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Sample records for length total number

  1. Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees

  2. Total Path Length and Number of Terminal Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2014-09-13

    This paper presents a new tool for study of relationships between total path length (average depth) and number of terminal nodes for decision trees. These relationships are important from the point of view of optimization of decision trees. In this particular case of total path length and number of terminal nodes, the relationships between these two cost functions are closely related with space-time trade-off. In addition to algorithm to compute the relationships, the paper also presents results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository1. These experiments show how two cost functions behave for a given decision table and the resulting plots show the Pareto frontier or Pareto set of optimal points. Furthermore, in some cases this Pareto frontier is a singleton showing the total optimality of decision trees for the given decision table.

  3. On the total number of genes and their length distribution in complete microbial genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M; Jensen, L J; Brunak, S

    2001-01-01

    In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length distribut......In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length...... distribution of the annotated genes with the length distribution of those matching a known protein reveals that too many short genes are annotated in many genomes. Here we estimate the true number of protein-coding genes for sequenced genomes. Although it is often claimed that Escherichia coli has about 4300...... genes, we show that it probably has only approximately 3800 genes, and that a similar discrepancy exists for almost all published genomes....

  4. On the total number of genes and their length distribution in complete microbial genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marie; Jensen, L.J.; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    In sequenced microbial genomes, some of the annotated genes are actually not protein-coding genes, but rather open reading frames that occur by chance. Therefore, the number of annotated genes is higher than the actual number of genes for most of these microbes. Comparison of the length...... distribution of the annotated genes with the length distribution of those matching a known protein reveals that too many short genes are annotated in many genomes. Here we estimate the true number of protein-coding genes for sequenced genomes. Although it is often claimed that Escherichia coli has about 4300...... genes, we show that it probably has only similar to 3800 genes, and that a similar discrepancy exists for almost all published genomes....

  5. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel P. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

  6. Reducing Length of Stay in Total Joint Arthroplasty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Megan; Chambers, Monique C; Sayeed, Zain; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    As health care reforms continue to improve quality of care, significant emphasis will be placed on evaluation of orthopedic patient outcomes. Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has a proven track record of enhancing patient quality of life and are easily replicable. The outcomes of these procedures serve as a measure of health care initiative success. Specifically, length of stay, will be targeted as a marker of quality of surgical care delivered to TJA patients. Within this review, we will discuss preoperative and postoperative methods by which orthopedic surgeons may enhance TJA outcomes and effectively reduce length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Quality Management. ERIC Digest, Number 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Tyler

    The Japanese success story has made W. Edwards Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory increasingly popular among American managers, from car manufacturers to educational leaders. TQM is based on two tenets: the primacy of customer satisfaction and the necessity of tapping nontraditional sources (especially employee ideas) to institute…

  8. Cross-dimensional mapping of number, length and brightness by preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores de Hevia

    Full Text Available Human adults in diverse cultures, children, infants, and non-human primates relate number to space, but it is not clear whether this ability reflects a specific and privileged number-space mapping. To investigate this possibility, we tested preschool children in matching tasks where the dimensions of number and length were mapped both to one another and to a third dimension, brightness. Children detected variation on all three dimensions, and they reliably performed mappings between number and length, and partially between brightness and length, but not between number and brightness. Moreover, children showed reliably better mapping of number onto the dimension of length than onto the dimension of brightness. These findings suggest that number establishes a privileged mapping with the dimension of length, and that other dimensions, including brightness, can be mapped onto length, although less efficiently. Children's adeptness at number-length mappings suggests that these two dimensions are intuitively related by the end of the preschool years.

  9. Effects of the Length of Stay on the Cost of Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ilda B; Martin, Brook I; Moschetti, Wayne E; Jevsevar, David S

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of total knee and hip arthroplasty has greatly increased in the past decade in the United States; these are among the most expensive procedures in patients with Medicare. Advances in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and care pathways decrease hospital length of stay. We examined how trends in hospital cost were altered by decreases in length of stay. Procedure, demographic, and economic data were collected on 6.4 million admissions for total knee arthroplasty and 2.8 million admissions for total hip arthroplasty from 2002 to 2013 using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Trends in mean hospital costs and their association with length of stay were estimated using inflation-adjusted, survey-weighted generalized linear regression models, controlling for patient demographic characteristics and comorbidity. From 2002 to 2013, the length of stay decreased from a mean time of 4.06 to 2.97 days for total knee arthroplasty and from 4.06 to 2.75 days for total hip arthroplasty. During the same time period, the mean hospital cost for total knee arthroplasty increased from $14,988 (95% confidence interval [CI], $14,927 to $15,049) in 2002 to $22,837 (95% CI, $22,765 to $22,910) in 2013 (an overall increase of $7,849 or 52.4%). The mean hospital cost for total hip arthroplasty increased from $15,792 (95% CI, $15,706 to $15,878) in 2002 to $23,650 (95% CI, $23,544 to $23,755) in 2013 (an increase of $7,858 or 49.8%). If length of stay were set at the 2002 mean, the growth in cost for total knee arthroplasty would have been 70.8% instead of 52.4% as observed, and the growth in cost for total hip arthroplasty would have been 67.4% instead of 49.8% as observed. Hospital costs for joint replacement increased from 2002 to 2013, but were attenuated by reducing inpatient length of stay. With demographic characteristics showing an upward trend in the utilization of joint arthroplasty, including a shift

  10. Question of the total gene number in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, G.; Watkins, W.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical analysis has been carried out on the distribution and allelism of nearly 500 sex-linked, X-ray-induced, cytologically normal and rearranged lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that were obtained by G. Lefevre. The mutations were induced in four different regions of the X chromosome: (1) 1A1-3E8, (2) 6D1-8A5, (3) 9E1-11A7 and (4) 19A1-20F4, which together comprise more than one-third of the entire chromosome.--The analysis shows that the number of alleles found at different loci does not fit a Poisson distribution, even when the proper procedures are taken to accommodate the truncated nature of the data. However, the allele distribution fits a truncated negative binomial distribution quite well, with cytologically normal mutations fitting better than rearrangement mutations. This indicates that genes are not equimutable, as required for the data to fit a Poisson distribution.--Using the negative binomial parameters to estimate the number of genes that did not produce a detectable lethal mutation in our experiment (n0) gave a larger number than that derived from the use of the Poisson parameter. Unfortunately, we cannot estimate the total numbers of nonvital loci, loci with undetectable phenotypes and loci having extremely low mutabilities. In any event, our estimate of the total vital gene number was far short of the total number of bands in the analyzed regions; yet, in several short intervals, we have found more vital genes than bands; in other intervals, fewer. We conclude that the one-band, one-gene hypothesis, in its literal sense, is not true; furthermore, it is difficult to support, even approximately.--The question of the total gene number in Drosophila will, not doubt, eventually be solved by molecular analyses, not by statistical analysis of mutation data or saturation studies

  11. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  12. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach

  13. Time, number and length: similarities and differences in discrimination in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clément, Angélique; Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on similarities in the discrimination of three different quantities--time, number, and line length--using a bisection task involving children aged 5 and 8 years and adults, when number and length were presented nonsequentially (Experiment 1) and sequentially (Experiment 2). In the nonsequential condition, for all age groups, although to a greater extent in the younger children, the psychophysical functions were flatter, and the Weber ratio higher for time than for number and length. Number and length yielded similar psychophysical functions. Thus, sensitivity to time was lower than that to the other quantities, whether continuous or not. However, when number and length were presented sequentially (Experiment 2), the differences in discrimination performance between time, number, and length disappeared. Furthermore, the Weber ratio values as well as the bisection points for all quantities presented sequentially appeared to be close to that found for duration in the nonsequential condition. The results are discussed within the framework of recent theories suggesting a common mechanism for all analogical quantities.

  14. Universal dependence of the total number albedo of photons on the mean number of photon scatterings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on photon reflection from plane targets based on Monte Carlo simulations performed by the MCNP code. Five materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper are examined in the area of initial photon energies of up to 200 keV. The values of the total number albedo for photons dependent on the initial photon energy or the mean number of photon scatterings are calculated and graphically presented. We have shown that the values of the total number albedo for different target materials, expressed as a function of the mean number of photon scatterings, are in good agreement with each other and can be approximated by simple, universal analytic functions obtained by the least squares method. The accuracy of these analytic appoximations is confirmed by their comparison with the results of PENELOPE and FOTELP Monte Carlo codes.

  15. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  16. No change in total length of white matter fibers in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, A.M.; Marner, L.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    White matter changes have been reported as part of Alzheimer dementia. To investigate this, the total subcortical myelinated nerve fiber length was estimated in postmortem brains from eight females (age 79-88 years) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compared with brains from 10 female...

  17. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.

  18. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard; Arabshahi, H.; Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al x Ga (1−x) As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: ► OptiOptical Non-Linear. ► Total Effective Length. ► Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm ► Schrödinger equation solution. ► Nanostructure.

  19. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Permutations avoiding an increasing number of length-increasing forbidden subsequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barcucci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A permutation π is said to be τ-avoiding if it does not contain any subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as τ. This paper concerns the characterization and enumeration of permutations which avoid a set F j of subsequences increasing both in number and in length at the same time. Let F j be the set of subsequences of the form σ(j+1(j+2, σ being any permutation on {1,...,j}. For j=1 the only subsequence in F 1 is 123 and the 123-avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Catalan numbers; for j=2 the subsequences in F 2 are 1234 2134 and the (1234,2134 avoiding permutations are enumerated by the Schröder numbers; for each other value of j greater than 2 the subsequences in F j are j! and their length is (j+2 the permutations avoiding these j! subsequences are enumerated by a number sequence {a n } such that C n ≤ a n ≤ n!, C n being the n th Catalan number. For each j we determine the generating function of permutations avoiding the subsequences in F j according to the length, to the number of left minima and of non-inversions.

  1. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório de; Temponi, Eduardo Frois; Paganini, Vinícius Oliveira; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  2. Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over Natural Numbers with Integer Constraints for Interval Lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...... with integer constraints for interval lengths, which is a propositional interval temporal logic featuring a modality for the 'right neighborhood' relation between intervals and explicit integer constraints for interval lengths. We prove that it has the bounded model property with respect to ultimately periodic...

  3. Limb shortening osteotomy in a patient with achondroplasia and leg length difference after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L. Galata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most common reason for disproportionate short stature. Normally, orthopedic limb lengthening procedures must be discussed in the course of this genetic disorder and have been successful in numerous achondroplastic patients in the past. In some cases, the disease may lead to leg length differences with need for surgical correction. Case Report: We report a case of achondroplastic dysplastic coxarthrosis with symptomatic leg length difference after bilateral total hip arthroplasty in a 52-year-old female patient, in which a distal femoral shortening osteotomy was successfully performed. Conclusion: Femoral shortening osteotomy is very uncommon in patients with achondroplasia. We conclude, however, that in rare cases it can be indicated and provide the advantage of shorter operation time, less perioperative complications and faster recovery compared to leg lengthening procedures. Keywords: Achondroplasia, dysplastic coxarthrosis, limb shortening, distal femur osteotomy.

  4. A parallel VLSI architecture for a digital filter of arbitrary length using Fermat number transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Yeh, C. S.; Shao, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel architecture for computation of the linear convolution of two sequences of arbitrary lengths using the Fermat number transform (FNT) is described. In particular a pipeline structure is designed to compute a 128-point FNT. In this FNT, only additions and bit rotations are required. A standard barrel shifter circuit is modified so that it performs the required bit rotation operation. The overlap-save method is generalized for the FNT to compute a linear convolution of arbitrary length. A parallel architecture is developed to realize this type of overlap-save method using one FNT and several inverse FNTs of 128 points. The generalized overlap save method alleviates the usual dynamic range limitation in FNTs of long transform lengths. Its architecture is regular, simple, and expandable, and therefore naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  5. Stereological Methods for Estimation of Total Number of Particles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In certain organs, like the brain, it is important to count the number of neurons associated with a particular function or region. The count gives an estimate of the electronic units available for a specific task or are endowed with a quantum of electrical energy. Similar studies can be extended in organs like the kidney, glands ...

  6. Estimation of MONIN-OBUKHOV length using richardson and bulk richardson number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The 1996 NOVA atmospheric boundary layer data from North Carolina are used in 30 minute's averages for five days. Because of missing data of friction velocity (u) and sensible heat flux (H), it is urgent to calculate (u*)and (H) using the equations of logarithmic wind speed and net radiation (Briggs [7]), which are considered in this work. It is found that the correlation between the predicted and observed values of (u*) and (H) is 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. A comparison is made of the Monin-Obukhov length scale (L) estimated using Richardson number (R i ) and bulk Richardson number (Ri b ) with L-value computed using formula of (L), it is found that the agreement between the predicted and observed values of (L) is better in the case (L)is estimated from the bulk Richardson number (Ri b ), rather than from the gradient Richarson number(R j )

  7. Autoregulation of the total number of cells in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    According to the universally accepted concept of the development of life on the Earth, multicellular organisms initially emerged as a result of either the union of identical unicellular organisms with the following functional differentiation, or the union of symbionts, in which there already was a certain simple functional separation. However, in either case the progenitors of multicellular organisms were ensembles, communities of unicellular organisms. For a certain number of unicellular org...

  8. Relationships between total length and otolith size of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Marmara Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Bal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was monthly collected from commercial fishing boats operating in the Marmara Sea between January and December 2014. The relationship between total length and otolith size of 346 bluefish samples were examined. Total lengths of females, males and unidentified samples were ranged from between 13.2-37.0, 12.3-34.8 and 13.0-31.6 cm, respectively. Otolith lengths were between 3.82-12.60 mm and otolith width were between 1.59-4.34 mm for all samples. It was found that there is a strong correlations between otolith length-total length (r2 =0.88 and otolith width-total length (r2 0.81.

  9. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Honório de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. Materials and methods: the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. Results: between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  10. Medicaid Enrollment Gap Length and Number of Medicaid Enrollment Periods Among US Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gap length, characteristics associated with gap length, and number of enrollment periods among Medicaid-enrolled children in the United States. Methods. We linked the 2004 National Health Interview Survey to Medicaid Analytic eXtract files for 1999 through 2008. We examined linkage-eligible children aged 5 to 13 years in the 2004 National Health Interview Survey who disenrolled from Medicaid. We generated Kaplan-Meier curves of time to reenrollment. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables on time to reenrollment. We compared the percentage of children enrolled 4 or more times across sociodemographic groups. Results. Of children who disenrolled from Medicaid, 35.8%, 47.1%, 63.5%, 70.8%, and 79.1% of children had reenrolled in Medicaid by 6 months, 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Children who were younger, poorer, or of minority race/ethnicity or had lower educated parents had shorter gaps in Medicaid and were more likely to have had 4 or more Medicaid enrollment periods. Conclusions. Nearly half of US children who disenrolled from Medicaid reenrolled within 1 year. Children with traditionally high-risk demographic characteristics had shorter gaps in Medicaid enrollment and were more likely to have more periods of Medicaid enrollment. PMID:25033135

  11. The impact of article length on the number of future citations: a bibliometric analysis of general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkali, Angeliki; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Bardakas, Vangelis; Mavros, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    The number of citations received is considered an index of study quality and impact. We aimed to examine the factors associated with the number of citations of published articles, focusing on the article length. Original human studies published in the first trimester of 2006 in 5 major General Medicine journals were analyzed with regard to the number of authors and of author-affiliated institutions, title and abstract word count, article length (number of print pages), number of bibliographic references, study design, and 2006 journal impact factor (JIF). A multiple linear regression model was employed to identify the variables independently associated with the number of article citations received through January 2012. On univariate analysis the JIF, number of authors, article length, study design (interventional/observational and prospective/retrospective), title and abstract word count, number of author-affiliated institutions, and number of references were all associated with the number of citations received. On multivariate analysis with the logarithm of citations as the dependent variable, only article length [regression coefficient: 14.64 (95% confidence intervals: (5.76-23.50)] and JIF [3.37 (1.80-4.948)] independently predicted the number of citations. The variance of citations explained by these parameters was 51.2%. In a sample of articles published in major General Medicine journals, in addition to journal impact factors, article length and number of authors independently predicted the number of citations. This may reflect a higher complexity level and quality of longer and multi-authored studies.

