 2 cases(10% were seen; however these did not seriously compromise the visual result. Scant vitreous bleeding on the first postoperative day was seen in 3 cases (15%. Conclusion: The advantages of the scleral suspension of subluxated lens prior to lensectomy include stabilization; it allows proper viewing of the lens, avoids injury to the iris and cliary body during lensectomy and reduces the possibility of dislocation of the lens.

  1. Masquerade syndrome:Retinoblastoma presenting as phacolytic glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jing Peng; Syed Shoeb Ahmad; Nor Haizura Bt Abd Rani; May May Choo; Shuaibah Abdul Ghani

    2016-01-01

    We aim to report an uncommon presentation of retinoblastoma and its management. A 4-year-old boy presented with left eye pain for 1 week with eye redness after being hit by a ball. On examination, the visual acuity in his right eye was 6/6 and left eye was no perception to light. The conjunctiva in his left eye was injected and cornea was edematous. There was pseudohypopyon inferiorly. Lens was opaque and there was no fundus view. Intraocular pressure was 50 mmHg. Patient was initially treated as phacolytic glaucoma with severe inflammation. B scan showed intralesional calcification with retinal detachment. CT orbit showed left intraocular mass with calcification and optic nerve involvement. Thus, our final diagnosis was left eye retinoblastoma. Patient was performed a enucleation with chemotherapy in left eye. One year after the treatment, there was no local and distant invasion of the tumor. Anterior inflammation is a rare form of masquerade syndrome associated with retinoblastoma.

  2. Glaucoma in Costa Rica. Initial approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarría-Soley, Gabriela; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Azofeifa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors havebeen implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F) and two genes(TIGR/MYOC and OPTN) are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG) and adult onset or chronic primaryopen angle glaucoma (COAG), while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B) and one gene (CYP1B1) are known forprimary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma...

  3. NOVELTIES IN MEDICAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Stefan; Mihaela, Timaru Cristina; Adriana, Iliescu Daniela; Mehdi, Batras; Algerino, De Simone

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the current medical treatment and the new and better alternatives for patients with glaucoma. Glaucoma refers to a group of related eye disorders that have in common an optic neuropathy associated with visual function loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Glaucoma can damage vision gradually so it may not be noticed until the disease is at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can minimize or prevent optic nerve damage and limit glaucoma-related vision loss. Nowadays, research continues for the improvement of current medical treatment.

  4. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma.

  5. Glaucoma: present challenges and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Paolo; Di Matteo, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The authors indicate four key issues which, in their opinion, represent the most stimulating challenges in the field of glaucoma today, and describe the present approaches and the developments that can be expected or advised in the near future: (1) Glaucoma is often undiagnosed or diagnosed too late. Accurate detection is crucial to correctly recognize and treat affected subjects, thus reducing the disability and the social burden of the disease. Is glaucoma screening advisable and cost-effective? What strategies can be implemented to achieve an earlier diagnosis? (2) What role can genetics play in glaucoma clinics? (3) What are the fundamentals and the limits of medical hypotensive and nonhypotensive treatment of glaucoma today, and what novelties could be introduced in the next few years? (4) What are the current and future options for glaucoma surgery? Should we aim at reducing aqueous production or at enhancing aqueous outflow? What are the success figures and the pros and cons of ab externo procedures with external filtration (trabeculectomy, nonpenetrating techniques and glaucoma drainage devices) and of ab externo techniques with internal filtration (viscocanalostomy and canaloplasty)? Will microinvasive procedures ever play a role in the treatment of the disease? These questions and the possible future developments in the management of glaucoma are discussed critically, based on the current clinical state of the art, on a review of the literature, and on an everyday experience in a busy university hospital glaucoma service.

  6. The clinical applications and ef fects of bandage contact lens in fornix-based-flap trabeculectomy in Glaucoma%角膜绷带镜在结膜瓣以穹窿为基底的小梁切除术中的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霄雅; 张雪翎; 李威; 苗培建; 李春建; 王怀洲; 王宁利

    2015-01-01

    P>0.05)。术前患者的泪膜破裂时间为(9.46±3.78)s,术后为(7.33±4.82)s,差异无统计学意义(t=1.87,P>0.05)。术前患者的泪河高度为(0.24±0.56)mm,术后为(0.48±0.28)mm,差异有统计学意义(t=2.98,P<0.05)。术前患者的眼红分析值为(1.2±0.87),术后为(2.8±0.46),差异无统计学意义(t=1.26,P>0.05)。术前角膜染色阳性者5例(8只眼),占21.05%;角膜染色阴性者27例(30只眼),占78.95%。术后7 d角膜染色阳性者5例(5只眼),占13.16%;角膜染色阴性者32例(33只眼),占86.84%,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.84,P>0.05)。角膜绷带镜配戴不稳脱落者1例(1只眼),眼部有异物感的患者2例(3只眼)。治疗中无显著缺氧、角膜水肿及继发感染等并发症发生。结论角膜绷带镜在结膜瓣以穹窿为基底的小梁切除术中的治疗是安全、有效的,特别在缓解眼部异物感、促进角膜上皮修复及结膜切口愈合方面有显著效果。%Objective To observe the corneal bandage lens in conjunctival fornix to trabecular resection in the basal indications , timing and methods and clinical effect , to assess the value of corneal bandage treatment in glaucoma in the mirror .Methods The clinical data of 32 patients (38 eyes ) with glaucoma were collected from September 2015 to March 2015 in Xuzhou First People′s Hospital in Jiangsu Province,and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.In patients with conjunctival fornix trabecular resection immediately after basal corneal bandage mirror ,after 7-14 d removed the bandage contact lens .Slit lamp microscope and fluorescein staining of the patients , record the symptoms , patients with index and conjunctival incision healing ,corneal bandage evaluation of the safety and efficacy of mirror .Preoperative and postoperative 7 d patient comfort and ocular surface comprehensive

  7. Evaluation of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel in Mexican children with glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albis-Donado, Oscar; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Romero-Quijada, Rafael; Thomas, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results and extrusion rates of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel, without a tube-covering patch, in children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the charts of 106 Mexican children implanted with 128 AGVs operated between 1994 and 2002, with the needle track technique, at our institution, with at least six months follow up was done. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) control, tube extrusions or exposure and other complications. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 96.9% survival rate at six months, 82.4% at one year, 78.7% at two years, 70% at three years and 41.6% at four years. Total success at the last follow-up (IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg without medications) was achieved in 30 eyes (23.5%), 58 eyes (45.3%) had qualified success (only topical hypotensive drugs) and 40 eyes (31.3%) were failures. The mean pre- and post-operative IOP at the last follow up was 28.4 mmHg (SD 9.3) and 14.5 mmHg (SD 6.3), respectively. No tube extrusions or exposures were observed. Tube-related complications included five retractions, a lens touch and a transitory endothelial touch. The risk of failure increased if the eye had any complication or previous glaucoma surgeries. Conclusion: Medium-term IOP control in Mexican children with glaucoma can be achieved with AGV implantation using a needle-generated tunnel, without constructing a scleral flap or using a patch to cover the tube. There were no tube extrusions, nor any tube exposures with this technique. PMID:20689189

  8. Bacterial assay of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D E; Hosmer, M; Georgescu, M; Farris, R L

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the quantity of bacteria on the contact lens and adjacent areas of the eye. This paper is a quantitative study of the contact lens and ocular aerobic microbiota in a mixed group of daily and extended wear disposable contact lens users. The contact lens, the lower fornix, tears collecting at the lower fornix, and edge of the lower lid at the Meibomian gland margin were assayed for the quantity of bacterial colony forming units (CFU). Eighteen patients wearing 49 disposable high water content hydrogel contact lenses were assayed and the mean lens age was 8.8 +/- 4.6 days. Three patients wore their lenses on a daily wear basis and 15 on an extended wear schedule. Tear samples were obtained with sterile microbial loops and the lens was macerated into small particles with a tissue grinder. The samples were poured onto the surface of chocolate agar plates and incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h in 5% Co2. The lid margin revealed the greatest bacterial presence (mean = 9.7 CFU; median = 2 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The lens showed the next greatest presence of CFU (mean = 4.5 CFU; median = 1 CFU; mode = 0). The fornix and tears revealed the least bacterial presence (fornix: mean = 2.6 CFU; median = 0 CFU; mode = 0 CFU). The bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The bacterial assay of disposable lens wearing contact lens subjects indicates that the lid margins are the greatest source of bacteria with the tears being the lowest. These studies support the concept that in the eye, the lens typically does not possess a large number of bacteria under normal conditions.

  9. A prospective comparative study on neovascular glaucoma and nonneovascular refractory glaucoma following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Zhou Minwen; Wang Wei; Huang Wenbin; Chen Shida; Li Xingyi; Gao Xinbo

    2014-01-01

    Background Neovascular glaucoma is a refractory disease,and difficult to manage.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and nonNVG patients.Methods This prospective,non-randomized study included 55 eyes of 55 patients with refractory glaucoma; 27 had NVG (NVG group) and 28 had non-NVG (non-NVG group).All of the patients underwent AGVI.The NVG group was adjunctively injected with intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab (IVR/IVB) before AGVI.Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome measure in this study.Surgical success rate,number of antiglaucoma medications used,best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups.Results All of the patients completed the study (follow-up of 12 months).Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the qualified success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 70.5% and 92.9%,respectively; this difference was significant (P=0.036).The complete success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 66.7% and 89.3%,respectively (P=0.049).Compared with preoperative examinations,the postoperative mean IOP and use of medications were significantly lower at all follow-up time points in both groups (all P <0.05).There were significant differences in BCVA between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up (x2=9.86,P=0.020).Cox proportional hazards regression showed NVG as a risk factor for surgical failure (RR=15.08,P=0.033).Postoperative complications were similar between the two groups.Conclusions AGVI is a safe and effective procedure in refractory glaucoma,but the success rate of surgery was related to the type of refractory glaucoma.The complete and qualified success rates of NVG patient adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment are still lower than those of non-NVG patients.

  10. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  11. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  12. Glaucoma and dry eye disease: the role of preservatives in glaucoma medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sitompul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness with increasing prevalence. Some of glaucoma patients will also experience dry eye. Dry eye is the most frequent side effect related to benzalkonium chloride (BAC-containing eye drop  used for glaucoma patients. In addition, glaucoma and dry eyes have shared risk factors that are old age and female. Dry eye among glaucoma patients need to be treated promptly as it produces discomfort, reduces patients’ compliance and   decreases success rate of glaucoma therapy. Dry eye symptoms can be treated by applying preservative-free eye drop, giving combination of preservative containing and preservative-free eye drop to reduce BAC exposure, prescribing artificial tear and conducting surgery to minimize or eliminate the need of topical medication. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:302-5Keywords: benzalkonium chloride, dry eye, glaucoma

  13. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  14. Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation for high myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 杜持新; 顾扬顺; 王竞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and stability of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (PIOLs) implantation for the correction of high myopia.Methods Thirty-nine eyes of twenty patients with high myopia (between-11.75 and-25.75 diopters) had a posterior chamber PIOL (Staar ICL) implanted. During 6-48 months' follow-up, visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal reaction and space between crystal lens and intraocular lens (IOLs) were tested.Results Successful implantation was achieved in all patients. Visual acuity without correction greater than 0.5 was found in 34 eyes at 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. Thirty-five eyes maintained a low negative power of refraction (-1.42±1.32 doipters), which did not prevent the patients from most of their daily activities. During 3-48 months' follow-up, refraction was stable and no cornea edema and glaucoma was found. Two eyes of one patient had corticosteroid glaucoma and another eye showed cataractogenesis under anterior capsular membrane.Conclusion Posterior chamber PIOL implantation is predictable, safe, and effective in the correction of high myopia, and its indications should be carefully selected.

  15. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  16. The long-term anterior segment configuration after pediatric cataract surgery and the association with secondary glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Gong, Xian-hui; Xie, He; Zhu, Xue-ning; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yun-e

    2017-01-01

    Secondary glaucoma constitutes major sight-threatening complication of pediatric cataract surgery, yet the etiology remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term anterior segment configuration and the association with secondary glaucoma in pediatric pseudophakia. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was performed on 40 eyes of 26 children underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), central corneal thickness (CCT), structural abnormities, IOL position, IOP, and incidence of glaucoma were evaluated. High insertion of iris, in which the iris root is attached more anteriorly than normal, was seen in 13 eyes (32.50%). IOL was located in the capsular bag in 19 eyes and in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes. Logistic regression analysis identified high insertion of iris (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.03–11.17, p = 0.03) and IOL implantation in sulcus (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07–4.85, p = 0.04) as independent risk factors for glaucoma. The presence of high insertion of iris and IOL implantation in ciliary sulcus may increase the long-term risk of the development of secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. PMID:28220849

  17. Split-Ring Resonator-Based Strain Sensor on Flexible Substrates for Glaucoma Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Gizem; Deniz Yalcinkaya, Arda; Dundar, Gunhan; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents split-ring resonator-based strain sensors designed and characterized for glaucoma detection application. The geometry of the sensor is optimized such that it can be embedded in a contact lens. Silver conductive paint is to form the sensors realized on flexible substrates made of cellulose acetate and latex rubber. The devices are excited and interrogated using a pair of monopole antennas and the characteristics of devices with different curvature profiles are obtained. The sensitivity of the device, i.e. the change in resonant frequency for a unit change in radius of curvature, on acetate film is calculated as -4.73 MHz/mm and the sensitivity of the device on latex is 33.2 MHz/mm. The results indicate that the demonstrated device is suitable for glaucoma diagnosis.

  18. Molecular mechanisms underlying primary open angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex, multigenetic and heterogeneous optic neuropathy. It is an insidious disease that untreated leads to irreversible visual field loss and blindness. Worldwide, glaucoma causes around 12% of blindness. Although various risk factors have been established,

  19. Normal tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kessing, Svend Vedel; Mogensen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is associated with increased risk of developing dementia/Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 69 patients with NTG were identified in the case note files in the Glaucoma Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Rigshospitalet...

  20. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  1. Neuroprotection in glaucoma: present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-da; WANG Lu; ZHANG Xiu-lan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the updated research on neuroprotection in glaucoma,and summarize the potential agents investigated so far.Data sources The data in this review were collected from PubMed and Google Scholar databases published in English up to September 2012,with keywords including glaucoma,neuroprotection,and retinal ganglion cells,both alone and in combination.Publications from the past ten years were selected,but important older articles were not excluded.Study selection Articles about neuroprotection in glaucoma were selected and reviewed,and those that are cited in articles identified by this search strategy and judged relevant to this review were also included.Results Although lowering the intraocular pressure is the only therapy approved as being effective in the treatment of glaucoma,increasing numbers of studies have discovered various mechanisms of retinal ganglion cells death in the glaucoma and relevant neuroprotective strategies.These strategies target neurotrophic factor deprivation,excitotoxic damage,oxidative stress,mitochondrial dysfunction,inflammation,activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals,ischemia,and protein misfolding.Exploring the mechanism of axonal transport failure,synaptic dysfunction,the glial system in glaucoma,and stem cell used in glaucoma constitute promising research areas of the future.Conclusions Neuroprotective strategies continue to be refined,and future deep investment in researching the pathogenesis of glaucoma may provide novel and practical neuroprotection tactics.Establishing a system to assess the effects of neuroprotection treatments may further facilitate this research.

  2. Glaucoma Genetics: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Khor, Chiea Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Once considered primarily a disease of aging caused by unknown environmental influences, the notion that heritable factors could significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic glaucoma has rapidly gained traction. In part, this is due to the rapid and definitive identification of genes with strong effects on familial, earlier onset forms of glaucoma. Although the endpoint of glaucoma is irreversible optic nerve damage accompanied by blindness, the initial inciting trigger could differ. To this end, well-powered genome-wide association studies have each been conducted for primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle-closure glaucoma, along with exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma. Each of these studies has revealed sets of significantly associated genetic loci implicating biological pathways that do not overlap between the forms of glaucoma. Although substantial biological insight has been gained from their identification, much further work remains to definitively link the implicated genetic variants with glaucoma causation. It is also hoped that the genetic findings could point us to potential routes of therapy beyond that of intraocular pressure-lowering medications or surgery.

  3. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Jun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical curative effect of intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG.METHODS:Totally 25 eyes of 25 patients with NVG who underwent intravitreal Bevacizumab injection of 1.0mg(0.05mL, after the regression of iris neovascularization, 5 eyes with anterior chamber paracentesis fluid auxiliary controlled intraocular pressure. After 2wk, patients were treated by trabeculectomy and phacomulsification(9 eyes were implanted intraocular lens. The changes and complications of intraocular pressure, visual acuity, corneas and neovessels were observed after surgery, and followed up 12mo.RESULTS:After injection Bevacizumab in 25 eyes, iris neovascularization of 20 eyes subsided in 3~5d, and 5 eyes subsided in 7d. After controlling intraocular pressure, count of the corneal endothelial cell were 1 629±226mm2, and none suffered decompensation of corneal endothelium after two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification. After followed up 12mo, intraocular pressure of 20 eyes were controlled in normal range; 2 eyes could control in normal range after treated by a kind of anti-glaucoma medicine and 3 eyes was 34~38mmHg after treated by anti-glaucoma medicine. 9 eyes had improved vision after implanted intraocular lens.CONCLUSION:Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection can subside iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization effectively in a short time and reduce intraocular pressure. It can also reduce the risk of bleeding during operation or after operation. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined with two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification can treat neovascular glaucoma effectively.

  4. Microscopic and Cytological Examination of Hyperchromatic Crystalline Deposits in Phacolytic Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hasanreisoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of iridescent particles is a well-known clinical condition in phacolytic glaucoma patients with severe high intraocular pressure. Several articles stated that hyperchromatic crystalline deposits were cholesterol crystalline deposits. However, some articles focus on the possible oxalate content of the hyperchromatic crystalline material. Nevertheless, there are few articles which provide information about these crystalline structures at the microscopic level. The purpose of this manuscript was to report the case of a phacolytic glaucoma patient with intense crystalline accumulation in the anterior chamber and to present the microscopic features of these crystalline deposits. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 490-2

  5. [Molecular genetic aspects of glaucoma pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, E V; Churashov, S V; Kamilova, T A

    2013-01-01

    To improve our understanding of glaucoma pathophysiology it is important to investigate endophenotypes which are determined by heritable quantitative traits, such as intraocular pressure, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, optic disc area, and central corneal thickness. Glaucoma is associated with increased intraocular pressure and defects of trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber which lead to derangement of intraocular fluid outflow, progressive optic nerve degeneration, loss of nerve cells, and blindness. Factors that are not affected by intraocular pressure also contribute to glaucoma degeneration. In progressive degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, chronic astrocyte activation exacerbates the damage to neurons and impairs the regeneration of their axons. This review considers the polymorphism of predisposition factors to glaucoma-associated endophenotypes, optic nerve degeneration, and side effects of antiglaucomatous drugs.

  6. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG.

  7. Scanning the macula for detecting glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viquar U Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the advent of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT, there has been a renewed interest in macular region for detection of glaucoma. However, most macular SDOCT parameters currently are thickness parameters which evaluate thinning of the macular layers but do not quantify the extent of area over which the thinning has occurred. We therefore calculated a new macular parameter, "ganglion cell complex surface abnormality ratio (GCC SAR" that represented the surface area over which the macular thickness was decreased. Purpose: To evaluate the ability of SAR in detecting perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Design: Retrospective image analysis. Materials and Methods: 68 eyes with perimetric glaucoma, 62 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 165 control eyes underwent GCC imaging with SDOCT. SAR was calculated as the ratio of the abnormal to total area on the GCC significance map. Statistical Analysis: Diagnostic ability of SAR in glaucoma was compared against that of the standard parameters generated by the SDOCT software using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Results: AUC of SAR (0.91 was statistically significantly better than that of GCC average thickness (0.86, P = 0.001 and GCC global loss volume (GLV; 0.88, P = 0.01 in differentiating perimetric glaucoma from control eyes. In differentiating preperimetric glaucoma from control eyes, AUC of SAR (0.72 was comparable to that of GCC average thickness (0.70, P > 0.05 and GLV (0.72, P > 0.05. Sensitivities at specificities of 80% and 95% of SAR were comparable (P > 0.05 for all comparisons to that of GCC average thickness and GLV in diagnosing perimetric and preperimetric glaucoma. Conclusion: GCC SAR had a better ability to diagnose perimetric glaucoma compared to the SDOCT software provided global GCC parameters. However, in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma, the ability of SAR was similar to that of

  8. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility

  9. Transpupillary argon laser cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of traumatic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D D; Moster, M R

    1999-10-01

    A patient with traumatic glaucoma who underwent transpupillary argon laser cyclophotocoagulation for management of uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) despite maximally tolerated medical therapy is discussed. In this patient, pars plana vitrectomy, lensectomy, and removal of 180 degrees of necrotic iris had been performed after a blunt trauma with a bungee cord. Six weeks after surgery, the patient presented with an IOP of 40 mmHg despite therapy with three aqueous suppressants. The patient refused further surgical intervention and opted for transpupillary argon laser cyclophotocoagulation (TALC). The laser setting was 1,000 mW, with a 50-micron spot size for 0.1 second. A total of 293 laser exposures through a Goldmann contact lens was administered to all visible ciliary processes over 180 degrees where iris structures were absent. Ten weeks after TALC, the patient's IOP remained controlled with medications at 16 mmHg, and visual acuity had improved to 20/25 with an aphakic contact lens. In selected patients whose ciliary processes are visible with indirect gonioscopy due to the defect in the iris, TALC may be an effective alternative cyclodestructive procedure to lower IOP when conventional medical or laser treatments are not successful.

  10. Contact lens in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha M Rathi; Preeji S Mandathara; Srikanth Dumpati

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...

  11. Glaucoma at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center and the University of California, San Diego

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert N. Weinreb

    2011-01-01

    @@ Known for its unique cross-disciplinary investigative programs and clinical excellence, the scientists and clinicians at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center of the University of California, San Diego seek to enhance the discovery and translation of innovative research to clinical glaucoma care to prevent and cure glaucoma blindness.With state of the art laboratory and clinical facilities located on the La Jolla campus (Figure 1), the Center is a home for a worldrenowned team of scientists and staff.More than 100 post-doctoral fellows in Glaucoma, many of whom hold distinguished academic positions throughout the world, have been trained at the Hamilton Glaucoma Center and the University of California, San Diego.At the core of Hamilton Glaucoma Center activities are the outstanding faculty that are described below.

  12. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; la Cour, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5......, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure...... of AQP7 and AQP9 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and the staining intensities were significantly decreased in glaucoma eyes (p = 0.003; p = 0.018). AQP7 expression in the Müller cell endfeet was increased (p = 0.046), and AQP9 labelling of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) showed decreased...

  13. Neuroinflammation in glaucoma: A new opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pete A; Marsh-Armstrong, Nick; Howell, Gareth R

    2017-02-24

    Mounting evidence suggests neuroinflammation is a key process in glaucoma, yet the precise roles are not known. Understanding these complex processes, which may also be a key in other common neurodegenerations such as Alzheimer's disease, will lead to targeted therapeutics for a disease that affects as many as 80 million people worldwide. Here, we define neuroinflammation as any immune-relevant response by a variety of cell types including astrocytes, microglia, and peripherally derived cells occurring in the optic nerve head and/or retina. In this review article, we first discuss clinical evidence for neuroinflammation in glaucoma and define neuroinflammation in glaucoma. We then review the inflammatory pathways that have been associated with glaucoma. Finally, we set out key research directions that we believe will greatly advance our understanding of the role of neuroinflammation in glaucoma. This review arose from a discussion of neuroinflammation in glaucoma at the 2015 meeting of the The Lasker/IRRF Initiative for Innovation in Vision Science. This manuscript sets out to summarize one of these sessions; "Inflammation and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration", as well as to review the current state of the literature surrounding neuroinflammation in glaucoma.

  14. Complex genetic mechanisms in glaucoma: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kollu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucomas comprise a group of hereditary optic neuropathies characterized by progressive and irreversible visual field loss and damage to the optic nerve head. It is a complex disease with multiple molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. Genetic heterogeneity is the hallmark of all glaucomas and multiple chromosomal loci have been linked to the disease, but only a few genes have been characterized, viz. myocilin (MYOC, optineurin (OPTN, WDR36 and neurotrophin-4 (NTF4 in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and CYP1B1 and LTBP2 in congenital and developmental glaucomas. Case-control-based association studies on candidate genes involved in different stages of glaucoma pathophysiology have indicated a very limited involvement. The complex mechanisms leading to glaucoma pathogenesis indicate that it could be attributed to multiple genes with varying magnitudes of effect. In this review, we provide an appraisal of the various efforts in unraveling the molecular mystery in glaucoma and also some future directions based on the available scientific knowledge and technological developments.

  15. Complex genetic mechanisms in glaucoma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kollu N; Nagireddy, Srujana; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2011-01-01

    Glaucomas comprise a group of hereditary optic neuropathies characterized by progressive and irreversible visual field loss and damage to the optic nerve head. It is a complex disease with multiple molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. Genetic heterogeneity is the hallmark of all glaucomas and multiple chromosomal loci have been linked to the disease, but only a few genes have been characterized, viz. myocilin (MYOC), optineurin (OPTN), WDR36 and neurotrophin-4 (NTF4) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and CYP1B1 and LTBP2 in congenital and developmental glaucomas. Case-control-based association studies on candidate genes involved in different stages of glaucoma pathophysiology have indicated a very limited involvement. The complex mechanisms leading to glaucoma pathogenesis indicate that it could be attributed to multiple genes with varying magnitudes of effect. In this review, we provide an appraisal of the various efforts in unraveling the molecular mystery in glaucoma and also some future directions based on the available scientific knowledge and technological developments.

  16. Relation between Glaucoma and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mollasadeghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness throughout the world. Some studies have suggested a relationship between glaucoma and sensorineural hearing loss, while others have found no evidence of an association. We performed a study to determine whether there is a significant difference in hearing of patients with glaucoma and a match control population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, from February, 2005 till April, 2006, 44 patients with glaucoma were studied. The age range was between 15 to 60 years. After taking a complete medical history, those suffering from presbycusis, history of exposure to ototoxic drugs and substances and history of ear surgery were excluded from the study. All of the patients were cases of open-angle glaucoma, and were surveyed separately for normal-pressure glaucoma. Then complete audiometric tests (PTA, SDS, SRT, Impedance were conducted for all of them, and the results compared with a control group. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the case group and control group in PTA, SDS, and SRT, except for Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG. There wasn't any statistically significant difference between two groups with respect to age, gender, and history of diseases. In the NTG group, significant difference was seen only in high frequencies. Conclusion: As mentioned, there was a statistically significant difference between NTG group and control group. It is therefore recommended to conduct complete audiometric tests and histopathologic examinations in this group for early detection of hearing loss and application of rehabilitative measures.

  17. What’s new in glaucoma treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma treatment: the state of the evidenceInterventions for the treatment of different forms of glaucoma have been tried and tested for many years. The idea that lowering the pressure might be helpful was first proposed more than a hundred years ago. By the 1950s, it was established that raised intraocular pressure (IOP was glaucoma, and vice versa. However, in the mid 1960s, Fred Hollows and Peter Graham demolished that simple concept by revealing that there were many people in the population with raised IOP but no glaucoma, and people with glaucoma without raised IOP.1 Nevertheless, IOP remains an important risk factor (and the only one we can modify for a group of conditions characterised by a progressive atrophy of the optic nerve associated with typical structural and functional abnormalities.Only quite recently has robust evidence emerged regarding the effectiveness of treatment for open-angle glaucoma (OAG. There is still uncertainty about the best way to manage chronic angle closure. This discussion focuses only on the primary glaucomas in adults, open-angle and acute, and chronic angle closure.

  18. Iatrogenic Lens Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kamış

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During intraocular surgery, undesired damages of various etiology may occur in adjacent tissues. One of these tissues is the crystalline lens, which may be traumatized both in anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries, and when damaged, it usually causes marked decrease in visual acuity. The leading causes of iatrogenic lens injuries are intravitreal injection, laser iridotomy, phakic intraocular lens implantation, anterior chamber paracentesis, and vitreoretinal surgery. When crystalline lens damage occurs, its negative effect on visual function may be eliminated by performing cataract surgery intraoperatively or in elective conditions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 27-30

  19. Oral microbiome link to neurodegeneration in glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Astafurov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive optic nerve degenerative disease that often leads to blindness. Local inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathology of glaucoma. Although inflammatory episodes outside the CNS, such as those due to acute systemic infections, have been linked to central neurodegeneration, they do not appear to be relevant to glaucoma. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that chronic subclinical peripheral inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration in glaucoma. METHODS: Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria. To determine a possible pathogenic mechanism, low-dose subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered in two separate animal models of glaucoma. Glaucomatous neurodegeneration was assessed in the retina and optic nerve two months later. Changes in gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling pathway and complement as well as changes in microglial numbers and morphology were analyzed in the retina and optic nerve. The effect of pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with naloxone was determined. FINDINGS: Patients with glaucoma had higher bacterial oral counts compared to control subjects (p<0.017. Low-dose LPS administration in glaucoma animal models resulted in enhancement of axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Microglial activation in the optic nerve and retina as well as upregulation of TLR4 signaling and complement system were observed. Pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 partially ameliorated the enhanced damage. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings suggest that the oral microbiome contributes to glaucoma pathophysiology. A plausible mechanism by which increased bacterial loads can lead to neurodegeneration is provided by experiments in animal models of the disease and involves activation of microglia in the retina and optic nerve, mediated through TLR4 signaling and complement upregulation. The finding that commensal

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF MACULAR REGION AND VISUAL ACUITY IN GLAUCOMA PATIENTS AFTER PHACOEMULSIFICATION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Mityaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To improve safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery, innovative technologies have been developed. Assessment of macular region status after the use of routine and innovative phaco technologies is of great interest. Aim: To compare effects of different phaco technologies on macular retina, visual acuity and intraocular pressure in patients with compensated glaucoma after uncomplicated phaco with intraocular lens implantation. Materials and methods: Phacoemulsification of immature cataract was performed in 52  patients (52 eyes using Oertli machine and uniform method. Patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 20  patients (20  eyes with simple (primary openangle glaucoma (POAG after phaco using easyPhaco technology. Group 2 included 20  POAG patients (20  eyes after phaco using routine technology. Group  3 included 12  patients without glaucoma after routine phaco. EasyPhaco technology involves using of the new Oertli machine parameters, phaco tip with new geometry, flow rate/vacuum setting of 1:10. Preoperatively, in all 40 patients with glaucoma, normal values of intraocular pressure were achieved using antiglaucomatous therapies. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure and macular thickness by optical coherent tomography were measured before the surgery, in 1 and 6 weeks after the procedure. Results: Increase of macular thickness (by 12–30  mcm compared to baseline was observed postoperatively in patients with and without glaucoma. After 1 week, mean macular thickness was significantly less in the easyPhaco group compared to routine phaco groups with and without glaucoma (221.5±15.4;238.3 ± 11.5 and 229.3 ± 16.9 mcm,respectively, p < 0.05. In the groups 1 and 3, macular thickness returned to preoperative values after 6 weeks (group 1: 210.5 ± 13.8 and 209.7 ± 16.3 mcm; group  3: 211.1 ± 14.4 and 211.1 ± 15.8  mcm,respectively. By contrast, after routine phaco technology in POAG

  1. Valor de la ecobiometría en el glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho Value of ecobiometry in the primary closed-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibis Sedeño Cruz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa la importancia de la ecobiometría en el sistema diagnóstico del glaucoma primario de ángulo estrecho. A manera de ensayo clínico se estudiaron 105 ojos con esta enfermedad que se agruparon gonioscópicamente. Se les realizó ecobiometría como complemento diagnóstico. Se comprobó una relación directa de la amplitud de ángulo con la distancia axil y la profundidad de la cámara anterior y una relación inversa con el grosor del cristalino. Se observó que la profundidad de la cámara anterior menor de 2 mm constituye un alto riesgo para el desarrollo de un glaucoma agudo. El análisis ecobiométrico permitió conocer mejor el estado anatómico del ojo, facilitando una orientación terapéutica oportunaThe importance of ecobiometry for diagnosing primary closed-angle glaucoma is evaluated in this paper. 105 eyes with this diseases were clinically studied and gruoped according to the results of gonioscopy. Ecobiometry was performed as a diagnostic complement. A direct relationship between the exten of the angle and the axial distance and the depth of the anterior chamber was observed. An inversa relationship between the extent of the angle and the width of the crystalline lens was found. A depth of the anterior chamber under 2 mm is a high risk for the development of acute glaucoma. The ecobiometric analysis allowed to know the anatomical state of the eye better, making possible an opportune therapeutic guidance

  2. Clinical Analysis of Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma After Glaucoma Filtering Surgery%原发性闭角型青光眼滤过术后恶性青光眼的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and therapeutic effect of primary angle closure glaucoma after glaucoma filtering surgery.Methods 90 cases(90 eyes)with primary angle closure glaucoma in our hospital were selected,experimental group of 28 cases of malignant glaucoma after operation,there were no malignant glaucoma in 62 cases,the control group,the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results Age,sex,preoperative intraocular pressure,lens thickness,axial length,type of glaucoma,and the structure of the angle of the room were the risk factors of postoperative malignant glaucoma. All patients were satisfied with the treatment effect.Conclusion Young patients with primary angle closure glaucoma with shorter axial length are prone to complications of malignant glaucoma after filtering surgery and need to be strengthened to prevent.%目的:探讨原发性闭角型青光眼滤过术后恶性青光眼的发病因素与治疗效果。方法选取我院收治的90例(90眼)原发性闭角型青光眼患者,术后恶性青光眼28例为实验组,术后未出现恶性青光眼62例为对照组,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果年龄、性别、术前眼压、晶体厚度、眼轴长度、青光眼类型、房角结构是引发术后恶性青光眼的危险因素;所有患者治疗效果比较满意。结论年轻的眼轴长度较短的原发性闭角型青光眼患者在滤过手术后容易出现恶性青光眼并发症,需要加强预防。

  3. Psychological aspects of children with developmental glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ferracina; Adriana Maria Rodrigues; Ricardo Belfort; Paulo Augusto Arruda Mello

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as seguintes características psicológicas de crianças portadoras de glaucoma de desenvolvimento: imaturidade, ansiedade, dependência e sociabilização. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 15 crianças com glaucoma do desenvolvimento pertencentes ao ambulatório do Glaucoma Congênito e 15 crianças sem nenhum problema visual pelo teste projetivo do desenho livre. RESULTADOS: No grupo de estudo, 66,6% das crianças glaucomatosas se mostraram imaturas, 86,6% eram ansiosas, 73,3% eram dependente...

  4. Biochemical changes and treatment in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotu, I M; Stoian, I; Gaman, L; Popescu, M V; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second cause of blindness worldwide. This disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by high intraocular pressure, loss of retinal ganglion cells (apoptosis). Even though there is much research done in this field, the results have not yet managed to stop the progression of glaucoma or to heal this pathology. Free oxygen radicals play a major role; they are formed in the aqueous humor and in the vitreous and they produce apoptosis of the neurons in the optic nerve head, degradation of the trabecular meshwork cells. The purpose of the article is to help in trying to understand the physiopathology of glaucoma and the efficacy of its treatments.

  5. CURRENT OPTIONS FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Batras, Mehdi; Iliescu Daniela, Adriana; Timaru Cristina, Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino; Hosseini-Ramhormozi, Jalaladin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review current surgical treatment and new and better alternatives for patients with glaucoma. Glaucoma refers to a group of related eye disorders that have in common an optic neuropathy associated with visual function loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Optic nerve damage and glaucoma-related vision loss can be prevented or limited by early diagnosis and treatment. Surgery offers a better control of the intraocular pressure then medical therapy. Nowadays, research continues for improving current surgical alternatives for treatment.

  6. [From congenital glaucoma to chronic open angle glaucoma in adulthood: a clinical and genetic continuum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufier, Jean-Louis; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Kaplan, Josseline; Roche, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma, a true hydrocephalus of the eye, is defined by ocular hypertension resulting in buphthalmos in children up to three years old, the elasticity of the eye wall allowing its expansion. Juvenile glaucoma in teenagers and chronic glaucoma in adults do not alter the external aspect of the eye, as the eyeball has lost its elasticity. However, chronic ocular hypertension always causes ischemic excavation of the optic nerve head, leading to insidious amputation of the visual field and, potentially, blindness. Like most ophthalmological disorders, the different types of glaucoma have been shown to be genetically determined, and alterations in several genes have been identified. These altered genes can be expressed more or less early in life, suggesting a role of modifier genes. The role of CYP1B1 alterations in classic primary congenital glaucoma is well known, as is the role of PITX2, FOXC1, PAX6 and LOXC1 alterations in secondary congenital glaucoma due to iridogoniodysgenesis, and of MYOC alterations in the genesis of chronic glaucoma in adulthood. An outbred family carrying CYP1B1 mutations in the compound heterozygous state includes two sibs with primary congenital glaucoma and two others who developed chronic glaucoma in adulthood.

  7. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu-induced bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and transient myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old woman developed bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG and transient myopia after taking oseltamivir for four days. On the fourth day, she received systemic and topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering agents, and IOP decreased in both eyes. However, her visual acuity was unchanged. A myopic shift of -5.25 D OD and -5.0 D OS was estimated to have occurred in the acute phase. A-scan ultrasonography and Pentacam showed markedly shallow anterior chambers and increased lens thickness. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an annular ciliochoroidal effusion with forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm. Ciliochoroidal effusion and transient myopia were resolved after discontinuation of oseltamivir.

  8. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  9. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  10. GLAUCOMA: Case Study of a Nigerian Family

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    members of patients with primary open angle glaucoma to reduce the problems ... some traditional herbal medication before presentation. There was no history of ... the fact that she was told that there was no cure for her condition at a hospital.

  11. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms......: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search......, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757...

  12. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios Gp

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist.

  13. A link between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, A.; Petrovski, B.E; Petrovski, G.

    2016-01-01

    and the Danish National Patient Register. Results A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period 1996–2012 were included. The overall incidence rates of new-onset glaucoma were 0.07 and 0.36 per 1,000 person-years for the reference population and for diabetes mellitus, respectively. Patients treated with anti-diabetic......Purpose To determine the effect of anti-diabetic medication on glaucoma. Furthermore, to investigate if diabetic comorbidities and concomitant medications are associated with glaucoma in patients treated with anti-diabetic medication. Methods Retrospective nationwide cohort study, spanning a 16......-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and anti-diabetic drugs. Comorbidities with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were identified using the ICD-10 classification...

  14. Haematological Parameters in Open Angle Glaucoma Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GA Akinlabi, VI Iyawe. Abstract. There is potential for blood related factors to affect aqueous production or optic nerve functions. ... Here we compare hematological parameters for a group of 68 chronic open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and ...

  15. Delayed saccadic eye movements in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjee R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Raageen Kanjee,1 Yeni H Yücel,1,2 Martin J Steinbach,3,4 Esther G González,3,4 Neeru Gupta1,2,51Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 2Keenan Research Centre at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, 3Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, 4Centre for Vision Research, York University, 5Glaucoma and Nerve Protection Unit, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaPurpose: To determine whether saccadic eye movements are altered in glaucoma patients.Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with glaucoma and 21 control subjects were prospectively studied. Patients participated in a pro-saccade step task. Saccades were recorded using a noninvasive infrared oculometric device with head-mounted target projection. Medians of saccade reaction time, duration, amplitude, and peak velocity; frequency of express saccades; and percentage of trials with direction error were recorded. t-tests were used to compare the glaucoma and age-matched control groups. A correlation analysis of saccade parameters with visual field loss was also performed.Results: Median saccade reaction times were significantly prolonged in glaucoma patients compared with controls (220.9 ± 49.02 ms vs 192.1 ± 31.24 ms; t-test: P = 0.036. Median duration, median amplitude, and median peak velocity of saccades did not show significant differences between glaucoma and control groups (P > 0.05. Frequency of express saccades was significantly decreased in glaucoma patients compared with controls (1.75 ± 2.32 vs 7.0 ± 6.99; t-test: P = 0.007. Saccade parameters in glaucoma patients showed no significant correlation with visual field loss.Conclusion: Saccadic eye movements are significantly delayed in patients with early, moderate, or advanced glaucoma. Determination of median saccade reaction time may offer a novel functional test to quantify visual function in glaucoma

  16. Transscleral photodisruption for the treatment of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Zachary S.; Loesel, Frieder H.; Durfee, Charles G., III; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor; Mourou, Gerard A.

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate transscleral glaucoma surgery techniques using ultrashort pulsed lasers, we attempted to produce photodisruption on the inner surface of the sclera without damaging the overlying tissue. We identified two methods, using pulses centered at 1700 nm and a transparency inducing drug, to produce the spatial and temporal confinement of the pulse necessary to produce photodisruption in the highly scattering sclera. When fully developed these concepts may help address the longstanding limitations of current glaucoma surgical techniques.

  17. New trends in glaucoma risk, diagnosis & management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Thomas; Clement, Colin I; Bloom, Phillip; Cordeiro, M Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances have seen a surge of new ideas and technologies to aid in the detection, treatment and further understanding of glaucoma. These technologies and advances are discussed to provide information on risk-factors, diagnosis and treatment. Glaucoma has never before seen such an advance in research and therapies coming forward in to the clinical workplace. It is an exciting time for physicians and researchers alike and over the next decade will certainly see advances in early detection, efficacious treatments and neuroprotection.

  18. Gene therapy in glaucoma-3: Therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several promising genetic therapeutic approaches had been investigated. Some are either used to stop apoptosis and halt further glaucomatous damage, wound healing modulating effect or long lasting intraocular pressure lowering effects than the conventional commercially available antiglaucoma medications. Method of Literature Search The literature was searched on the Medline database using the PubMed interface. The key words for search were glaucoma, gene therapy, and genetic diagnosis of glaucoma.

  19. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  20. The role of matricellular proteins in glaucoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Deborah M

    2014-07-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting approximately 60million people worldwide and is the second most common cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for developing glaucoma and is caused by impaired aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm\\'s canal (SC). In primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this elevation in IOP in turn leads to deformation at the optic nerve head (ONH) specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also a deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen and fibronectin. Matricellular proteins are non-structural secreted glycoproteins that help cells communicate with their surrounding ECM. This family of proteins includes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, thrombospondins (TSPs), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), periostin, osteonectin, and Tenascin-C and -X and other ECM proteins. All members appear to play a role in fibrosis and increased ECM deposition. Most are widely expressed in tissues particularly in the TM and ONH and deficiency of TSP1 and SPARC have been shown to lower IOP in mouse models of glaucoma through enhanced outflow facility. The role of these proteins in glaucoma is emerging as some have an association with the pathophysiology of the TM and LC regions and might therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma.

  1. The role of matricellular proteins in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Deborah M; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E; Downs, J Crawford; O'Brien, Colm J

    2014-07-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting approximately 60million people worldwide and is the second most common cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for developing glaucoma and is caused by impaired aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC). In primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this elevation in IOP in turn leads to deformation at the optic nerve head (ONH) specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also a deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen and fibronectin. Matricellular proteins are non-structural secreted glycoproteins that help cells communicate with their surrounding ECM. This family of proteins includes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, thrombospondins (TSPs), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), periostin, osteonectin, and Tenascin-C and -X and other ECM proteins. All members appear to play a role in fibrosis and increased ECM deposition. Most are widely expressed in tissues particularly in the TM and ONH and deficiency of TSP1 and SPARC have been shown to lower IOP in mouse models of glaucoma through enhanced outflow facility. The role of these proteins in glaucoma is emerging as some have an association with the pathophysiology of the TM and LC regions and might therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THYROID DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To assess the association of thyroid profile with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. MATERIAL AND METHOD 128 cases of diagnosed thyroid disorder were enrolled. 5 cases dropped out. Ocular examination included applanation tonometry, stereoscopic optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Correlative association of thyroid disorder and open angle glaucoma was assessed. RESULTS Of 123 patients of thyroid disorder, 87.8% had hypothyroidism and remaining 12.2% had hyperthyroidism. 15.74% of hypothyroidism and 20% of hyperthyroidism patients had open angle glaucoma, which was statistically significant (Pearson chi-square: Value=6.548, df=2, p=0.040. On multivariate analysis with other risk factors like female sex, family history of glaucoma, myopia, hypertension, and diabetes; it was found that hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION All patients having thyroid disorder should be investigated for early diagnosis of open angle glaucoma so that if need be antiglaucoma treatment is started at the earliest and the eye maybe saved from any further deterioration.

  3. Posterior Iris Fixated Intraocular Lens for Pediatric Traumatic Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, V.; Balasubramanian, Preethi; Heralgi, Mallikarjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative visual outcomes and complications of posterior iris fixated intraocular lens (IFIOL) implantation for pediatric traumatic cataract. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was performed of all the pediatric traumatic cataract patients who underwent lens removal and iris fixated lens implantation due to inadequate capsular support with or without corneal tear repair between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative and postoperative visual outcomes and complications. Results: Twenty-five children (25 eyes; 21 males and 4 females) were enrolled with the mean age of 11 ± 4.0 years. There were 72% of eyes that underwent primary cataract removal with IFIOL implantation. Twenty-eight percent of eyes underwent corneal tear repair prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in 32% eyes, counting fingers in 24%, and perception of light in 44%. Postoperative BCVA of 0-0.2 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was reported in the 64% of eyes. One eye developed secondary glaucoma, one eye underwent re-enclavation, and none developed retinal complications. Conclusion: Posterior IFIOL implantation resulted in an improved visual outcome, low incidence of postoperative complications, and is a good alternative to other IOL, in the cases of pediatric traumatic cataract without adequate capsular support. PMID:27162456

  4. Epidemiology of hospitalized pediatric glaucoma patients in Beijing Tongren Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Chun-yan; WANG Liang-hai; TANG Xin; WANG Tao; YANG Di-ya; WANG Ning-li

    2009-01-01

    Background No population-based assessment of the prevalence and incidence of pediatric glaucoma in China are available. Here we describe the spectrum of hospitalized pediatric glaucoma patients in Beijing Tongren Hospital in China.Methods We reviewed the charts of pediatric patients, from birth to 18 years old, with a discharge diagnosis of glaucoma in Beijing Tongren Hospital, from 2002 to 2008. All children were admitted for anti-glaucoma surgery, treating the sequelae of the glaucoma, or managing postoperative complications. We evaluated the demographic characteristics and the proportion of different glaucoma subtypes.Results Pediatric patients (n=1452) accounted for 12.91% of the total glaucoma in-patients from 2002 to 2008, and at last data of pediatric glaucoma were presented for 1055 children who came from 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China. Boys were more common in all subtypes and et all ages, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 2.32:1. Congenital glaucoma was the most common subtype, accounting for 46.07% in all patients and accounting for 69.95% in children under 3 years of age. The median presenting age of congenital glaucoma patients was 2 years.Patients with traumatic glaucoma were the second most common group (n=128, 12.13%), and presented at older age (the median presenting age was 11 years). The majority of traumatic glaucoma occurred in children between 10 and 15 years of age (n=72, 56.25%). Aphakic glaucoma was the third most common (9.19%) subtype.Conclusions Congenital glaucoma is the most prevalent glaucoma subtype in hospitalized pediatric patients in Beijing Tongren Hospital. The prevention and treatment of traumatic glaucoma can reduce the incidence of visual damage in developing countries. Close follow-up for glaucoma is important after pediatric cataract surgery.

  5. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionn

  6. Study of topical corticosteroid response in glaucoma suspects and family members of established glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilani F

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the topical steroid response in glaucoma suspects and family members of established glaucoma patients and its hereditary pattern The cases understudy were divided into three groups, namely normal (25 cases, suspected open angle glaucoma cases (20 and family members of established open angle glaucoma cases (33. After preliminary examination each patient was advised to put dexamethasone drop 1 % in one eye and a placebo in other eye. The IOP was noted after three weeks It was found that 80% of all eyes under study showed a rise in IOP after use of topical dexamethasone. The highest mean IOP was found in primary open angle glaucoma suspects, and the highest mean post-corticosteroid rise in IOP of 8.91 mm Hg was found among family members of established open angle glaucoma patients. The lOP response to topical corticosteroids was found to be of three phenotypical types viz., poor responders (nn, moderate responders (ng and high responders (gg. Normal subjects were generally poor responders. Suspected open angle glaucoma cases were generally high responders. However, family members of established open angle glaucoma cases showed the highest percentage of presence of responder gene.

  7. Current status of epibulbar anti-glaucoma drainage devices in glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-01

    The term "glaucoma" covers a heterogeneous group of progressive optic neuropathies that are accompanied by characteristic visual-field defects. Primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common type, progresses insidiously and causes blindness if untreated. All current forms of treatment aim at lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients whose IOP is elevated. The implantation of anti-glaucoma drainage systems is one of the available options for surgical treatment. This review is based on pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search, including glaucoma treatment guidelines from Germany and abroad. A paradigm shift is currently underway regarding the indications for the implantation of anti-glaucoma drainage systems. Trabeculectomy (a "fistulating" operation in which the aqueous humor is led out of the eye under the conjunctiva) is still considered the surgical gold standard, but drainage systems have been implanted with increasing frequency in recent years. Studies have shown that these systems are more likely to be beneficial the earlier they are implanted in the course of the patient's disease. Five-year follow-up data from the randomized, multicenter Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) study have now revealed that anti-glaucoma drainage systems are equivalent to trabeculectomy with respect to long-term IOP reduction, complication rates, and absolute and relative clinical success rates. Glaucoma is a major clinical and socio-economic problem whose surgical treatment increasingly involves the implantation of anti-glaucoma drainage systems.

  8. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionn

  9. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A

  10. GLAUCOMA FOLLOWING BLUNT TRAUMA : AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the demographic profile, clinical picture, treatment modalities and long term follow up of patients suffering from glaucoma developing after blunt trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study over one year in which 75 eyes, newly diagnosed or referred with post traumatic glaucoma to M & J Institute of Ophthalmology were studied. All cases underwent thorough eye examination. Treatment was individualized and instituted. RESULTS: Patients ranged from 1 - 70 years with 32 patients (42.66% below 30 years of age. 61 patients (81.33% were males. 66.65% were students, laborers or housewives, with laborers topping the charts in vulnerability. In 46 cases (61.33%, left eye was affected, while in 29 pts. (38.66% right eye was affected. In 54.66% of cases, trauma was caused by stone, wooden stick or ball. Others included fist, firecracker, iron rod, handle, belt.16% patients presented with IOP in the normal range, 38 (50.66% patients had IOP in the range of 21-30 mm Hg, whereas 16 (21.33% patients had IOP more than 40 mm Hg. Within 1 week of instituting treatment, 41 (54.66% had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg and only 3 patients had IOP more than 30 mm Hg. However, 70 (93.33% patients had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg by the end of 6 months and all the patients were in this range after 6 months. On slit lamp examination, corneal edema, traumatic mydriasis and sphincter tears were seen in 32 patients each. 12 patients had hyphema and 19 patients had lens dislocated either into vitreous or into the anterior chamber. Iridodialysis was seen in 5 patients. Other findings included cataract, posterior synechiae, subluxation of lens and tobacco dusting. 57 (76% patients had vision less than 6/60, however after an interval of more than 6 months, 28 (37% patients had vision less than 3/60. The number of patients having vision ≥ 6/12 rose from 5 at initial presentation to 15 in follow-up more than 6 months. Disc changes could be assessed by ophthalmoscopy in 37

  11. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Ogata, Soshiro; Jacques, Paul; Taylor, Allen; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Wiggs, Janey L.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions. The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:27459452

  12. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  13. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  14. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  15. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss.

  16. Glaucoma

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  4. Decreased magnesium level and membrane potential of glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2016-08-01

    The result probably suggests, that decrease in magnesium aggravates glaucoma while decrease in membrane potential could cause poor energy transmission and hence affect ocular blood flow. Hence, decreased magnesium and membrane potential levels contributes greatly to glaucoma.

  5. First Case of Zika-Linked Glaucoma Diagnosed in Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162294.html First Case of Zika-Linked Glaucoma Diagnosed in Infant Brazilian baby developed ... who developed glaucoma after being exposed to the Zika virus while in the womb has been reported ...

  6. Glaucoma awareness among ophthalmic patients at Menelik II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Raising awareness about glaucoma among the general public, ophthalmic patients and health professionals would ... media to be the main source of information about glaucoma. ..... This can be seen in relation to that of rural Indian study in ...

  7. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  8. Dual drug delivery from vitamin E loaded contact lenses for glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Carbia, Blanca E; Plummer, Caryn; Chauhan, Anuj

    2015-08-01

    Glaucoma patients frequently instill eye drops multiple times each day, which is a cause for reduced compliance. Additionally, eye drops suffer from other limitations including low bioavailability, which can lead to side effects. We propose to develop drug-eluting contact lenses for managing glaucoma with increased bioavailability and improved compliance. Contact lenses are developed for extended simultaneous release of timolol and dorzolamide, both of which are commonly prescribed hydrophilic drugs. The extended release is achieved by loading lenses with vitamin E barriers. In vitro release studies are performed with control and vitamin E loaded lenses for both drugs loaded separately and then together in the same lens. The safety and efficacy of combination therapy by contacts are demonstrated in a Beagle model of glaucoma. Simultaneous loading of timolol and dorzolamide increases the release duration of both drugs. Also vitamin E incorporation is highly effective in increasing the release durations of both drugs to about 2-days. The lenses loaded with both drugs exhibited superior IOP reduction compared to eye drops with about 6-fold lower drug loading. More importantly, combination therapy by continuous wear of vitamin E loaded contact for 2-days, followed by a new set of contacts for another two days, reduced IOP during the 4days of wear time and for another 8days after removal of the contacts. Vitamin E loading is very effective for providing combination therapy by contact lenses due to the increase in release durations of several drugs. The contact lens based therapy reduces IOP with lower drug dose compared to eye drops and may significantly improve the compliance as the effect of the therapy lasts significantly longer than the wear-duration.

  9. Retrospective analysis of surgical strategies for traumatic lens dislocation in 105 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Xiang Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To retrospectively analyze the surgical strategies and outcome of traumatic lens dislocation. METHODS: Retrospective study. Clinical data of 105 cases(105 eyesdiagnosed with traumatic lens dislocation from April to June 2014 in our hospital were recruited. According to position of dislocated lens and complicated situations, different surgical approaches were performed, including intracapsular lens extraction, phacoemulsification, vitrectomy through pars plana and lensectomy.Meanwhile, vitreo-retinal or anti-glaucoma surgeries were performed in complicated cases.Preoperative and postoperative LogMar(Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolutionvisual acuity were compared by paired t-test. Perioperative complications including expulsive choroidal hemorrhages and recurrent retinal detachment were recorded and assessed. RESULTS: All 105 dislocated lenses were removed completely. Visual acuity of 91 eyes(86.7%were significantly improved postoperatively.The visual acuity of most patients was 0.1-0.3(42 eyes, 40.0%and 1 patient's visual acuity with lens subluxation reached more than 0.8 postoperatively. Expulsive choroidal hemorrhages occurred in 1 eye intraoperatively and 1 eye postoperatively. Recurrent retinal detachment was observed in 2 eyes postoperatively. CONCLUSION: According to position of the lens dislocation, personalized surgery strategy is critical for therapy of traumatic lens dislocation.Expulsive choroidal hemorrhage is one of most several complications and should be managed properly.