  12. Reconciling the Reynolds number dependence of scalar roughness length and laminar resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Rigden, A. J.; Salvucci, G.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The scalar roughness length and laminar resistance are necessary for computing scalar fluxes in numerical simulations and experimental studies. Their dependence on flow properties such as the Reynolds number remains controversial. In particular, two important power laws (1/4 and 1/2), proposed by Brutsaert and Zilitinkevich, respectively, are commonly seen in various parameterizations and models. Building on a previously proposed phenomenological model for interactions between the viscous sublayer and the turbulent flow, it is shown here that the two scaling laws can be reconciled. The "1/4" power law corresponds to the situation where the vertical diffusion is balanced by the temporal change or advection due to a constant velocity in the viscous sublayer, while the "1/2" power law scaling corresponds to the situation where the vertical diffusion is balanced by the advection due to a linear velocity profile in the viscous sublayer. In addition, the recently proposed "1" power law scaling is also recovered, which corresponds to the situation where molecular diffusion dominates the scalar budget in the viscous sublayer. The formulation proposed here provides a unified framework for understanding the onset of these different scaling laws and offers a new perspective on how to evaluate them experimentally.

  13. Number of Children and Telomere Length in Women: A Prospective, Longitudinal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, Cindy K.; Hanna, Courtney W.; Salvante, Katrina G.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Robinson, Wendy P.; Altman, Rachel M.; Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory (LHT) predicts a trade-off between reproductive effort and the pace of biological aging. Energy invested in reproduction is not available for tissue maintenance, thus having more offspring is expected to lead to accelerated senescence. Studies conducted in a variety of non-human species are consistent with this LHT prediction. Here we investigate the relationship between the number of surviving children born to a woman and telomere length (TL, a marker of cellular aging) over 13 years in a group of 75 Kaqchikel Mayan women. Contrary to LHT’s prediction, women who had fewer children exhibited shorter TLs than those who had more children (p = 0.045) after controlling for TL at the onset of the 13-year study period. An “ultimate” explanation for this apparently protective effect of having more children may lay with human’s cooperative-breeding strategy. In a number of socio-economic and cultural contexts, having more chilren appears to be linked to an increase in social support for mothers (e.g., allomaternal care). Higher social support, has been argued to reduce the costs of further reproduction. Lower reproductive costs may make more metabolic energy available for tissue maintenance, resulting in a slower pace of cellular aging. At a “proximate” level, mechanisms involved may include the actions of the gonadal steroid estradiol, which increases dramatically during pregnancy. Estradiol is known to protect TL from the effects of oxidative stress as well as increase telomerase activity, an enzyme that maintains TL. Future research should explore the potential role of social support as well as that of estradiol and other potential biological pathways in the trade-offs between reproductive effort and the pace of cellular aging within and among human as well as in non-human populations. PMID:26731744

  14. Sacroiliac joint stability: Finite element analysis of implant number, orientation, and superior implant length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Derek P; Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A; Goel, Vijay K

    2018-03-18

    To analyze how various implants placement variables affect sacroiliac (SI) joint range of motion. An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the SI joint using various placement configurations of triangular implants (iFuse Implant System ® ). Placement configurations were varied by changing implant orientation, superior implant length, and number of implants. The range of motion of the SI joint was calculated using a constant moment of 10 N-m with a follower load of 400 N. The changes in motion were compared between the treatment groups to assess how the different variables affected the overall motion of the SI joint. Transarticular placement of 3 implants with superior implants that end in the middle of the sacrum resulted in the greatest reduction in range of motion (flexion/extension = 73%, lateral bending = 42%, axial rotation = 72%). The range of motions of the SI joints were reduced with use of transarticular orientation (9%-18%) when compared with an inline orientation. The use of a superior implant that ended mid-sacrum resulted in median reductions of (8%-14%) when compared with a superior implant that ended in the middle of the ala. Reducing the number of implants, resulted in increased SI joint range of motions for the 1 and 2 implant models of 29%-133% and 2%-39%, respectively, when compared with the 3 implant model. Using a validated finite element model we demonstrated that placement of 3 implants across the SI joint using a transarticular orientation with superior implant reaching the sacral midline resulted in the most stable construct. Additional clinical studies may be required to confirm these results.

  15. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  16. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  17. Association of nursing-documented ambulation with length of stay following total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kidong; Yoo, Sooyoung; Yang, Eun Joo; No, Jae Hong; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the association of postoperative physical activity with length of stay in patients who received total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease. Methods The case group was composed of 70 patients who entered a critical pathway for elective total laparoscopic hysterectomy from 2009 to 2012 and were discharged behind schedule. The control group was selected from patients who were discharged on schedule, and matched to cases using 1:3 ratio p...

  18. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-05-01

    To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice.

  19. Design-based stereological estimation of the total number of cardiac myocytes in histological sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    in LM sections using design-based stereology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From formalin-fixed left rat ventricles (LV) isotropic uniformly random sections were cut. The total number of myocyte nuclei per LV was estimated using the optical disector. Two-microm-thick serial paraffin sections were stained......BACKGROUND: Counting the total number of cardiac myocytes has not previously been possible in ordinary histological sections using light microscopy (LM) due to difficulties in defining the myocyte borders properly. AIM: To describe a method by which the total number of cardiac myocytes is estimated...... with antibodies against cadherin and type IV collagen to visualise the intercalated discs and the myocyte membranes, respectively. Using the physical disector in "local vertical windows" of the serial sections, the average number of nuclei per myocyte was estimated.RESULTS: The total number of myocyte nuclei...

  20. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the young human utricular macula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Avall; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Kirkegaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Conclusion: There is no change in the total cell population and hair cell:supporting cell ratio in the human utricular macula from gestational week 16 and onwards, whereas the lower hair cell:supporting cell ratio and lower total number of cells in the youngest specimens indicate...... that the utricle is still differentiating and adding new cells at the 10th to 12th gestational week. Objectives: Archival temporal bones were investigated to quantify cell numbers in the utricular macula in fetuses and children. Methods: The age of the subjects ranged from gestational week 10 to 15 years....... The optical fractionator was used to estimate the total number of cells in the utricular macula. Results: The total cell number was found to be 143 000 in subjects older than gestational week 16. The number of hair cells and supporting cells did not change between the 16th gestational week and 15 years...

  1. Relationship between the total length of the stents and patients' quality of life after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Xuming; Dong, Pingshuan; Li, Zhijuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the total length of the stents and the postoperative life quality of patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Using the short-form health survey (SF-36) items, we analyzed the data on the postoperative life quality of 166 patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention in the Department of Cardiology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from September 2011 to September 2013. Follow-up was performed 6 months later. All of the dimensionalities, except general health and mental health, showed significantly higher scores after PCI. No significant relationships were observed between the total length of the stents and the postoperative life quality of patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. PCI can effectively improve the postoperative life quality of patients; however, there was no significant relationship between the total length of the stents and postoperative life quality of patients.

  2. Photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović, Lazo M

    2015-07-20

    A novel photometry-based estimation of the total number of stars in the Universe is presented. The estimation method is based on the energy conservation law and actual measurements of the extragalactic background light levels. By assuming that every radiated photon is kept within the Universe volume, i.e., by approximating the Universe as an integrating cavity without losses, the total number of stars in the Universe of about 6×1022 has been obtained.

  3. Number of nuclei, mitotic activity and cell length in Cladophora sp thallus treated with cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Krajewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladophora sp., a fresh water, filamentous, multi-nucleate alga growing 16 days in the presence of cadmium and chromium at concentrations 10-4 10-8M was the subject of the experiment. Chromium ions reduced the number of nuclei and mitotic activity, and disturbed the correlation between cell length and number of nuclei, more than cadmium ions. Moreover, both tested metals caused the disappearance of cells with numerous nuclei with time of the culture. Only during the first (1-4 days of culture for both metals the concentration of 10-4M and especially of 10-8M increased the number of nuclei, mitotic index and the length of cells. Apical cells were more sensitive to metals than other thallus cells.

  4. Estimation of Kubo number and correlation length of fluctuating magnetic fields and pressure in BOUT + + edge pedestal collapse simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Lee, W.-J.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaang, H. H.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2017-10-01

    Stochastic magnetic fields are thought to be as one of the possible mechanisms for anomalous transport of density, momentum and heat across the magnetic field lines. Kubo number and Chirikov parameter are quantifications of the stochasticity, and previous studies show that perpendicular transport strongly depends on the magnetic Kubo number (MKN). If MKN is smaller than one, diffusion process will follow Rechester-Rosenbluth model; whereas if it is larger than one, percolation theory dominates the diffusion process. Thus, estimation of Kubo number plays an important role to understand diffusion process caused by stochastic magnetic fields. However, spatially localized experimental measurement of fluctuating magnetic fields in a tokamak is difficult, and we attempt to estimate MKNs using BOUT + + simulation data with pedestal collapse. In addition, we calculate correlation length of fluctuating pressures and Chirikov parameters to investigate variation correlation lengths in the simulation. We, then, discuss how one may experimentally estimate MKNs.

  5. Multilevel systematic sampling to estimate total fruit number for yield forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, Felipe Aravena; Tellez, Camilla Potin

    2012-01-01

    procedure for unbiased estimation of fruit number for yield forecasts. In the Spring of 2009 we estimated the total number of fruit in several rows of each of 14 commercial fruit orchards growing apple (11 groves), kiwifruit (two groves), and table grapes (one grove) in central Chile. Survey times were 10...

  6. LEARNING ONE-DIGIT DECIMAL NUMBERS BY MEASUREMENT AND GAME PREDICTING LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe how students develop understanding of one-digit decimals. To achieve the aim, Local Instruction Theory (LIT about the process of learning decimals and the means designed to support that learning are developed. Along with this idea, the framework of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME is proposed. Based on the aim, design research methodology is used. This paper discusses learning activities of three meetings from teaching experiment of the focus group students of the fourth grade elementary school in Surabaya: SDIT Al Ghilmani. The data indicated that the learning activities promoted the students’ understanding of one-digit decimal numbers.Keyword: measurement, decimal numbers, number line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.1.1447.35-46

  7. Estimation of the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg Damsgaard, T M; Windelborg Nielsen, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of mast cells in the human umbilical cord. Using 50 microns-thick paraffin sections, made from a systematic random sample of umbilical cord, the total number of mast cells per cord was estimated using a combination of the optical...... disector and fractionated sampling. The mast cell of the human umbilical cord was found in Wharton's jelly, most frequently in close proximity to the three blood vessels. No consistent pattern of variation in mast cell numbers from the fetal end of the umbilical cord towards the placenta was seen....... The total number of mast cells found in the umbilical cord was 5,200,000 (median), range 2,800,000-16,800,000 (n = 7), that is 156,000 mast cells per gram umbilical cord (median), range 48,000-267,000. Thus, the umbilical cord constitutes an adequate source of mast cells for further investigation...

  8. An unbiased stereological method for efficiently quantifying the innervation of the heart and other organs based on total length estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Papadakis, Tamara; Krasteva, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative information about the innervation is essential to analyze the structure-function relationships of organs. So far, there has been no unbiased stereological tool for this purpose. This study presents a new unbiased and efficient method to quantify the total length of axons in a given...... reference volume, illustrated on the left ventricle of the mouse heart. The method is based on the following steps: 1) estimation of the reference volume; 2) randomization of location and orientation using appropriate sampling techniques; 3) counting of nerve fiber profiles hit by a defined test area within...

  9. Cognitive inhibition of number/length interference in a Piaget-like task: evidence by combining ERP and MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliot, Marc; Leroux, Gaëlle; Dubal, Stéphanie; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier; Mazoyer, Bernard; Petit, Laurent

    2009-08-01

    We combined event-related potential (ERP) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) acquisition and analysis to investigate the electrophysiological markers of the inhibitory processes involved in the number/length interference in a Piaget-like numerical task. Eleven healthy subjects performed four gradually interfering conditions with the heuristic "length equals number" to be inhibited. Low resolution tomography reconstruction was performed on the combined grand averaged electromagnetic data at the early (N1, P1) and late (P2, N2, P3(early) and P3(late)) latencies. Every condition was analyzed at both scalp and regional brain levels. The inhibitory processes were visible on the late components of the electromagnetic brain activity. A right P2-related frontal orbital activation reflected the change of strategy in the inhibitory processes. N2-related SMA/cingulate activation revealed the first occurrence of the stimuli processing to be inhibited. Both P3 components revealed the working memory processes operating in a medial temporal complex and the mental imagery processes subtended by the precuneus. Simultaneous ERP and MEG signal acquisition and analysis allowed to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of neural networks involved in the inhibition of the "length equals number" interference. Combining ERP and MEG ensured a sensitivity which could be reached previously only through invasive intracortical recordings.

  10. Length and time scales of the near-surface axial velocity in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Reynolds number effects on relevant length and time scales in the near-wall region of a canonical turbulent boundary layer are investigated. Well resolved measurements in the atmospheric surface layer are compared with existing laboratory data to give a composite Reynolds number range spanning over three orders of magnitude. In the field experiments, a vertical rake of twenty single element hot-wires was used to measure the axial velocity, u, characteristics in the lower log layer region of the atmospheric surface layer that flows over Utah's western desert. Only data acquired under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability are analyzed. The shape of the power spectra of u as a function of distance from the wall, y, and Reynolds number is investigated, with emphasis on the appropriate scaling parameters valid across different wavenumber, k, bands. In particular, distance from the wall is found to scale the region of the u spectra around ky = 1. The presence of a k -1 slope in the spectra is also found to correlate with the Reynolds number dependence in the peak of the root mean square u profile. In addition, Reynolds number trends in the profiles of the Taylor microscales, which represent intermediate length and time scales in the boundary layer, are shown to deviate from classical scaling

  11. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  12. Total regional and global number of synapses in the human brain neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Groot, D.M.G. de; Jorgen, H.; Gundersen, G.

    2001-01-01

    An estimator of the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains based on unbiased stereological principles is described. Each randomly chosen cerebral hemisphere was stratified into the four major neocortical regions. Uniform sampling with a varying sampling fraction in each region

  13. Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Alfred A

    1946-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is

  14. Total direct cost, length of hospital stay, institutional discharges and their determinants from rehabilitation settings in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S K; Ng, T P; Yong, D; Fong, N P; Gerald, K

    2006-11-01

    Length of hospital stay (LOHS) is the largest determinant of direct cost for stroke care. Institutional discharges (acute care and nursing homes) from rehabilitation settings add to the direct cost. It is important to identify potentially preventable medical and non-medical reasons determining LOHS and institutional discharges to reduce the direct cost of stroke care. The aim of the study was to ascertain the total direct cost, LOHS, frequency of institutional discharges and their determinants from rehabilitation settings. Observational study was conducted on 200 stroke patients in two rehabilitation settings. The patients were examined for various socio-demographic, neurological and clinical variables upon admission to the rehabilitation hospitals. Information on total direct cost and medical complications during hospitalization were also recorded. The outcome variables measured were total direct cost, LOHS and discharges to institutions (acute care and nursing home facility) and their determinants. The mean and median LOHS in our study were 34 days (SD = 18) and 32 days respectively. LOHS and the cost of hospital stay were significantly correlated. The significant variables associated with LOHS on multiple linear regression analysis were: (i) severe functional impairment/functional dependence Barthel Index institutional discharges (22 to acute care and 17 to nursing homes). On multivariate analysis the significant predictors of discharges to institutions from rehabilitation hospitals were medical complications (OR = 4.37; 95% CI 1.01-12.53) and severe functional impairment/functional dependence. (OR = 5.90, 95% CI 2.32-14.98). Length of hospital stay and discharges to institutions from rehabilitation settings are significantly determined by medical complications. Importance of adhering to clinical pathway/protocol for stroke care is further discussed.

  15. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  16. Floral pipe: length in Petunia x hybrida heredability, number of genes and the interaction of the date with the character

    OpenAIRE

    Fatta, N.; Vazquez, M.; García, N.; Mascarini, A.; Grigioni, G.

    2007-01-01

    Petunia x hybrida, a floral summer of a economical importance in Buenos Aires, is nowadays produced with imported seed. The research presented is focused on the study of the feasibility to obtain locally competitive seed. The length of the floral pipe is a relevant character so the assay was designed in order to estimate the heredability, the number of genes intervener and the interactions with the date. The assay began with a F1 purchased from United States. In 2003, the F1 and F2 were sowed...

  17. Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and longer telomere length in peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Shegufta Ameer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity.Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N=264, 89% females and one in Chaco (N=169, 75% females. We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA] in urine (U-As using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5 - 95 percentile: 21 - 537 µg/L in Andes and 80 (5 - 95 percentile: 15 - 1637 µg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity in Chaco (β=0.027 per 100 µg/L, p=0.0085; adjusted for age and sex, but not in Andes (β=0.025, p=0.24. U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β=0.016, p=0.0066 and Andes (β=0.0075, p=0.029. In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer.

  18. Total radiative width (Γγ) as a function of mass number A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, V.D.; Barros, S. De; Chevillon, P.L.; Julien, J.; Poittevin, G. Le; Morgenstern, J.; Samour, C.

    1967-01-01

    The total radiative width Γ γ was measured accurately for a large number of nuclei. These values, which are important for reactor calculations, are difficult to determine. The fluctuations in Γ γ from resonance to resonance in the same nucleus are discussed in terms of level parity and the de-excitation scheme. The authors compare the experimental values with those predicted by theory. (author) [fr

  19. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Hingant, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory

  20. Computational domain length and Reynolds number effects on large-scale coherent motions in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Daniel; Bauer, Christian; Wagner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent pipe flow at shear Reynolds numbers up to Reτ = 1500 using different computational domains with lengths up to ?. The objectives are to analyse the effect of the finite size of the periodic pipe domain on large flow structures in dependency of Reτ and to assess a minimum ? required for relevant turbulent scales to be captured and a minimum Reτ for very large-scale motions (VLSM) to be analysed. Analysing one-point statistics revealed that the mean velocity profile is invariant for ?. The wall-normal location at which deviations occur in shorter domains changes strongly with increasing Reτ from the near-wall region to the outer layer, where VLSM are believed to live. The root mean square velocity profiles exhibit domain length dependencies for pipes shorter than 14R and 7R depending on Reτ. For all Reτ, the higher-order statistical moments show only weak dependencies and only for the shortest domain considered here. However, the analysis of one- and two-dimensional pre-multiplied energy spectra revealed that even for larger ?, not all physically relevant scales are fully captured, even though the aforementioned statistics are in good agreement with the literature. We found ? to be sufficiently large to capture VLSM-relevant turbulent scales in the considered range of Reτ based on our definition of an integral energy threshold of 10%. The requirement to capture at least 1/10 of the global maximum energy level is justified by a 14% increase of the streamwise turbulence intensity in the outer region between Reτ = 720 and 1500, which can be related to VLSM-relevant length scales. Based on this scaling anomaly, we found Reτ⪆1500 to be a necessary minimum requirement to investigate VLSM-related effects in pipe flow, even though the streamwise energy spectra does not yet indicate sufficient scale separation between the most energetic and the very long motions.

  1. TOTAL NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION, AND PHENOTYPE OF CELLS EXPRESSING CHONDROITIN SULPHATE PROTEOGLYCANS IN THE NORMAL HUMAN AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308

  2. Calculations of the Total Number of Electrons Along a Ray Path Extending from the Transmitter to the Receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons in a column of unit cross section extending from the transmitter to the receiver. TEC is...

  3. Effect of the number, position and length of alkyl chains on the physical properties of polysubstituted pyridinium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdía, Pedro; Hernaiz, Marta; González, Emilio J.; Macedo, Eugénia A.; Salgado, Josefa; Tojo, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of five polysubstituted pyridinium based-ionic liquids. • Physical properties of the pure ionic liquids were measured at several temperatures. • Thermal analysis of the pure ionic liquids was carried out by DSC and TGA techniques. • Density, speed of sound, and refractive index were fitted with a linear expression. • Viscosity data were correlated using the VFT equation. -- Abstract: The knowledge of the physical properties of ionic liquids is of high importance in order to evaluate their potential applicability for a given purpose. In the last few years, ionic liquids have been proposed as promising solvents for extractive desulfurization of fuels. Among them, recent studies have shown that ionic liquids derived from pyridinium affords excellent S-compounds removal capacity. In this work, the thermal analysis of five ionic liquids derived from pyridinium cation polysubstituted with different alkyl chains was carried out by Differencial Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Furthermore, the density, speed of sound, refractive index and dynamic viscosity for all the pure ionic liquids were also measured from T = (298.15 to 343.15) K. The effect of the number of cation alkyl chains, their length, and their position on the pyridinium ring, on the ionic liquid physical properties is also analyzed and discussed

  4. Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, M.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R de 7200 j 1800. El valor galactico de implica que la mayorfa de las estrellas de masa intermedia pasa por la etapa de nebulosa planetaria. El valor galactico de , la tasa de mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S

  5. Spatio-temporal changes in total annual rainfall and the annual number of rainy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limjirakan, Sangchan; Limsakul, Atsamon

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Rainfall variability is a critical factor for Thailand's socioeconomic development. Thus, enhancing understanding of rainfall mechanisms and variability is of paramount importance for effective strategies in tackling the severe droughts/floods which are memorable and a recurring problem in Thailand. Through this study, we have examined the variability of total annual rainfall (R,otai) and the annual number of rainy days (Rday) in Thailand during 1951-2003, using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The primary objective is to determine the dominant spatio-temporal patterns, and to illustrate their connection with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results reveal that the first two EOF modes, which explain nearly half of the total variance, show a good coherence of spatio-temporal structures. A salient feature of the leading modes of R,otal and Rday in Thailand is that their temporal coefficients exhibit significant relations to the ENSO. On an interannual timescale, the leading modes tended to be greater (lower) than normal during the La Nina (El Nino) phase of the ENSO. Changes in the Walker circulation appear to be the dominant mechanism whereby the ENSO exerts its influence on rainfall variability in Thailand. For an interdecadal timescale, there is evidence of the unusual and persistent deficit in Rtar accompanied by a concomitant reduction of Ranrd over the last three decades. The recent drought-like condition has been closely associated with the shift in the ENSO towards more El Nino events since the late 1970s, and coincided with the high global mean temperature. These natural/anthropogenic-induced climatic changes have important implications for rainfall forecasting, and consequently for water resource and agricultural planning and management in Thailand

  6. Estimating the total number of susceptibility variants underlying complex diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Cheong So

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous susceptibility variants for complex diseases. In this study we proposed several approaches to estimate the total number of variants underlying these diseases. We assume that the variance explained by genetic markers (Vg follow an exponential distribution, which is justified by previous studies on theories of adaptation. Our aim is to fit the observed distribution of Vg from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. The number of variants is obtained by the heritability divided by the estimated mean of the exponential distribution. In practice, due to limited sample sizes, there is insufficient power to detect variants with small effects. Therefore the power was taken into account in fitting. Besides considering the most significant variants, we also tried to relax the significance threshold, allowing more markers to be fitted. The effects of false positive variants were removed by considering the local false discovery rates. In addition, we developed an alternative approach by directly fitting the z-statistics from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. In all cases, the "winner's curse" effect was corrected analytically. Confidence intervals were also derived. Simulations were performed to compare and verify the performance of different estimators (which incorporates various means of winner's curse correction and the coverage of the proposed analytic confidence intervals. Our methodology only requires summary statistics and is able to handle both binary and continuous traits. Finally we applied the methods to a few real disease examples (lipid traits, type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and estimated that hundreds to nearly a thousand variants underlie these traits.

  7. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  8. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS, TOTAL WEIGHT LIFTED AND NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TRAINING BACKGROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Panissa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26 were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed and submitted to three sessions: (1 determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM for the half squat; (2 1RM determination; and (3 strength exercise, four sets at 80�0of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR, the total weight lifted (TWL, the root mean square (RMS and median frequency (MF of the electromyographic (EMG activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045, and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016. These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations.

  9. Are Macro variables good predictors? A prediction based on the number of total medals acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shafiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of effort is spent on forecasting the outcome of sporting events. Moreover, there are large quantities of data regarding the outcomes of sporting events and the factors which are assumed to contribute to those outcomes. In this paper we tried to predict the success of nations at the Asian Games through macro-economic, political, social and cultural variables. we used the information of variables include urban population, Education Expenditures, Age Structure, GDP Real Growth Rate, GDP Per Capita, Unemployment Rate, Population, Inflation Average, current account balance, life expectancy at birth and Merchandise Trade for all of the participating countries in Asian Games from 1970 to 2006 in order to build the model and then this model was tested by the information of variables in 2010. The prediction is based on the number of total medals acquired each country. In this research we used WEKA software that is a popular suite of machine learning software written in Java. The value of correlation coefficient between the predicted and original ranks is 90.42%. Neural Network Model, between 28 countries mentioned, predicts their ranks according to the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 19 countries (67.85% is 3, the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 8 countries (28.57% is between 4 to 6 and the difference between predicted and original ranks of 1 countries (3.57% is more than 6.

  10. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  11. Method of Storing Raster Image in Run Lengths Having Variable Numbers of Bytes and Medium with Raster Image Thus Stored

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The invention implements a run-length file format with improved space-sav qualities. The file starts with a header in ASCII format and includes information such as...

  12. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  13. Use of predefined biochemical admission profiles does not reduce the number of tests or total cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Haidl, Felix; Folkestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost.......The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost....

  14. Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted

  15. Reducing Length of Stay, Direct Cost, and Readmissions in Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients With an Outcomes Manager-Led Interprofessional Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Melissa; Harper, Licia; Qin, Huanying; Mabrey, Jay

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine whether an outcomes manager-led interprofessional team could reduce length of stay and direct cost without increasing 30-day readmission rates in the total joint arthroplasty patient population. The goal was to promote interprofessional relationships combined with collaborative practice to promote coordinated care with improved outcomes. Results from this project showed that length of stay (total hip arthroplasty [THA] reduced by 0.4 days and total knee arthroplasty [TKA] reduced by 0.6 days) and direct cost (THA reduced by $1,020 per case and TKA reduced by $539 per case) were significantly decreased whereas 30-day readmission rates of both populations were not significantly increased.

  16. Decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding associated with standardized postoperative clinical care for total gastrectomies at a cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Luke V; Rifkin, Marissa B; Yoon, Sam S; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Strong, Vivian E

    2016-09-01

    Standardization of postoperative care has been shown to decrease postoperative length of stay. In June 2009, we standardized postoperative care for all gastrectomies at our institution. Four years' worth of total gastrectomies (2 years prior to standardization and 2 years after standardization) were reviewed to determine the effect of standardization on postoperative care, length of stay, complications, and readmissions. Between June 2007 and July 2011, 99 patients underwent curative intent open total gastrectomy: 51 patients prior to standardization, and 48 patients poststandardization. Patients were predominantly male (70%); median age was 63; and median body mass index was 26. Standardization of postoperative care was associated with a decrease in median time to beginning both clear liquids and a postgastrectomy diet, earlier removal of epidural catheters, earlier use of oral pain medication, less time receiving intravenous fluids, and decreased length of stay (all P Care Center, or readmission. Institution of standardized postoperative orders for total gastrectomy was associated with a significantly decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding without increasing postoperative complications, early postoperative outpatient visits, or readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary visual cortex volume and total neuron number are reduced in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph H.; Wu, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies that assessed the visual system in subjects with schizophrenia found impairments in early visual processing. Furthermore, functional imaging studies suggested changes in primary visual cortex activity in subjects with schizophrenia. Interestingly, postmortem studies of subject...

  18. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  19. Children's Intuitive Sense of Number Develops Independently of Their Perception of Area, Density, Length, and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odic, Darko

    2018-01-01

    Young children can quickly and intuitively represent the number of objects in a visual scene through the Approximate Number System (ANS). The precision of the ANS--indexed as the most difficult ratio of two numbers that children can reliably discriminate--is well known to improve with development: whereas infants require relatively large ratios to…

  20. [Impact of DRG payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge for caesarean section during 2004-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Chung, Seolhee; Yi, Seonju; Kwon, Soonman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG)-based payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge in for patients who had undergone caesarean section. This study used the health insurance data of the patients in health care facilities that were paid by the Fee-For-Service (FFS) in 2001-2004, but they participated in the DRG payment system in 2005-2007. In order to examine the net effects of DRG payment, the difference-in-differences (DID) method was adopted to observe the difference in health care utilization before and after the participation in the DRG payment system. The dependent variables of the regression model were the length of stay and number of outpatient visits after discharge, and the explanatory variables included the characteristics of the patients and the health care facilities. The length of stay in DRG-paid health care facilities was greater than that in the FFS-paid ones. Yet, DRG payment has no statistically significant effect on the number of outpatient visits after discharge. The results of this study that DRG payment was not effective in reducing the length of stay can be related to the nature of voluntary participation in the DRG system. Only those health care facilities that are already efficient in terms of the length of stay or that can benefit from the DRG payment may decide to participate in the program.

  1. Mass number dependence of total neutron cross section; a discussion based on the semi-classical optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Istvan

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of total neutron cross section on mass number can be calculated by the black nucleus formula, according to the optical model. The fine structure of mass number dependence is studied, and a correction factor formula is given on the basis of a semi-classical optical model. Yielding results in good agreement with experimental data. In addition to the mass number dependence, the neutron-energy dependence can also be calculated using this model. (K.A.)

  2. Stereological estimation of total cell numbers in the human cerebral and cerebellar cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Pakkenberg, Bente; Fabricius, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20-30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fetal brain development, differences in cell numbers between men and women, the effect of age on selected...

  3. Regional variation in acute care length of stay after orthopaedic surgery total joint replacement surgery and hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John D; Weng, Haoling H; Soohoo, Nelson F; Ettner, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    To examine change in regional variations in acute care length of stay (LOS) after orthopedic surgery following expiration of the New York (NY) State exemption to the Prospective Payment System and implementation of the Medicare Short Stay Transfer Policy. Time series analyses were conducted to evaluate change in LOS across regions after policy implementations. Small area analyses were conducted to examine residual variation in LOS. The dataset included A 100% sample of fee-for-service Medicare patients undergoing surgical repair for hip fracture or elective joint replacement surgery between 1996 and 2001. Data files from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 1996-2001 Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file, 1999 Provider of Service file, and data from the 2000 United States Census were used for analysis. In 1996, LOS in NY after orthopedic procedures was much longer than the remainder of the country. After policy changes, LOS fell. However, significant residual variation in LOS persisted. This residual variation was likely partly explained by differences variation in regional managed care market penetration, patient management practices and unmeasured characteristics associated with the hospital location. NY hospitals responded to changes in reimbursement policy, reducing variation in LOS. However, even after 5 years of financial pressure to constrain costs, other factors still have a strong impact on delivery of patient care.

  4. Estimation of Total Glomerular Number Using an Integrated Disector Method in Embryonic and Postnatal Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Arsenault

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT are a polymorphic group of clinical disorders comprising the major cause of renal failure in children. Included within CAKUT is a wide spectrum of developmental malformations ranging from renal agenesis, renal hypoplasia and renal dysplasia (maldifferentiation of renal tissue, each characterized by varying deficits in nephron number. First presented in the Brenner Hypothesis, low congenital nephron endowment is becoming recognized as an antecedent cause of adult-onset hypertension, a leading cause of coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal failure in North America. Genetic mouse models of impaired nephrogenesis and nephron endowment provide a critical framework for understanding the origins of human kidney disease. Current methods to quantitate nephron number include (i acid maceration (ii estimation of nephron number from a small number of tissue sections (iii imaging modalities such as MRI and (iv the gold standard physical disector/fractionator method. Despite its accuracy, the physical disector/fractionator method is rarely employed because it is labour-intensive, time-consuming and costly to perform. Consequently, less rigourous methods of nephron estimation are routinely employed by many laboratories. Here we present an updated, digitized version of the physical disector/fractionator method using free open source Fiji software, which we have termed the integrated disector method. This updated version of the gold standard modality accurately, rapidly and cost-effectively quantitates nephron number in embryonic and post-natal mouse kidneys, and can be easily adapted for stereological measurements in other organ systems.