  10. Determinants of glaucoma awareness and knowledge in urban Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyamangalam Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the awareness and knowledge levels about glaucoma and its determinants in an urban population of Chennai in south India. Materials and Methods: Chennai glaucoma study (CGS was a population based prevalence study to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in a rural and urban south Indian population. A total of 3850 subjects aged 40 years or above participated in the urban arm of CGS. A systematic random sample of 1926 (50.0% subjects completed a questionnaire that assesses their awareness and knowledge level of glaucoma. Respondents "having heard of glaucoma" even before they were contacted/recruited for the study were defined as "aware" and respondents having some understanding of the eye disease were defined as "knowledgeable". Results: Overall 13.5% were aware of glaucoma, the age-gender adjusted rate for awareness was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.57 to 15.03. Two clinicians graded knowledge on glaucoma, based on the subject′s knowledge of risk factors, definitions and treatment aspects of glaucoma. Overall 8.7% had some knowledge about glaucoma. Among those who had knowledge 0.5% had good knowledge about glaucoma, 4% had fair knowledge and 4.2% had poor knowledge. We observed a very good agreement between the clinicians in grading knowledge (k =0.92. Determinants of glaucoma awareness and knowledge were higher levels of education, females, age, religion and family history of glaucoma. Conclusion: Awareness and knowledge about glaucoma was very low among the urban population of Chennai. We have found that younger subjects and men were less aware of glaucoma. Subjects with lower levels of education were less aware and knew less about glaucoma than their counterparts. The study findings stress the need for health education for effective prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  11. What should be done in glaucoma research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Glaucoma research in China has been booming in recent years. The research involves from gene mapping and functional assessment to surgical treatment using phaco alone, trabeculectomy or phacotrabeculectomy in angle closure glaucoma.1,2 The Panel of Glaucoma of the Chinese Ophthalmological Society has established the diagnosis and classification system for glaucoma with reference to the Preferred Practice Pattern (PPP) introduced by the American Academy of Ophthalmology in 2005.

  12. Comparison of normotensive and glaucoma simplex patients according to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, open angle glaucoma is divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. To determine if there are differences in the distribution of patients by age and sex between NTG and HTG. Methods. Our prospective study included 30 patients with NTG and 30 with HTG. A complete eye examination was performed. The examination included measuring of intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry, examination of optic disc head by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D lens and visual field examination using the Octopus program. Results. The average damage of visual field in the group of patients with NTG was 8.14±4.43 dB, while in the group with HTG it was 7.40±2.84 dB (p>0.05. The average age of the group of patients with NTG was 66±11.58 years, while among those with HTG the average age was 59.7±11.63 years (p<0.01. Among the patients with NTG there were three times more women than men (χ2=9.124; p<0.01, while in the group of patients with HTG there were more men than women, but without statistically significant difference between the tested groups (χ2=1.851; p>0.05. Conclusion. Open angle glaucoma is a disease of elderly population. According to our results, risk factors for this disease can be age and sex. NTG is more frequently present than HTG among elderly population and females.

  13. Oral fluoroquinolones and risk of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louis; Etminan, Mahyar; Mikelberg, Frederick S

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the risk of developing glaucoma in patients taking systemic fluoroquinolones. A case-control study was carried out among a cohort of subjects who had visited an ophthalmologist in the Province of British Columbia, Canada from 2000 to 2007. Cases were identified as those newly diagnosed with glaucoma (ICD-9 360). For each case, 5 controls were selected and matched to the cases by age and calendar time. Crude and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for current, recent, past, and distant use of fluoroquinolones were calculated. From the cohort of 989,591 subjects, 178,264 subjects were diagnosed with glaucoma and 891,320 were corresponding controls. The 2 groups had same average age of 65 and comparable systemic comorbidities including hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. There was no statistically significant association between the use of systemic fluoroquinolones and the development of glaucoma for current use [RR=1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-1.07)], recent use [RR=1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08)], or past use [RR=0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-1.00)]. Distant use of systemic fluoroquinolones had a small statistically significant increased risk of developing glaucoma [RR=1.12 (95% CI, 1.09-1.14)]. There was no detected increased association of the development of glaucoma with current, recent, or past use of systemic fluoroquinolone but a minimal statistically significant increased risk was associated with distant use. Future studies should further examine a potential delayed response with fluoroquinolones and glaucoma.

  14. Analysis of MYOC gene mutation in a Chinese glaucoma family with primary open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Ye-hong; WANG Mei; WEI Yan-tao; HUANG Ya-lin; GE Jian

    2006-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) are subtypes of glaucoma. Myocillin is the first gene identified to be involved in POAG. Recently, myocillin mutation has been found in PCG In this context, we reported a special glaucoma pedigree, which was composed of both PCG and POAG patients, and analyzed the mutation of myocillin in this pedigree.Methods The family was composed of the parents, a son and a daughter. All members of the family underwent the complete ophthalmologic examinations. All coding exons 1-3 and flanking introns of myocilin gene were screened for sequence alterations by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing.Results The son was the proband, who was diagnosed as PCG in both eyes. The father was diagnosed as POAG in the right eye, the left eye was still normal. Both the sister and the mother of the proband had normal intraocular pressure without glaucomatous optic disc changes. The mutations in intron 2 of myocilin gene were detected in the family. While the proband and the father were homozygous, the mother and the sister were heterozygous for the mutation.Conclusions Homozygous mutation in intron 2 of myocilin gene is involved in both POAG and PCG. It is suggested that the pathogenesis might be overlapping in POAG and PCG.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

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  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  8. iStent with Phacoemulsification versus Phacoemulsification Alone for Patients with Glaucoma and Cataract: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali S Malvankar-Mehta

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS have attracted significant attention, as they have been reported to lower intra-ocular pressure (IOP and have an excellent safety profile. The iStent is an example of a minimally invasive glaucoma device that has received particular attention due to its early and wide spread utilization. There is a growing body of evidence supporting its use at the time of phacoemulsification to help lower IOP. However, it is still not clear how much of the IOP lowering effect can be attributed to the iStent, the crystalline lens extraction or both when inserted concurrently at the time of phacoemulsification. This has been an important issue in understanding its potential role in the glaucoma management paradigm.To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the IOP lowering effect of iStent insertion at the time of phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification alone for patients with glaucoma and cataracts.A systematic review was conducted utilizing various databases. Studies examining the IOP lowering effect of iStent insertion in combination with phacoemulsification, as well as studies examining the IOP lowering effect of phacoemulsification alone were included. Thirty-seven studies, reporting on 2495 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage reduction in IOP (IOPR% and mean reduction in topical glaucoma medications after surgery were determined. The standardized mean difference (SMD was computed as a measure of the treatment effect for continuous outcomes taking into account heterogeneity. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were applied.A 4% IOP reduction (IOPR% from baseline occurred following phacoemulsification as a solo procedure compared to 9% following an iStent implant with phacoemulsification, and 27% following 2 iStents implants with phacoemulsification. Compared with cataract extraction alone, iStent with phacoemulsification resulted in significant reduction in the post

  9. Long-term outcomes of ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in refractory glaucoma at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: AGV implantation with adjunctive topical anti-glaucoma drops controlled IOP in approximately 70% of eyes with refractory glaucoma with a median of 40.5 months of follow-up. However, complication rates were higher.

  10. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  11. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Tsai, James C; Kolko, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    specialists have acknowledged that elevated IOP is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, but does not define the disease. Other factors such as genetics, blood flow, and excitotoxicity are suggested as potential causal factors for progressive RGC death observed in glaucoma. We review recent studies...... elucidating a possible role of low-grade inflammation as a causal factor in the pathogenesis of glaucoma....

  12. Modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration for severely subluxated lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, S; Aron, N; Yadav, N; Pillay, G; Agarwal, E

    2017-08-11

    PurposeSeverely subluxated crystalline lenses pose a difficult situation to anterior segment surgeons and can only be managed surgically by removal of the lens as well as the capsular bag. Several techniques have been described in literature for the management of such cases. We describe a modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration by the limbal route for lens extraction through small incisions on the cornea.Patients and methodsThirty-two eyes of 16 consecutive patients with severely subluxated crystalline lenses were recruited in the study. All eyes underwent a modified technique of lens aspiration within the capsular bag using a single instrument, vitrectomy cutter, and irrigation cannula, followed by sacrificing of the capsular bag. The patients were either left aphakic or implanted with an open loop anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL Kelman Multiflex) and prospectively followed up for a period of 3 months.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 9 years 3 months±3 years (range 5-15 yrs). All eyes underwent complete lens aspiration within the capsular bag with no dislocation of the lens matter. ACIOL was inserted in 22 eyes (68.7%) and 10 eyes (31.2%) were left aphakic. All the surgeries were uneventful. The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 3 months post surgery was 0.47±0.11 logMAR which was significantly better than pre-operative BCVA (P=0.001). The percentage endothelial cell loss at 3 months was 7.1%. There was no evidence of glaucoma, corneal decompensation, or retinal detachment. The astigmatism which increased from 1.45D±086 preoperatively to 3.76D±2.02 1 week post-operatively due to sutures reduced to 1.97D±0.81 post suture removal at 3 months.ConclusionThe modified technique of endocapsular lens aspiration proves to be a simple and effective method of removal of the lens-capsular bag complex in severely subluxated lenses.Eye advance online publication, 11 August 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.160.

  13. Imaging patients with glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Kris; Auyeung, Kelsey; Kono, Rei; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    In ophthalmology, a reliable means of diagnosing glaucoma in its early stages is still an open issue. Past efforts, including forays into fluorescent angiography (FA) and early optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, to develop a potential biomarker for the disease have been explored. However, this development has been hindered by the inability of the current techniques to provide useful depth and microvasculature information of the optic nerve head (ONH), which have been debated as possible hallmarks of glaucoma progression. We reasoned that a system incorporating a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) based Optical Microangiography (OMAG) system, could allow an effective, non-invasive methodology to evaluate effects on microvasculature by glaucoma. SD-OCT follows the principle of light reflection and interference to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye. OMAG produces imaging contrasts via endogenous light scattering from moving particles, allowing for 3D image productions of dynamic blood perfusion at capillary-level resolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optic cup perfusion (flow) differences in glaucomatous and normal eyes. Images from three normal and five glaucomatous subjects were analyzed our OCT based OMAG system for blood perfusion and structural images, allowing for comparisons. Preliminary results from blood flow analysis revealed reduced blood perfusion within the whole-depth region encompassing the Lamina Cribrosa in glaucomatous cases as compared to normal ones. We conclude that our OCT-OMAG system may provide promise and viability for glaucoma screening.

  14. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  15. A new futuristic glaucoma therapeutic management paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusuya Gehlot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of diseases, characterized by a progressive form of optic nerve damage. Current studies indicate more selective pathophysiological involvement, thereby targeted therapies are warranted. Although both the prostaglandin analogs and beta blockers are still, most commonly used drugs for glaucoma, due to their efficacy, lack of adverse effects. In addition, a stepped care approach is the corner stone for its management. In addition, attempts have been made to enhance patient compliance and ocular delivery of already available anti-glaucoma drugs such as pilocarpine and timolol maleate. Notable among futuristic treatment options are; novel delivery systems, benzalkonium chloride-free drugs, various glaucoma drainage devices, new targeted therapies and prompt diagnosis plus aggressive treatment, in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma. Promising new focus on vision sparing, greater patient safety and tolerability will provide improved treatment options and long-term preservation of vision and quality of life. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 195-197

  16. Activity Limitation in Glaucoma: Objective Assessment by the Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Simon E; McAlinden, Colm; Khatib, Tasneem; Anthony, Louise May; Sim, Sing Yue; Martin, Keith R; Goldberg, Ivan; McCluskey, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We design and evaluate a computer-based objective simulation of activity limitation related to glaucoma. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 70 glaucoma patients and 14 controls. Mean age was 69.0 ± 10.2 years; 49 (58.3%) were male. The Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test (CGVFT) was administered to all participants. Rasch analysis and criterion, convergent, and divergent validity tests assessed the psychometric properties of the CGVFT. Regression modeling was used to determine factors predictive of CGVFT person measures. Sociodemographic information, better and worse eye visual field parameters, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and the Rasch-analyzed Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 (GAL-9) and Visual Function Questionnaire Utility Index (VFQUI) questionnaire responses were recorded. From 139 pilot CGVFT items, 59 had acceptable fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable precision (person separation index, 2.13) and targeting. Cambridge Glaucoma Visual Function Test person measure (logit) scores increased between controls (-0.20 ± 0.08) and patients with mild (-0.15 ± 0.08), moderate (-0.13 ± 0.10), and severe (-0.05 ± 0.10) glaucoma (P < 0.001, ANOVA) indicating good criterion validity. Correlation coefficients of 0.455 (P < 0.001) between CGVFT and GAL-9 person measures and 0.399 (P = 0.005) between CGVFT and VFQUI person measures demonstrated convergent validity. Divergent validity was suboptimal. On multivariable analysis, lower better eye mean deviation and greater age were associated with worsening CGVFT person measures (P ≤ 0.001). The CGVFT is a computerized visual challenge test administered to a cohort of glaucoma patients. It may benefit glaucoma patients, careers, health care providers, and policy makers, providing increased awareness of activity limitation due to glaucoma.

  17. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, M Isabel Canut; Formigó, Daniel Pérez; González, Rodrigo Abreu; Reus, Jeroni Nadal

    2010-01-01

    Aims We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact. Methods Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment were performed. Results Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control. Conclusion Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively. PMID:21151331

  18. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is characterized by changes in the optic disc and visual field defects. The elevated intraocular pressure was considered the prime factor responsible for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy involving death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Extensive investigations into the pathophysiology of glaucoma now reveal the role of multiple factors in the development of retinal ganglion cell death. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is crucial in the development of better therapeutic options. This review is an effort to summarize the current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma so that newer therapeutic targets can be recognized. The literature available in the National Medical Library and online Pubmed search engine was used for literature review.

  19. Antihypertensive medication postpones the onset of glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Klemp, Marc; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of antihypertensive medication on the onset of glaucoma. Data from the complete Danish population between 40 and 95 years of age were used in the period from 1996 to 2012, covering >2.6 million individuals. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products...... Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and antihypertensive drugs. We first investigated basic correlations in the data and found that patients treated with antihypertensive medication, at any time during the study period, had a significantly higher overall relative...... a regression discontinuity study design. This analysis provides our main finding, namely that prescription of antihypertensive medication leads to a significant reduction in the risk of developing glaucoma. Therefore, although hypertension—as indicated by the use of antihypertensive medication—is positively...

  20. Glaucoma Detection From Fundus Image Using Opencv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narasimhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a semi automated method for glaucoma detection using CDR and ISNT ratio of a fundus image. CDR (Cup to Disc Ratio is ratio of area of Optic Cup to area of Optic Disc. For a patient with glaucoma Optic Cup size increases while the Optic Disc size remains same and hence CDR will be high for glaucoma patient than normal fundus image. The ROI of green plane is taken and K-Means clustering technique is recursively applied and Optic Disc and Optic Cup is segmented. Through elliptic fiiting, area of Optic Disc and Cup is determined and hence CDR is calculated. ISNT is another parameter used for the diagnosis of glaucoma which is determined through the ratio of area of blood vessels in Inferior Superior to Nasal Temporal side. Blood vessels will shift to Nasal side for glaucoma patients, hence value will be less for glaucoma patient than normal fundus image. Matched filter and Local entropy thresholding is applied to extract blood vessels. The code is programmed in C++ using OpenCV library functions. OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library is a library of programming functions developed by Intel. Core, highgui, imgproc, ml are the main libraries used from OpenCV. The optimized functions in OpenCV increase the speed of operation and is very much suitable for real time mass screening purpose. A batch of 50 retinal images (25 normal set and 25 abnormal set obtained from the Aravind Eye Hospital, is used to assess the performance of the proposed system.

  1. [Influence of Luxury Foodstuffs on Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-van der Velden, K K

    2017-02-01

    The term "luxury foodstuffs" refers to foods which are not consumed because of their nutritional value. Classic modern luxury foodstuffs are alcohol, caffeine-containing drinks, cocoa, sugar and tobacco. The following review article examines some of these modern luxury foodstuffs in detail, as well as their influence on glaucoma. Thus, small quantities of alcohol lower high intraocular pressure and have a positive influence on the blood circulation of the optic nerve. In addition, red wine polyphenols exert vasoprotective effects. In general, however, alcohol consumption appears to have no significant effect on the prevalence of glaucoma. The most important source of caffeine intake is coffee consumption. In some studies, coffee consumption caused no changes in intraocular pressure, while others reported a rise. A large study showed a connection between heavy coffee consumption and the risk of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Green and black teas are rich sources of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. In addition, a slight trend for lowering the intraocular pressure has been measured. As regards chocolate, flavonoid-rich dark chocolate should be favoured, due to its antioxidant activity. It lowers blood pressure and improves endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Excessive sugar consumption over many years can lead to increased body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes. Many studies show a positive relationship between BMI and intraocular pressure. Some studies have identified significant correlations between type 2 diabetes and the risk of glaucoma. Smoking is a very widespread stimulant; it narrows the blood vessels and thus reduces the blood circulation of the optic nerve. Otherwise, studies on the role of smoking as a risk factor for glaucoma have been very inconsistent. Luxury foodstuffs may effect glaucoma and should be included in the medical history.

  2. Glaucoma alters the circadian timing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Drouyer

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing system. Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. In order to explore the molecular, anatomical and functional consequences of glaucoma we used a rodent model of chronic ocular hypertension, a primary causal factor of the pathology. Quantitative analysis of retinal projections using sensitive anterograde tracing demonstrates a significant reduction (approximately 50-70% of RGC axon terminals in all visual and non-visual structures and notably in the SCN. The capacity of glaucomatous rats to entrain to light was challenged by exposure to successive shifts of the light dark (LD cycle associated with step-wise decreases in light intensity. Although glaucomatous rats are able to entrain their locomotor activity to the LD cycle at all light levels, they require more time to re-adjust to a shifted LD cycle and show significantly greater variability in activity onsets in comparison with normal rats. Quantitative PCR reveals the novel finding that melanopsin as well as rod and cone opsin mRNAs are significantly reduced in glaucomatous retinas. Our findings demonstrate that glaucoma impacts on all these aspects of the circadian timing system. In light of these results, the classical view of glaucoma as pathology unique to the visual system should be extended to include anatomical and functional alterations of the circadian timing system.

  3. A review of the surgical approaches to glaucoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach of initially treating glaucoma medically and holding surgical intervention as a reserve option was endorsed by the findings of the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS study.1 This study reported that patients had similar visual field outcomes at five years from either medical treatment or immediate filtration surgery and supported the status quo of glaucoma management. The market for medical treatments has since increased and polypharmacy is now an accepted norm for glaucoma treatment. Surgical remedies for glaucoma have existed in a less pressured environment such that trabeculectomy, after four decades of slow evolution and complications, remains the most commonly performed type of glaucoma surgery worldwide. This ecosystem has begun to change in recent years. New surgical alternatives have arrived, reached a sizeable number and gained considerable traction as viable competitors to conventional glaucoma medical and surgical treatments. This raises important questions as to how these advances in glaucoma surgical options may affect the future landscape of glaucoma treatment. Has trabeculectomy already yielded some of its high ground? Why has trabeculectomy not been able to evolve more rapidly in response to new competitive pressures? If trabeculectomy has reached its evolutionary zenith are the newer alternatives any better? And, is it time to re-examine the conventional ‘medical before surgical’ approach to glaucoma? This article reviews the evidence for current surgical techniques available to patients with glaucoma.

  4. Glaucoma detection based on deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyu Chen; Yanwu Xu; Damon Wing Kee Wong; Tien Yin Wong; Jiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic and irreversible eye disease, which leads to deterioration in vision and quality of life. In this paper, we develop a deep learning (DL) architecture with convolutional neural network for automated glaucoma diagnosis. Deep learning systems, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), can infer a hierarchical representation of images to discriminate between glaucoma and non-glaucoma patterns for diagnostic decisions. The proposed DL architecture contains six learned layers: four convolutional layers and two fully-connected layers. Dropout and data augmentation strategies are adopted to further boost the performance of glaucoma diagnosis. Extensive experiments are performed on the ORIGA and SCES datasets. The results show area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve in glaucoma detection at 0.831 and 0.887 in the two databases, much better than state-of-the-art algorithms. The method could be used for glaucoma detection.

  5. Uveitis and glaucoma: new insights in the pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Chelvin C A; Ang, Marcus; Barton, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding complication of uveitis, where intraocular inflammation, secondary corticosteroid response, and varying types and degrees of angle abnormalities contribute to its pathogenesis. Management of uveitic glaucoma remains challenging. Treatment is targeted at reducing the inflammation and lowering the intraocular pressure. Recent studies have highlighted the role of viruses, such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and more recently Ebola virus, in the pathogenesis of uveitic glaucoma. Antiviral therapy may be beneficial in eyes with detectable viral DNA. The success of glaucoma surgery is decreased in eyes with uveitic glaucoma, and surgical interventions are associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications. Novel glaucoma surgical and laser treatments may improve the predictability of surgery for uveitic glaucoma, but these require further evaluation.

  6. [Differential diagnosis of juvenile normal pressure glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidel, K; Wiedemann, P; Unterlauft, J D

    2016-12-05

    The case of a 50-year-old female patient with autosomal dominant optic atrophy is described, which was initially misinterpreted and treated as normal pressure glaucoma. Bilateral partial optic atrophy can be diagnosed by chance with mild manifestation of symptoms and can initially be misinterpreted as glaucoma. Taking a detailed medical history and performing a thorough optic nerve head examination can raise the suspicion of hereditary optic atrophy. The reliable detection of autosomal dominant optic atrophy by genetic investigations should be strived for in such cases.

  7. Management of coexisting cataract and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    The optimal management of cataract in the glaucoma patient must be constantly updated as advances in both subspecialties impact the surgical decision. The primary considerations at this time include combining the procedures as opposed to sequential operations and optimizing the effectiveness of the operations while reducing complications. Recent findings would certainly suggest an individualized approach based not only on the glaucoma and cataract condition of the patient but also on the experience of the surgeon with varied techniques. Further time and research are required to determine whether certain approaches or techniques will become more universally adopted. At present, there certainly is support for a variety of approaches.

  8. Mitochondrial damage in the trabecular meshwork occurs only in primary open-angle glaucoma and in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Izzotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open-angle glaucoma appears to be induced by the malfunction of the trabecular meshwork cells due to injury induced by oxidative damage and mitochondrial impairment. Here, we report that, in fact, we have detected mitochondrial damage only in primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma, among several glaucoma types compared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial damage was evaluated by analyzing the common mitochondrial DNA deletion by real-time PCR in trabecular meshwork specimens collected at surgery from glaucomatous patients and controls. Glaucomatous patients included 38 patients affected by various glaucoma types: primary open-angle, pigmented, juvenile, congenital, pseudoexfoliative, acute, neovascular, and chronic closed-angle glaucoma. As control samples, we used 16 specimens collected from glaucoma-free corneal donors. Only primary open-angle glaucoma (3.0-fold and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (6.3-fold showed significant increases in the amount of mitochondrial DNA deletion. In all other cases, deletion was similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: despite the fact that the trabecular meshwork is the most important tissue in the physiopathology of aqueous humor outflow in all glaucoma types, the present study provides new information regarding basic physiopathology of this tissue: only in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucomas oxidative damage arising from mitochondrial failure play a role in the functional decay of trabecular meshwork.

  9. Congenital glaucoma due to dominant goniodysgenesis. A new concept of the heredity of glaucoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerndal, T

    1983-01-01

    Three typical pedigrees with hereditary glaucoma are presented, in which dominant goniodysgenesis is shown to be the actual genetic trait. Because of a marked variation in the expressivity of dysgenesis, the symptoms of the genetic malformation (elevated intraocular pressure and subsequent glaucoma) may appear early or late in life. Therefore, there is no justification in letting the patient's age at the onset of the symptoms decide the classification or the mode of inheritance of the glaucom...

  10. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery.

  11. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition.

  12. A gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 and perlecan is available to lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiju; Tholozan, Frederique M; Goldberg, Martin W; Bowen, Leon; Wu, Junjie; Quinlan, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors play a key role in regulating lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation via an anteroposterior gradient that exists between the aqueous and vitreous humours. FGF-2 is the most important for lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been proposed that the presentation of FGF-2 to the lens epithelial cells involves the lens capsule as a source of matrix-bound FGF-2. Here we used immunogold labelling to measure the matrix-bound FGF-2 gradient on the inner surface of the lens capsule in flat-mounted preparations to visualize the FGF-2 available to lens epithelial cells. We also correlated FGF-2 levels with levels of its matrix-binding partner perlecan, a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and found the levels of both to be highest at the lens equator. These also coincided with increased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2) in lens epithelial cells that localised to condensed chromosomes of epithelial cells that were Ki-67 positive. The gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 (anterior pole: 3.7 ± 1.3 particles/μm2; equator: 8.2 ± 1.9 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 4 ± 0.9 particles/μm2) and perlecan (anterior pole: 2.1 ± 0.4 particles/μm2; equator: 5 ± 2 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 1.9 ± 0.7 particles/μm2) available at the inner lens capsule surface was measured for the bovine lens. These data support the anteroposterior gradient hypothesis and provide the first measurement of the gradient for an important morphogen and its HSPG partner, perlecan, at the epithelial cell-lens capsule interface.

  13. Glaucoma facomórfico y ultrabiomicroscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina González González

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: La ultrabiomicroscopia es un herramienta útil ya que permite una valoración completa del segmento anterior, aun en presencia de medios opacos y ayuda a determinar la relación del cristalino con las estructuras adyacentes y el probable mecanismo del glaucoma.

  14. Molteno3 Implantation as Primary Glaucoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha O. Välimäki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the outcome of Molteno3 implantation as primary glaucoma surgery and to analyze the factors influencing the surgical outcome. Methods. This is a retrospective clinical study of 106 consecutive eyes (97 patients with no previous glaucoma surgery. Surgical failure was defined as an IOP > 21 mmHg or less than a 20% reduction below baseline, or IOP ≤ 5 mmHg, on two consecutive visits after 3 months follow-up, or reoperation for glaucoma or loss of light perception. Results. At the end of the follow-up (mean, 35 months; range, 12–71 months, the mean postoperative IOP (14.2 ± 4.4 mmHg was statistically significantly lower than the preoperative IOP (35.2 ± 9.7 mmHg (P<0.001. Life-table success rates were 97%, 94%, and 91% after follow-up of 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Success rate for an IOP ≤ 18 mmHg was 77% at the last visit. Success was not influenced by previous cataract surgery, sex, age, laser trabeculoplasty (LTP, preoperative IOP, or number of antiglaucoma medications. Forty-seven eyes had 66 postoperative complications. Conclusions. The primary Molteno3 implant provided significant IOP lowering with minimal and manageable complications in uncontrolled glaucoma. Neither previous cataract surgery nor LTP had any detrimental effect on surgical success.

  15. Diffuse loss of sensitivity in early glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, D B; Artes, P H; Chauhan, B C

    1999-12-01

    To establish whether there is significant diffuse loss of sensitivity in a population of patients with early glaucoma. The differential light sensitivities at the 10 most sensitive locations from within the central 24 degrees of program 30-2 of the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) were compared in 38 pairs of age-matched subjects, one of each pair with early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and the other with normal eyes. All subjects had had experience with automated perimetry and had clear media, visual acuity of 20/25 or better, and one or fewer false-positive or false-negative responses to catch trials. The mean difference in age between the subjects with glaucoma and normal subjects was 29 days (P = 0.44, maximum 1.42 years). The mean paired difference in pupil size was 0.16 mm (P = 0.26), and visual acuity was higher in the glaucoma-affected subjects (P = 0.044). The 10 highest sensitivity measurements in the POAG-affected subjects were found to be lower by a median of between 1.0 and 2.0 dB than those in the normal pair members (0.0001pupil size and media opacity.

  16. Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: surgical technique and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva I

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivano Riva,1 Gloria Roberti,1 Francesco Oddone,1 Anastasios GP Konstas,2 Luciano Quaranta3 1IRCCS “Fondazione GB Bietti per l’Oftalmologia”, Rome, Italy; 21st University Department of Ophthalmology, Glaucoma Unit, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve is an effective surgical technique to reduce intraocular pressure in patients affected with glaucoma. While in the past, the use of this device was reserved to glaucoma refractory to multiple filtration surgical procedures, up-to-date mounting experience has encouraged its use also as a primary surgery for selected cases. Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve can be challenging for the surgeon, especially in patients who already underwent previous multiple surgeries. Several tips have to be acquired by the surgeon, and a long learning curve is always needed. Although the valve mechanism embedded in the Ahmed glaucoma valve decreases the risk of postoperative hypotony-related complications, it does not avoid the need of a careful follow-up. Complications related to this type of surgery include early and late postoperative hypotony, excessive capsule fibrosis around the plate, erosion of the tube or plate edge, and very rarely infection. The aim of this review is to describe surgical technique for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and to report related complications. Keywords: glaucoma, surgical technique, glaucoma drainage devices, Ahmed glaucoma valve, complications

  17. Avaliação dos tipos de glaucoma no serviço de oftalmologia da UNICAMP Evaluation of glaucoma types at the sector of ophthalmology - UNICAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Peltier Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência dos tipos de glaucoma no Setor de Glaucoma do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 329 pacientes atendidos no Setor de Glaucoma da Universidade Estadual de Campinas entre 1 de outubro e 20 de dezembro de 2000, com avaliação dos tipos de glaucoma e conduta terapêutica. RESULTADOS: De 329 pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Glaucoma, 132 foram encaminhados ao ambulatório por suspeita de glaucoma (40,1% e 197 como glaucoma diagnosticado (59,9%. Dos 132 suspeitos de glaucoma, 90 (68,2% foram confirmados como tendo glaucoma e 42 (31,8% encontram-se em acompanhamento. Dos 329 pacientes avaliados, 283 (86% tinham glaucoma, 42 (12,8% suspeita de glaucoma, 2 (0,6% diagnóstico de glaucoma excluído e 2 (0,6% hipertensão ocular. Dos 530 olhos glaucomatosos, havia 298 (56,2% glaucomas primários de ângulo aberto, 108 (20,4% glaucomas primários de ângulo estreito, 21 (4% glaucomas pós-facectomia, 19 (3,6% glaucomas congênitos e 16 (3% glaucomas de pressão normal. A conduta terapêutica adotada foi inicialmente clínica em todos os casos. Após seguimento médio de 10,5 meses, 89 (16,8% olhos necessitaram tratamento com laser: 72 (13,6% iridotomias, 7 (1,3% trabeculoplastias e 10 (1,9% panfotocoagulações. Cento e setenta e cinco olhos (33% foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: O tipo mais freqüente de glaucoma observado foi o glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto, seguido por glaucoma primário de ângulo estreito. Glaucomas como o de pressão normal e o pseudo-exfoliativo foram pouco freqüentes na população estudada.PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of different types of glaucoma at the Hospital das Clínicas of Campinas State University. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 329 patients followed at the Glaucoma Service of Campinas State University from October 1 to December 20, 2000. The frequency of each type of glaucoma and the

  18. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 More Eye ... EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also ...

  20. [Compliance of treatment in glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banc, Ana; Stan, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment compliance level of glaucoma patients and the correlation between the compliance level and a series of patient's demographic characteristics. We conducted an observational study in which we studied 100 glaucoma patients who answered the questions we included into a questionnaire. We defined and calculated a broad compliance score and a narrow score, and we investigated the connection between the first score and age, gender, demographic location (urban versus rural), education level, current occupation and duration of disease respectively. The mean of the broad compliance score was 9.64 +/- 1.72, which represents 80% of the maximum value of the score, and the mean of the narrow compliance score was 4.73 +/- 1.12, (78% of the maximum value). The correlation coefficient between score and age was z = -0.09 (p value = 0.19), the Z value for the evaluation of the connection between score and gender was -1.16 (p value = 0.24), and for the connection between compliance score and demographic location Z value = -2.42 (p value = 0.01). Chi-square value for the evaluation of the relation between the score and education level was 14.66 (p value = 0.001), and for the current occupation Chi-square value = 3.47 (p value = 0.06). The correlation coefficient between score and disease duration was tau = 0.09 (p value = 0.23). According to the answers the patients gave, we identified the parameters that require more attention in the ophthalmologist - glaucoma patient communication: genetic transmission of glaucoma, treatment's side effects, number of visits to the ophthalmologist, awareness of the life-long gradului period of treatment. In this study, the compliance level of glaucoma patients is relatively high and we observe a correlation between the compliance level and demographic location, and between the compliance level and patient's education level respectively.,

  1. Latanoprost in the treatment of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alm A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albert AlmDepartment of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: Prostaglandins are approved by the European Glaucoma Society guidelines as first-line treatment for glaucoma. This review focuses on latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin (PG F2α, which was the first of the currently available topical PGF2α analogs to be launched for glaucoma or ocular hypertension and which still accounts for the majority of prescriptions. It is better absorbed than the parent compound through the cornea, and peak concentration of the active drug is in the aqueous humor 1–2 hours after topical dosing (15–30 ng/mL. Metabolism occurs mainly in the liver. Latanoprost (0.005% has been very well studied in clinical trials and meta-analyses that show it to be generally as effective as the other PG analogs (bimatoprost, travoprost, and tafluprost and more effective than timolol, dorzolamide, and brimonidine. Latanoprost has good short- and long-term safety and tolerability profiles. In common with other prostaglandins, it lacks systemic effects, but can cause ocular adverse events such as conjunctival hyperemia, pigmentation of the iris, periocular skin or eyelashes, hypertrichosis, and ocular surface effects or irritation. Latanoprost is significantly better tolerated than either bimatoprost or travoprost. Patients treated with latanoprost have better compliance and persist with therapy longer than those that are given other drugs. An improved formulation of latanoprost without the preservative benzalkonium chloride has recently been developed. It is as effective as conventional latanoprost, has a lower incidence of hyperemia, and can be stored at room temperature. In conclusion, latanoprost has the best efficacy–tolerability ratio of the PG analogs available for glaucoma treatment, and has good compliance and persistence. These factors should be improved further by the recent development of preservative

  2. Preparation and evaluation of a contact lens vehicle for puerarin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinku; Li, Xinsong; Sun, Fuqian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a soft contact lens vehicle for puerarin delivery to alleviate glaucoma. Poly(2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-methyl acrylate) (pHEMA-NVP-MA) contact lenses were prepared by UV irradiation of HEMA, NVP and MA, to which the cross-linker, a mixture of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and allyl methacrylate (AMA) (1:1, w/w) was added previously. The contact lenses were characterized by equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) and tensile tester. The results showed that incorporation of poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) component in the hydrogels caused increase of ESR and decrease of tensile strength. Co-polymerization of MA monomer in the hydrogel led to a slight drop of ESR and improved tensile strength of hydrogel. Four kinds of hydrated contact lenses with different PVP content were presoaked in PBS solution of puerarin and the in vitro drug release was measured. The contact lenses matrix incorporated with PVP had a remarkable loading capacity of puerarin. In rabbit eyes, the presoaked contact lenses extended the mean resident time of puerarin to 77.45 min from 12.88 min of 1% puerarin eye drops. Moreover, contact lens presoaked in puerarin solution at the concentration of 0.802 mg/ml showed about the same bioavailability (AUC(0-t)) in tear fluid as that of the puerarin eye drops. This kind of presoaked contact lens has potential application as vehicle of puerarin to alleviate glaucoma.

  3. Using Genetic Mouse Models to Gain Insight into Glaucoma: Past Results and Future Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Kimberly A; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Pete A.; Rausch, Rebecca L.; Kiernan, Amy E.; Nair, K. Saidas; Anderson, Michael G; John, Simon W.; Howell, Gareth R.; Libby, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    While all forms of glaucoma are characterized by a specific pattern of retinal ganglion cell death, they are clinically divided into several distinct subclasses, including normal tension glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma, congenital glaucoma, and secondary glaucoma. For each type of glaucoma there are likely numerous molecular pathways that control susceptibility to the disease. Given this complexity, a single animal model will never precisely model all aspects of all the different types ...

  4. 探讨Weill-Marchesani综合征继发青光眼的手术治疗%Surgery for treating secondary glaucoma in Weill-Marchesani syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德杰; 杨育勇

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨魏尔-马切桑尼综合征(Weill-Marchesani syndrome,球形晶状体-短指综合征)继发青光眼手术治疗的最佳方式.方法 回顾分析我院双眼Weill-Marchesani综合征继发青光眼1例,两眼先后采用不同的治疗方式,一眼行晶状体吸出联合小梁切除术、二期前部玻璃体切除联合人工晶状体悬吊术,另眼行晶状体及前部玻璃体切除联合人工晶状体悬吊术.以眼压为指标,随访2年.结果 右眼晶状体吸出联合小梁切除术后不能顺利植入人工晶状体,二期前部玻璃体切除联合人工晶状体悬吊术后出现低眼压情况;左眼晶状体及前部玻璃体切除联合人工晶状体悬吊术后眼压正常且稳定.结论 晶状体及前部玻璃体切除联合人工晶状体悬吊术是控制Weill-Marchesani综合征继发青光眼眼压的有效手术方式.%Objective To investigate the best operation for secondary glaucoma in Weill-Marchesani syndrome.Methods One patient of bilateral Weill-Marchesani syndrome with secondary glaucoma in our hospital was retrospectively analysed.The right eye received extraction of lens combined with trabeculectomy and second-stage operation of anterior vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens suspension.The left eye received lensectomy and anterior-vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens suspension.The intraocular pressure was measured at different times within two years.Results After extraction of lens combined with trabeculectomy,the intraocular lens could not be implanted into the right eye,and low intraocular pressure occurred after second-stage operation of anterior-vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens suspension.In the left eye normal intraocular pressure was gained after lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens suspension surgery.Conclusion Lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens suspension surgery may be effective for secondary glaucoma in Weill

  5. Alternative therapy in glaucoma management: Is there any role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Rajul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Various randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP does reduce progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, there is lots of interest in nonpharmacological options that includes lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT. At least 5% glaucoma population uses ACT. Various lifestyle activities like exercise and alcohol can reduce IOP by 1 to 2 mm Hg but would have small effect on glaucoma. The psychological stress can increase IOP. Hypothetically and few studies do show neuroprotective effect (or effect on ocular blood flow of alcohol, Gingko biloba, bilberry, but the current evidence is weak for its routine use. We must also remember the side effects of ′medications′ (e.g., marijuana, alcohol before promoting as remedy for glaucoma. In current armamentarium of glaucoma management, ACT cannot substitute the conventional treatment available to lower IOP.

  6. Recent advances on micro-invasive glaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zuo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second major causes of blindness after cataract. The conventional trabeculectomy and shunt implantation is still the most common surgical procedure in treatment of glaucoma. However, the limitations of the treatments are the security and failure rate. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery(MIGSis an emerging category which shares the following five characteristics compared with traditional glaucoma surgery:(1an interno microincision,(2micro-invasion,(3definite curative effect,(4high safety, and(5rapid recovery. moreover, it can also reduce the use of glaucoma medication after operation. This kind of surgery can be conducted in three different space, such as Schlemm canal, the suprachoroidal space, and the subconjunctival space. This article reviews briefly the new techniques of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery.

  7. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chen, P. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  8. A 3D printed helical antenna with integrated lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2015-10-26

    A novel antenna configuration comprising a helical antenna with an integrated lens is demonstrated in this work. The antenna is manufactured by a unique combination of 3D printing of plastic material (ABS) and inkjet printing of silver nano-particle based metallic ink. The integration of lens enhances the gain by around 7 dB giving a peak gain of about 16.4 dBi at 9.4 GHz. The helical antenna operates in the end-fire mode and radiates a left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP) pattern. The 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of the antenna with lens is 3.2 %. Due to integration of lens and fully printed processing, this antenna configuration offers high gain performance and requires low cost for manufacturing.

  9. Trans-scleral selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) without a gonioscopy lens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Michael; Geffen, Noa; Goldenfeld, Modi; Ofir, Shay; Belkin, Avner; Assia, Ehud

    2016-03-01

    Developing a one-second automatic glaucoma treatment using trans-scleral laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) without a gonioscopy lens Purpose: Developing an LTP device for delivering multiple simultaneous trans-scleral applications of low energy laser irradiation to the trabecular meshwork (TM) for reducing Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Methods: Concept proof: A randomized, masked, controlled one was performed on open angle glaucoma patients. The control group underwent conventional SLT (100 laser spots through a gonioscope for 360 degrees directly on the TM). The trial group underwent irradiation by the same laser at the same irradiation parameters on the sclera overlying the TM. Topical glaucoma therapy was not changed during the 12 months trial. Feasibility trial: Using optimized laser parameters, 60 discrete applications were administered on similar locations of patients' sclera. Results: Concept proof: Trans-scleral applications: (N=15), IOP decrease from 20.21 mmHg before treatment to 16.00 (27.1%) at one year. The corresponding numbers for the control group (n=15), were 21.14 mmHg and 14.30 (23.4%). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in IOP reduction. The complications rate was significantly higher in the control group. Trial 2: IOP was reduced from an of 25.3 mmHg to 19.3 (23.7%) in the 11 patients. Conclusions: Laser coherency, lost in tissue transmission, is not required for the therapeutic effect. The new method will possibly enable treatment of angle closure glaucoma as well as simultaneous applications of all laser spots to the sclera. When used conjointly with target acquisition, will make feasible an automatic glaucoma treatment in less than one second.

  10. Glaucoma: genes, phenotypes, and new directions for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bao Jian; Wiggs, Janey L

    2010-09-01

    Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is characterized by progressive optic nerve damage, usually associated with intraocular pressure. Although the clinical progression of the disease is well defined, the molecular events responsible for glaucoma are currently poorly understood and current therapeutic strategies are not curative. This review summarizes the human genetics and genomic approaches that have shed light on the complex inheritance of glaucoma genes and the potential for gene-based and cellular therapies that this research makes possible.

  11. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  12. Evaluation of ExPress glaucoma filtration device in Indian patients with advanced glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Angmo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ExPress glaucoma filtration device (GFD has recently become available in India as a surgical option for glaucoma patients. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of ExPress GFD in 12 eyes with advanced glaucoma with intraocular pressures (IOPs not controlled on maximal tolerable medical therapy. The mean preoperative IOP of 29.58 ± 7.13 mmHg decreased to 17.0 ± 2.67 and 17.40 ± 0.89 mmHg at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Absolute success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with no additional glaucoma medications was achieved in eight cases (66.7% and qualified success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with additional glaucoma medications in two cases (16.7% at 1-year after surgery. Early intervention was needed in 4 patients; two underwent anterior chamber reformation while the other two required needling. Two patients required resurgery. There was no significant change in the best corrected visual acuity postoperatively (P = 0.37. ExPress GFD does not seem to offer a benefit over standard trabeculectomy in patients with advanced glaucomatous disease in terms of IOP control or complication rate. However, due to the small sample size with a heterogeneous mixture of primary and secondary glaucoma′s, we await further studies with a larger sample size and long-term follow-up, to see how the device performs.

  13. Combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction: a novel management option for combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Siying; Gupta, Bhaskar; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery is a developing area that has the potential to replace traditional glaucoma surgery, with its known risk profile, but at present there are no randomised controlled data to validate its use. We report on a case where sequential bilateral combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction surgery was performed on a 45-year-old woman with combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure. Maximal medical management alone could not control the intraocular pressure. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had achieved stable intraocular pressure in both eyes on a combination of topical ocular antiglaucomatous and steroid therapies. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of trabecular meshwork ablation via ab interno trabeculotomy in a case of complex mixed mechanism glaucoma. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Gender difference in the pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Shandiz

    2015-02-01

    Glaucoma is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in the world, the second leading cause of blindness in the United States, and it results in optic nerve head axonal degeneration and corresponding visual field deficits. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known modifiable risk factor in glaucoma. Non-modifiable risk factors for glaucoma include age, ethnicity, central corneal thickness, and family history. While our understanding of the role of gender as a risk factor in glaucoma development and progression remains nascent, multiple observations have shown gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of glaucoma. Depending on the type of glaucoma, hormone therapy, oral contraceptive use and menopausal status have also been associated with glaucoma. In addition, pregnancy leads to changes in IOP, while the treatment of glaucoma must be tailored based on the systemic effects of topical therapeutics on the mother and fetus. This review will focus on the epidemiologic, anatomic and endocrinologic differences in male and female glaucoma patients. In addition, this review will discuss treatment modalities that may be more appropriate for one gender than the other, especially with respect to a woman's pregnancy status.

  15. Common and rare genetic risk factors for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ryan; Wiggs, Janey L

    2014-09-18

    The characterization of genes responsible for glaucoma is the critical first step toward the development of gene-based diagnostic and screening tests, which could identify individuals at risk for disease before irreversible optic nerve damage occurs. Early-onset forms of glaucoma affecting children and young adults are typically inherited as Mendelian autosomal dominant or recessive traits whereas glaucoma affecting older adults has complex inheritance. In this report, we present a comprehensive overview of the genes and genomic regions contributing to inherited glaucoma.

  16. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Masoumpour, Masoumeh; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossein; Myers, Jonathan S.; Moster, Marlene R.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus. PMID:27582594

  17. Techniques of Glaucoma Detection From Color Fundus Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaya Kumar Nath

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a generic name for a group of diseases which causes progressive optic neuropathy and vision loss due to degeneration of the optic nerves. Optic nerve cells act as transducer and convert light signal entered into the eye to electrical signal for visual processing in the brain. The main risk factors of glaucoma are elevated intraocular pressure exerted by aqueous humour, family history of glaucoma (hereditary and diabetes. It causes damages to the eye, whether intraocular pressure is high, normal or below normal. It causes the peripheral vision loss. There are different types of glaucoma. Some glaucoma occurs suddenly. So, detection of glaucoma is essential for minimizing the vision loss. Increased cup area to disc area ratio is the significant change during glaucoma. Diagnosis of glaucoma is based on measurement of intraocular pressure by tonometry, visual field examination by perimetry and measurement of cup area to disc area ratio from the color fundus images. In this paper the different signal processing techniques are discussed for detection and classification of glaucoma.

  18. Clinical evidence in concurrence of retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei; LIN Hao-tian; BAI Yu-jing; GE Jian; ZHUO Ye-hong

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is rarely complicated by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To provide clinical evidences for this rare situation, we report the concurrence of these two diseases in two children of a Chinese family. In the present two-child Chinese family without positive history, the older sister presented with bilateral sector RP and coexisting chronic angle-closure glaucoma,and the brother with bilateral whole RP but without coexisting glaucoma. Clinical evidences in concurrence of variants of RP and glaucoma because of possible different gene mutations from the same genetic background represent a rare situation, which may provide clues for future researches in molecular pathogenesis of these rare diseases.

  19. Topiramate-associated acute, bilateral, angle-closure glaucoma: case report

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    Lucas Barasnevicius Quagliato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a topiramate induced acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma. This rare adverse effect is an idiosyncratic reaction characterized by uveal effusion and lens forward displacement, leading to increased intraocular pressure and vision loss. We describe a 55 year-old white woman with migraine, spasmodic torticollis and essential tremor, who developed bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma, one week after starting topiramate 25 mg/day. She was seen at the Ophthalmology Emergency Department of the Fundação João Penido Burnier (Campinas, SP, Brazil with a 4 hours history of blurry vision, ocular pain and bright flashes vision. Slit lamp examination revealed moderate conjunctival injection and corneal edema, and shallow anterior chambers. Intraocular pressure was 48 mmHg in both eyes. Fundoscopic examination findings were normal. She was treated with timolol, brimonidine, dorzolamide, pilocarpine, prednisone acetate eye drops and acetazolamide. One hour after those measures, as the intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg, she received a manitol intravenous injection and the intraocular pressure normalized. After 24 hours an iridotomy with Yag laser was performed. Topiramate was discontinued and she was totally recovered after one week.

  20. A case of 25 gauge vitrectomy for malignant glaucoma with microphthalmos

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    Nakajima M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Masami Nakajima, Yusuke Hara, Yoshio Yamazaki Department of Ophthalmology, Division of Visual Science, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We report the first case report of pars plana lensectomy (PPL and pars plana vitrectomy using a 25 gauge vitrectomy system for microphthalmos. Results: A 45-year-old woman reported repeated pain in her left eye, despite the use of medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a narrow angle and thickened sclera. The lens and the iris showed anterior displacement with a flattening of the ciliary body. The axial length was 15.16 mm in the right eye and 15.04 mm in the left eye. She was diagnosed with a malignant glaucoma with microphthalmos. The patient underwent PPL and pars plana vitrectomy, using a 25 gauge vitrectomy system. The intraocular pressure was well controlled after surgery without medication. Conclusion: We considered the PPL and 25 gauge vitrectomy effective in microphthalmos when performed safely. Keywords: microphthalmos, aqueous misdirection, malignant glaucoma, ultrasound biomicroscopy, 25 gauge vitrectomy

  1. The Clinical Outcomes of Three Surgical Managements on Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan; Zhang; Leilei; Teng; Ang; Li; Shaolin; Du; Yunyun; Zhu; Jian; Ge

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of trabeculectomy, phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification in the management of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).Methods: A prospective observational study was performed in 88 chronic PACG patients (97 eyes) who were divided into three groups following defined indications to receive different surgical interventions. The indications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The mean follow-up was (17.7±4.9) months.Results: Success rate in trabeculectomy, phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification group was 81.08%, 78.57‰ and 81.25‰, respectively. The anterior chamber depth was deeper and the angle was wider postoperatively vs. preoperatively both in phacotrabeculectomy and phacoemulsification group. No obvious changes were seen in trabeculectomy group. The coefficient of outflow facility of aqueous humor (C values)significantly increased in three groups postoperatively (P<0.01 ). No severe intraoperative complications were found and the incidence of postoperative complications was low. Five eyes sustained hypotony 3± 1.87 months in trabeculectomy group and 1 eye happened malignant glaucoma in phacotrabeculectomy group. The visual acuity in patients with phacotrabeculectomy plus intraocular lens implantation and those only with phacoemulsification plus intraocular lens implantation were improved 78.57% and 93.74%, respectively. No significant improvement was found in trabeculectomy group (x2 = 47.10, P<0.001).Conclusion: Three surgical interventions were beneficial to manage PACG and with co-existing cataract. The indication choosing was suggested according to visual acuity,angle closure circumference, cataract, medication requirements and optic nerve damage.Phacotrabeculectomy was recommended for angle closed ≥180° circumference while phacoemulsification for angle closed < 180°.

  2. Glaucoma congenito primario : uma entidade genetica heterogenea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Trevas Maciel

    1986-01-01

    Resumo: A visão clássica sobre o mecanismo de herança do glaucoma congênito primário é a que essa anomalia é sempre transmitida de modo autossômico recessivo monogênico. A análise dos dados familiais de 1408 portadores dessa anomalia mostra que o glaucoma congênito primário é, na verdade, uma entidade genética heterogênea, visto que foi possível detectar pelo menos duas formas autossômicas monogênicas dessa doença, sendo uma dominante e outra recessiva. Há, ainda, um grande contingente de anô...

  3. Lasers in the treatment of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Tadeusz

    1995-03-01

    The task of the laser methods of glaucoma treatment used up to the present day is to reduce the intraocular pressure. They are the modification of the surgical procedures. The radiation of the laser is the tool that enables us to perform the procedure in a more precise and safe manner. Most of the procedures are ambulatory, thus, making the expenses for the treatment lower. The results of the treatment are satisfactory, and in many cases, enable the patient to avoid surgical procedures. In practice, for the anti-glaucoma procedures the argon laser, YAG Nd+3, of free generation, and Q-switch, Holm laser, are being used. The perspectives to use other lasers also exist.

  4. Evidence-based Management of Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangfan Yang; Minbin Yu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a new medical mode that is completely different from traditional experience-based medicine. The core of EBM is that decision-making during clinical practices must be based on objective research results.With the rapid development of modern ophthalmology, some former viewpoints according to experience-based medicine face challenges. Evidence-based ophthalmology (EBO) is imperative under the situation. Glaucoma, as a disease resulting in blindness, which can not be cured by operation, is thought more and more of by medical management officials and doctors. One challenge for ophthalmologists entering the 21st century will be to make clinical decisions based on valid information or evidence rather than intuition, hearsay, or peer practice. How can we do? Here reviews the application of EBM in medical management of glaucoma since EBM' s naissance and give a reference.

  5. Management strategies in malignant glaucoma secondary to antiglaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the outcomes of various interventions for malignant glaucoma (MG. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative analysis of case series were performed on 38 eyes of 35 MG patients treated in Aier Eye Hospital of Wuhan between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2012. Numerous treatments were administered including medical therapy, neodymium: yttrium- aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy as well as 3 surgical options. The characteristic, treatment option and outcome of MG in every individual patient were reviewed and analyzed among all patients who were followed up for an average of 27.1±9.1mo. RESULTS: Four eyes of 3 patients achieved complete resolution with medical therapy. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy were performed on 2 eyes, both of which achieved resolution after initial intervention. Thirty-two eyes were given surgical treatments with anterior vitrectomy- reformation of anterior chamber in 13 eyes, phacoemulsification- intraocular lens implantation in 10 eyes and phacoemulsification- intraocular lens implantation- anterior vitrectomy in 9 eyes. Resolution of MG was seen in almost all patients. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 41.87±9.44 mm Hg at presentation to 15.84±3.73 mm Hg at the last visit. The mean anterior chamber depth improved from 0.28±0.27 mm to 2.28±0.19 mm. Twenty eyes with preoperative visual acuity better than counting figure/ 50 cm had various visual improvements. Complications occurred in 3 eyes of 3 patients including bleeding at the entry site of vitrectomy into vitreous cavity, corneal endothelial decompensation and allergic to atropine respectively. CONCLUSION: MG occurs as a result of multiple mechanisms involved simultaneously or sequentially.Medical therapy is advocated as the initial treatment, laser therapy is beneficial in pseudophakic eyes, and different surgical regimen is recommended based on different pathogenesis of MG when non-response occurs

  6. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD

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    Leffler CT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Leffler,1 Stephen G Schwartz,2 Tamer M Hadi,3 Ali Salman,1 Vivek Vasuki1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Naples, FL, USA; 3Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green. During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal green iris or (diseased green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Keywords: glaucoma, history of ophthalmology, couching

  7. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  8. Copper vapor laser prospects in glaucoma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Arcady P.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Egorov, Alexey E.; Shaban, Naim; Ponomarev, Igor V.