  5. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  6. Cognitive inhibition of number/length interference in a Piaget-like task in young adults: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Gaëlle; Joliot, Marc; Dubal, Stéphanie; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier

    2006-06-01

    We sought to determine whether the neural traces of a previous cognitive developmental stage could be evidenced in young adults. In order to do so, 12 young adults underwent two functional imaging acquisitions (EEG then fMRI). During each session, two experimental conditions were applied: a Piaget-like task with number/length interference (INT), and a reference task with number/length covariation (COV). To succeed at Piaget's numerical task, which children under the age of 7 years usually fail, the subjects had to inhibit a misleading strategy, namely, the visuospatial length-equals-number bias, a quantification heuristic that is often relevant and that continues to be used through adulthood. Behavioral data confirmed that although there was an automation in the young adult subjects as assessed by the very high number of accurate responses (>97%), the inhibition of the "length equals number strategy" had a cognitive cost, as the reaction times were significantly higher in INT than in COV (with a difference of 230 ms). The event-related potential results acquired during the first session showed electrophysiological markers of the cognitive inhibition of the number/length interference. Indeed, the frontal N2 was greater during INT than during COV, and a P3(late)/P6 was detected only during INT. During the fMRI session, a greater activation of unimodal areas (the right middle and superior occipital cortex) and in the ventral route (the left inferior temporal cortex) was observed in INT than in COV. These results seem to indicate that when fully automated in adults, inhibition processes might take place in unimodal areas. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  8. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  9. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  10. The variation of the reactivity with the number, diameter and length of the control rods in a heavy water natural uranium reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCriric, H

    1958-05-15

    Starting with the known reactor constants for a heavy water moderated reactor with reflector and a given number of control rods of a certain size, the reactivity equivalence of the control rods is calculated. The calculation is given in detail. The number, length and diameter of the control rods is then varied and the effect of these parameters on the reactivity is shown graphically. Flux plots are also given for the reactor with and without control rods.

  11. Using pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads to estimate juvenile Silver Carp total length in the La Grange Reach, Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampo, Eli G.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; Anderson, Cory A.; Rechkemmer, Will T.; Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.; Pendleton, Richard M.; Lamer, James T.

    2017-01-01

    The Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is an invasive species in the Mississippi River basin; an understanding of their vulnerability to predation as juveniles may inform control by native predators and predator enhancement (e.g., stocking). Digestion of Silver Carp prey recovered from diets makes it difficult to determine the size‐classes that are most vulnerable to predation by native fishes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the sizes of the chewing pad (CP), pharyngeal teeth (PT), and pharyngeal arch (PA)—the Silver Carp structures most often found intact in predator diets—were predictive of the TL of prey Silver Carp. During 2014 and 2015, juvenile Silver Carp (n = 136; <180 mm) were collected using 60‐Hz pulsed‐DC electrofishing and mini‐fyke nets in the La Grange reach of the Illinois River. We extracted Silver Carp CPs (n = 136 fish) and PAs with PT intact (n = 129 fish) and measured CP length (CPL) and width (CPW), eight reproducible PT landmarks (PT1L–PT4L; PT1W–PT4W), and four reproducible PA landmarks (PA1–PA4) to the nearest 0.01 µm. Using simple linear regression, we found a strong predictive relationship between measurements of CP, PT, or PA and the TL of Silver Carp. The CPL (r2 = 0.94) and CPW (r2 = 0.94) had the strongest relationships with Silver Carp TL, followed by PA1 (r2 = 0.89) and PT1L (r2 = 0.87). These strong relationships suggest that all three structures could be used in diet analyses to accurately estimate Silver Carp TL and thus further our understanding of predator–prey dynamics for this high‐risk invasive species.

  12. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  13. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  14. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  15. The Effect of Overweight Status on Total and Metastatic Number of Harvested Lymph Nodes During Colorectal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Zeren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the rela­tionship between higher body mass index (BMI and har­vested total or metastatic lymph node numbers in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers. Methods: Between March 2014 and January 2016, totally 71patients who underwent laparoscopic or conventional surgery for colorectal cancer were evaluated retrospec­tively. The data of age, gender, BMI, surgical procedure, tumor localization , postoperative mortality status, total number of harvested and metastatic lymph node were collected. The patients having 24.9 (kg/m2 or lower BMI values were classified as normal (Group 1 and patients having BMI values of 25 or over were overweight (Group 2. Afterwards, the parameters between groups and the effect of higher BMI were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.5 ± 14 years. The average BMI value in group 1 was 22.3 (kg/m2 and 27.0 (kg/m2 in group 2. According to localisation of tumor, transverse colon was the rare region for both groups. The common regions for tumor localisation in group 1 were right colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. In group 2 the common localisation for tumors were rectum, right colon and sigmoid colon. There was no difference between groups about postoperative mortality rates (p > 0.05. The mean of the total number of harvested lymph nodes were 14 in group 1 and 12 in group 2. There were no relationship between BMI and tumor diameter, total or metastatic number of harvested lymph nodes. Conclusion: Higher BMI values does not effect the num­ber of excised total or metastatic lymph nodes and tumor diameters. Therefore, the surgeons should not hesitate in overweight patients cancer surgery for dissecting ad­equate number of lymph nodes.

  16. Changes in total cell numbers of the basal ganglia in patients with multiple system atrophy - A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Ullerup, Birgitte H; Sunay, Fatma B

    2014-01-01

    Total numbers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the basal ganglia and red nucleus were estimated in brains from 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 11 age- and gender-matched control subjects with unbiased stereological methods. Compared to the control...

  17. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations in urban areas near Schiphol airport (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Hoek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of black carbon, and size-resolved and total particle number concentrations (PNC) were investigated in the vicinity of Schiphol airport in the Netherlands, the fourth busiest airport in Europe. Continuous measurements were conducted between March and May 2014at Adamse Bos, located 7km

  18. Total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle of low-energy photons reflected from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srpko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle for water and initial photon energy range from 20 keV to 100 keV are presented in this pa per. A water shield in the form of a thick, homogenous plate and per pendicular incidence of the monoenergetic photon beam are assumed. The results were obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by means of the MCNP computer code. Calculated values for the total number albedo were compared with data previously published and good agreement was confirmed. The dependence of the average cosine of the polar angle on energy is studied in detail. It has been found that the total average cosine of the polar angle has values in the narrow interval of 0.66-0.67, approximately corresponding to the reflection angle of 48°, and that it does not depend on the initial photon energy.

  19. Should total landings be used to correct estimated catch in numbers or mean-weight-at-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewy, Peter; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Many ICES fish stock assessment working groups have practised Sum Of Products, SOP, correction. This correction stems from a comparison of total weights of the known landings and the SOP over age of catch in number and mean weight-at-age, which ideally should be identical. In case of SOP...... discrepancies some countries correct catch in numbers while others correct mean weight-at-age by a common factor, the ratio between landing and SOP. The paper shows that for three sampling schemes the SOP corrections are statistically incorrect and should not be made since the SOP is an unbiased estimate...... of the total landings. Calculation of the bias of estimated catch in numbers and mean weight-at-age shows that SOP corrections of either of these estimates may increase the bias. Furthermore, for five demersal and one pelagic North Sea species it is shown that SOP discrepancies greater than 2% from...

  20. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs <22; group B: HLNs≥22). The intraoperative and postoperative characteristics, including operative blood loss (P=0.096), operation time (P=0.430), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.142), complications (P=0.552), rate of reoperation (P=0.966) and postoperative mortality (P=1.000), were comparable between the two groups. T-stage-stratified Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the 5-year survival rate of patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  1. Copy number variants and VNTR length polymorphisms of the carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene as risk factors in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalva, Monica; El Jellas, Khadija; Steine, Solrun J; Johansson, Bente B; Ringdal, Monika; Torsvik, Janniche; Immervoll, Heike; Hoem, Dag; Laemmerhirt, Felix; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål R; Weiss, Frank U; Fjeld, Karianne; Molven, Anders

    We have recently described copy number variants (CNVs) of the human carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene, including a recombined deletion allele (CEL-HYB) that is a genetic risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Associations with pancreatic disease have also been reported for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in CEL exon 11. Here, we examined if CEL CNVs and VNTR length polymorphisms affect the risk for developing pancreatic cancer. CEL CNVs and VNTR were genotyped in a German family with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, in 265 German and 197 Norwegian patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and in 882 controls. CNV screening was performed using PCR assays followed by agarose gel electrophoresis whereas VNTR lengths were determined by DNA fragment analysis. The investigated family was CEL-HYB-positive. However, an association of CEL-HYB or a duplication CEL allele with pancreatic cancer was not seen in our two patient cohorts. The frequency of the 23-repeat VNTR allele was borderline significant in Norwegian cases compared to controls (1.2% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.05). For all other VNTR lengths, no statistically significant difference in frequency was observed. Moreover, no association with pancreatic cancer was detected when CEL VNTR lengths were pooled into groups of short, normal or long alleles. We could not demonstrate an association between CEL CNVs and pancreatic cancer. An association is also unlikely for CEL VNTR lengths, although analyses in larger materials are necessary to completely exclude an effect of rare VNTR alleles. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Length of Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats in the Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Gene May Confer Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis but Not Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Karianne; Beer, Sebastian; Johnstone, Marianne; Zimmer, Constantin; Mössner, Joachim; Ruffert, Claudia; Krehan, Mario; Zapf, Christian; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Johansson, Stefan; Bugert, Peter; Miyajima, Fabio; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Brown, Laura J; Winn, Simon A; Davies, Kelly; Latawiec, Diane; Gunson, Bridget K; Criddle, David N; Pirmohamed, Munir; Grützmann, Robert; Michl, Patrick; Greenhalf, William; Molven, Anders; Sutton, Robert; Rosendahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) contributes to fatty acid ethyl ester metabolism, which is implicated in alcoholic pancreatitis. The CEL gene harbours a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region in exon 11. Variation in this VNTR has been linked to monogenic pancreatic disease, while conflicting results were reported for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we aimed to investigate a potential association of CEL VNTR lengths with alcoholic CP. Overall, 395 alcoholic CP patients, 218 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) serving as controls with a comparable amount of alcohol consumed, and 327 healthy controls from Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed by determination of fragment lengths by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and genotypes of different VNTR categories were compared between the groups. Twelve repeats were overrepresented in UK ACP patients (P = 0.04) compared to controls, whereas twelve repeats were enriched in German ALC compared to alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.03). Frequencies of CEL VNTR lengths of 14 and 15 repeats differed between German ALC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). However, in the genotype and pooled analysis of VNTR lengths no statistical significant association was depicted. Additionally, the 16-16 genotype as well as 16 repeats were more frequent in UK ALC than in alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.034 and 0.02, respectively). In all other calculations, including pooled German and UK data, allele frequencies and genotype distributions did not differ significantly between patients and controls or between alcoholic CP and ALC. We did not obtain evidence that CEL VNTR lengths are associated with alcoholic CP. However, our results suggest that CEL VNTR lengths might associate with ALC, a finding that needs to be clarified in larger cohorts.

  3. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  4. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  5. Longitud (número de preguntas y resultado de un examen Length (number of questions and exams results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarrias-Ramis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Este artículo presenta dos estudios sobre la relación entre el número de preguntas de un examen y sus resultados. Estos dos estudios se realizaron en respuesta a dos problemas concretos presentados en dos facultades de ciencias de la salud de dos universidades catalanas. Sujetos y métodos. El primer estudio, realizado en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, compara los resultados reales obtenidos en pruebas de elección múltiple en tres asignaturas con los resultados que hubieran obtenido los estudiantes con la mitad de las preguntas. La dificultad del examen en ambas situaciones fue prácticamente la misma y los resultados académicos también fueron similares. El segundo estudio, llevado a cabo en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y de la Vida de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra de Barcelona, compara los resultados reales obtenidos en pruebas de ensayo de dos asignaturas de los estudios de Biología con los hipotéticos que se hubieran obtenido con la mitad de las preguntas. Los resultados obtenidos globalmente fueron muy parecidos. Conclusión. La conclusión general del estudio es que la evaluación del rendimiento académico no dependería fundamentalmente del número de preguntas y que sería más importante buscar la representatividad y relevancia de éstas.Aim. This paper resents two studies about the relationship between the number of questions that appear in an exam and their results. These studies have been done in response to two concrete problems found in two Spanish universities. Subjects and methods. The first study, done at the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, compared the real results achieved in three subjects which use MCQ-tests with the theoretical results which the students would have achieved if half of the questions had been used. The difficulty of the exams in both situations was practically the same and the student's academic results were very similar

  6. Mental Health Services Use Predicted by Number of Mental Health Problems and Gender in a Total Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Posserud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7–9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH, school psychology services (SPS, health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services.

  7. The total number of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testes of men across various age groups - a stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter M; Seierøe, Karina; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    is particularly sensitive to methodological problems. Therefore, using the optical fractionator technique and a sampling design specifically optimized for human testes, we estimated the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes from 26 post mortem male subjects ranging in age from 16 to 80 years...... of Sertoli cells with age; no such decline was found for Leydig cells. Quantitative stereological analysis of post mortem tissue may help understand the influence of age or disease on the number of human testicular cells....

  8. The total body length and body weight examination among gabus Sentani fish population, Oxyeleotris heterodon, Weber 1907 (Pisces: Eleotridae) of Sentani lake, Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, E. D.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The gabus Sentani fish lived in the Sentani Lake, Papua, since million years ago. Nowadays, the population of those species is getting extinct because of the overexploitation, whereas the culture effort of this species has not been developed, yet. The purpose of the study was to examine the total body length and body weight collected from some villages surrounding Sentani Lake such as Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village. The body weight average of gabus fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 373.53 g, 426.86 g, and 118.34 g respectively. While the total body length average of gabus Sentani fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 279.30 mm, 223.30 mm and 222.06 mm, respectively. The growth model was W = 0.021067L3.086 with R2 value was 35.8 %, and r value was 0.598. Gabus Sentani fish, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber 1907) exhibited positive allometric (b > 3).

  9. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birla, Bhagyashree S; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  10. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S Birla

    Full Text Available Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  11. Long-term memory in Aplysia modulates the total number of varicosities of single identified sensory neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, C H; Chen, M

    1988-01-01

    The morphological consequences of long-term habituation and sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia california were explored by examining the total number of presynaptic varicosities of single identified sensory neurons (a critical site of plasticity for the biochemical and biophysical changes that underlie both types of learning) in control and behaviorally trained animals. Sensory neurons from habituated animals had 35% fewer synaptic varicosities than did sensory neurons fro...

  12. Comparative Assessments of the Seasonality in "The Total Number of Overnight Stays" in Romania, Bulgaria and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugănaru Ion Dănuț

    2017-01-01

    For the quantitative research carried out in this study, we processed a database consisting of the monthly values of “the total number of overnight stays” indicator, recorded between January 2005 and December 2016, using the moving average method, the seasonality coefficient and EViews 5. The results led to the formulation of comparative assessments regarding the seasonality in the tourism activities from Romania and Bulgaria and their situation compared to the average of the seasonality recorded in the EU.

  13. Stereological estimate of the total number of neurons in spinal segment D9 of the red-eared turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Nissen, Ulla Vig; Berg, Rune W

    2011-01-01

    The red-eared turtle is an important animal model for investigating the neural activity in the spinal circuit that generates motor behavior. However, basic anatomical features, including the number of neurons in the spinal segments involved, are unknown. In the present study, we estimate the total...... number of neurons in segment D9 of the spinal cord in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) using stereological cell counting methods. In transverse spinal cord sections stained with modified Giemsa, motoneurons (MNs), interneurons (INs), and non-neuronal cells were distinguished according...... to location and morphology. Each cell type was then counted separately using an optical disector with the cell nucleus as counting item. The number of cells in segment D9 was as follows (mean ± SE): MNs, 2049 ± 74; INs, 16,135 ± 316; non-neuronal cells, 47,504 ± 478 (n = 6). These results provide the first...