    1996-05-01

    New advances of copper vapor laser (CVL-laser) have been studied. Two wavelength radiation of the laser (511 nm and 578 nm) gives deeper permeability into organic tissues. Besides, the short pulse prevents the warm relaxation of small vessels. The technical data of CVL-laser: operating regime -- pulse, pulse duration -- 20 ns, pulse frequency 15000 pulse/sec. The shutter works in intervals from 0.05 to 2.0 sec. The power varies in accordance with wavelength: 511 nm (green) -- 1.5 W, 578 nm (yellow) -- 1, 2 W. The diameter of coagulate may be different: 100, 150, 400, 1000 mkm. We chose CVL-laser 'Femta,' created by P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, for ophthalmological use. Thirty eight eyes of 37 patients with different types and stages of glaucoma were studied and treated with CVL-laser. The operations of photomydriasis, gonioplasty and trabeculoplasty have been performed. CVL- laser demonstrated efficient application in treatment of interior eye segment of glaucoma patients. The advantages and disadvantages of the CVL-laser application in glaucoma surgery were discussed.

  9. [Basic biochemical processes in glaucoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thun und Hohenstein-Blaul, N; Kunst, S; Pfeiffer, N; Grus, F H

    2015-05-01

    The term glaucoma summarizes a group of eye diseases that are accompanied by impairments of the optic nerve and related visual field deficits. An early diagnosis of glaucoma is currently not possible due to a lack of diagnostic tests; therefore, in most cases the disease is diagnosed many years after onset, which prevents an early therapy. The known risk factors for the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy comprise elevated intraocular pressure and a broad range of pressure fluctuations as well as lipometabolic disorders, genetic factor and diabetes. The consequences include the induction of anti-inflammatory proteins, elevated levels of oxidative stress and the destruction of retinal ganglion cells. Changes in the autoantibody repertoire have also been observed in the course of the disease. Basic ophthalmological research therefore focuses on the investigation of basic biochemical processes in the course of the disease. A better understanding of physiological and biochemical events is sought in order to develop new and more sensitive diagnostic options and to allow more targeted therapeutic measures. The understanding of biochemical processes allows a better insight into glaucoma progression to be gained, which will lead to improvements in diagnosis and therapy.

  10. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

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    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  11. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

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    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  12. LASER INDUCED THERMAL LENS EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈俊; 黄孟才; 江景云; 施教芳

    1991-01-01

    The thermal lens effect has emerged in recent years as a novel ,highly sensitive tool for the study of the very weak molecular absorption of light energy,This paper discusses the theory and technique of the thermal lens measurement.Some opplications of the thermal lens measurement are described.A mode-mismatched dual-beam thermal lens experimental arragement with a modulated probe beam ,designed by the authors.for trace analysis is presented,and its detection limit was found to be 4.1×10-7 for Cu(Ⅱ) in ethanol and 80 mW excitation power.

  13. [Health economical aspects of telemedical glaucoma monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierk, T; Jürgens, C; Grossjohann, R; Flessa, S; Tost, F

    2011-04-01

    Telemedical home monitoring of glaucoma patients is not covered by health insurance in Germany. Various clinical studies have indicated that 24 h monitoring of intraocular and blood pressure of glaucoma patients allows a better evaluation of the individual disease condition. If the necessary parameters can be collected with telemedical home monitoring it will be possible to reduce the number of 24 h intraocular pressure profiles which necessitate hospital admission. Therefore inpatient 24 h profiles have been chosen as a health economical allocation base with a presentable economical value for the comparative examination. Assuming an at least identical or even higher clinical outcome of the telemedical glaucoma home monitoring inpatient 24 h profiles were chosen as a health economical allocation base to compare and contrast these methods. All procedures of the inpatient 24 h profiles at the ophthalmic clinic of Greifswald were measured using the stopwatch method. In a 1 day test run all activities of the medical staff were identified and documented in a list and afterwards measurements were carried out over 7 days with several stopwatches to allow the documentation of parallel activities. To determine the consumption of resources in telemedical home monitoring the self-documentation of all employees involved in the research project TT-MV were evaluated. Expert interviews helped to determine the economically relevant data about the applied medical technology, e.g. measuring devices, server and electronic health records. The number and complexity of the subprocesses of the inpatient 24 h intraocular pressure profiles were significantly higher compared to telemedical home monitoring. The total costs of the inpatient 24 h profiles were 571.21 € per patient including 291.21 € for medical care and 280 € for accommodation. In contrast the total costs of telemedical home monitoring were 288.72 € per patient. A direct cost comparison shows that telemedical home

  14. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil

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    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El glaucoma no es frecuente en los niños, pero cuando ocurre sus síntomas son poco perceptibles y produce graves consecuencias para la salud visual. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar, desde las aristas clínica y epidemiológica, a los pacientes con glaucoma juvenil atendidos en los servicios de oftalmología de los Hospitales Pediátricos del Cerro y «Pedro Borrás», en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 176 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, con presunto glaucoma. La muestra, después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, quedó conformada por 38 casos. Se analizaron las variables: edad al momento del diagnóstico, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares según grado de parentesco, agudeza visual máxima corregida, tipo de defecto refractivo, características del ángulo camerular, espesor corneal central, valor de la presión intraocular, alteraciones fundoscópicas y campimétricas. RESULTADOS. En la mayoría de los pacientes el diagnóstico de glaucoma juvenil constituyó un hallazgo. La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 12,5 años, con ligero predominio de varones y de la piel no blanca. Fue más frecuente el antecedente de glaucoma en familiares de segundo grado de consanguinidad. La mayoría de los casos tenía visión óptima, algún grado de miopía y ángulo abierto sin alteraciones evidentes del ángulo camerular, entre las cuales la más frecuente fue la presencia de procesos iridianos prominentes. CONCLUSIONES. Predominaron la disminución moderada del espesor corneal y valores medios de presión intraocular de 26,91 mm Hg. La alteración fundoscópica encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la excavación papilar moderada (entre 0,4 y 0,5 y como lesión campimétrica, el aumento de la mancha

  15. Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma

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    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.

  16. The impact of available anti-glaucoma therapy on the volume and age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, P A

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether new classes of glaucoma medication have influenced glaucoma filtration surgery over a 20-year period in the southeast region of Ireland. METHODS: All patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery between January 1986 and December 2005 in Waterford Regional Hospital were identified. The following data were recorded for each patient: age; sex; and type of filtration procedure. RESULTS: Over the 20-year study period two consultant ophthalmic surgeons performed a total of 760 glaucoma filtration procedures on patients aged over 20 years. The annual average number of glaucoma surgeries declined steadily, defined by availability of different topical anti-glaucoma medications, from an average of 23.75 surgeries per surgeon per year in the subperiod 1986-1995, to 21 in 1996, 20 in 1997, and 12.69 surgeries per surgeon per year in 1998-2005, these differences being statistically significant (general linear model, P<0.001). The age profile of patients did not change significantly over the course of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The volume of patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery under the care of two consultant ophthalmic surgeons decreased over the 20-year study period, an era in which three classes of anti-glaucoma medications were made available. However, an increase in the age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery during the same period was not observed. Further study is required to resolve whether introduction of the new topical anti-glaucoma medications has led to a real reduction in the demand for glaucoma filtration surgery, or has just led to the deferral of such a demand.

  17. the first experience of phakoemulsification with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno for combined cataract and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe of a new effective method of combined treatment of patients with primary open- angle glaucoma with mod- erately elevated intraocular pressure and cataract.Methods: Studies have been conducted among 30 patients (30 eyes from 46 to 85 years with a combination of cataract of varying degrees of maturity and open-angle glaucoma of different stages. In addition to the standard techniques there were used special clini- cal and functional methods of research: optical cogerent tomography of the anterior segment of the eye Visante OCt (Carl Zeiss, Ger- many, glaucomatous cupping and thickness of nerve fibers study using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope HRt II (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. In accordance with the target patients were divided into 2 groups: the basic group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes aged 63 to 76 years with primary open angle glaucoma of 1-2 stages and cataracts of varying degrees of maturity. In both groups there was performed the ultrasonic phakoemulsification of the lens on the phakoemulsificator Infinity (Alcon, US.Results: the analysis of intraocular pressure measurements showed that among patients from I and II group eye pressure had a downward trend in the early postoperative period, however, the average dynamics of reduction of the intraocular pressure in the group of patients where phakoemulsification and vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno performed was higher than in the control group. In the gonioscopy of the corner of the anterior chamber the clinical presentation remained stable throughout the period of observation. In the postoperative period among patients in the main observation group according to OCt it was noted changing the depth of the anterior chamber of eye towards its increase by an average of 1.39 mm, as well as increasing the angle of the anterior chamber at an average of 9.98.Conclusion: Phakoemulsification with IOL implantation combined with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno is

  18. the first experience of phakoemulsification with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno for combined cataract and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe of a new effective method of combined treatment of patients with primary open- angle glaucoma with mod- erately elevated intraocular pressure and cataract.Methods: Studies have been conducted among 30 patients (30 eyes from 46 to 85 years with a combination of cataract of varying degrees of maturity and open-angle glaucoma of different stages. In addition to the standard techniques there were used special clini- cal and functional methods of research: optical cogerent tomography of the anterior segment of the eye Visante OCt (Carl Zeiss, Ger- many, glaucomatous cupping and thickness of nerve fibers study using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope HRt II (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. In accordance with the target patients were divided into 2 groups: the basic group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes aged 63 to 76 years with primary open angle glaucoma of 1-2 stages and cataracts of varying degrees of maturity. In both groups there was performed the ultrasonic phakoemulsification of the lens on the phakoemulsificator Infinity (Alcon, US.Results: the analysis of intraocular pressure measurements showed that among patients from I and II group eye pressure had a downward trend in the early postoperative period, however, the average dynamics of reduction of the intraocular pressure in the group of patients where phakoemulsification and vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno performed was higher than in the control group. In the gonioscopy of the corner of the anterior chamber the clinical presentation remained stable throughout the period of observation. In the postoperative period among patients in the main observation group according to OCt it was noted changing the depth of the anterior chamber of eye towards its increase by an average of 1.39 mm, as well as increasing the angle of the anterior chamber at an average of 9.98.Conclusion: Phakoemulsification with IOL implantation combined with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno is

  19. glaucoma proceedingings of the ophthalmological society of nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    VCDR difference of 0.2 and above and were considered Glaucoma. Suspects ... and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma ... [Downloaded free from http://www.nigerianjournalofophthalmology.com on Friday, November 04, 2016, ..... and shots used was 1535.4 mW and 47.9 (seeing eyes) and 1616.7.

  20. Latanoprost systemic exposure in pediatric and adult patients with glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raber, Susan; Courtney, Rachel; Maeda-Chubachi, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate short-term safety and steady-state systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of latanoprost acid in pediatric subjects with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who received the adult latanoprost dose.......To evaluate short-term safety and steady-state systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of latanoprost acid in pediatric subjects with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who received the adult latanoprost dose....

  1. [Malignant glaucoma following blunt trauma of the eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Klevering, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ciliary block glaucoma most commonly occurs after intraocular surgery. We report a case of malignant glaucoma following blunt trauma of the eye with no previous surgery or laser. PATIENT: A 54-year-old female suffered from acute elevation of intraocular pressure on her right eye after blunt

  2. Role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis and treatment of glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-jiao; GE Jian; ZHUO Ye-hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To gain insight into the potential mechanism of mitochondria dysfunction in pathogenesis,progression and therapeutic management of glaucoma.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly published in English from 2000 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "mitochondria","glaucoma" and 'trabecular meshwork" or "retinal ganglion cells".Study selection Articles studying the mitochondria-related pathologic mechanism and treatment of glaucoma were selected and reviewed.Results Mitochondrial dysfunction or injury was demonstrated in different eye tissue of glaucoma.A variety of potential injuries (light,toxic materials,oxidative injury,mechanical stress,aging,etc.) and the inherent DNA defects are deemed to cause mitochondrial structural and functional destruction in trabecular meshwork cells,retinal ganglion cells,etc.of glaucoma.In addition,various new experimental and therapeutic interventions were used to preserve mitochondrial function,which may be useful for protecting against optic nerve degeneration or reducing the death of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma.Conclusions Mitochondria play an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma,various strategies targeting mitochondrial protection might provide a promising way to delay the onset of glaucoma or protect RGCs against glaucomatous damage.

  3. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE ASYMMETRY: AN INDICATOR FOR GLAUCOMA DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha R.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To investigate the amount of intraocular pressure asymmetry between fellow eyes in patients with and without primary open angle glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective case control study conducted at a tertiary care hospital of Central India. A single pre-treatment IOP of the primary open angle glaucoma patients was recorded from the Glaucoma Clinic data from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013. The inter-eye IOP asymmetry of these cases was compared with normal subjects without primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. RESULTS There were 84 (POAG glaucoma patients and 168 control subjects in the study. It was observed that 23.8% patients suffering from glaucoma had an asymmetry of 2 mmHg while 20.23% had no asymmetry. Asymmetry as high as >20 mmHg was also seen in glaucomatous patients. Intraocular pressure asymmetry was a significant factor for having glaucoma (Odds ratio, 18.89%; P<0.001. CONCLUSION Inter-eye asymmetry of IOP is a common finding in patients with POAG. There is a direct relationship between the amount of IOP asymmetry between the fellow eyes and the likelihood of having glaucoma.

  4. Common genetic variants associated with open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Lemij, Hans G.; Pasutto, Francesca; Cree, Angela J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Janssen, Sarah F.; Jacoline, Ten Brink; Amin, Najaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Walters, G. Bragi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Weisschuh, Nicole; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gibson, Jane; Zegers, Richard H. C.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gramer, Eugen; Welgen-Luessen, Ulrich C.; Kirwan, James F.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Stefansson, Kari; Lotery, Andrew J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma (glaucoma) is a major eye disorder characterized by optic disc pathology. Recent genome-wide association studies identified new loci associated with clinically relevant optic disc parameters, such as the optic disc area and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). We examined to what exte

  5. The interactions of genes, age, and environment in glaucoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Lance P; Rasnitsyn, Alexandra; Seifi, Morteza; Walter, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma, a progressive degenerative condition that results in the death of retinal ganglion cells, is one of the leading causes of blindness, affecting millions worldwide. The mechanisms underlying glaucoma are not well understood, although years of studies have shown that the largest risk factors are elevated intraocular pressure, age, and genetics. Eleven genes and multiple loci have been identified as contributing factors. These genes act by a number of mechanisms, including mechanical stress, ischemic/oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. We summarize the recent advances in the understanding of glaucoma and propose a unified hypothesis for glaucoma pathogenesis. Glaucoma does not result from a single pathological mechanism, but rather a combination of pathways that are influenced by genes, age, and environment. In particular, we hypothesize that, in the presence of genetic risk factors, exposure to environment stresses results in an earlier age of onset for glaucoma. This hypothesis is based upon the overlap of the molecular pathways in which glaucoma genes are involved. Because of the interactions between these processes, it is likely that there are common therapies that may be effective for different subtypes of glaucoma.

  6. Giant prolactinoma mimicking low-tension glaucoma at presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David; Gillan, Stewart Neil; Goudie, Colin; Sanders, Roshini

    2015-02-06

    We describe a case of a 68-year-old man, referred by his optometrist with suspected low-tension glaucoma, who presented with advanced cupped optic discs and field of vision loss that were subsequently found to be due to a giant prolactinoma. Failing vision in low-tension glaucoma suspects should have a low threshold for neuroimaging.

  7. Some diagnostic and therapeutic controversies in glaucoma addressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier Peter Hendrik Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the five studies contained in this thesis, several controversies on the diagnosis of and therapy for glaucoma have been addressed. The first part of this thesis consisted of three studies that aimed tot improve existing technologies for diagnosing glaucoma. The latter part consisted of two

  8. Primary congenital glaucoma associated with Patau syndrome with long survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaru-Ampornpan, Pimkwan; Kuchtey, John; Dev, V G; Kuchtey, Rachel

    2010-06-23

    Ocular abnormalities are common in Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), but only a few cases with congenital glaucoma have been reported, some of which were associated with other ocular defects. This report describes a case of primary congenital glaucoma in an 11-year-old patient with full trisomy 13.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of glaucoma : an epidemiologic approach (The Rotterdam Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dielemans (Ida)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is an eye disease characterized by damage to the optic nerve head and related visual field defects, often accompanied by elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma is an important cause of blindness, particularly in the elderly. One may divide glaucoma in primary glaucoma without k

  10. Association of ABO blood groups with glaucoma in the Pakistani population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Akhtar, F.; Naveed, A.; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of blood groups with different types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary closed-angle glaucoma (PCAG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) in the Pakistani population. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was a prospective case control s

  11. Prevalence and determinants of glaucoma : an epidemiologic approach (The Rotterdam Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dielemans (Ida)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is an eye disease characterized by damage to the optic nerve head and related visual field defects, often accompanied by elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma is an important cause of blindness, particularly in the elderly. One may divide glaucoma in primary glaucoma without k

  12. Prevalence and determinants of glaucoma : an epidemiologic approach (The Rotterdam Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dielemans (Ida)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractGlaucoma is an eye disease characterized by damage to the optic nerve head and related visual field defects, often accompanied by elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma is an important cause of blindness, particularly in the elderly. One may divide glaucoma in primary glaucoma without

  13. Physics of electrostatic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this program was to study the physics of the ion-energy boosting electrostatic lens for collective ion acceleration in the Luce diode. Extensive work was done in preparation for experiments on the PI Pulserad 1150. Analytic work was done on the orbit of protons in a mass spectrometer and a copper stack for nuclear activation analysis of proton energy spectrum has been designed. Unfortunately, a parallel program which would provide the Luce diode for the collective ion acceleration experiment never materialized. As a result no experiments were actually performed on the Pulserad 1150.

  14. Glaucoma and globe enlargement associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jose; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Bosley, Thomas M

    2009-09-01

    To describe the features of glaucoma and globe enlargement sometimes associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Single institution, retrospective, and cross-sectional study. Eighty medical records of patients treated at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Saudi Arabia with NF1 were reviewed, and 46 patients were examined. We reviewed the charts of patients with NF1 and examined available individuals, including gonioscopy, axial length, and ultrasound biomicroscopy in appropriate patients. Presence and type of glaucoma, anterior chamber angle abnormalities, globe axial length, ultrasound biomicroscopy, and visual outcome. Two patient groups were identified: Group 1 had 56 patients with orbito-facial NF1, and group 2 had 24 patients with NF1 but without orbito-facial involvement. Group 1 included 13 patients with glaucoma (23%), which occurred only ipsilateral to the orbito-facial involvement and generally presented before age 3 years. Glaucoma surgery was required in all of these patients, and visual prognosis was poor. In group 1, mean axial length on the side affected by NF1 was 29.8+/-4.1 mm in patients with glaucoma and 25.6+/-2.0 mm in patients without glaucoma. Patients with glaucoma (Pglobes on the affected side. Group 2 patients had a mean axial length of 23.6+/-1.6 mm for both eyes without significant globe asymmetry. In this Arab population, glaucoma associated with orbito-facial NF1 occurred less often than the 50% rate that is typically cited. Glaucoma presented early in life and only in patients with ipsilateral orbito-facial involvement. Glaucoma in this setting was always associated with globe enlargement. Glaucoma required surgery, and visual prognosis was poor because of glaucoma and concurrent pathology. Globe enlargement was most severe when associated with glaucoma but also present on the side with orbito-facial involvement in patients without glaucoma. The presence of neurofibroma may induce globe enlargement on the affected side in

  15. The biometric study in different stages of primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Sheu, S-J; Chou, P

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the general and ocular biometric characteristics of normal, primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients to better understand the possible relationship between differences in ocular parameters that might predict risk for PACG in PAC patients. One hundred normal, 90 PAC, and 90 PACG eyes were retrospectively reviewed. General characteristics such as age, gender, body height, body weight, blood pressure, pulse, systemic diseases, and education level were recorded. Ocular findings included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction, cup to disc ratio, and ocular biometry. Ocular biometry was obtained by A-scan ultrasonography (Digital A/B scan 5500; Sonomed Inc., Lake Success, NY, USA). The parameters recorded were anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), axial length (AXL), lens/axial length factor (LAF), and relative lens position (RLP). Although the controls, PAC group, and PACG group were found to be significantly different in age (62.7±9.8; 65.3±7.5; and 66.0±7.4, respectively), there were no gender differences. With regard to ocular parameters, the ACD tended to decrease and the LT and LAF tended to increase from normal to PAC to PACG. The eyes of the PACG group had significantly shallower ACD (P<0.001) and thicker lens (P<0.001) than those of the PAC group. While PAC had similar lens position to the control group, PACG had more anteriorly positioned lens than the PAC group (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis found a significant association between a decrease in ACD and increased risk of PACG (odds ratio (OR)=3.59 for 0.2 mm decrease in ACD) as well as a significant association between an increase in LT and increased risk of PACG (OR=1.30). In addition to LT, a shallower ACD owing to a change in RLP may have a role in the progression from PAC to PACG. Owing to the differences of certain biometric characteristics between PAC and PACG, A-scan ultrasonography might potentially be used

  16. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma.

  17. Present and New Treatment Strategies in the Management of Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    of RGCs. In this matter, recent approaches aim to rescue RGCs and regenerate axons in order to restore visual function in glaucoma. The present review seeks to provide an overview of the present and new treatment strategies in the management of glaucoma. The treatment strategies are divided into current...... risk factor for progression of the disease. However, it is clear that a significant number of glaucoma patients show disease progression despite of pressure lowering treatments. Much attention has been given to the development of neuroprotective treatment strategies, but the identification of such has...... been hampered by lack of understanding of the etiology of glaucoma. Hence, in spite of many attempts no neuroprotective drug has yet been clinically approved. Even though neuroprotection is without doubt an important treatment strategy, many glaucoma subjects are diagnosed after substantial loss...

  18. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed.

  19. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  20. Nanotechnology and glaucoma: a review of the potential implications of glaucoma nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nathaniel J; Harris, Alon; Gerber, Austin; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Amireskandari, Annahita; Huck, Andrew; Siesky, Brent

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of nanotechnology and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the field of ophthalmology, particularly as it pertains to glaucoma. We reviewed literature using MEDLINE and PubMed databases with the following search terms: glaucoma, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, ophthalmology and liposomes. We also reviewed pertinent references from articles found in this search. A brief history of nanotechnology and nanomedicine will be covered, followed by a discussion of the advantages and concerns of using this technology in the field of glaucoma. We will look at various studies concerning the development of nanomedicine, its potential applications in ocular drug delivery, diagnostic and imaging modalities and, surgical techniques. In particular, the challenges of assuring safety and efficacy of nanomedicine will be examined. We conclude that nanotechnology offers a novel approach to expanding diagnostic, imaging and surgical modalities in glaucoma and may contribute to the knowledge of disease pathogenesis at a molecular level. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the mechanism of cellular entry, the potential for nanoparticle cytotoxicity and the assurance of clinical efficacy.

  1. Clinical observation of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma by directly puncturing the sclerotic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinic effects and complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGVimplantation in refractory glaucoma by using the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel.METHODS: Forty-four cases(44 eyesof refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation by useing the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel. The intraocular pressure(IOP, visual acuity, and complication of post-operation were contrasted with those of pre-operation. RESULTS:The success rate was 84.1%, the mean preoperative IOP in research group was 52.1±10.1mmHg, and the last follow up mean IOP was 15.6±6.9mmHg. Compared with the preoperative visual acuity, 11 eyes increased, 27 eyes had no changes and 6 eyes decreased. The main post-operative complications included shallow anterior chamber(4 eyes, choroidal detachment(3 eyes, drainage tube shift(1 eye, hyphema(6 eyes, drainage tube blockage(1 eye, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage(1 eye, and fiber wrap of drainage tray(5 eyes.CONCLUSION: AGV implantation by direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel is feasible and easy. It avoids of making sclerotic petal and the xenogenic sclera transplanting, simplified the operation technique, prevent the leakage of around tube. The shallow anterior chamber rate is lower. It is an effective procedure for refractory glaucoma.

  2. [Medicinal glaucoma therapy. What can we learn from large randomized clinical trials?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünemann, A G M; Huchzermeyer, C; Rejdak, R

    2013-12-01

    The prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) Ocular Hypertension Glaucoma Treatment Study (OHTS), Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CITGS) and Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study (CNGTS) are often named as landmarks for glaucoma management as the results of these studies provided the evidence for numerous therapeutic decisions in clinical practice. The studies confirmed the consensus that reduction of intraocular pressure reduces the risk of glaucoma progression covering the whole spectrum of glaucoma from ocular hypertension to advanced glaucoma. Furthermore, the identification of new risk factors allows a higher precision of assessment of the risk of progression. The RCTs achieved the main goal of high level of evidence, thus making progress in the understanding of glaucoma and its treatment and bridging consensus-based and evidence-based decisions. However, the implementation of the results into clinical practice needs adequate and accurate interpretation of the results.

  3. A novel approach to glaucoma screening and education in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Ger V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide and an increasingly significant global health problem. Glaucoma prevention and management efforts have been challenging due to inherent difficulty in developing a simple and cost-effective screening plan, limited access to health care and educational resources, poverty, and inadequate knowledge of the disease, particularly in developing countries. Starting in 2004 the Tilganga Eye Centre in Kathmandu, Nepal has provided targeted glaucoma screening, treatment, and education through a combination of clinical outreach programs and educational activities for patients. Methods A simple, age-based glaucoma screening algorithm was incorporated into three one-day cataract screening clinics. Using this algorithm, patients who were newly diagnosed with glaucoma were referred to TEC, where medication and surgery were provided free of charge through private donor funding. In addition, we describe two ongoing educational programs for increasing glaucoma awareness: an annual Glaucoma Awareness Week (which includes free screening, treatment, and counseling, and a repeating lecture series which generates new counselors. Results From 2004 to 2007 screening at the annual Glaucoma Awareness Week resulted in the diagnosis of 120 individuals with glaucoma, or 7.6% of total registrants. Attendance increased annually with a trend toward an increasing number of returning patients but a decreasing percentage of newly diagnosed patients, though the absolute numbers have remained relatively stable (range 21 to 38. Data from the three one-day screening clinics in 2006 show that approximately 2 to 4% of patients 50 years of age or older per clinic were newly diagnosed with POAG. Conclusion This multi-faceted approach appears to successfully identify individuals with glaucoma and provide treatment to those who would otherwise not be able to afford it. While more data is needed to validate this model

  4. Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzpour, Amir; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report hydrophilic acylic intraocular lens (IOL) opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) in an eye with multiple prior intraocular surgeries and iatrogenic aniridia. Case Report: A 34-year-old woman with history of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for advanced keratoconus and subsequent Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) underwent phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL implantation for her cataract. In order to control post-PKP glaucoma, multiple glaucoma surgeries including two glaucoma drainage implants were performed. As the original corneal graft failed, the patient subsequently underwent re-PKP. Four years later, she underwent DSAEK for treatment of the second graft failure. Ten months after DSAEK, a double semi-circular pattern of IOL opacification was observed on the anterior surface of the IOL. The patient did not report any complaints and we decided not to exchange the IOL. Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27413506

  5. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  6. Late-Onset Endophthalmitis Secondary to Exposed Glaucoma Tube Implant in a Rare Case of Paediatric Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Ranganath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs are used to treat paediatric glaucoma resistant to conventional medical and surgical treatment, achieving good intraocular pressure (IOP control and long-term success. Late endophthalmitis is a rare complication that may develop following GDI surgery. A 17-year-old male presented with acute endophthalmitis 2 years after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with pericardial patch graft for management of refractory glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uveae. The glaucoma tube was exposed due to erosion of the overlying conjunctiva with no visible pericardial graft. After control of active infection, he underwent tube revision surgery whereby the exposed tube was retained and repatched with a double-thickness pericardial patch graft. He did well following surgery with good control of IOP and restoration of vision. Conjunctival dehiscence with graft melting over the GDI tube presented a major risk factor for endophthalmitis. Prompt surgical revision of an exposed tube is highly recommended to avoid ocular morbidity.