  14. Effect of day of the week of primary total hip arthroplasty on length of stay at a university-based teaching medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Pranav; Coleman, Sheldon; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Giordani, Mauro; Pereira, Gavin; Di Cesare, Paul E

    2014-12-01

    Length of hospital stay (LHS) after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) constitutes a critical outcome measure, as prolonged LHS implies increased resource expenditure. Investigations have highlighted factors that affect LHS after THA. These factors include advanced age, medical comorbidities, obesity, intraoperative time, anesthesia technique, surgical site infection, and incision length. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of day of the week of primary THA on LHS. We reviewed the surgery and patient factors of 273 consecutive patients who underwent THA at our institution, a tertiary-care teaching hospital. There was a 15% increase in LHS for patients who underwent THA on Thursday versus Monday when controlling for other covariates that can affect LHS. Other statistically significant variables associated with increased LHS included American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, transfusion requirements, and postoperative complications. The day of the week of THA may be an independent variable affecting LHS. Institutions with reduced weekend resources may want to perform THA earlier in the week to try to reduce LHS.

  15. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of stroke length and Reynolds number on heat transfer to a ducted confined and semi-confined synthetic air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylatt, D I; O'Donovan, T S

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer to three configurations of ducted jet and un-ducted semiconfined jets is investigated experimentally. The influence of the jet operating parameters, stroke length (L 0 /D) and Reynolds (Re) number on the heat transferred to the jet is of particular interest. Heat transfer distributions to the jet are reported at H/D = 1 for a range of experimental parameters Re (1000 to 4000) and L 0 /D (5 to 20). Secondary and tertiary peaks are discernable in the heat transfer distributions across the range of parameters tested. It is shown that for a fixed Re varying the L 0 /D has little effect on the magnitude of the stagnation region heat transfer but does effect the position and magnitude of the secondary and tertiary peaks in the heat transfer distribution. It is also shown that for a fixed L 0 /D increasing the Re has a significant effect on the magnitude of the stagnation region heat transfer but has little impact on the position of the secondary and tertiary peaks in the heat transfer distributions. Ducting is added to the configuration to improve heat transfer by drawing cold air from a remote location into the jet flow. Ducting is shown to increase stagnation region and area averaged heat transfer across the range of jet parameters tested when compared with an un-ducted jets of equal confinement. Increasing the stroke length from L 0 /D = 5 to 20 for a Reynolds number of 2000 reduces the enhancement in stagnation region heat transfer provided by the ducting from 35% to 10%; the area averaged heat transfer provided by the ducting also changes from a 42% to a 21% enhancement. This is shown to be partly due to relative magnitude of the peaks in heat transfer outwith the stagnation region; at low stroke lengths, the difference in the magnitude of these peaks is large and reduces with increasing L 0 /D. It is also shown that as L 0 /D is increased the stagnation region heat transfer to the un-ducted jets increases while for the ducted jets stagnation region

  17. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  18. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  19. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  20. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. The estimation of the total number of fissions with related reactor physics parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Kojiro; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Shunsuke; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Kazuki; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    This accident occurred when workers were pouring a uranium solution into a precipitation tank with handy operation against the established procedure and both the cylindrical diameter and the total mass exceeded the limited values. As a result, nuclear fission chain reactor in the solution reached not only a 'criticality' state continuing it independently but also an instantly forming criticality state exceed the criticality and increasing further nuclear fission number. The place occurring the accident at this time was not reactor but a place having not to form 'criticality' called by a processing process of uranium fuel. In such place, as because of relating to mechanism of chain reaction, it is required naturally for knowledge on the reactor physics, it is also necessary to understand chemical reaction in chemical process, and functions of tanks, valves and pumps mounted at the processes. For this purpose, some information on uranium concentration ratio, atomic density of nuclides largely affecting to chain reaction such as uranium, hydrogen, and so forth in the solution, shape, inner structure and size of container for the solution, and its temperature and total volume, were necessary for determining criticality volume of the accident uranium solution by using nuclear physics procedures. Here were described on estimation of energy emission in the JCO accident, estimation from analytical results on neutron and solution, calculation of various nuclear physics property estimation on the JCO precipitation tank at JAERI. (G.K.)

  1. Trends in primary total hip arthroplasty in Spain from 2001 to 2008: Evaluating changes in demographics, comorbidity, incidence rates, length of stay, costs and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Trujillo Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip arthroplasties is one of the most frequent surgical procedures in Spain and are conducted mainly in elderly subjects. We aim to analyze changes in incidence, co-morbidity profile, length of hospital stay (LOHS, costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM of patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA over an 8-year study period in Spain. Methods We selected all surgical admissions in individuals aged ≥40 years who had received a primary THA (ICD-9-CM procedure code 81.51 between 2001 and 2008 from the National Hospital Discharge Database. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates, LOHS, costs and IHM were estimated for each year. Co-morbidity was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index. Multivariate analysis of time trends was conducted using Poisson regression. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze IHM. Results We identified a total of 161,791 discharges of patients having undergone THA from 2001 to 2008. Overall crude incidence had increased from 99 to 105 THA per 100.000 inhabitants from 2001 to 2008 (p 2 and in 2008, the prevalence of 1-2 or >2 had increased to 20.4% and 1.1% respectively (p Conclusions The current study provides clear and valid data indicating increased incidence of primary THA in Spain from 2001 to 2008 with concomitant reductions in LOHS, slight reduction IHM, but a significant increase in cost per patient. The health profile of the patient undergoing a THA seems to be worsening in Spain.

  2. Implementation of a Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway at a High-Volume Health System: Effect on Length of Stay, Discharge Disposition, and 90-Day Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherall, Joseph; Brigati, David P; Faour, Mhamad; Messner, William; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Standardized care pathways are evidence-based algorithms for optimizing an episode of care. Despite the theoretical promise of care pathways, there is an inconsistent literature demonstrating improvements in patient care. The authors hypothesized that implementing a care pathway, across 11 hospitals, would decrease hospital length of stay (LOS), decrease postoperative complications at 90 days, and increase discharges to home. A multidisciplinary team developed an evidence-based care pathway for total hip arthroplasty (THA) perioperative care. All patients receiving THA in 2013 (pre-protocol, historical control), 2014 (transition), and 2015 (full protocol implementation) were included in the analysis. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship of the care pathway to 90-day postoperative complications, LOS, and discharge disposition. Cost savings were estimated using previously published postarthroplasty episode and per diem hospital costs. A total of 6090 primary THAs were conducted during the study period. After adjusting for the covariates, the full protocol implementation was associated with a decrease in LOS (mean ratio, 0.747; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.727, 0.767]) and an increase in discharges to home (odds ratio, 2.079; 95% CI [1.762, 2.456]). The full protocol implementation was not associated with a change in 90-day complications (odds ratio, 1.023; 95% CI [0.841, 1.245]). Payer-perspective-calculated theoretical cost savings, including both index admission and postdischarge costs, were $2533 per patient. The THA care pathway implementation was successful in reducing LOS and increasing discharges to home. The care pathway was not associated with a change in 90-day complications; further targeted interventions in this area are needed. Despite care standardization efforts, high-volume hospitals and surgeons had higher performance. Extrapolation of theoretical cost savings indicates that widespread THA care pathway adoption could lead to national

  3. A recursive method for calculating the total number of spanning trees and its applications in self-similar small-world scale-free network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Su, Jing; Yao, Bing

    2018-05-01

    The problem of determining and calculating the number of spanning trees of any finite graph (model) is a great challenge, and has been studied in various fields, such as discrete applied mathematics, theoretical computer science, physics, chemistry and the like. In this paper, firstly, thank to lots of real-life systems and artificial networks built by all kinds of functions and combinations among some simpler and smaller elements (components), we discuss some helpful network-operation, including link-operation and merge-operation, to design more realistic and complicated network models. Secondly, we present a method for computing the total number of spanning trees. As an accessible example, we apply this method to space of trees and cycles respectively, and our results suggest that it is indeed a better one for such models. In order to reflect more widely practical applications and potentially theoretical significance, we study the enumerating method in some existing scale-free network models. On the other hand, we set up a class of new models displaying scale-free feature, that is to say, following P(k) k-γ, where γ is the degree exponent. Based on detailed calculation, the degree exponent γ of our deterministic scale-free models satisfies γ > 3. In the rest of our discussions, we not only calculate analytically the solutions of average path length, which indicates our models have small-world property being prevailing in amounts of complex systems, but also derive the number of spanning trees by means of the recursive method described in this paper, which clarifies our method is convenient to research these models.

  4. AFLPMax: a user-friendly application for computing the optimal number of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers needed in phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pereira, M J; Quesada, H; Caballero, A; Carvajal-Rodríguez, A

    2012-05-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) are widely used for phylogenetic inference especially in non-model species. Frequently, trees obtained with other nuclear or mitochondrial markers or with morphological information need additional resolution, increased branch support, or independent data sources (i.e. unlinked loci). In such cases, the use of AFLPs is a quick and cheap option. Computer simulation has shown that dominant AFLP markers lead to less accurate tree topologies than bi-allelic codominant markers such as SNPs, but this difference becomes negligible for shallow trees when using AFLP data sets that include a sufficiently large number of characters. Thus, determining how many AFLP characters are required to recover a given phylogeny is a key issue regarding the appropriateness of AFLPs for phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we present a user-friendly, java-based graphical interface, AFLPMax, which executes an automatic pipeline of different programs providing the user with the optimal number of AFLP characters needed to recover a given phylogeny with high accuracy and support. Executables for Windows, linux and MacOS X operating systems, source code and user manual are available from: http://webs.uvigo.es/acraaj/AFLPMax.htm. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  6. Association between preoperative anaemia with length of hospital stay among patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty in Singapore: a single-centre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Sim, Yilin Eileen; Hao, Ying; Lin, Geng Yu; Liew, Geoffrey Haw Chieh; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Tan, Mann Hong

    2017-06-08

    Studies in western healthcare settings suggest that preoperative anaemia is associated with poor outcomes after elective orthopaedic surgery. We investigated the prevalence of preoperative anaemia among patients with primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Singapore and its association with length of hospital stay (LOS), perioperative blood transfusion and hospital readmission rates. Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary academic medical centre in Singapore, involving patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA between January 2013 and June 2014. Demographics, comorbidities, preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) level, LOS and 30-day readmission data were collected. Anaemia was classified according to WHO definition. Prolonged LOS was defined as more than 6 days, which corresponds to >75th centile LOS of the data. We analysed 2394 patients. The prevalence of anaemia was 23.7%. 403 patients (16.8%) had mild anaemia and 164 patients (6.8%) had moderate to severe anaemia. Overall mean LOS was 5.4±4.8 days. Based on multivariate logistic regression, preoperative anaemia significantly increased LOS (mild anaemia, adjusted OR (aOR) 1.71, p70 years were associated with prolonged LOS. Our 30-day related readmission rate was 1.7% (42) cases. Anaemia is common among patients undergoing elective TKA in Singapore and is independently associated with prolonged LOS and increased perioperative blood transfusion. We suggest measures to correct anaemia prior to surgery, including the use of non-gender-based Hb cut-off for establishing diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P. Shutt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.

  8. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, Deborah P; Manore, Carrie A; Pankavich, Stephen; Porter, Aaron T; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-12-01

    As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Mai NT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, some reports indicated that VNTR typing may be less suitable for Beijing genotype isolates. We therefore compared the performance of internationally standardized RFLP and 24 loci VNTR typing to discriminate among 100 Beijing genotype isolates from the Southern Vietnam. Methods Hundred Beijing genotype strains defined by spoligotyping were randomly selected and typed by RFLP and VNTR typing. The discriminatory power of VNTR and RFLP typing was compared using the Bionumerics software. Results Among 95 Beijing strains available for analysis, 14 clusters were identified comprising 34 strains and 61 unique profiles in 24 loci VNTR typing ((Hunter Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI = 0.994. 13 clusters containing 31 strains and 64 unique patterns in RFLP typing (HGDI = 0.994 were found. Nine RFLP clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing and 12 VNTR clusters were split by RFLP. Five isolates (5% revealing double alleles or no signal in two or more loci in VNTR typing could not be analyzed. Conclusions Overall, 24 loci VNTR typing and RFLP typing had similar high-level of discrimination among 95 Beijing strains from Southern Vietnam. However, loci VNTR 154, VNTR 2461 and VNTR 3171 had hardly added any value to the level of discrimination.

  10. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...

  11. Patient-Specific Instruments Based on Knee Joint Computed Tomography and Full-Length Lower Extremity Radiography in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tian

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of PSIs based on knee joint CT and standing full-length lower extremity radiography in TKR resulted in acceptable alignment compared with the use of conventional instruments, although the marginal advantage was not statistically different. Surgical time and clinical results were also similar between the two groups. However, the PSI group had less postoperative drainage.

  12. A Method of Determination of an Acquisition Program in Order to Maximize the Total Utility Using Linear Programming in Integer Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian Ioan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.

  13. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  14. Gene copy number reduction in the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region and its effect on total motile sperm count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Michiel J.; Westerveld, G. Henrike; Hovingh, Suzanne E.; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Korver, Cindy M.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    The azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region harbors multi-copy genes that are expressed in the testis. Deletions of the AZFc region lead to reduced copy numbers of these genes. Four (partial) AZFc deletions have been described of which the b2/b4 and gr/gr deletions affect semen quality. In most studies,

  15. Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn't been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan's test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Were expressed as mean±standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn't find statistical association with IOEN. We conclude that serum albumin levels aren't a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.

  16. Dialysis Dependence Predicts Complications, Intensive Care Unit Care, Length of Stay, and Skilled Nursing Needs in Elective Primary Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph T; Tillinghast, Kyle; Ward, Derek

    2018-07-01

    Limited data describe risks and perioperative resource needs of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in dialysis-dependent patients. Retrospective multiple cohort analysis of dialysis-dependent American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program patients undergoing primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty compared to non-dialysis-dependent controls from 2005 to 2015. Relative risks (RRs) of 30-day adverse events were determined by multivariate regression adjusting for baseline differences. Six hundred forty-five (0.2%) dialysis-dependent patients of 342,730 TJA patients were dialysis-dependent and more likely to be dependent, under weight, anemic, hypoalbuminemic, and have cardiopulmonary disease. In total hip arthroplasty patients, dialysis was associated with greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care unit (ICU) care (RR = 9.8, P total knee arthroplasty patients, dialysis conferred greater risk of any adverse event (RR = 1.1, P care (RR = 6.0, P care, longer admission, and rehabilitation needs in TJA patients. Thirty days is not sufficient to detect infectious complications among these patients. These findings inform shared decision-making, perioperative resource planning, and risk adjustment under alternative reimbursement models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Numbers of Load Cycling on the Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Total Etch Adhesives to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Daneshkazemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today load cycling is used for similarity of invitro and invivo studies, though different results were reported in different studies. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of load cycling on micro tensile bond strength of two total etch adhesives to dentin. Methods: Enamel of 48 molar teeth were removed to expose the superficial dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups, and were restored with Single bond (SB, ExciTE and Synergy composite. Then the teeth of each group were divided to 4 equal sub groups. Moreover, load cycling of 0, 50, 100, 200 k load cycle with 50 newton load was used. In each sub group, 12 hour glass slabs with 1mm2 thickness were made. Then the samples were loaded by Dartec testing machine (Model HC/10 with 1 mm/min cross head speed to make the fracture occur. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, t-test, Bonferroni tests. Results: The most micro tensile bond strength belonged to ExciTE without load cycling and lowest refered to SB with 200 k. There was a significant difference between the groups (p ExciTE= 0.0001, p SB = 0.001. Micro tensile bond strength in SB group was significantly lower than ExciTE (p= 0.001. Moreover, load cycling had negative effect on micro tensile bond strength. Conclusion: By increasing load cycling, micro tensile bond strength of both bondings decreased significantly