  7. Higher serum lipids and oxidative stress in patients with normal tension glaucoma, but not pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Necat; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Bayindir, Asli; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Giray, Ozlem; Sayrac, Suha; Tekeli, Seckin Ozgur; Eren, Esin

    2016-01-01

    This study entailed a cross-examination of oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON1) phenotypes, and levels of serum routine lipids among patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) compared with healthy control groups. We aimed to investigate the links between oxidative stress (OS), HDL-related antioxidant enzyme activities and dyslipidemia in distinct subtypes of glaucoma. The study included 32 patients with NTG, 31 patients with PEXG, and 40 control subjects. Levels of PON1 and arylesterase enzymatic activity, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status were measured by spectrophotometry and OS indexes (OSI) were calculated. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined using the dual substrate method. Blood serum levels of HDL, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were measured. The TOS and OSI values in the NTG group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (both p < 0.01). The phenotype distribution found in the glaucoma and control groups were NTG: QQ, 59.4%; QR, 37.5%; RR, 3.1%; PEXG: QQ, 45.1%; QR, 48.4%; RR, 6.5%; and in the control group: QQ, 42.5%; QR, 50.0%; RR, 7.5%. Serum TC levels were significantly higher than the control in both NTG and PEXG groups, whereas TG was significantly higher in NTG only (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively). Hyperlipidemia, OS and variations in phenotype distribution of PON1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of different types of glaucoma. PMID:26773174

  8. Higher serum lipids and oxidative stress in patients with normal tension glaucoma, but not pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necat Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entailed a cross-examination of oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON1 phenotypes, and levels of serum routine lipids among patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG compared with healthy control groups. We aimed to investigate the links between oxidative stress (OS, HDL-related antioxidant enzyme activities and dyslipidemia in distinct subtypes of glaucoma. The study included 32 patients with NTG, 31 patients with PEXG, and 40 control subjects. Levels of PON1 and arylesterase enzymatic activity, total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant status were measured by spectrophotometry and OS indexes (OSI were calculated. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined using the dual substrate method. Blood serum levels of HDL, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol (TC, and triglyceride (TG were measured. The TOS and OSI values in the NTG group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (both p < 0.01. The phenotype distribution found in the glaucoma and control groups were NTG: QQ, 59.4%; QR, 37.5%; RR, 3.1%; PEXG: QQ, 45.1%; QR, 48.4%; RR, 6.5%; and in the control group: QQ, 42.5%; QR, 50.0%; RR, 7.5%. Serum TC levels were significantly higher than the control in both NTG and PEXG groups, whereas TG was significantly higher in NTG only (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively. Hyperlipidemia, OS and variations in phenotype distribution of PON1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of different types of glaucoma.

  9. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cham A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdourahman Cham,1,2 Mayank Bansal,3 Himanshu K Banda,4 Young Kwon,1 Paul S Tlucek,1 Alexander G Bassuk,5 Stephen H Tsang,6,7 Warren M Sobol,8 James C Folk,1 Steven Yeh,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 6Barbara and Donald Jonas Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 7Edward S Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 8Retina Physicians & Surgeons, Inc., Dayton, OH, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods: A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT were also analyzed. Results: Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5 required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Glaucoma Patients in Shared Care: an Economic Evaluation alongside a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer-Goor, K.M.; van Sprundel, E.; Lemij, H.G.; Plochg, T.; Klazinga, N.S.; Koopmanschap, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Population aging increases the number of glaucoma patients which leads to higher workloads of glaucoma specialists. If stable glaucoma patients were monitored by optometrists and ophthalmic technicians in a glaucoma follow-up unit (GFU) rather than by glaucoma specialists, the

  11. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring glaucoma patients in shared care: An economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); E. van Sprundel (Esther); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Population aging increases the number of glaucoma patients which leads to higher workloads of glaucoma specialists. If stable glaucoma patients were monitored by optometrists and ophthalmic technicians in a glaucoma follow-up unit (GFU) rather than by glaucoma specialists, th

  12. A novel implantable glaucoma valve using ferrofluid.

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    Eleftherios I Paschalis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a novel design of an implantable glaucoma valve based on ferrofluidic nanoparticles and to compare it with a well-established FDA approved valve. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. METHODS: A glaucoma valve was designed using soft lithography techniques utilizing a water-immiscible magnetic fluid (ferrofluid as a pressure-sensitive barrier to aqueous flow. Two rare earth micro magnets were used to calibrate the opening and closing pressure. In-vitro flow measurements were performed to characterize the valve and to compare it to Ahmed™ glaucoma valve. The reliability and predictability of the new valve was verified by pressure/flow measurements over a period of three months and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis over a period of eight weeks. In vivo assessment was performed in three rabbits. RESULTS: In the in vitro experiments, the opening and closing pressures of the valve were 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. The measured flow/pressure response was linearly proportional and reproducible over a period of three months (1.8 µl/min at 12 mmHg; 4.3 µl/min at 16 mmHg; 7.6 µl/min at 21 mmHg. X-ray diffraction analysis did not show oxidization of the ferrofluid when exposed to water or air. Preliminary in vivo results suggest that the valve is biocompatible and can control the intraocular pressure in rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed valve utilizes ferrofluid as passive, tunable constriction element to provide highly predictable opening and closing pressures while maintaining ocular tone. The ferrofluid maintained its magnetic properties in the aqueous environment and provided linear flow to pressure response. Our in-vitro tests showed reliable and reproducible results over a study period of three months. Preliminary in-vivo results were very promising and currently more thorough investigation of this device is underway.

  13. Glaucoma in Costa RIca. Initial approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Azofeifa-Navas, Jorge; Chavarría-Soley, Gabriela

    2004-01-01

    El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genetico de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1AGLC1F) y dos genes (TIGNMY0C y OPTN) se conocen. hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparicion de glauet)-- mas primarios de angulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG) como del tipo de adultos (COAG). Ademas, dos loci (GLC3A,GLC3B) y un gene (CYPIBI) se hen descubierto coma causal del tipu primariu congenit...

  14. Glaucoma detection with damato multifixation campimetry online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ane Sophie; Alberti, M.; Serup, L.;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate Damato Multifixation Campimetry Online (DMCO), a free-of-charge internet-based visual field test. DMCO exists in three versions: DMCO BASIC, DMCO STANDARD, and DMCO ADVANCED. The main focus was (i) to investigate the sensitivity and the specificity of the existing DMCO versions...... eye to complete the DMCO STANDARD test was 86 s for the control group and 125 s in participants with glaucoma. Conclusions DMCO shows promise as a free-of-charge online tool to identify glaucomatous visual field defects in a preselected population. Ongoing studies are evaluating the use of DMCO...

  15. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  16. The Role of the IL-20 Subfamily in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Wirtz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a common disease that leads to loss of peripheral vision and, if left untreated, ultimately to blindness. While the exact cause(s of glaucoma is still unknown, two leading risk factors are age and elevated intraocular pressure. Several studies suggest a possible link between glaucoma and inflammation in humans and animal models. In particular, our lab recently identified a T104M mutation in IL-20 receptor-B (IL-20RB in primary open angle glaucoma patients from a large pedigree. Several of the interleukin- (IL- 20 family of cytokines and receptors are expressed in ocular tissues including the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve head, and retinal ganglion cells. The DBA/2J mouse develops high intraocular pressures with age and has characteristic optic nerve defects that make it a useful glaucoma model. IL-24 expression is significantly upregulated in the retina of these mice, while IL-20RA expression in the optic nerve is downregulated following pressure-induced damage. The identification of a mutation in the IL-20RB gene in a glaucoma pedigree and changes in expression levels of IL-20 family members in the DBA/2J mouse suggest that disruption of normal IL-20 signaling in the eye may contribute to degenerative processes associated with glaucoma.

  17. Glaucoma and mobility performance: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David S; Freeman, Ellen; Munoz, Beatriz; Jampel, Henry D; West, Sheila K

    2007-12-01

    To determine the impact of glaucoma on mobility in a population-based cohort. Population-based observational study. Persons examined as part of a population-based eye disease study. Subjects performed a series of tasks, including walking an obstacle course, climbing stairs, performing tandem stands, and walking a 4-meter course. Persons with glaucoma were compared with those without glaucoma to identify differences in mobility. Speed to complete an obstacle course, number of bumps, ability to perform tandem stands, and walking and stair climbing speed. One thousand two hundred fifty subjects participated in the study. In an analysis adjusting for age, race, and gender, walking speed through the obstacle course was 2.4 m/minute slower for persons with bilateral glaucoma, and these individuals experienced 1.65 times the number of bumps when compared with persons without glaucoma (Pwalking course more slowly and had more bumps even after adjusting for use of a mobility aid, comorbidities, and VA. After adjusting for all other factors, persons with bilateral glaucoma walked on average 2.4 m less per minute through the course than those without glaucoma.

  18. Glaucoma and cigarette smoking: a review of narrative reviews

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    Francesca Di Murro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy associated with visual field changes for which high intra-ocular pressure is a major risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors, among which the cigarette smoke, besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a review of narrative reviews to examine on the relationship between cigarette smoking and glaucoma. Methods: The results of all narrative reviews in the scientific literature about glaucoma and tobacco smoking were analyzed. A quality assessment was performed according to an easy and convenient tool for the quality assessment of narrative reviews for systematic reviews (International Narrative Systematic assessment the INSA tool. Literature searches were performed using PubMed. Results: 20 studies about relation between glaucoma and smoke were collected, no restriction language was applied. 15 of these studies have been excluded. We selected among them 5 reviews. With the INSA tool we measured the quality of the 5 selected narrative reviews. Studies that had a highest score with the INSA tool were two: A. Coleman et al. “Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention” and R. Salowe et al. “Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors”. Conclusion: The narrative reviews analyzed underline that there is no definitive association between cigarette smoking.

  19. Glaucoma associated with the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

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    Mangouritsas G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available George Mangouritsas, Spyridon Mourtzoukos, Dimitra M Portaliou, Vassilios I Georgopoulos, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Elias Feretis Eye Clinic, General Hospital "Hellenic Red Cross", Athens, Greece Abstract: Transient or permanent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP is a common complication following vitreoretinal surgery. Usually secondary glaucoma, which develops after scleral buckling procedures, or pars plana vitrectomy for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is of multifactorial origin. It is essential, for appropriate management, to detect the cause of outflow obstruction. An exacerbation of preexisting open-angle glaucoma or a steroid-induced elevation of IOP should also be considered. Scleral buckling may be complicated by congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body resulting in secondary angle closure, which can usually resolve with medical therapy. The use of intravitreal gases may also induce secondary angle-closure with or without pupillary block. Aspiration of a quantity of the intraocular gas may be indicated. Secondary glaucoma can also develop after intravitreal injection of silicone oil due to pupillary block, inflammation, synechial angle closure, or migration of emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber and obstruction of the aqueous outflow pathway. In most eyes medical therapy is successful in controlling IOP; however, silicone oil removal with or without concurrent glaucoma surgery may also be required. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and glaucoma drainage devices constitute useful treatment modalities for long-term IOP control. Cooperation between vitreoretinal and glaucoma specialists is necessary to achieve successful management. Keywords: retinal detachment, intraocular pressure elevation, glaucoma, vitrectomy, intravitreal gas, silicone oil

  20. Modeling Human Glaucoma: Lessons from the in vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Inês Dinis; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is a degenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve atrophy. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a main risk factor for onset and progression of the disease. Since increased IOP is the only modifiable risk factor, relevant models for glaucoma would comprise RGC and optic nerve damage triggered by ocular hypertension. Animal models of glaucoma have greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathology, and they have also facilitated the development of new pharmacological interventions. Although animal models of glaucoma have provided valuable information about the disease, there is still no ideal model for studying glaucoma due to its complexity. There is a recognized demand for in vitro models that can replace or reduce the need for animal experiments. Several in vitro models have emerged as a great opportunity in the field of glaucoma research, helping to clarify the mechanisms involved in disease progression. Several types of equipment have been developed to expose cells and tissue cultures to elevated pressures. Herein, we discuss the methodology used to increase pressure, the main findings, and the relevance of in vitro models for the study of the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  1. Inter-eye comparison of retinal oximetry and vessel caliber between eyes with asymmetrical glaucoma severity in different glaucoma subtypes

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    Cheng CS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Shu Ming Cheng,1,2 Yi Fang Lee,2 Charles Ong,3 Zhu Li Yap,2 Andrew Tsai,2 Aditi Mohla,2 Monisha E Nongpiur,4 Tin Aung,2,4 Shamira A Perera2,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Singapore National Eye Centre, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Background: To compare retinal vessel oxygenation and vessel caliber in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG, and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity.Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. The 159 subjects (PACG, n=39; POAG, n=41; NTG, n=41; normal controls, n=38 underwent retinal oxygen saturation measurements using the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter, optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field testing. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel diameter were compared between the glaucoma groups and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for comparison among different subtypes of glaucoma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the inter-eye differences.Results: Compared to normal controls, arteriolar oxygen saturation was increased in PACG eyes (P=0.048 but not in POAG or NTG eyes. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation in venules or arteriovenous (AV difference in all three glaucoma groups. Venular diameter was significantly reduced in all glaucoma groups compared to normal controls (P<0.001, but no such change was observed in arteriolar diameter (P=0.10. When comparing between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity, arteriolar oxygen saturation (P=0.03 and AV difference (P=0.04 were significantly higher, while arteriolar diameter was significantly lower (P=0.001 in the worse eye in PACG group. There were no significant

  2. Surgical outcomes of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device in African American and white glaucoma patients

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    Salim S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat Salim, Haiming Du, Sumalee Boonyaleephan, Jim WanUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USAPurpose: To compare the surgical outcomes of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device in African American and white glaucoma patients.Design: Retrospective comparative case series.Methods: This was a comparative case series of 36 eyes of 36 African Americans and 43 eyes of 43 whites that underwent placement of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device under a partial-thickness scleral flap for uncontrolled glaucoma. All eyes received intraoperative mitomycin C. The primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, number of postoperative glaucoma medications, and surgical success. Surgical success was defined as IOP between 5 and 18 mm Hg, with or without glaucoma medications, without further glaucoma surgery, or loss of light perception vision. Results: Average follow-up was 31.9 ± 9.8 (range, 14.6–47 months for African Americans and 30.7 ± 8.6 (range, 14.3–47 months for whites. At 33 months, surgical success was 80.0% in the African American group and 83.3% in the white group (P = 1.00. Reasons for surgical failure included increased IOP (3 eyes, 3.8%, persistent hypotony with maculopathy (1 eye, 1.3%, and further surgery (4 eyes, 5.06%. Compared with preoperative values, the mean postoperative IOP and number of glaucoma medications were significantly reduced in both groups, and no statistical difference was observed between the two groups at 33 months. Postoperative complications were similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Similar surgical outcomes were observed in African American and white glaucoma patients after implantation of the Ex-PRESS glaucoma filtration device. This latest modification of glaucoma filtration surgery may be a better surgical option for African Americans given its potential advantages of no tissue removal, predictable outcomes related to consistent lumen size and controlled flow, fewer

  3. The Risk of glaucoma after early bilateral oophorectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Maki, Pauline M.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Sit, Arthur J.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Because early estrogen deficiency may increase the susceptibility of the optic nerve to glaucoma, we studied the association of early bilateral oophorectomy with glaucoma. Methods We studied the risk of glaucoma in the Mayo Clinic Cohort Study of Oophorectomy and Aging, by comparing all women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy from 1950 to 1987 with age-matched referent women who did not undergo unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy. Glaucoma diagnostic codes were searched in the records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Hazards ratios (HR) were calculated over a median follow-up of 25.5 years. Analyses were stratified by age at the time of bilateral oophorectomy (in tertiles). Results Of 1,044 women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before menopause, 147 developed glaucoma. Of 1,070 referent women, 133 developed glaucoma. Women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy showed no increased risk of glaucoma in the overall group (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.89–1.42). However, women who underwent oophorectomy before age 43 years (n=344; the first tertile) had a significantly increased risk of glaucoma (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23). The results did not change after adjustment for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or disorders of lipid metabolism at baseline. Approximately 11% of women with bilateral oophorectomy before age 43 years were treated with estrogen to age 50 years; however, treatment did not reduce the association (HR 1.59, 95% CI 0.81–3.13). Conclusions Bilateral oophorectomy before age 43 years may increase the risk of glaucoma, and estrogen treatment does not appear to attenuate the risk. PMID:24061049

  4. Research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Fei Mo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy. It can lead to serious damage of visual impairment, and it is an important eye disease of blindness. Multifocal electroretinogram is a new way to measure visual electrophysiology. It can measure electroretinogram of the whole visual field of many small parts in a relatively short period of time, and it can reflect the function of regional retina. It has an extremely important value for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. The research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in diagnosing primary open angle glaucoma were summarized in this paper.

  5. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D

    1976-01-01

    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  6. Aniridia associated with congenital aphakia and secondary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreker Mayur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of aniridia associated with congenital aphakia and secondary glaucoma. A 35-year-old male presented with aniridia, congenital aphakia and secondary glaucoma in both eyes. After an unsuccessful medical management, he underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and anterior vitrectomy under local anesthesia in his left eye. Postoperatively, at the end of six months, intraocular pressure (IOP in his left eye was controlled without medications. This case highlights the rare association of aniridia with congenital aphakia and secondary glaucoma.

  7. [Progress of research on quality of life of glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a kind of long life disease characterized by irreversible optic nerve damage, visual field impairment, and visual acuity loss. Both the disease and its medical management could make the patient perceive difficulties in their daily life activities and social function. Therefore, their quality of life would be affected significantly. This report briefly reviews the recent researches on the quality of life and its influencing factors of glaucoma patients. The researches on how to improve the quality of life of glaucoma patients are also reviewed.

  8. Canaloplasty versus Viscocanalostomy in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Faried Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty versus viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. Methods Canaloplasty surgery was applied for thirty eyes of thirty patients (45–55 years) with a mean age of 48 years (Group A) and viscocanalostomy surgery was applied also for thirty eyes of thirty patients (43–54 years) with a mean age of 46 years (group B). All patients were with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma by maximally tolerated medical therapy. Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both surgeries was significantly reduced through follow up period (p glaucoma (POAG) with medication.

  9. Combined surgical intervention at terminal glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kiseleva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate hypotensive efficiency of new surgical intervention at terminal primary and neovascular glaucoma.Methods. Operation has been executed on 35 eyes of 35 patients with terminal primary (23 eyes and secondary (12 eyes neo- vascular glaucoma. A fornix based conjunctival flap was prepared in inferior part of a limbus. 1.5 mm transparent scleral incision 3 mm from limbus was performed. Goniocyclodialysis with spatula was carrying out. then 0.3 ml of viscoelastic solution was entered in cyclodialysis cleft. On sclera put cryoapplications, located in two ranks (on 6 in everyone. the period of postoperative follow-up has averaged 15.6±1.3 months.Results: In 1 month IOP did not exceed 25 mm hg and the painful syndrome has been stopped in all cases. In 1 year after operation normalization IOP took place on 27 eyes (77.2%, from them on 8 was local hypotensive therapy added. With 8 patients (22.8% IOP instillation of 2 preparations remained at level of 28-30 mm Hg, however the painful syndrome was absent.Conclusion: Long-term hypotensive effect of new operation is reached at the expense of the double mechanism: reduction of production of aqueous humor for the account cryopexy of ciliary body and improvements aqueous outflow for formations cyclodialysis cleft.

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF PRIMARY ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT WITH Nd.YAG LASER IRIDOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sixty million people are affected with glaucoma worldwide and more than 20 million have PACG. Of these, more than 5 million with PACG are blind, which is twice more than POAG. Early detection and timely treatment with Nd.YAG laser iridotomy and associated complications determine visual outcome. OBJECTIVES To study efficacy of Nd.YAG laser iridotomy in controlling intraocular pressure in primary angle closure glaucoma patients. To study role of prophylactic Nd.YAG laser iridotomy in the fellow eyes of primary angle closure glaucoma patients. To study anatomical changes in the angle of anterior chamber following peripheral iridotomy and complications of Nd.YAG laser iridotomy. METHODS A prospective study of 100 cases of primary angle closure glaucoma was conducted in Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital (Attached to M.R. Medical College, Kalaburagi. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Gonioscopy was done by Goldmann 3 mirror lens. Nd.YAG laser was performed on all affected eyes and 82 fellow eyes of 100 patients and followed up for six months. RESULTS Among the patients included in the study 73 (73% patients were females and 27 (27% were males. In our study most of the patients were 40 to 60 years of age group. Our study included 57 (57% with PAC, 28 (28% with PACG and 15 (15% PACS. There was improvement of 2 Shaffer’s grades in 65%, 1 Shaffer’s grades in 25% of patients. In my study 53 (92.2% of 57 PAC (Acute and sub-acute patients had improved with stable visual acuities and good control of IOP at followup visits; 20 (71.4% of 28 PACG (Chronic patients had good control of IOP at followup visits with improvement of stable visual acuities. All the PACS eyes and the fellow eyes with prophylactic laser iridotomy were with good IOP control and visual acuities; 6 (3.4% eyes out of 172 eyes which underwent iridotomies were found closed at follow-up visits with shallow

  11. Perioperative management of anticoagulant users scheduled for glaucoma surgery: a survey among the Brazilian Glaucoma Society members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balbino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate and describe, among the members of the Brazilian Glaucoma Society (BGS, the practices regarding the perioperative management of anticoagulants (warfarin and aspirin use in patients scheduled for glaucoma surgery. METHODS: The active members of the Brazilian Glaucoma Society answered a questionnaire evaluating different aspects of their current perioperative management of glaucomatous patients taking warfarin or aspirin. RESULTS: A total of 52 participants returned a complete questionnaire. Warfarin or aspirin was routinely interrupted prior to glaucoma surgery by 82.7% of the respondents. The majority of the surgeons who discontinued these medications reported doing so 7 days prior to surgery and resumed their use the day after the procedure. Almost half of our interviewees reported hemorrhagic complications that could be related to anticoagulant therapy. A large number of the surgeons (86.5% preferred a particular surgical technique for anticoagulated patients; however, most of them (88.5% do not change the anesthetic planning in such patients. Finally, the majority of the participants (90.4% refer their anticoagulated patients to a preoperative appointment with a cardiologist or a general practitioner before the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Brazilian Glaucoma Society members participating in this study interrupt either warfarin or aspirin prior to glaucoma surgery. Although there is scant information available in the literature to offer definitive guidance, most participants from the Brazilian Glaucoma Society seem to share the same opinion when it comes to perioperative management of anticoagulant users.

  12. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  13. Service innovation in glaucoma management: using a Web-based electronic patient record to facilitate virtual specialist supervision of a shared care glaucoma programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heathcote R; Diamond, Jeremy P

    2015-03-01

    To assess the importance of specialist supervision in a new model of glaucoma service delivery. An optometrist supported by three technicians managed each glaucoma clinic. Patients underwent testing and clinical examination before the optometrist triaged them into one of five groups: 'normal', 'stable', 'low risk', 'unstable' and 'high risk'. Patient data were uploaded to an electronic medical record to facilitate virtual review by a glaucoma specialist. 24 257 glaucoma reviews at three glaucoma clinics during a 31-month period were analysed. The clinic optometrists and glaucoma specialists had substantial agreement (κ 0.69). 13 patients were identified to be high risk by the glaucoma specialist that had not been identified as such by the optometrist. Glaucoma specialists amended 13% of the optometrists' interim decisions resulting in an overall reduction in review appointments by 2.4%. Employing technicians and optometrists to triage glaucoma patients into groups defined by risk of blindness allows higher risk patients to be directed to a glaucoma specialist. Virtual review allows the glaucoma specialist to remain in overall control while reducing the risk that patients are treated or followed-up unnecessarily. Demand for glaucoma appointments can be reduced allowing scarce medical resources to be directed to patients most in need. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Profile of pediatric glaucoma patients in Shanghai Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yuan; Long Qingqing; Guo Wenyi; Sun Xinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of our knowledge of the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in China is limited.To better characterize the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in eastern China,we report the clinical profile,etiologies,and treatment modalities in patients <18 years of age in Shanghai Eye,Ear,Nose and Throat Hospital.Methods The medical records of patients presenting glaucoma between January 2003 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.The demographic characteristics,the proportion of different glaucoma subtypes and surgical precedures were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 1 142 eyes of 734 pediatric patients (500 males)were included.Congenital glaucoma was the leading subtype,accounting for 47.55% of all patients.The ratio of boys to girls was 2.5:1.Patients with congenital glaucoma affecting both eyes accounted for 72.5% of all patients examined.Patients with primary juvenile glaucoma were the second most common group (n=125,17.03%).Traumatic glaucoma was the third most common subtype (n=81,11.03%).The type of surgery was related to the subtype of glaucoma.Conclusions Congenital glaucoma,primary juvenile glaucoma,and traumatic glaucoma are the most prevalent subtypes in pediatric glaucoma patients in Shanghai Eye,Ear,Nose and Throat Hospital.The characteristics of congenital glaucoma in China are similar to those in Western countries.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Canine Glaucoma: Filtering and End-Stage Glaucoma Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Federica; Bras, Dineli

    2015-11-01

    Canine glaucoma is a common cause of vision loss associated with raised intraocular pressure, and leads to damage of the retina and optic nerve head. In most cases, medical treatment alone cannot provide long-term management of intraocular pressure control and preservation of vision. Surgical intervention is usually recommended to either decrease aqueous humor production, or increase its outflow. Among the current available procedures, filtering techniques are aimed at increasing aqueous humor outflow. Proper surgical timing and a combination of cyclodestructive and filtering procedures have been recently suggested to improve the long-term success of surgical treatment in dogs. Bleb fibrosis and surgical failure are still common occurrences in filtration surgery with relapse of glaucoma and vision loss. End stage procedures, such as enucleation, evisceration with intrascleral prosthesis, and chemical ablation of the ciliary bodies are then recommended to address chronic discomfort in buphthalmic and blind eyes.