  18. Effect of transplantation of muscle tissue in rats from the same litter on total number of flavins and FAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kobylnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin is a member of redox enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy generation. Important role of this vitamin is in reproductive function. Exchange of transformation of riboflavin in animal tissues and cells of microorganisms include reactions that lead to synthesis and subsequent collapse of FMN and FAD. It is involved in enhancing antitumor activity of many anticancer drugs, as well as activation of the immune system to kill tumor cells. Issues of transport of riboflavin and its derivatives in animals have been studied enough. Investigations of changes of the balance of riboflavin and its metabolites in muscular tissues before transplantation in rats from one litter and at operation without replanting were conducted, based on the Udenfriend method of flavin determination. Transplantation in the experiment was carried out on white non-linear male rats weighing 180–300 g. Animals were taken out of the experiment by passing electric current through the medulla. Belly muscular tissue was taken from donor rats of the same litter, and that tissue was sewn to homological muscular tissue of the recipient. The same procedure was carried out with femoral muscular tissue. In the course of operation without replanting the same manipulations have been made except for transplantation stage (for determination of the effect of surgical intervention. Tissue not subject to any surgical intervention served as a control. Parameters of the study were measured on the first, third and seventh days after transplantation. Transplantation of muscular tissue caused no changes in total flavin amount. Content of RF + FMN after transplantation of muscular tissue in rats of the same litter decreased in femoral muscular tissue of the recipient. Transplantation of muscular tissues in rats from the same litter lead to increase in FAD amount in femoral muscular tissue of the donor and recipient on the third day of the experiment. Transplantation of femoral

  19. Trends in total rainfall, heavy rain events, and number of dry days in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1955-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Méndez-Lázaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is a threat to water resources on a global scale and in tropical regions in particular. Rainfall events and patterns are associated worldwide with natural disasters like mudslides and landslides, meteorological phenomena like hurricanes, risks/hazards including severe storms and flooding, and health effects like vector-borne and waterborne diseases. Therefore, in the context of global change, research on rainfall patterns and their variations presents a challenge to the scientific community. The main objective of this research was to analyze recent trends in precipitation in the San Juan metropolitan area in Puerto Rico and their relationship with regional and global climate variations. The statistical trend analysis of precipitation was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. All stations showed positive trends of increasing annual rainfall between 1955 and 2009. The winter months of January and February had an increase in monthly rainfall, although winter is normally a dry season on the island. Regarding dry days, we found an annual decreasing trend, also specifically in winter. In terms of numbers of severe rainfall events described as more than 78 mm in 24 hours, 63 episodes have occurred in the San Juan area in the last decade, specifically in the 2000-2009 time frame, with an average of 6 severe events per year. The majority of the episodes occurred in summer, more frequently in August and September. These results can be seen as a clear example of the complexity of spatial and temporal of rainfall distribution over a tropical city.

  20. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  1. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  2. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Danish Learning Styles Inventory (R-D-LSI) (Nielsen 2005), which is an adaptation of Sternberg- Wagner Thinking Styles Inventory (Sternberg, 1997), comprises 14 subscales, each measuring a separate learning style. Of these 14 subscales, 9 are eight items long and 5 are seven items long...... Inventory (D-SA-LSI) comprising 14 subscales each with an item length of seven. The systematic approach to item reduction based on results of GLLRM will be presented and exemplified by its application to the R-D-LSI....

  3. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  4. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  5. Optimising multi-product multi-chance-constraint inventory control system with stochastic period lengths and total discount under fuzzy purchasing price and holding costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador

    2010-10-01

    While the usual assumptions in multi-periodic inventory control problems are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review) or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review), in this article, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming that the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space and service level constraints, total discount are considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid meta-heuristic intelligent algorithm is proposed. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to compare its performance with one of the existing algorithms in real world inventory control problems.

  6. Total numbers of neurons and glial cells in cortex and basal ganglia of aged brains with Down syndrome--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna Schou; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2011-11-01

    The total numbers of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex and basal ganglia in adults with Down syndrome (DS) were estimated with design-based stereological methods, providing quantitative data on brains affected by delayed development and accelerated aging. Cell numbers, volume of regions, and densities of neurons and glial cell subtypes were estimated in brains from 4 female DS subjects (mean age 66 years) and 6 female controls (mean age 70 years). The DS subjects were estimated to have about 40% fewer neocortical neurons in total (11.1 × 10(9) vs. 17.8 × 10(9), 2p ≤ 0.001) and almost 30% fewer neocortical glial cells with no overlap to controls (12.8 × 10(9) vs. 18.2 × 10(9), 2p = 0.004). In contrast, the total number of neurons in the basal ganglia was the same in the 2 groups, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia was reduced by almost 50% in DS (405 × 10(6) vs. 816 × 10(6), 2p = 0.01). We conclude that trisomy 21 affects cortical structures more than central gray matter emphasizing the differential impairment of brain development. Despite concomitant Alzheimer-like pathology, the neurodegenerative outcome in a DS brain deviates from common Alzheimer disease.

  7. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  8. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  9. Improvement of Secret Image Invisibility in Circulation Image with Dyadic Wavelet Based Data Hiding with Run-Length Coded Secret Images of Which Location of Codes are Determined with Random Number

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Yuji Yamada

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made for improvement of secret image invisibility in circulation images with dyadic wavelet based data hiding with run-length coded secret images of which location of codes are determined by random number. Through experiments, it is confirmed that secret images are almost invisible in circulation images. Also robustness of the proposed data hiding method against data compression of circulation images is discussed. Data hiding performance in terms of invisibility of secret images...

  10. Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Harri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs, was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16 and humans (n = 13 and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

  11. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (posteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New formulas for interferometric crosstalk penalty as a function of total crosstalk power, number of crosstalk contributions and signal extinction ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk, also called incoherent crosstalk, occurs when reception of a desired signal is disturbed by undesired crosstalk contributions having the same wavelength as the desired signal but independent amplitudes and phases. This crosstalk type is known to be among the most...... destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power, the number of contributions carrying this power and the signal extinction ratio. We consider both PIN...... and optically preamplified receivers. The authors know of no other published formulas which include the number of crosstalk contributions. The crosstalk penalty formulas are empirical, and they are based on a numerical model. This model is described briefly along with its experimental verification before...

  13. Dependence of J/ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions on total transverse energy, nucleon numbers and J/ψ transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnik, J.; Lichard, P.

    1989-01-01

    We present a set of semiquantitative predictions for the behaviour of J/ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions as a function of the total transverse energy, nucleon numbers of colliding ions and the J/ψ transverse momentum. These predictions are based on the assumption that all of J/ψ suppression is due to J/ψ and χ disintegrations in collisions with hadrons in a dense hadronic gas formed in the heavy ion collisions. The hydrodynamic evolution of the hadron gas is taken into account. The onset of the quark-gluon plasma formation should manifest itself by clear qualitative deviations from J/ψ suppression calculated in this way, in particular as thresholds or kinks in the E T -dependence, or as a threshold for J/ψ suppression as a function of the atomic number of the target, expected at Cu or below. (orig.)

  14. Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Total Chromatic Numbers of C5 ∨ Kt%图C5∨Kt的邻点可区别全色数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳红; 王治文; 陈祥恩

    2012-01-01

    设f是图G的一个正常全染色.对任意x∈V(G),令C(x)表示与点x相关联的边的颜色以及点x的颜色所构成的集合.若对任意uv∈E(G),有C(u)≠C(v),则称f是图G的一个邻点可区别全染色.对一个图G进行邻点可区别全染色所需的最少的颜色的数目称为G的邻点可区别全色数,记为xat(G).用C5∨Kt表示长为5的圈与t阶完全图的联图.讨论了c5∨Kt的邻点可区别全色数.利用正多边形的对称性构造染色以及组合分析的方法,得到了当t是大于等于3的奇数以及t是偶数且2≤t≤22时,xat(C5∨Kt)=t+6,当t是偶数且t≥24时,Xat(C5∨Kt)=t+7.%Let / be a proper total coloring of G. For each x ∈V(G),let C(x) denote the set of all colors of the edhes incident with x and the color of x. If (V) uv ∈E(G),we have C(u) ≠ C(v),then / is called an adjacent vertex distinguishing total coloring of G. The minimum number k for which there exists an adjacent vertex distinguishing total coloring of G using k colors is called the adjacent vertex distinguishing total chromatic number of G and denoted by Xat(G). Let C5 V Kt be the join of the cycle C5 of order 5 and the complete graph Kt of order t. In this paper,we discuss adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic numbers of C5 V Kt. By using symmetry of regular polygons to construct coloring,and methods of combinatorial analysis,we obtained that for t is odd with t ≥ 3 or t is even with 2 ≤ t ≤ 22,we have Xat(C5,V Kt) = t + 6; for t is even with t ≥ 24,we have Xat(C5 V Kt) = t + 7.

  15. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC visits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714831.

  16. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  17. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  18. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  19. Effect of chelate ring sizes and their substitution on intensities of hypersensitive transitions of lanthanoids (Ln(III)) ions and j (total quantum number profiles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.; Pandey, P.; Yadav, A.; Limaye, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Electronic spectral studies of Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III) Dy(III), Eu(III) and Tm(III) complexes with some aliphatic and aromatic O-O donor ligands viz., Glycolic (gly), Malonic (main) Succinic (suc), Glutaric (glut), Salicylic (sal), Phthalic acids and Catechol (cat) having varied chelate ring sizes and different substitutions as side chains have been carried out with a view to study the effect of chelate ring sizes on the intensities of hypersensitive and pseudo-hypersensitive transitions in lanthanoids. The intensities of these HST transitions have also been correlated with the total quantum number (J) of the lanthanoid metal ions in order to seek a probable mechanism for the phenomenon hypersensitivity. A comparison of the spectral and nephelauxetic parameters for Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III) with Dy(III) Er(III) and Tm(III) exhibit a variation in the bonding pattern from electrostatic to covalo-electrostatic from pre-Gd elements to post-Gd elements. The J-(total) quantum number profiles of the oscillator strength values for the specific HST transitions have also been examined

  20. Genetic variation in total number and locations of GnRH neurons identified using in situ hybridization in a wild-source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Katherine E; Rivers, Charlotte I; Saha, Margaret S; Heideman, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of brain function in the regulation of physiology may depend in part upon the numbers and locations of neurons. Wild populations of rodents contain natural genetic variation in the inhibition of reproduction by winter-like short photoperiod, and it has been hypothesized that this functional variation might be due in part to heritable variation in the numbers or location of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. A naturally variable wild-source population of white-footed mice was used to develop lines artificially selected for or against mature gonads in short, winter-like photoperiods. We compared a selection line that is reproductively inhibited in short photoperiod (Responsive) to a line that is weakly inhibited by short photoperiod (Nonresponsive) for differences in counts of neurons identified using in situ hybridization for GnRH mRNA. There was no effect of photoperiod, but there were 60% more GnRH neurons in total in the Nonresponsive selection line than the Responsive selection line. The lines differed specifically in numbers of GnRH neurons in more anterior regions, whereas numbers of GnRH neurons in posterior areas were not statistically different between lines. We compare these results to those of an earlier study that used immunohistochemical labeling for GnRH neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selection lines and natural source population contain significant genetic variation in the number and location of GnRH neurons. The variation in GnRH neurons may contribute to functional variation in fertility that occurs in short photoperiods in the laboratory and in the wild source population in winter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K G Makade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.

  2. Reduction of total labor length through the addition of parenteral dextrose solution in induction of labor in nulliparous: results of DEXTRONS prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Josianne; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Lewin, Antoine; Fraser, William; Bureau, Yves-André

    2017-05-01

    Prolonged labor is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and very few interventions are known to shorten labor course. Skeletal muscle physiology suggests that glucose supplementation might improve muscle performance in case of prolonged exercise and this situation is analogous to the gravid uterus during delivery. Therefore, it seemed imperative to evaluate the impact of adding carbohydrate supplements on the course of labor. We sought to provide evidence as to whether intravenous glucose supplementation during labor induction in nulliparous women can reduce total duration of active labor. We performed a single-center prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing the use of parental intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline to normal saline in induced nulliparous women. The study was conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital setting. Participants, caregivers, and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy at term with cephalic presentation and favorable cervix. Based on blocked randomization, patients were assigned to receive either 250 mL/h of intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline or 250 mL/h of normal saline for the whole duration of induction, labor, and delivery. The primary outcome studied was the total length of active labor. Secondary outcomes included duration of the active phase of second stage of labor, the mode of delivery, Apgar scores, and arterial cord pH. In all, 100 patients were randomized into each group. A total of 193 patients (96 in the dextrose with normal saline group and 97 in the normal saline group) were analyzed in the study. The median total duration of labor was significantly less in the dextrose with normal saline group (499 vs 423 minutes, P = .024) than in the normal saline group. The probabilities of a woman being delivered at 200 minutes and 450 minutes were 18.8% and 77.1% in the dextrose with normal saline group vs 8

  3. Following changes in total number of mesophilic bacteria and torry meter readings in samples of fresh trout packaged in modified atmosphere and vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, food must be healthy, subjected to minimal processing, and attractively packaged, as the expectations of consumers are ever higher. Consumers are highly sensitive to the use of additives in the food industry. There is a constant demand for fresh food that does not contain any unnecessarily added chemicals. In order to prevent spoilage of food items, an efficient and intelligent concept for preserving freshness has been developed - packaging in a modified atmosphere. Changes in a certain composition of the atmosphere within the packaging have resulted in a longer shelf life and a satisfactory quality of the food articles. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known and has been applied in practice in the food processing industry for more than one century. The objective of these investigations was to determine the growth of the total number of mesophilic bacteria in the meat of trout packaged in a vacuum and a modified atmosphere and torry meter reading results due to changes in the dielectric characteristics of the skin that take place during the period of storage of the fresh fish. California trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with an average weight of 293 g was used for the experimental part of the investigations. Four groups of fish samples were set up for the research. The first three groups of samples were packaged in a modified atmosphere with a different ratio of gases: Group I - 60%CO2+40%N2; Group II - 40%CO2+60%N2; Group III - 90%CO2+10%N2. Group IV comprised samples packaged in a vacuum. Investigations were carried out on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The total number of mesophilic bacteria in the examined samples was determined according to the method ISO 4833. Measurements of changes in the dielectric characteristics of the fish skin were performed using a torry meter apparatus (The Torry Fish Freshness Meter. The results have shown that packaging of fresh trout in a modified atmosphere (60% CO2 + 40% N2 and 40% CO2 + 60% N2

  4. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During in vitro fertilization (IVF, fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Methods Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Results Completed questionnaires (n = 71 revealed a mean +/− SD patient age of 34 +/− 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1% had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s. When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/− 11.75 and $654.55 +/− 106.34, respectively (p  Conclusions This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs

  5. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Salem, Shala A; Jones, Christopher A; Peck, Alison C; Salem, Rifaat D

    2012-08-30

    During in vitro fertilization (IVF), fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Completed questionnaires (n = 71) revealed a mean +/- SD patient age of 34 +/- 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1%) had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s). When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/- 11.75 and $654.55 +/- 106.34, respectively (p cost difference increased. This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist) was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs reach a critical level.

  6. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract may prevent the deterioration of spatial memory and the deficit of estimated total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells of trimethyltin-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-01-01

    Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., a normal control group (N); Sn group, which was given TMT chloride; Sn-Cit group, which was treated with citicoline and TMT chloride; and three Sn-TE groups, which were treated with three different dosages of turmeric rhizome extract and TMT chloride. Morris water maze test was carried out to examine the spatial memory. The estimated total number of CA1 and CA2-CA3 pyramidal cells was calculated using a stereological method. The administration of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw has been shown to prevent the deficits in the spatial memory performance and partially inhibit the reduction of the number of CA2-CA3 regions pyramidal neurons. TMT-induced neurotoxic damage seemed to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Turmeric extract might act as anti inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant agent. The effects of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw seem to be comparable to those of citicoline.

  7. Petroleomics by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry coupled to partial least squares with variable selection methods: prediction of the total acid number of crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana A; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Tose, Lílian V; Romão, Wanderson; de Souza, Douglas D; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; de Oliveira, Mirela S L; Dias, Júlio C M; Poppi, Ronei J

    2014-10-07

    Negative-ion mode electrospray ionization, ESI(-), with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was coupled to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and variable selection methods to estimate the total acid number (TAN) of Brazilian crude oil samples. Generally, ESI(-)-FT-ICR mass spectra present a power of resolution of ca. 500,000 and a mass accuracy less than 1 ppm, producing a data matrix containing over 5700 variables per sample. These variables correspond to heteroatom-containing species detected as deprotonated molecules, [M - H](-) ions, which are identified primarily as naphthenic acids, phenols and carbazole analog species. The TAN values for all samples ranged from 0.06 to 3.61 mg of KOH g(-1). To facilitate the spectral interpretation, three methods of variable selection were studied: variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE). The UVE method seems to be more appropriate for selecting important variables, reducing the dimension of the variables to 183 and producing a root mean square error of prediction of 0.32 mg of KOH g(-1). By reducing the size of the data, it was possible to relate the selected variables with their corresponding molecular formulas, thus identifying the main chemical species responsible for the TAN values.

  8. Total number of eels and water temperature data collected from Mill Pond, Massachusetts from 2015-04-01 to 2015-10-15 (NCEI Accession 0148457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mill Pond elver ladder is one of only a few elver ladders exist in Massachusetts and even fewer have a trap to enumerate the number of migrating young of the...

  9. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  10. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  11. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a detailed evaluation on discriminatory power and agreement with findings in a cluster investigation was performed on 3,975 tuberculosis cases during the period of 2004 to 2008. The level of discrimination of the two typing methods did not differ substantially: RFLP typing yielded 2,733 distinct patterns compared to 2,607 in VNTR typing. The global concordance, defined as isolates labeled unique or identically distributed in clusters by both methods, amounted to 78.5% (n = 3,123). Of the remaining 855 cases, 12% (n = 479) of the cases were clustered only by VNTR, 7.7% (n = 305) only by RFLP typing, and 1.8% (n = 71) revealed different cluster compositions in the two approaches. A cluster investigation was performed for 87% (n = 1,462) of the cases clustered by RFLP. For the 740 cases with confirmed or presumed epidemiological links, 92% were concordant with VNTR typing. In contrast, only 64% of the 722 cases without an epidemiological link but clustered by RFLP typing were also clustered by VNTR typing. We conclude that VNTR typing has a discriminatory power equal to IS6110 RFLP typing but is in better agreement with findings in a cluster investigation performed on an RFLP-clustering-based cluster investigation. Both aspects make VNTR typing a suitable method for tuberculosis surveillance systems. PMID:23363841

  12. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. New formulas for interferometric crosstalk penalty as a function of total crosstalk power, number of crosstalk contributions and signal extinction ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk, also called incoherent crosstalk, occurs when reception of a desired signal is disturbed by undesired crosstalk contributions having the same wavelength as the desired signal but independent amplitudes and phases. This crosstalk type is known to be among the most destructive phenomena in optical networks owing to its accumulative nature and strong impact on the transmission quality. New formulas state the crosstalk penalty as a function of the total crosstalk power,...

  14. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marędziak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX and sedentary animal groups revealed (i significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, (iii increased level of osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OCL, and (iv reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions.

  15. Size distribution and total number concentration of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wåhlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, O

    2008-01-01

    (15 May 2001 to 31 December 2004) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) in the elderly (age >or=65 years), and due to asthma in children (age 5-18 years). We examined these associations in the presence of PM(10), PM(2.5) (particulate matter ... that particle volume/mass from long-range transported air pollution is relevant for CVD and RD admissions in the elderly, and possibly particle numbers from traffic sources for paediatric asthma....

  16. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  17. A comparative study on total reflection X-ray fluorescence determination of low atomic number elements in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using different excitation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, N. L.; Kanrar, Buddhadev; Aggarwal, S. K.; Wobrauschek, Peter; Rauwolf, M.; Streli, Christina

    2014-09-01

    A comparison of trace element determinations of low atomic number (Z) elements Na, Mg, Al, P, K and Ca in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using W Lβ1, Mo Kα and Cr Kα excitations has been made. For Mo Kα and W Lβ1 excitations a Si (Li) detector with beryllium window was used and measurements were performed in air and helium atmospheres. For Cr Kα excitation, a Si (Li) detector with an ultra thin polymer window (UTW) was used and measurements were made in vacuum and air atmospheres. The sensitivities of the elemental X-ray lines were determined using TXRF spectra of standard solutions and processing them by IAEA QXAS program. The elemental concentrations of the elements in other solutions were determined using their TXRF spectra and pre-determined sensitivity values. The study suggests that, using the above experimental set up, Mo Kα excitation is not suited for trace determination of low atomic number element. Excitation by WLβ1 and helium atmosphere, the spectrometer can be used for the determination of elements with Z = 15 (P) and above with fairly good detection limits whereas Cr Kα excitation with ultra thin polymer window and vacuum atmosphere is good for the elements having Z = 11 (Na) and above. The detection limits using this set up vary from 7048 pg for Na to 83 pg for Ti.

  18. Neutron-triton scattering lengths for interactions reproducing low-energy trinucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashev, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    By solving the integral equations for four nucleons the neutron-triton scattering lengths and total cross section are calculated using different S-wave rank-one separable potentials. A number of linear correlations between the neutron-triton scattering lengths and triton binding energy are found. The scattering lengths consistent with low-energy trinucleon data. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data [ru

  19. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  20. The Effect of Total Cumulative Dose, Number of Treatment Cycles, Interval between Injections, and Length of Treatment on the Frequency of Occurrence of Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid O.; Liptrot, Anthea; Newton, Rachel; Pickett, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    A large cumulative dose of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), frequent injections, a short interval between treatment cycles, and a long duration of treatment have all been suggested, but not confirmed, to be associated with a high incidence of neutralizing antibodies to the neurotoxin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these…

  1. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  2. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  3. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…

  4. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  5. Radiation shielding and effective atomic number studies in different types of shielding concretes, lead base and non-lead base glass systems for total electron interaction: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation shielding calculations for concretes and glass systems. • Assigning effective atomic number for the given materials for total electron interaction. • Glass systems generally have better shielding ability than concretes. - Abstract: Concrete has been widely used as a radiation shielding material due to its extremely low cost. On the other hand, glass systems, which make everything inside visible to observers, are considered as promising shielding materials as well. In the present work, the effective atomic numbers, Z eff of some concretes and glass systems (industrial waste containing glass, Pb base glass and non-Pb base glass) have been calculated for total electron interaction in the energy region of 10 keV–1 GeV. Also, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) ranges for the given materials have been calculated in the wide energy region to show the shielding effectiveness of the given materials. The glass systems are not only compared to different types of concretes but also compared to the lead base glass systems in terms of shielding. Moreover, the obtained results for total electron interaction have been compared to the results for total photon interaction wherever possible. In general, it has been observed that the glass systems have superior properties than most of the concretes over the high-energy region with respect to the electron interaction. Also, glass systems without lead show better electron stopping than lead base glasses at some energy regions as well. Along with the photon attenuation capability, it is seen that Fly Ash base glass systems have not only greater electron stopping capability but also have greater photon attenuation especially in high energy region when compared with standard shielding concretes

  6. Radiation shielding and effective atomic number studies in different types of shielding concretes, lead base and non-lead base glass systems for total electron interaction: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Radiation shielding calculations for concretes and glass systems. • Assigning effective atomic number for the given materials for total electron interaction. • Glass systems generally have better shielding ability than concretes. - Abstract: Concrete has been widely used as a radiation shielding material due to its extremely low cost. On the other hand, glass systems, which make everything inside visible to observers, are considered as promising shielding materials as well. In the present work, the effective atomic numbers, Z{sub eff} of some concretes and glass systems (industrial waste containing glass, Pb base glass and non-Pb base glass) have been calculated for total electron interaction in the energy region of 10 keV–1 GeV. Also, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) ranges for the given materials have been calculated in the wide energy region to show the shielding effectiveness of the given materials. The glass systems are not only compared to different types of concretes but also compared to the lead base glass systems in terms of shielding. Moreover, the obtained results for total electron interaction have been compared to the results for total photon interaction wherever possible. In general, it has been observed that the glass systems have superior properties than most of the concretes over the high-energy region with respect to the electron interaction. Also, glass systems without lead show better electron stopping than lead base glasses at some energy regions as well. Along with the photon attenuation capability, it is seen that Fly Ash base glass systems have not only greater electron stopping capability but also have greater photon attenuation especially in high energy region when compared with standard shielding concretes.

  7. Stalk-length-dependence of the contractility of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Chung, Eun; Ryu, Sangjin

    2017-12-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a sessile protozoan of which the spasmoneme contracts on a millisecond timescale. Because this contraction is induced and powered by the binding of calcium ions (Ca2+), the spasmoneme showcases Ca2+-powered cellular motility. Because the isometric tension of V. convallaria increases linearly with its stalk length, it is hypothesized that the contractility of V. convallaria during unhindered contraction depends on the stalk length. In this study, the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria cells of different stalk lengths were evaluated using a fluid dynamic drag model which accounts for the unsteadiness and finite Reynolds number of the water flow caused by contracting V. convallaria and the wall effect of the no-slip substrate. It was found that the contraction displacement, peak contraction speed, peak contractile force, total mechanical work, and peak power depended on the stalk length. The observed stalk-length-dependencies were simulated using a damped spring model, and the model estimated that the average spring constant of the contracting stalk was 1.34 nN µm-1. These observed length-dependencies of Vorticella’s key contractility parameters reflect the biophysical mechanism of the spasmonemal contraction, and thus they should be considered in developing a theoretical model of the Vorticella spasmoneme.

  8. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  9. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  10. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  11. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  12. Morphological observation and length-weight relationship of critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M R; Mollah, M F A; Taslima, K; Muhammadullah

    2014-01-15

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the morphological status of the critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita using morphometric and meristic traits. About 158 species of Rita were collected from the old Brahmaputra river in Mymensingh district and were studied in the laboratory of the Fisheries Biology and Genetics Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University. Measurement of length and weight of Rita were recorded by using measuring scale and electric balance respectively. Significant curvilinear relationship existed between total length and other morphometric characters and between head length and other characters of the head. Relationships between total length and various body measurements of the fish were highly significant (p < 0.01) except the relationship between total length and pelvic fin length of male fish (p < 0.05). In case of meristic characters-dorsal fin rays, pelvic fin rays, pectoral fin rays, anal fin rays, caudal fin rays, number of vertebrae and branchiostegal rays were found to be more or less similar except slight differences. The values of condition factors (k) in the total length body-weight relationships for female and male were found to be 0.41 and 0.38, respectively. The mean values of relative condition factors (kn) were 1.0 and 1.005 for female and male, respectively.

  13. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  14. Estimativa do total de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base através das medidas diárias da temperatura do ar Number of hours below any base temperature estimated by daily measurements of air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz B. Angelocci

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São propostas equações matemáticas para estimar o total diário de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base, em certo período, utilizando-se somente dos valores diários das temperaturas máxima, mínima e das 21 horas (hora local. A comparação entre os totais diários e mensais de "horas de frio" estimados pelas equações propostas e os observados através de termogramas, para várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, mostrou boa concordância entre os métodos de cálculo. O modelo proposto dispensa o uso de registros contínuos de temperatura. As vantagens de tal estimativa residem na maior disponibilidade de registros de temperaturas máximas, mínimas e das 21 horas, permitindo maior densidade de pontos em trabalhos de zoneamento agroclimático e de cartografia, além da eliminação do processo de cotação de termogramas.Mathematical equations are proposed to estimate the daily number of hours in which the air temperature remains below a determined treshold value. The equations require only daily values of maximum, minimum and 9 p.m. local time temperature, measured inside the meteorological shelter. This technique is suitable for machine computation thus avoiding the tremendous task of quantifying a large number of thermograms. This fact permits the utilization of a greater number of stations in studies of crop zonation and cartography. Good correlations were obtained between estimated and observed data of the daily and monthly total number of hours below 7°C, 13°C and 17°C, for five stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, showing relative accuracy of the proposed equations.

  15. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... fluctuations in total phenol concentration of different parts ... Rooting percentage, mean root dry mass and mean number of roots according to root length ... differences at P ≤ 0.05 based on chi-square; 2different letters in.

  16. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  17. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  18. Adaptive subdivision and the length and energy of Bézier curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    It is an often used fact that the control polygon of a Bézier curve approximates the curve and that the approximation gets better when the curve is subdivided. In particular, if a Bézier curve is subdivided into some number of pieces, then the arc-length of the original curve is greater than...... the sum of the chord-lengths of the pieces, and less than the sum of the polygon-lengths of the pieces. Under repeated subdivisions, the difference between this lower and upper bound gets arbitrarily small.If $L_c$ denotes the total chord-length of the pieces and $L_p$ denotes the total polygon...... combination, and it forms the basis for a fast adaptive algorithm, which determines the arc-length of a Bézier curve.The energy of a curve is half the square of the curvature integrated with respect to arc-length. Like in the case of the arc-length, it is possible to use the chord-length and polygon...

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Association of level of digestible energy in total length, weight of gonads and gonadosomatic index of female Piauçu (“Leporinus macrocephalus”, SPIX 1829 Associação do nível de energia digestível no comprimento total, peso das gônadas e índice gonadossomático de fêmeas de Piauçu (“Leporinus macrocephalus”, SPIX 1829 em estágio pós-larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Keley Silva Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to associate the energy digestible level of the diet to ovary development in post larval stage. Twenty-four female fish were used with weight and average initial length of 0.33 ± 0.11 g and 2.94 ± 0.39 cm, respectively. There were four treatments: 2600, 2700, 2800, and 2900 kcal of DE/kg of ration. Digestible energy levels influenced the final weight up to the estimated level of 2757.142kcal/kg. However, there was no significant effect for total length, gonad weight, and gonadossomatic index in females. The level of digestible energy did not provide better initial development of the ovary. This information may guide new experiments, to improve the conditions of cultivation, to value the activity on the economic sense as well as increase the number of fingerlings for aquaculture.Objetivou-se associar o nível de energia digestível da dieta com o desenvolvimento ovariano em estagio pós-larval. Foram usadas 24 fêmeas com peso e comprimento médio inicial de 0,33 ± 0,11g e 2,94 ± 0,39cm, respectivamente. Foram realizados 4 tratamentos: 2600; 2700; 2800 e 2900kcal de ED/Kg de ração. No presente estudo, o nível de energia digestível influenciou no peso final até o nível estimado de 2757,142kcal/kg. Entretanto, não apresentou efeito significativo para comprimento total, peso da gônada e índice gonadossomático das fêmeas. O nível de energia digestível não proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento inicial do ovário. Essas informações poderão nortear novos experimentos, melhorar as condições de cultivo, valorizar a atividade no sentido econômico, assim como aumentar o número de alevinos destinados à aquicultura.

  1. Total curvature and total torsion of knotted random polygons in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yuanan; Ernst, Claus; Rawdon, Eric J.; Ziegler, Uta

    2018-04-01

    Knots in nature are typically confined spatially. The confinement affects the possible configurations, which in turn affects the spectrum of possible knot types as well as the geometry of the configurations within each knot type. The goal of this paper is to determine how confinement, length, and knotting affect the total curvature and total torsion of random polygons. Previously published papers have investigated these effects in the unconstrained case. In particular, we analyze how the total curvature and total torsion are affected by (1) varying the length of polygons within a fixed confinement radius and (2) varying the confinement radius of polygons with a fixed length. We also compare the total curvature and total torsion of groups of knots with similar complexity (measured as crossing number). While some of our results fall in line with what has been observed in the studies of the unconfined random polygons, a few surprising results emerge from our study, showing some properties that are unique due to the effect of knotting in confinement.