  16. Claves para el diagnóstico precoz del glaucoma (Keys to early diagnosis of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molleda-Carbonell José Mª

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl diagnóstico precoz del glaucoma es un problema en oftalmologíaveterinaria. Basándose en los síntomas clínicos habituales el diagnóstico suele hacerse en un punto en el que la visión ha sufrido un importante deterioro. Basados en el hecho de que el glaucoma es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa del nervio óptico y que sus primeras manifestaciones son degeneración y muerte de las células ganglionares de la retina, degeneración de axones del nervio óptico y por tanto disminución de la capa de fibras nerviosas nerviosas, con aumento de la excavación papilar, disminución del anillo neuro-retniano y desestabilización de la cabeza del nervio óptico, es obvio que el diagnóstico debe de centrarse en detectar, loantes posible, estos cambios. En la actualidad, sin menospreciar latonometría y la gonioscopia se debe profundizar en aquellas técnicas que como la oftalmoscopia de la retina y papila evalúen el daño y progresión del nervio óptico. Así junto al estudio de la progresión de la excavación papilar frente a la disminución del anillo neurorretiniano, es necesario avanzar en el uso de técnicas actuales como la tomografía de coherencia óptica (OCT y el analizador de fibras nerviosas GDX, que detectan daños y su progresión en la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina incluso antes de que se traduzcan en una pérdida apreciable de la función visual.SummaryEarly diagnosis of glaucoma is a problem in veterinary ophthalmologybecause the diagnosis is based on the clinical sings when there is animportant visual alteration. Two groups of eye conditions have beenproposed in glaucoma. One of them has the common feature aboutprogressive optic neuropaty involving loss of retinal ganglion cells, getting smaller the neuroretinal rim, loss of nerve fibre layer and generalised or focal enlargement of the cup. Only a preventive glaucoma diagnosis can preserve effectively the vision. Early detection is the key to protecting the

  17. Inter-eye comparison of retinal oximetry and vessel caliber between eyes with asymmetrical glaucoma severity in different glaucoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Clarissa Shu Ming; Lee, Yi Fang; Ong, Charles; Yap, Zhu Li; Tsai, Andrew; Mohla, Aditi; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Aung, Tin; Perera, Shamira A

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare retinal vessel oxygenation and vessel caliber in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. The 159 subjects (PACG, n=39; POAG, n=41; NTG, n=41; normal controls, n=38) underwent retinal oxygen saturation measurements using the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter, optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field testing. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel diameter were compared between the glaucoma groups and normal controls, as well as between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for comparison among different subtypes of glaucoma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the inter-eye differences. Results Compared to normal controls, arteriolar oxygen saturation was increased in PACG eyes (P=0.048) but not in POAG or NTG eyes. There were no significant differences in oxygen saturation in venules or arteriovenous (AV) difference in all three glaucoma groups. Venular diameter was significantly reduced in all glaucoma groups compared to normal controls (P<0.001), but no such change was observed in arteriolar diameter (P=0.10). When comparing between eyes of asymmetrical glaucoma severity, arteriolar oxygen saturation (P=0.03) and AV difference (P=0.04) were significantly higher, while arteriolar diameter was significantly lower (P=0.001) in the worse eye in PACG group. There were no significant differences in oximetric parameters or vessel calibers between the worse and the better eyes in POAG and NTG groups. Conclusion Eyes with PACG showed increased arteriolar oxygen saturation and increased AV difference. This was not observed in POAG and NTG eyes. Arteriolar diameter in PACG and venular diameter in all three glaucoma groups were reduced. The difference observed in PACG eyes may be due to an increased

  18. Intravitreal bevacizumab and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao; Zhang; Yu-Xin; Yang; Ying-Ying; Xu; Rui-Min; Yang; Bao-Jun; Wang; Jun-Xi; Hu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To explore the efficacy of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab(IVB) injection combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGV) implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG).METHODS:This retrospective study included 35 eyes from 35 patients who underwent preoperative IVB and AGV implantation for treatment of NVG. Findings such as intraocular pressure(IOP) number of anti-glaucoma medications, visual acuity(VA), surgical success rates,and complications were recorded.RESULTS:AfterAGVimplantation,IOPwas18.2±4.0mmHg,15.5±3.3 mm Hg and 9.8±2.6 mm Hg at 6, 12 and 36 mo,significantly decreased compared with pre-IOP(P <0.01).The number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.9 ±0.5,0.8 ±0.9 and 0.8 ±0.6 at 6, 12 and 36 mo, significantly decreased compared to pre-treatment(P <0.01). At last visit, there were 19 eyes with stable VA, 4 with VA improvement, 12 with diminished VA and 3 with complete loss light perception. There were 7 cases that failed during 3-year fellow up period. Cumulative probabilities of valve survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 82.9%,74.1% and 71.0% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively. Cox stepwise regression analysis found that the survival time was significant associated with the pre-visual acuity <2/400(P <0.05). Post-operative complications occurred in 8eyes, of which hyphema presented in 2 eyes, choroidal effusion in 2 eyes.CONCLUSION:The procedure of preoperative IVB andAGV implantation should be one of treatments for NVG because of its safety and effectiveness.

  19. Connexin hemichannels in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The normal function and survival of cells in the avascular lens is facilitated by intercellular communication through an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly by three connexins (Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50. In expression systems, these connexins can all induce hemi-channel currents, but other lens proteins (e.g., pannexin1 can also induce similar currents. Hemichannel currents have been detected in isolated lens fiber cells. These hemichannels may make significant contributions to normal lens physiology and pathophysiology. Studies of some connexin mutants linked to congenital cataracts have implicated hemichannels with aberrant voltage-dependent gating or modulation by divalent cations in disease pathogenesis. Hemichannels may also contribute to age- and disease-related cataracts.

  20. Gravitational lens surveys with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2008-01-01

    Deep surveys planned as a Key Science Project of LOFAR provide completely new opportunities for gravitational lens searches. For the first time do large-scale surveys reach the resolution required for a direct selection of lens candidates using morphological criteria. We briefly describe the strategies that we will use to exploit this potential. The long baselines of an international E-LOFAR are essential for this project.

  1. Ascorbate in the ocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Vino C. Jr

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, we intended to establish a method for sample preparation for measurement of ascorbate in whole rat and guinea pig lenses utilizing ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet radiation detection. Then, we aimed to investigate whether, in the albino rat, lens ascorbate concentration depends on solid dietary intake. Finally, we investigated if, in the pigmented guinea pig, lens ascorbate concentration may be elevated with drinkin...

  2. Phakic Intraocular lens- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Francisco Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraocular refractive procedures with the implantation of a Phakic Intraocular lens have become a safe efficient and predictable alternative for treating high ametropias when the use of corneal photoablative procedures is not possible. The implantation of Phakic intraocular lens preservs the accomodative function,is a reversable refractive procedure, with minimal induction of higher order aberrations compaed with corneal photoablative procedures. Methods: An analytical review o...

  3. MYOCILIN LEVELS IN PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA AND PSEUDOEXFOLIATION GLAUCOMA HUMAN AQUEOUS HUMOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kyle G.; Vrabel, Anne M.; Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Stamer, W. Daniel; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor was collected during surgery from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and elective cataract removal (control). Volume-equivalent aqueous samples were separated on SDS-PAGE gradient gels. Quantification of myocilin levels was performed using Western blots probed with two independent N-terminal polyclonal anti-myocilin antibodies (AB1 and AB2) followed by densitometry. Myocilin levels in aqueous humor were quantified by plotting the densitometry readings of the aqueous samples against a recombinant myocilin standard curve. Total protein concentration was determined by Bradford protein assay. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels were assessed by ELISA. Results Myocilin levels are significantly elevated in human POAG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor (AB1: 0.66 ± 0.53 ng/μl vs. 0.23 ± 0.20 ng/μl, phumor compared to control aqueous (AB1: 0.26 ± 0.20% vs. 0.10 ± 0.20%, phumor when compared to control aqueous humor. No correlation between myocilin and TGFβ2 levels was observed. Conclusions Myocilin is elevated in POAG, but not PEXG aqueous humor. PMID:20179615

  4. Ahmed glaucoma valve in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma: A critically evaluated prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anita; Prakash, Vadivelu Jaya; Dada, Tanuj; Gupta, Anoop Kishore; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Vanathi, Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma (PKPG). Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 20 eyes of 20 adult patients with post-PKPG with intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg, on two or more antiglaucoma medications, underwent AG (model FP7) implantation and were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Absolute success was defined as 5 glaucoma managed by AGV implantation revealed a satisfactory outcome up to 6 months of follow-up. PMID:21586837

  5. Ahmed glaucoma valve in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma: A critically evaluated prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV in post-penetrating-keratoplasty glaucoma (PKPG. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 20 eyes of 20 adult patients with post-PKPG with intraocular pressure (IOP >21 mmHg, on two or more antiglaucoma medications, underwent AG (model FP7 implantation and were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Absolute success was defined as 5 < IOP < 21 mmHg and qualified success as 5 < IOP < 21 mmHg with medications or minor procedures. Results: The mean IOP decreased from 42.95 ± 10.24 to 17.69 ± 3.64 mmHg (P < 0.001 and the use of medications dropped from 2.92 to 0.39 (P < 0.001 after AGV implantation. The absolute success was achieved in 11 eyes and qualified success in 9. There was no significant change in best corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, or graft thickness. Six device-related complications occurred after AGV implantations which were successfully managed with medical or minor surgical therapy. Conclusions: Postkeratoplasty refractory glaucoma managed by AGV implantation revealed a satisfactory outcome up to 6 months of follow-up.

  6. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma: from mice to men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickells, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Glaucoma results from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Over the last 20 years several important advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular pathology of this disease, particularly through the development of rat models of experimental glaucoma and the characterization of a spontaneous secondary form of glaucoma in DBA/2 substrains of inbred mice. One of these advances is the observation that ganglion cells die by apoptosis, an intrinsic molecular pathway of programmed cell death. An important aspect of this cell death process is the concept that these cells actually undergo compartmentalized self-destruction. Importantly, genetic evidence now suggests that axons die independently of the apoptotic program that executes the cell body or soma. This review briefly summarizes some of the most significant developments in glaucoma research, with respect to the process of ganglion cell degeneration.

  7. A link between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma - Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, A.; Petrovski, B.E; Petrovski, G.

    Purpose To determine the effect of anti-diabetic medication on glaucoma. Furthermore, to investigate if diabetic comorbidities and concomitant medications are associated with glaucoma in patients treated with anti-diabetic medication. Methods Retrospective nationwide cohort study, spanning a 16......-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and anti-diabetic drugs. Comorbidities with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were identified using the ICD-10 classification...... and the Danish National Patient Register. Results A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period 1996–2012 were included. The overall incidence rates of new-onset glaucoma were 0.07 and 0.36 per 1,000 person-years for the reference population and for diabetes mellitus, respectively. Patients treated with anti...

  8. [Glaucoma therapy - current overview of data and information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výborný, P; Sičáková, S; Dohnalová, P; Feřtek, M; Doležal, T

    2013-08-01

    The authors submit the overview of the actual situation in the glaucoma therapy. They follow up the trends in antiglaucomatic treatment in the last period including financial aspects of medicament and surgical treatment. Attention is paid especially to medicaments management, actual overview of available antiglaucomatic drugs, function and position of generic drugs and differences among them, the daily dose of benzalconium chloride in glaucoma treatment, actual average of patients supplementary payments at the drug purchase in the pharmacy, surgical treatment costs and legal issues. Pharmacologists viewpoints and the Czech State Drug Control Authority (SÚKL) opinions complete the professionals point of the view and facilitate his/her complete orientation in glaucoma therapy issues. Key words: glaucoma, prescription, surgical treatment, treatment costs, legal issues.

  9. Incorporating privileged genetic information for fundus image based glaucoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lixin; Xu, Yanwu; Li, Wen; Chen, Lin; Wing, Damon Wing Kee; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Visual features extracted from retinal fundus images have been increasingly used for glaucoma detection, as those images are generally easy to acquire. In recent years, genetic researchers have found that some single nucleic polymorphisms (SNPs) play important roles in the manifestation of glaucoma and also show superiority over fundus images for glaucoma detection. In this work, we propose to use the SNPs to form the so-called privileged information and deal with a practical problem where both fundus images and privileged genetic information exist for the training subjects, while the test objects only have fundus images. To solve this problem, we present an effective approach based on the learning using privileged information (LUPI) paradigm to train a predictive model for the image visual features. Extensive experiments demonstrate the usefulness of our approach in incorporating genetic information for fundus image based glaucoma detection.

  10. U.S. Glaucoma Cases Expected to Surge by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162924.html U.S. Glaucoma Cases Expected to Surge by 2030 Routine ... Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Recent Health ...

  11. Glaucoma progression associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Carlo; Martucci, Alessio; Mancino, Raffaele; Cerulli, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a case of open-angle glaucoma progression associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Single case analysis method is used. A 53-year-old woman with a previous diagnosis of glaucoma presented with progressive visual field loss. Complete ophthalmological examination and blood tests were negative for other concomitant diseases. Genetic counseling revealed mitochondrial DNA mutation compatible with the diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In conclusion, the case describes the concomitant occurrence of open-angle glaucoma and Leber's optic neuropathy. We hypothesize that the two diseases may have a cumulative effect on oxidative stress and retinal ganglion cell death with the consequent rapid progression of visual impairment. Screening for mitochondrial DNA mutations may be requested in patients with glaucoma who, despite pharmacologically controlled intraocular pressure, show rapid progression of the disease.

  12. Spectrum of Glaucoma Presentation in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    management strategy that will help in reducing glaucoma blindness. Materials and .... of the patients (inclusive of the NTG and JOAG patients). The most common form ... education, the increased availability of ophthalmology services, even in ...

  13. Conjunctival erosion after glaucoma drainage device surgery: A feasible option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs have been used in the management of complicated glaucomas. GDDs are associated with various complications such as tube migration, tube or plate exposure or extrusion, ocular motility disturbance and infection. Erosion of conjunctiva and exposure of the GDD remains a risk factor for the development of endophthalmitis. A wide range of materials have been used for this purpose, including sclera, dura, pericardium, fascia lata and cornea. However, there is no evidence to prove that any of these methods is superior to another for providing tectonic durability in the long term. In this report, we present a case of neovascular glaucoma, who developed conjunctival melting over the tube of an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant and was successfully managed with Cap Doxycycline.

  14. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ray; Suddhasil Mookherjee

    2009-12-01

    Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous optic neuropathies with complex genetic basis. Among the three principle subtypes of glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) occurs most frequently. Till date, 25 loci have been found to be linked to POAG. However, only three underlying genes (Myocilin, Optineurin and WDR36) have been identified. In addition, at least 30 other genes have been reported to be associated with POAG. Despite strong genetic influence in POAG pathogenesis, only a small part of the disease can be explained in terms of genetic aberration. Current concepts of glaucoma pathogenesis suggest it to be a neurodegenerative disorder which is triggered by different factors including mechanical stress due to intra-ocular pressure, reduced blood flow to retina, reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and aberrant immune response. Here we present a mechanistic overview of potential pathways and crosstalk between them operating in POAG pathogenesis.

  15. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  16. Vitrectomy and translocation of the anterior chamber intraocular lens to the sulcus: a closed microsurgical technique for the UGH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, William; Rossini, Paolo; Forlini, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    This interventional case report presents an anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC-IOL) translocation technique to manage a case of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome associated with posterior dislocation of nuclear fragments and vitreitis as a consequence of capsule rupture during cataract surgery. Pars plana vitrectomy followed by an AC-IOL translocation from the anterior chamber to the sulcus without additional surgical corneal incision was performed. At 12 months' follow-up, the original AC-IOL was in stable position in the posterior chamber, with binocular refractive balance and no further astigmatism and resolution of the UGH syndrome.

  17. Building a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha; Nasraoui, Olfa; Cooper, Nigel G F

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biomedical literature and its underlying knowledge base is rapidly expanding, making it beyond the ability of a single human being to read through all the literature. Several automated methods have been developed to help make sense of this dilemma. The present study reports on the results of a text mining approach to extract gene interactions from the data warehouse of published experimental results which are then used to benchmark an interaction network associated with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, there is, as yet, no glaucoma interaction network derived solely from text mining approaches. The presence of such a network could provide a useful summative knowledge base to complement other forms of clinical information related to this disease. A glaucoma corpus was constructed from PubMed Central and a text mining approach was applied to extract genes and their relations from this corpus. The extracted relations between genes were checked using reference interaction databases and classified generally as known or new relations. The extracted genes and relations were then used to construct a glaucoma interaction network. Analysis of the resulting network indicated that it bears the characteristics of a small world interaction network. Our analysis showed the presence of seven glaucoma linked genes that defined the network modularity. A web-based system for browsing and visualizing the extracted glaucoma related interaction networks is made available at http://neurogene.spd.louisville.edu/GlaucomaINViewer/Form1.aspx. This study has reported the first version of a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach. The power of such an approach is in its ability to cover a wide range of glaucoma related studies published over many years. Hence, a bigger picture of the disease can be established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first glaucoma interaction network to summarize the known literature. The major findings were a set of

  18. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma: The SUN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Arcelus, Mónica; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel Á; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Moreno-Montañés, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a serious global public health concern that has been related to many chronic diseases. However, the effect of smoking on eye disorders has been less studied. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the association between current tobacco smokers and the risk of developing glaucoma and furthermore to evaluate the relationship between passive or former smokers and glaucoma.In this prospective and dynamic cohort, 16,797 participants initially who were found not to have glaucoma were followed up for a median of 8.5 years. Validated data on lifestyle, including tobacco consumption, were assessed at baseline. Information about new diagnosis of glaucoma was collected by follow-up questionnaires every 2 years. The outcome was the incidence of self-reported glaucoma during the follow-up. A subsample was used to validate the glaucoma diagnosis.During the 8.5 years of follow-up, 184 new glaucoma cases were identified. Current smokers had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma compared to participants who had never smoked after controlling for potential confounders (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.88 [95% coefficient interval (CI): 1.26-2.81]; P = 0.002). A nonsignificant increased risk was found among former smokers (HR 1.27 [95% CI: 0.88-1.82]; P = 0.198). When we assessed the exposure as per the number of cigarette pack-years, a dose-response relationship between pack-years and the risk of glaucoma was found (HR for the 5th quintile versus the 1st quintile: 1.70 [95% IC: 1.10-2.64], P for trend, 0.009). However, no relationship was found between passive smokers and glaucoma. (HR 0.67 [95% CI: 0.37-1.21]; P = 0.189).Our results suggest a direct association between current smokers and the incidence of glaucoma. In particular, this association was related to the number of pack-years, which was not found in the case of former smokers nor in the case of passive smokers.

  19. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  20. [Visual field progression in glaucoma: cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson-Dumont, H; Hatton, J; Foucher, J; Fonteneau, M

    2012-11-01

    Visual field progression analysis is one of the key points in glaucoma monitoring, but distinction between true progression and random fluctuation is sometimes difficult. There are several different algorithms but no real consensus for detecting visual field progression. The trend analysis of global indices (MD, sLV) may miss localized deficits or be affected by media opacities. Conversely, point-by-point analysis makes progression difficult to differentiate from physiological variability, particularly when the sensitivity of a point is already low. The goal of our study was to analyse visual field progression with the EyeSuite™ Octopus Perimetry Clusters algorithm in patients with no significant changes in global indices or worsening of the analysis of pointwise linear regression. We analyzed the visual fields of 162 eyes (100 patients - 58 women, 42 men, average age 66.8 ± 10.91) with ocular hypertension or glaucoma. For inclusion, at least six reliable visual fields per eye were required, and the trend analysis (EyeSuite™ Perimetry) of visual field global indices (MD and SLV), could show no significant progression. The analysis of changes in cluster mode was then performed. In a second step, eyes with statistically significant worsening of at least one of their clusters were analyzed point-by-point with the Octopus Field Analysis (OFA). Fifty four eyes (33.33%) had a significant worsening in some clusters, while their global indices remained stable over time. In this group of patients, more advanced glaucoma was present than in stable group (MD 6.41 dB vs. 2.87); 64.82% (35/54) of those eyes in which the clusters progressed, however, had no statistically significant change in the trend analysis by pointwise linear regression. Most software algorithms for analyzing visual field progression are essentially trend analyses of global indices, or point-by-point linear regression. This study shows the potential role of analysis by clusters trend. However, for best

  1. Mechanism and Etiology of Primary Chronic Angle Closure Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The ocular anatomic features, pupil-blocking force, status of angle synechiae closure and positivity of provocative tests were compared between the primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG) and primary a-cute angle closure glaucoma (PAACG) by using ultrasonic biometry, computerized anterior ocular segment image processing technique, gonioscopy and provocative tests. The studies showed that the anterior chamber depth of PAACG was shallower than that of PCACG; the pupil-blocking force of PAACG was st...

  2. CYPBI mutations in portuguese patients with primary congenital glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Rita Simões

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho de projecto de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Oftalmologia) apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra Introduction: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare autosomal recessive trabeculodysgenesis. Genetic heterogeneity has been identified but mutations in the CYP1B1 gene seem to be an important etiology in different populations. Objectives: To clinically characterize 34 Portuguese patients with primary congenital glaucoma, to analyze the role ...

  3. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-si...

  4. Neovascular glaucoma treatment with extraction of anterior chamber fibrovascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Carreras, Elisa; Kudsieh, Bachar; Canut, Maribel

    2013-08-01

    The use of antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor to treat neovascular glaucoma yields good anatomic results in most cases. However, this type of glaucoma can cause angle closure with decompensation of intraocular pressure secondary to fibrovascular tissue contraction in the anterior chamber. Our surgical technique treats the cause by removing the anterior chamber fibrous complex after administration of antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, thus restoring the chamber angle.

  5. Efficacy of complex treatment of glaucoma optical neuropathy by Cortexin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbinina I.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of efficacy of intranasal and intramuscular application of cortexin in combination with transcranial magnetotherapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma was conducted. 102 patients (182 eyes took part in research with primary open-angle glaucoma of I, II, III stages. The most considerable improvement of visual functions resulted from intramuscular and endonasal introductions of cortexin in combination with transcranial magnetotherapy; and longer stabilization of functional indicators was marked in this group

  6. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul-Laila Salim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  7. Evaluation of Ex-PRESS implantation combined with phacoemulsification in primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Guo, Da-Dong; Du, Xiu-Juan; Cong, Chen-Yang; Ma, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ex-PRESS (R50) implantation combined with phacoemulsification in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients with cataract. Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with unregulated PACG underwent combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. After phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, the Ex-PRESS (R-50) was inserted into the anterior chamber under a scleral flap. The intraocular pressure (IOP), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of medications, and complications were recorded preoperatively as well as postoperatively on day 7 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean follow-up was 16.4 ± 2.5 months (range 14–21 months) and the mean age of the patients was 64.7 ± 6.8 years (range 56–78 years). The mean IOP was 20.4 ± 5.4 mm Hg preoperatively and decreased to 10.2 ± 2.8, 13.1 ± 2.7, 14.9 ± 4.1, 14.3 ± 3.9, and 14.0 ± 3.6 mm Hg on day 7 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery (all P < 0.005). At 12 months, the mean BCVA was 0.62 ± 0.33 and the number of medications was 0.3 ± 0.6. Most of complications were resolved spontaneously and conservatively. The Ex-PRESS implantation combined with phacoemulsification cataract extraction is safe and effective for reducing IOP and antiglaucoma medications in PACG patients with cataract. PMID:27603352

  8. A Novel Homozygous Mutation in FOXC1 Causes Axenfeld Rieger Syndrome with Congenital Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Micheal

    Full Text Available Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous phenotypes in which frequently cornea, iris, and lens are affected. This study aimed to identify novel mutations in PAX6, PITX2 and FOXC1 in families with anterior segment dysgenesis disorders.We studied 14 Pakistani and one Mexican family with Axenfeld Rieger syndrome (ARS; n = 10 or aniridia (n = 5. All affected and unaffected family members underwent full ophthalmologic and general examinations. Total genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed for the exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FOXC1, PAX6, and PITX2 genes.Mutations were identified in five of the 15 probands; four variants were novel and one variant was described previously. A novel de novo variant (c.225C>A; p.Tyr75* was identified in the PAX6 gene in two unrelated probands with aniridia. In addition, a known variant (c.649C>T; p.Arg217* in PAX6 segregated in a family with aniridia. In the FOXC1 gene, a novel heterozygous variant (c.454T>C; p.Trp152Arg segregated with the disease in a Mexican family with ARS. A novel homozygous variant (c.92_100del; p.Ala31_Ala33del in the FOXC1 gene segregated in a Pakistani family with ARS and congenital glaucoma.Our study expands the mutation spectrum of the PAX6 and FOXC1 genes in individuals with anterior segment dysgenesis disorders. In addition, our study suggests that FOXC1 mutations, besides typical autosomal dominant ARS, can also cause ARS with congenital glaucoma through an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Our results thus expand the disease spectrum of FOXC1, and may lead to a better understanding of the role of FOXC1 in development.

  9. Discovery of novel inhibitors for the treatment of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholkar, Kishore; Trinh, Hoang M.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease with heterogeneous causes that result in retinal ganglionic cell death (RGC). The discovery of ocular anti-hypertensives has shifted glaucoma therapy, largely, from surgery to medical intervention. Indeed, several intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering drugs, with different mechanisms of action and RGC protective property, have been developed. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss the main new class of kinase inhibitors used as glaucoma treatments, which lower IOP by enhancing drainage and/or lowering production of aqueous humor. The authors include novel inhibitors under preclinical evaluation and investigation for their anti-glaucoma treatment. Additionally, the authors look at treatments that are in clinics now and which may be available in the near future. Expert opinion Treatment of glaucoma remains challenging because the exact cause is yet to be delineated. Neuroprotection to the optic nerve head is undisputable. The novel ROCK inhibitors have the capacity to lower IOP and provide optic nerve and RGC protection. In particular, the S-isomer of roscovitine has the capacity to lower IOP and provide neuroprotection. Combinations of selected drugs, which can provide maximal and sustained IOP lowering effects as well as neuroprotection, are paramount to the prevention of glaucoma progression. In the near future, microRNA intervention may be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25575654

  10. Glaucoma progression detection using nonlocal Markov random field prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M

    2014-10-01

    Glaucoma is neurodegenerative disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head and visual field. Without treatment, glaucoma can lead to permanent blindness. Therefore, monitoring glaucoma progression is important to detect uncontrolled disease and the possible need for therapy advancement. In this context, three-dimensional (3-D) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has been commonly used in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma patients. We present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3-D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that use the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement provided by commercially available instruments, we consider the whole 3-D volume for change detection. To account for the spatial voxel dependency, we propose the use of the Markov random field (MRF) model as a prior for the change detection map. In order to improve the robustness of the proposed approach, a nonlocal strategy was adopted to define the MRF energy function. To accommodate the presence of false-positive detection, we used a fuzzy logic approach to classify a 3-D SD-OCT image into a "non-progressing" or "progressing" glaucoma class. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to the existing methods of progression detection.

  11. Incorporating corneal pachymetry into the management of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iester, Michele; Mete, Maurizio; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) results from a dynamic balance between aqueous humor formation and outflow. The simplest technique to measure IOP is indentation tonometry. Another technique is applanation. These methods are related to the elasticity of the eye, which mainly depends on its thickness and hysteresis. For several decades, Goldmann applanation tonometry has been the most accepted method of measuring IOP; the Goldmann tonometer is still used in all important trials. The relationship between IOP values and central corneal thickness (CCT) is well known; Goldmann stated that this relationship only holds for an average corneal thickness of 520 microm measured by optical pachymetry. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) showed that CCT is an important risk factor for a change from ocular hypertension to primary open-angle glaucoma. In a multivariate model that included IOP, CCT was the most powerful component of the predictive model. In the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT) with an 11-year follow-up, CCT was a significant predictive factor for glaucoma progression in patients with higher baseline IOP but not in those with lower baseline IOP. Clinical trials such as the OHTS and EMGT cannot prove that CCT is linked to a risk for glaucoma on a biological level. Thus, in eyes with glaucoma, IOP must be treated because it has a significant influence on progression of glaucoma, regardless of the baseline IOP and CCT.

  12. Updates on the Surgical Management of Pediatric Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yar-Li; Chua, Jocelyn; Ho, Ching-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Childhood glaucoma is known to be one of the most challenging conditions to manage. Surgical management is more complicated than in adults because of differences in anatomy from adults along with variations in anatomy caused by congenital and developmental anomalies, wide-ranging pathogenetic mechanisms, a more aggressive healing response, and a less predictable postoperative course. Challenges in postoperative examination and management in less cooperative children and the longer life expectancies preempting the need for future surgeries and reinterventions are also contributing factors. Angle surgery is usually the first-line treatment in the surgical management of primary congenital glaucoma because it has a relatively good success rate with a low complication rate. After failed angle surgery or in cases of secondary pediatric glaucoma, options such as trabeculectomy, glaucoma drainage devices, or cyclodestructive procedures can be considered, depending on several factors such as the type of glaucoma, age of the patient, and the severity and prognosis of the disease. Various combinations of these techniques have also been studied, in particular combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy, which has been shown to be successful in patients with moderate-to-advanced disease. Newer nonpenetrating techniques, such as viscocanalostomy and deep sclerectomy, have been reported in some studies with variable results. Further studies are needed to evaluate these newer surgical techniques, including the use of modern minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries, in this special and diverse group of young patients.

  13. The Management of Secondary Glaucoma in Nanophthalmic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengsong Huang; Minbin Yu; Changyu Qiu; Tiancai Ye

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristcs, management of secondary glaucoma in nanophthalmos, and the prevention of its complications.Methods: Retrospectively, 9 cases (17 eyes) with nanophthalmic glaucoma were studied.Results: The axial length of the eyes ranged (14.36 ~ 19.33) mm; All of the cases combined with hyperopia ranged (+7.00~+16.00)D. All 17 eyes had the manifestation like angle-closure glaucoma.The glaucoma was controlled in 9 of 17 eyes at the early stage, which underwent laser iridotomy (4 of 9 eyes also underwent laser iridoplasty). 1 eye underwent ciliary photocoagulation because its visual acuity was lost and the patient complained of pain. The other 7 eyes underwent filtration surgery and 3 of them had permanent loss of vision caused by disastrous complications after the surgery.Conclusions: Management of secondary glaucoma in nanophthalmos is complicated. The laser iris surgery is safe and effective in glaucoma at the early stage. Vortex vein decompression, sclerotectomy or anterior sclerotomy may be performed to reduce disastrous complications.

  14. Glaucoma detection based on local binary patterns in fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheh Ali, Maya; Hurtut, Thomas; Faucon, Timothée.; Cheriet, Farida

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma, a group of diseases that lead to optic neuropathy, is one of the most common reasons for blindness worldwide. Glaucoma rarely causes symptoms until the later stages of the disease. Early detection of glaucoma is very important to prevent visual loss since optic nerve damages cannot be reversed. To detect glaucoma, purely data-driven techniques have advantages, especially when the disease characteristics are complex and when precise image-based measurements are difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present our preliminary study for glaucoma detection using an automatic method based on local texture features extracted from fundus photographs. It implements the completed modeling of Local Binary Patterns to capture representative texture features from the whole image. A local region is represented by three operators: its central pixel (LBPC) and its local differences as two complementary components, the sign (which is the classical LBP) and the magnitude (LBPM). An image texture is finally described by both the distribution of LBP and the joint-distribution of LBPM and LBPC. Our images are then classified using a nearest-neighbor method with a leave-one-out validation strategy. On a sample set of 41 fundus images (13 glaucomatous, 28 non-glaucomatous), our method achieves 95:1% success rate with a specificity of 92:3% and a sensitivity of 96:4%. This study proposes a reproducible glaucoma detection process that could be used in a low-priced medical screening, thus avoiding the inter-experts variability issue.

  15. Laser-induced primate glaucoma. II. Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Pederson, J E

    1984-11-01

    A sustained, moderate pressure elevation was produced in 15 nonhuman primate eyes by application of laser energy to the trabecular meshwork. By light and electron microscopy, the trabecular beams were blunted, and scattered synechiae were present. Backward bowing of the lamina cribrosa, partial loss of the myelin sheath surrounding axonal segments just posterior to the lamina, and diffuse axonal loss involving the entire nerve cross section were noted. A quantitative analysis of this axonal loss revealed that eyes with moderate nerve head damage (cup-disc ratio, 0.6 to 0.8) had only 38% to 69% of the expected normal axonal count. The eyes with nearly total cupping (cup-disc ratio, 0.9 to 1.0) maintained between 10% and 36% of the normal axonal count. The disc changes in these experimental eyes are similar to those previously described in human eyes with glaucoma.

  16. [Preservatives from the perspective of glaucoma surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, H; van der Velden, K K

    2012-11-01

    Trabeculectomy is still the gold standard in the surgical treatment of glaucoma patients. Development of a bleb is the primary goal of this procedure and the conjunctival status is therefore decisive. Only a good functioning bleb renders good intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Scar tissue formation leads to bleb failure which is quite common despite the use of antiproliferative agents, such as mitomycin C and 5 fluoruracil. Wound healing is important and is influenced and impaired by the chronic use of topical antiglaucoma drugs. Therefore, complete abstinence is recommended from 4-6 weeks prior to a planned trabeculectomy; however, it seems mandatory to completely abolish preservatives such as drops containing benzalkonium chloride to enhance trabeculectomy success rates.

  17. Using genetic mouse models to gain insight into glaucoma: Past results and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kimberly A; Harder, Jeffrey M; Williams, Pete A; Rausch, Rebecca L; Kiernan, Amy E; Nair, K Saidas; Anderson, Michael G; John, Simon W M; Howell, Gareth R; Libby, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    While all forms of glaucoma are characterized by a specific pattern of retinal ganglion cell death, they are clinically divided into several distinct subclasses, including normal tension glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma, congenital glaucoma, and secondary glaucoma. For each type of glaucoma there are likely numerous molecular pathways that control susceptibility to the disease. Given this complexity, a single animal model will never precisely model all aspects of all the different types of human glaucoma. Therefore, multiple animal models have been utilized to study glaucoma but more are needed. Because of the powerful genetic tools available to use in the laboratory mouse, it has proven to be a highly useful mammalian system for studying the pathophysiology of human disease. The similarity between human and mouse eyes coupled with the ability to use a combination of advanced cell biological and genetic tools in mice have led to a large increase in the number of studies using mice to model specific glaucoma phenotypes. Over the last decade, numerous new mouse models and genetic tools have emerged, providing important insight into the cell biology and genetics of glaucoma. In this review, we describe available mouse genetic models that can be used to study glaucoma-relevant disease/pathobiology. Furthermore, we discuss how these models have been used to gain insights into ocular hypertension (a major risk factor for glaucoma) and glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell death. Finally, the potential for developing new mouse models and using advanced genetic tools and resources for studying glaucoma are discussed.

  18. The Wills Eye Glaucoma App: Interest of Patients and Their Caregivers in a Smartphone-based and Tablet-based Glaucoma Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd, Michael; Dhami, Hermandeep; Zhou, Chen; Hsieh, Michael; Abichandani, Pramod; Pro, Michael J; Moster, Marlene R; Katz, L Jay; Hark, Lisa A; Myers, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the interest of glaucoma patients and their caregivers in a smartphone-based and tablet-based glaucoma application (App), developed by the Wills Eye Glaucoma Research Center in collaboration with Drexel University. Cross-sectional survey of patients with glaucoma and their caregivers. Main outcome measures are answers to survey questions regarding how receptive participants are to using the Glaucoma App. Fifty subjects completed the survey. The mean age (SD) was 59.5 (±17.3) years. A total of 88.6% of the participants lived in a household with access to a smartphone or tablet. The majority (72.3%) of participants would consider downloading the Glaucoma App, and younger participants (App if it was free of charge, compared with a version that costs $3, P=0.018. Although only about one third (37.8%) of participants used eye drop reminders, nearly 3 of 4 (72.9%) participants were receptive to using the automated reminder feature of the Glaucoma App. Glaucoma patients and their caregivers were very interested in using a Glaucoma App; however, many were not willing to spend $3 for an App they seem to value. The free Wills Eye Glaucoma App currently available on the Apple store, includes educational videos, eye drop and appointment reminders, medical and ocular data storage, visual field tutorial, and intraocular pressure tracker. These features aim to increase patients' level of knowledge about glaucoma and improve their adherence to medication and follow-up appointment recommendations.

  19. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wayfinding and Glaucoma: A Virtual Reality Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Fábio B; Macagno, Eduardo; Stevenson, Cory; Elhosseiny, Ahmed; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Schulze, Jürgen; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2017-07-01

    Wayfinding, the process of determining and following a route between an origin and a destination, is an integral part of everyday tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of glaucomatous visual field loss on wayfinding behavior using an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. This cross-sectional study included 31 glaucomatous patients and 20 healthy subjects without evidence of overall cognitive impairment. Wayfinding experiments were modeled after the Morris water maze navigation task and conducted in an immersive VR environment. Two rooms were built varying only in the complexity of the visual scene in order to promote allocentric-based (room A, with multiple visual cues) versus egocentric-based (room B, with single visual cue) spatial representations of the environment. Wayfinding tasks in each room consisted of revisiting previously visible targets that subsequently became invisible. For room A, glaucoma patients spent on average 35.0 seconds to perform the wayfinding task, whereas healthy subjects spent an average of 24.4 seconds (P = 0.001). For room B, no statistically significant difference was seen on average time to complete the task (26.2 seconds versus 23.4 seconds, respectively; P = 0.514). For room A, each 1-dB worse binocular mean sensitivity was associated with 3.4% (P = 0.001) increase in time to complete the task. Glaucoma patients performed significantly worse on allocentric-based wayfinding tasks conducted in a VR environment, suggesting visual field loss may affect the construction of spatial cognitive maps relevant to successful wayfinding. VR environments may represent a useful approach for assessing functional vision endpoints for clinical trials of emerging therapies in ophthalmology.

  1. The 2010 IODC lens design problem: the green lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Richard C.

    2010-08-01

    The lens design problem for the 2010 IODC is to design a 100 mm focal length lens in which every optical surface has the same radius of curvature, positive or negative, or is plano. The lens is used monochromatically at 532 nm and is made of only Schott N-BK7 glass. The goal of the problem is to maximize the product of the semi-field of view and the entrance pupil diameter while holding the distortion to within +/-5% and the RMS wavefront error to <= 0.07 wave within the field of view. There were 37 entries from eight different countries. Four different commercial lens design programs were used, along with two custom, in-house programs. The number of lens elements in the entries ranged from 3 to 64. The overall length of the lenses varied from 105 mm to 3.6 km. The winning entry had an entrance pupil diameter of 81.3 mm and a semi-field of view of 43.5° for a merit function product of 3537.

  2. Thermal behavior in the LENS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, M.L.; Schlienger, M.E.; Harwell, L.D. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Direct laser metal deposition processing is a promising manufacturing technology which could significantly impact the length of time between initial concept and finished part. For adoption of this technology in the manufacturing environment, further understanding is required to ensure robust components with appropriate properties are routinely fabricated. This requires a complete understanding of the thermal history during part fabrication and control of this behavior. This paper will describe research to understand the thermal behavior for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process, where a component is fabricated by focusing a laser beam onto a substrate to create a molten pool in which powder particles are simultaneously injected to build each layer. The substrate is moved beneath the laser beam to deposit a thin cross section, thereby creating the desired geometry for each layer. After deposition of each layer, the powder delivery nozzle and focusing lens assembly is incremented in the positive Z-direction, thereby building a three dimensional component layer additively. It is important to control the thermal behavior to reproducibly fabricate parts. The ultimate intent is to monitor the thermal signatures and to incorporate sensors and feedback algorithms to control part fabrication. With appropriate control, the geometric properties (accuracy, surface finish, low warpage) as well as the materials` properties (e.g., strength, ductility) of a component can be dialed into the part through the fabrication parameters. Thermal monitoring techniques will be described, and their particular benefits highlighted. Preliminary details in correlating thermal behavior with processing results will be discussed.

  3. Análise morfométrica comparativa entre olhos com glaucoma agudo primário e olhos contralaterais Comparative morphometric assessment between eyes with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma and contralateral eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2008-06-01

    üência os seios camerulares fechados quando comparados com os OCLs. Os olhos com GAP apresentaram: K médio de 45,21 ± 1,96 D, ECC média de 534,46 ± 34,15 mm, PCCA média de 2,43 ± 0,28 mm; AXL médio de 21,68 ± 0,96 mm, CR média de 4,85 ± 0,32 mm, e a relação CR/AXL de 2,24 ± 0,16. Os OCLs apresentaram: K médio de 44,92 ± 1,86 D, ECC média de 533,18 ± 31,41 mm, PCCA média de 2,51 ± 0,29 mm; AXL médio de 21,82 ± 0,92 mm, CR média de 4,85 ± 0,36 mm, e a relação CR/AXL de 2,23 ± 0,18. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa apenas na comparação de K e PCCA, entre os olhos que tiveram GAP e os OCLs. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de GAP foi de 20,8/1000, sendo mais freqüente em mulheres, leucodérmicas, com história familiar negativa para glaucoma e média de idade de 59,6 anos. Os olhos com GAP apresentaram, de modo estatisticamente significativo, pior acuidade visual, menor equivalente esférico hipermetrópico, maior escavação do disco óptico, maior K médio e menor PCCA que os OCLs.PURPOSE: To establish the profile of patients with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (APACG and to assess comparatively clinical and morphometric parameters between eyes with APACG and contralateral eyes (CLEs. METHODS: Prospective study including patients attended from September 2005 to March 2007. Inclusion criteria: diagnosis of APACG. Exclusion criteria: presence of cataract (except for "glaukomflecken" that may cause low visual acuity or myopization, secondary glaucoma, previous APAGC or surgical procedure in the (CLE, no possibility to control the acute crisis of glaucoma clinically, plateau iris. The following were evaluated: incidence of APACG, age, gender, race, family history of glaucoma, corrected visual acuity (CVA and uncorrected visual acuity (UVA, spherical equivalent (SE, cup/disc ratio (C/D, gonioscopy, keratometry (K, central corneal thickness (CCT, and echobiometric data [anterior central chamber depth (ACCD, axial length (AL, lens

  4. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil Characterization of juvenile glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El glaucoma no es frecuente en los niños, pero cuando ocurre sus síntomas son poco perceptibles y produce graves consecuencias para la salud visual. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar, desde las aristas cl��nica y epidemiológica, a los pacientes con glaucoma juvenil atendidos en los servicios de oftalmología de los Hospitales Pediátricos del Cerro y «Pedro Borrás», en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 176 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, con presunto glaucoma. La muestra, después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, quedó conformada por 38 casos. Se analizaron las variables: edad al momento del diagnóstico, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares según grado de parentesco, agudeza visual máxima corregida, tipo de defecto refractivo, características del ángulo camerular, espesor corneal central, valor de la presión intraocular, alteraciones fundoscópicas y campimétricas. RESULTADOS. En la mayoría de los pacientes el diagnóstico de glaucoma juvenil constituyó un hallazgo. La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 12,5 años, con ligero predominio de varones y de la piel no blanca. Fue más frecuente el antecedente de glaucoma en familiares de segundo grado de consanguinidad. La mayoría de los casos tenía visión óptima, algún grado de miopía y ángulo abierto sin alteraciones evidentes del ángulo camerular, entre las cuales la más frecuente fue la presencia de procesos iridianos prominentes. CONCLUSIONES. Predominaron la disminución moderada del espesor corneal y valores medios de presión intraocular de 26,91 mm Hg. La alteración fundoscópica encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la excavación papilar moderada (entre 0,4 y 0,5 y como lesión campimétrica, el aumento de la mancha

  5. Risk factors for late presentation of chronic glaucoma in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Fallahi Motlagh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that several risk factors present for late presentation in chronic glaucoma. Our results suggest planning screening programs in high-risk individuals for early detection of glaucoma and prevention of blindness.

  6. Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy for refractory glaucoma

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    Anton M Kolomeyer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Pars plana Baerveldt tube implantation with PPV can preserve vision, reduce IOP, and decrease the number of glaucoma medications necessary to achieve target IOP in patients with recalcitrant glaucoma.

  7. Tank-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) Gene and Open-Angle Glaucomas (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingert, John H; Robin, Alan L; Scheetz, Todd E; Kwon, Young H; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Alward, Wallace L M

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene copy-number variations (ie, gene duplications and triplications) in the pathophysiology of various open-angle glaucomas. In previous studies, we discovered that copy-number variations in the TBK1 gene are associated with normal-tension glaucoma. Here, we investigated the prevalence of copy-number variations in cohorts of patients with other open-angle glaucomas-juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (n=30), pigmentary glaucoma (n=209), exfoliation glaucoma (n=225), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n=79)-using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. No TBK1 gene copy-number variations were detected in patients with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or steroid-induced glaucoma. A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in one (0.44%) of the 225 exfoliation glaucoma patients. TBK1 gene copy-number variations (gene duplications and triplications) have been previously associated with normal-tension glaucoma. An exploration of other open-angle glaucomas detected a TBK1 copy-number variation in a patient with exfoliation glaucoma, which is the first example of a TBK1 mutation in a glaucoma patient with a diagnosis other than normal-tension glaucoma. A broader phenotypic range may be associated with TBK1 copy-number variations, although mutations in this gene are most often detected in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

  8. Gene therapy in glaucoma-part 2: Genetic etiology and gene mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma diagnosis, identification of people at risk, initiation of treatment and timing of surgical intervention remains a problem. Despite new and improving diagnostic and therapeutic options for glaucoma, blindness from glaucoma is increasing and glaucoma remains a major public health problem. The role of heredity in ocular disease is attracting greater attention as the knowledge and recent advances of Human Genome Project and the HapMap Project have made genetic analysis of many human dis...

  9. Socioeconomics of long-term glaucoma therapy in India

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    Bhagabat Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the socioeconomic impact of long-term glaucoma therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive glaucoma patients on medical therapy, following up at our glaucoma service for at least 6 months were recruited. A questionnaire regarding monthly income, cost of glaucoma medications prescribed, availability of medications, travel time, time spent in review clinics, compliance, education status, medical insurance and systemic or local side-effects was administered. Results: The patients seen at the tertiary government hospital had an average monthly income of Rs. 10,912/- (range: Rs. 500/- to Rs. 50,000/- with approximately 56% of the patients having an income of less than Rs. 5000/month. The expenditure on anti-glaucoma medications ranged from 0.3% in high income group to 123% of their monthly gross income in low income group (P < 0.0001. The total expenditure including travel, stay, and loss of wages of patients and accompanying persons ranged from 1.6% in high income group to 137% of the monthly income in low income group (P < 0.0001. Mean time required for a glaucoma clinic visit was 15.66 h, (range: 6-96 h/month. About 2.7% experienced systemic side-effects and 21.3% had complaints of ocular adverse effects. About 90% of the patients were compliant. 92% were not covered by any insurance plan/government reimbursement for their treatment. Conclusions: Medical therapy for glaucoma is an economic burden to many patients and should be individualized, according to the socioeconomic status, availability of drugs and the required distance to travel to reach the specialist clinics.

  10. The patient health questionnaire-9: validation among patients with glaucoma.

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    Vijaya K Gothwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two common normal responses to a chronic disease such as glaucoma. This study analysed the measurement properties of the depression screening instrument - Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 using Rasch analysis to determine if it can be used as a measure. METHODS: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, the PHQ-9 was administered to primary glaucoma adults attending a glaucoma clinic of a tertiary eye care centre, South India. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation. Patient demographics and sub-type of glaucoma were abstracted from the medical record. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the following properties of the PHQ-9: behaviour of the response categories, measurement precision (assessed using person separation reliability, PSR; minimum recommended value 0.80, unidimensionality (assessed using item fit [0.7-1.3] and principal components analysis of residuals, and targeting. RESULTS: 198 patients (mean age ± standard deviation  = 59.83±12.34 years; 67% male were included. The native PHQ-9 did not fit the Rasch model. The response categories showed disordered thresholds which became ordered after category reorganization. Measurement precision was below acceptable limits (0.62 and targeting was sub-optimal (-1.27 logits. Four items misfit that were deleted iteratively following which a set of five items fit the Rasch model. However measurement precision failed to improve and targeting worsened further (-1.62 logits. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9, in its present form, provides suboptimal assessment of depression in patients with glaucoma in India. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new depression instrument for our glaucoma population. A superior strategy would be to use the item bank for depression but this will also need to be validated in glaucoma patients before deciding its utility.

  11. Target IOP as a measure of glaucoma surgery efficacy

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    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous criteria of glaucoma surgery efficacy. Among them, IOP level is of special importance. The development of tolerant and target IOP concepts as well as IOP tolerability issue are reviewed below. Individual normal IOP values and their role in glaucoma surgery evaluation are described. The gradation of glaucoma surgery effect and target IOP level depending on optic nerve damage degree as well as statistical principles of scientific data presentation are discussed. Current controversies forced World Glaucoma Association (WGA to develop Guidelines on Design & Reporting Glaucoma Trials (2009 which are now recommended for modern studies. The assessment of appropriate IOP reduction is the keystone of this paper. In addition, the results of the above-mentioned studies were analyzed and own recommendations were developed. Two approaches to evaluate glaucoma surgery efficacy are proposed, i.e., by true IOP (P0 and by IOP decrease from baseline (in %. In the last three decades, novel micro-invasive techniques that prolong glaucoma surgery effect were developed. Among them are suture removal (which can be cut or pulled out, laser suture lysis, Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture following non-penetrating surgery, filtering bleb and sub-scleral space needling revision in the early and late postoperative period. These procedures significantly increased hypotensive effect in the late post-op period (up to 96.7 %. Repeated surgery rate and medical therapy need were the primary surgical outcome while complete and partial success rates were the secondary outcome. Baseline IOP was defined as an IOP level on maximum medical therapy pre-operatively. Medical therapy is an important efficacy criterion as well. The number of drugs used (prostaglandin analogues, beta blockers etc. should be specified. When interpreting surgical outcomes, statistical methods must be considered. The required minimum is Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, scatter diagram, and box

  12. Target IOP as a measure of glaucoma surgery efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous criteria of glaucoma surgery efficacy. Among them, IOP level is of special importance. The development of tolerant and target IOP concepts as well as IOP tolerability issue are reviewed below. Individual normal IOP values and their role in glaucoma surgery evaluation are described. The gradation of glaucoma surgery effect and target IOP level depending on optic nerve damage degree as well as statistical principles of scientific data presentation are discussed. Current controversies forced World Glaucoma Association (WGA to develop Guidelines on Design & Reporting Glaucoma Trials (2009 which are now recommended for modern studies. The assessment of appropriate IOP reduction is the keystone of this paper. In addition, the results of the above-mentioned studies were analyzed and own recommendations were developed. Two approaches to evaluate glaucoma surgery efficacy are proposed, i.e., by true IOP (P0 and by IOP decrease from baseline (in %. In the last three decades, novel micro-invasive techniques that prolong glaucoma surgery effect were developed. Among them are suture removal (which can be cut or pulled out, laser suture lysis, Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture following non-penetrating surgery, filtering bleb and sub-scleral space needling revision in the early and late postoperative period. These procedures significantly increased hypotensive effect in the late post-op period (up to 96.7 %. Repeated surgery rate and medical therapy need were the primary surgical outcome while complete and partial success rates were the secondary outcome. Baseline IOP was defined as an IOP level on maximum medical therapy pre-operatively. Medical therapy is an important efficacy criterion as well. The number of drugs used (prostaglandin analogues, beta blockers etc. should be specified. When interpreting surgical outcomes, statistical methods must be considered. The required minimum is Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, scatter diagram, and box

  13. Minimally-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Carlo; Dallorto, Laura; Maule, Milena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Fea, Antonio Maria

    2017-01-01

    MIGS have been developed as a surgical alternative for glaucomatous patients. To analyze the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications using different MIGS devices (Trabectome, iStent, Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (ELT), iStent Supra, CyPass, XEN, Hydrus, Fugo Blade, Ab interno canaloplasty, Goniscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) as a solo procedure or in association with phacoemulsification. Randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT (non randomized comparative studies, NRS, and before-after studies) were included. Studies with at least one year of follow-up in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma were considered. Risk of Bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and the ROBINS-I tools. The main outcome was the effect of MIGS devices compared to medical therapy, cataract surgery, other glaucoma surgeries and other MIGS on both IOP and use of glaucoma medications 12 months after surgery. Outcomes measures were the mean difference in the change of IOP and glaucoma medication compared to baseline at one and two years and all ocular adverse events. The current meta-analysis is registered on PROSPERO (reference n° CRD42016037280). Over a total of 3,069 studies, nine RCT and 21 case series with a total of 2.928 eyes were included. Main concerns about risk of bias in RCTs were lack of blinding, allocation concealment and attrition bias while in non-RCTs they were represented by patients' selection, masking of participants and co-intervention management. Limited evidence was found based on both RCTs and non RCTs that compared MIGS surgery with medical therapy or other MIGS. In before-after series, MIGS surgery seemed effective in lowering both IOP and glaucoma drug use. MIGS showed a good safety profile: IOP spikes were the most frequent complications and no cases of infection or BCVA loss due to glaucoma were reported. Although MIGS seem efficient in the

  14. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-06-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users.

  15. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  16. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  17. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  18. Algebraic Lens Distortion Model Estimation

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    Luis Alvarez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A very important property of the usual pinhole model for camera projection is that 3D lines in the scene are projected to 2D lines. Unfortunately, wide-angle lenses (specially low-cost lenses may introduce a strong barrel distortion, which makes the usual pinhole model fail. Lens distortion models try to correct such distortion. We propose an algebraic approach to the estimation of the lens distortion parameters based on the rectification of lines in the image. Using the proposed method, the lens distortion parameters are obtained by minimizing a 4 total-degree polynomial in several variables. We perform numerical experiments using calibration patterns and real scenes to show the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Association of open-angle glaucoma loci with incident glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B M; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. study population: Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation: Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed incident OAG between baseline and 10-year visits, in either eye, while controls (n = 1919) had no evidence for OAG at any visit. All participants had an ocular examination and DNA genotyped for reported OAG risk SNPs. main outcome measure: Incident OAG. Two loci also known to be associated with cup-to-disc ratio as well as OAG (9p21 near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6) were both significantly associated with incident OAG in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). The TMCO1 locus was nominally associated (P = .012), while the CAV1/CAV2 and 8q22 loci were not associated. Multivariate logistic regression and neural network analysis both indicated that the genetic risk factors contributed positively to the predictive models incorporating traditional risk factors. This study shows that previously reported genetic variations related to OAG and cup-to-disc ratio are associated with the onset of OAG and thus may become useful in risk prediction algorithms designed to target early treatment to those most at risk of developing glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimated Prevalence of Glaucoma in South Korea Using the National Claims Database

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    Sang Jin Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma and costs associated with glaucoma care in South Korea between 2008 and 2013 using the Korean national claims database. Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study from a national claims database. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with glaucoma between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively identified in the national claims database using glaucoma diagnostic codes. For each year, the prevalence of glaucoma and direct medical costs associated with glaucoma care were estimated. Result. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients ≥40 years of age increased from 0.79% in 2008 to 1.05% in 2013. The number of patients with glaucoma increased by 54% between 2008 and 2013 (9% average annual increase. The prevalence of glaucoma increased with age and was higher in males than in females. The cost to care for glaucoma patients increased from $16.5 million in 2008 to $29.2 million in 2013, which translated into an 81% increase over the 6 years examined (12.7% average annual increase. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence and socioeconomic burden of glaucoma have steadily increased each year in South Korea. Nevertheless, many glaucoma patients remain undiagnosed in the present study using national claims database.