  2. Adaptive treatment-length optimization in spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2018-04-01

    Recent theoretical research on spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy has focused on optimization models that adapt fluence-maps to the evolution of tumor state, for example, cell densities, as observed in quantitative functional images acquired over the treatment course. We propose an optimization model that adapts the length of the treatment course as well as the fluence-maps to such imaged tumor state. Specifically, after observing the tumor cell densities at the beginning of a session, the treatment planner solves a group of convex optimization problems to determine an optimal number of remaining treatment sessions, and a corresponding optimal fluence-map for each of these sessions. The objective is to minimize the total number of tumor cells remaining (TNTCR) at the end of this proposed treatment course, subject to upper limits on the biologically effective dose delivered to the organs-at-risk. This fluence-map is administered in future sessions until the next image is available, and then the number of sessions and the fluence-map are re-optimized based on the latest cell density information. We demonstrate via computer simulations on five head-and-neck test cases that such adaptive treatment-length and fluence-map planning reduces the TNTCR and increases the biological effect on the tumor while employing shorter treatment courses, as compared to only adapting fluence-maps and using a pre-determined treatment course length based on one-size-fits-all guidelines.

  3. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  4. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  5. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  7. The Influence of Total Nodes Examined, Number of Positive Nodes, and Lymph Node Ratio on Survival After Surgical Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9704

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Department of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Miriam Hospital, Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Benson, Al B. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); MacDonald, John S. [St. Vincent' s Cancer Care Center, New York, NY (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results: There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.06, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15 were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n = 142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.01, p < 0.0001) and DFS (HR = 1.006, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques.

  8. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  9. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  10. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  11. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  12. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  13. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  14. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  15. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  16. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEMUNA

    markovian process could be reduced to a markovian chain with the homogenous .... x and y respectively. n= the value of the strategy i.e. number of dummies/virtual ..... Groove, CA. Feinberg, E. A. & Shwartz, A. (2002), Handbook of Markov.

  17. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  18. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  19. Optimal solution for travelling salesman problem using heuristic shortest path algorithm with imprecise arc length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ibrahim, Milbah

    2017-08-01

    The shortest path problem is a popular problem in graph theory. It is about finding a path with minimum length between a specified pair of vertices. In any network the weight of each edge is usually represented in a form of crisp real number and subsequently the weight is used in the calculation of shortest path problem using deterministic algorithms. However, due to failure, uncertainty is always encountered in practice whereby the weight of edge of the network is uncertain and imprecise. In this paper, a modified algorithm which utilized heuristic shortest path method and fuzzy approach is proposed for solving a network with imprecise arc length. Here, interval number and triangular fuzzy number in representing arc length of the network are considered. The modified algorithm is then applied to a specific example of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). Total shortest distance obtained from this algorithm is then compared with the total distance obtained from traditional nearest neighbour heuristic algorithm. The result shows that the modified algorithm can provide not only on the sequence of visited cities which shown to be similar with traditional approach but it also provides a good measurement of total shortest distance which is lesser as compared to the total shortest distance calculated using traditional approach. Hence, this research could contribute to the enrichment of methods used in solving TSP.

  20. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  1. Is length an appropriate estimator to characterize pulmonary alveolar capillaries? A critical evaluation in the human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Weibel, Ewald R.; Hahn, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Stereological estimations of total capillary length have been used to characterize changes in the alveolar capillary network (ACN) during developmental processes or pathophysiological conditions. Here, we analyzed whether length estimations are appropriate to describe the 3D nature of the ACN. Semi...... resulted in a mean of 2,746 km (SD: 722 km). Because of the geometry of the ACN both approaches carry an unpredictable bias. The bias incurred by the design-based approach is proportional to the ratio between radius and length of the capillary segments in the ACN, the number of branching points...... and the winding of the capillaries. The model-based approach is biased because of the real noncylindrical shape of capillaries and the network structure. In conclusion, the estimation of the total length of capillaries in the ACN cannot be recommended as the geometry of the ACN does not fulfill the requirements...

  2. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  3. Cumulative live-birth rates per total number of embryos needed to reach newborn in consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles: a new approach to measuring the likelihood of IVF success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nicolás; Bellver, José; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    To report the use of cumulative live-birth rates (CLBRs) per ovarian stimulation cycle to measure the success of IVF is proving to be the most accurate method for advising couples who failed to conceive, although the accuracy yielded is relatively low, and cycle outcome is highly dependent on the number of embryos replaced. Our aim with this work is to report the CLBRs of IVF as a function of the number of embryos required to reach a live birth (EmbR), considering age, day of ET, and infertility etiology. Survival curves and Kaplan-Meier methods to analyze CLBR in a retrospective cohort with respect to the number of EmbR. University-affiliated infertility center. Infertile couples undergoing IVF using own oocytes. None. CLBR per embryo transferred. CLBRs increase rapidly between 1 and 5 EmbR, moderately between 5 and 15, and slowly thereafter. Live-birth rates rise more slowly when embryos are transferred on days 2-3 rather than on days 5-6, with comparable long-term results. Women's age is a negative factor from 35 to 37 years old, with a dramatic decrease in live-birth rates beyond age 40 years. In addition, there are significant worse results in endometriosis patients. The relationship between CLBR and number of EmbR provides realistic and precise information regarding IVF success and can be used to guide couples and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  5. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  6. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  7. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  8. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  9. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  10. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  11. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  12. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and general vaccinations, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, in Japanese subjects, a population with high genetic homogeneity. A case-control study was performed. Cases (n=189) were diagnosed with ASD, while controls (n=224) were volunteers from general schools, matched by sex and birth year to cases. Vaccination history and prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors from the Maternal and Child Health handbook, which was part of each subject's file, were examined. To determine the relationship between potential risk factors and ASD, crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, and the differences in mean values of the quantitative variables between cases and controls were analyzed using an unpaired t-test. Moreover, MMR vaccination and the effect of the number of vaccine injections were investigated using a conditional multiple regression model. For MMR vaccination, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.65-1.68), and no significant differences were found for the other vaccines. For all of the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal factors, there were no significant differences between cases and controls. Furthermore, regarding the presence of ASD, MMR vaccination and the number of vaccine injections had ORs of 1.10 (95% CI, 0.64-1.90) and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.95-1.26), respectively, in the conditional multiple regression model; no significant differences were found. In this study, there were not any convincing evidences that MMR vaccination and increasing the number of vaccine injections were associated with an increased risk of ASD in a genetically homogeneous population. Therefore, these findings indicate that there is no basis for avoiding vaccination out of concern for ASD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  14. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  15. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  16. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  17. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  18. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node. In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78. In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs, enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  19. Elevated temperature intensity, timing, and duration of exposure affect soybean internode elongation, mainstem node number, and pod number per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Hartwell Allen, Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in four compartments of a polycarbonate greenhouse at Gainesville, FL, USA to investigate how a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar, Maverick (maturity group III, indeterminate, responded to three elevated temperatures, ELT, (day/night of 34/26 °C, 38/30 °C, and 42/34 °C in comparison to a control growth temperature (30/22 °C. Carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration was maintained at 700 μmol mol−1 in each compartment by a processor controlled air-sampling and CO2-injection system. Three sequential experiments were conducted at different times of year (summer, autumn, and early spring to investigate the effect of intensity, timing, and duration of ELT on soybean node number, internode elongation, mainstem length, and number of pods set per plant. At the control temperature, the soybean plants grown in the polycarbonate greenhouse were taller than field-grown plants. When plants were grown under continuous ELT applied soon after sowing or at initial flowering, the number of nodes increased with increasing ELT intensity, whereas the length of individual internodes decreased. When ELT treatment was applied during the beginning of flowering stage (R1–R2 or earlier, more nodes were produced and the length of affected internodes was decreased. When the ELT was imposed later at reproductive stage R5+ just before the beginning of seed filling, effects on node numbers and internode lengths were negligible. Short-term (10-day duration of ELT applied at four stages from V3 to R5+ did not significantly affect final mean numbers of nodes or mean mainstem lengths. Possible mechanisms of elevated temperature effects on soybean internode elongation and node number (internode number are discussed. Total pod numbers per plant increased linearly with mainstem node numbers and mainstem length. Furthermore, total pod numbers per plant were greatest at 34/26 °C rather than at the control temperature of 30/22 °C (and

  20. Effect of road side dust pollution on the growth and total chlorophyll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dust in Vitis vinifera L. on its pigmentation and growth was studied in 2012. Measurements were taken for plants in the Campus University of Balochistan, Quetta. A significant reduction in plant length, cover, number of leaves and total chlorophyll contents for V. vinifera L. was observed. The maximum reduction ...

  1. A polynomial time algorithm for checking regularity of totally normed process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm for the regularity problem of weak and branching bisimilarity on totally normed process algebra (PA) processes is given. Its time complexity is O(n 3 +mn) O(n3+mn), where n is the number of transition rules and m is the maximal length of the rules. The algorithm works for

  2. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...

  3. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  4. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  5. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Branch length similarity entropy-based descriptors for shape representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohsung; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, we showed that the branch length similarity (BLS) entropy profile could be successfully used for the shape recognition such as battle tanks, facial expressions, and butterflies. In the present study, we proposed new descriptors, roundness, symmetry, and surface roughness, for the recognition, which are more accurate and fast in the computation than the previous descriptors. The roundness represents how closely a shape resembles to a circle, the symmetry characterizes how much one shape is similar with another when the shape is moved in flip, and the surface roughness quantifies the degree of vertical deviations of a shape boundary. To evaluate the performance of the descriptors, we used the database of leaf images with 12 species. Each species consisted of 10 - 20 leaf images and the total number of images were 160. The evaluation showed that the new descriptors successfully discriminated the leaf species. We believe that the descriptors can be a useful tool in the field of pattern recognition.

  7. Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Relationship between shell length and total weight, shell weight and meat weight of giant oyster, Crassostrea gryphoides revealed that the growth of these parameters is very fast and significant. It indicates the suitability of the species concerned...

  8. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  9. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  10. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other

  11. Relationships between average depth and number of misclassifications for decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2014-02-14

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between the total path length or the average depth and the number of misclassifications for decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [9] and datasets representing Boolean functions with 10 variables.

  12. Relationships Between Average Depth and Number of Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2013-07-24

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between total path length or average depth and number of nodes of decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [1]. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  13. Relationships Between Average Depth and Number of Nodes for Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between total path length or average depth and number of nodes of decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML

  14. Relationships between average depth and number of misclassifications for decision trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for the study of relationships between the total path length or the average depth and the number of misclassifications for decision trees. In addition to algorithm, the paper also presents the results of experiments with datasets from UCI ML Repository [9] and datasets representing Boolean functions with 10 variables.

  15. TAILLE À 3 ANS DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LES RIVIÈRES DES PYRÉNÉES FRANÇAISES : RELATIONS AVEC LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES MÉSOLOGIQUES ET INFLUENCE DES AMÉNAGEMENTS HYDROÉLECTRIQUES. TOTAL LENGTH OF AGE-3 BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN FRENCH PYRENEAN STREAMS : RELATIONSHIPS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND INFLUENCE OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée sur 84 cours d'eau répartis sur l'ensemble de la chaîne des Pyrénées. Pour cela, des échantillons d'écailles ont été récoltés dans 215 sites situés à des altitudes comprises entre 185 et 2000 m, pour des largeurs variant de 1,2 à 60 m. La croissance des individus a été déterminée par scalimétrie. La longueur totale moyenne atteinte par les individus à l'âge de 3 ans a été retenue comme variable biologique. La taille moyenne à 3 ans des individus est fortement structurée par l'altitude, ce gradient altitudinal représentant en grande partie un gradient thermique. Elle est corrélée négativement avec l'altitude et la densité totale en truites communes et positivement avec la largeur du cours d'eau et la conductivité estivale. La nature du débit joue également un rôle important sur la croissance puisqu'à altitude et à température moyenne estivale équivalentes, la taille moyenne à 3 ans est significativement plus faible en site soumis à un débit réservé qu'en site à débit naturel. Selon la nature du débit, deux modèles prédictifs de la taille moyenne à 3 ans (T3 en fonction de l'altitude (ALT et de la largeur du cours d'eau (L ont été établis par régression multiple pas à pas : - sites à débit naturel : Log (T3 = 2.457 - 0.007 x sgrt ALT + 0.066 x Log (L 65.5 % (p The growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L. populations has been studied on 84 streams distributed over the whole range of the Pyrenees. Samples of scales were collected in 215 sites located at altitudes ranging between 185 and 2000 m, for width varying from 1,2 to 60 m. The growth of individuals was determined by scale reading. The mean total length of age-3 trout was selected as the biological variable. The mean total length of age-3 trout was strongly structured by altitude, this altitudinal gradient mainly representing a thermal gradient. It is

  16. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  17. Development and testing of high performance pseudo random number generator for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2009-01-01

    Random number plays an important role in any Monte Carlo simulation. The accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the sequence of random numbers employed in the simulation. These include randomness of the random numbers, uniformity of their distribution, absence of correlation and long period. In a typical Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in a nuclear reactor core, the history of a particle from its birth in a fission event until its death by an absorption or leakage event is tracked. The geometry of the core and the surrounding materials are exactly modeled in the simulation. To track a neutron history one needs random numbers for determining inter collision distance, nature of the collision, the direction of the scattered neutron etc. Neutrons are tracked in batches. In one batch approximately 2000-5000 neutrons are tracked. The statistical accuracy of the results of the simulation depends on the total number of particles (number of particles in one batch multiplied by the number of batches) tracked. The number of histories to be generated is usually large for a typical radiation transport problem. To track a very large number of histories one needs to generate a long sequence of independent random numbers. In other words the cycle length of the random number generator (RNG) should be more than the total number of random numbers required for simulating the given transport problem. The number of bits of the machine generally limits the cycle length. For a binary machine of p bits the maximum cycle length is 2 p . To achieve higher cycle length in the same machine one has to use either register arithmetic or bit manipulation technique

  18. A New Maximum Length Record of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) for Turkey Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    One specimen of the bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) with 76.5 cm in total length and 4800.0 g in total weight was photographed in the Çanakkale Fish Market. The given length is second maximum length record of the bluefish for Turkish waters

  19. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20 was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21. The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6 were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%. The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs426367238 was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238 with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  20. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Yawei; Du, Wei; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Tian, Changyan

    2017-09-01

    The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin ( VRTN ) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  1. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  2. A superlinear iteration method for calculation of finite length journal bearing's static equilibrium position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjie; Wei, Xuesong; Wang, Leqin; Wu, Guangkuan

    2017-05-01

    Solving the static equilibrium position is one of the most important parts of dynamic coefficients calculation and further coupled calculation of rotor system. The main contribution of this study is testing the superlinear iteration convergence method-twofold secant method, for the determination of the static equilibrium position of journal bearing with finite length. Essentially, the Reynolds equation for stable motion is solved by the finite difference method and the inner pressure is obtained by the successive over-relaxation iterative method reinforced by the compound Simpson quadrature formula. The accuracy and efficiency of the twofold secant method are higher in comparison with the secant method and dichotomy. The total number of iterative steps required for the twofold secant method are about one-third of the secant method and less than one-eighth of dichotomy for the same equilibrium position. The calculations for equilibrium position and pressure distribution for different bearing length, clearance and rotating speed were done. In the results, the eccentricity presents linear inverse proportional relationship to the attitude angle. The influence of the bearing length, clearance and bearing radius on the load-carrying capacity was also investigated. The results illustrate that larger bearing length, larger radius and smaller clearance are good for the load-carrying capacity of journal bearing. The application of the twofold secant method can greatly reduce the computational time for calculation of the dynamic coefficients and dynamic characteristics of rotor-bearing system with a journal bearing of finite length.

  3. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  4. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  5. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  6. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  7. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  8. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  9. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  10. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  11. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  12. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  14. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  15. Universal and idiosyncratic characteristic lengths in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Ivan; Frémont, Paul; Rivoire, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes. Since bacteria live in very different physico-chemical conditions and since their genomes lack translational invariance, whether larger, universal characteristic lengths exist is a non-trivial question. Here, we examine this problem by leveraging the large number of fully sequenced genomes available in public databases. By analyzing GC content correlations and the evolutionary conservation of gene contexts (synteny) in hundreds of bacterial chromosomes, we conclude that a fundamental characteristic length around 10–20 kb can be defined. This characteristic length reflects elementary structures involved in the coordination of gene expression, which are present all along the genome of nearly all bacteria. Technically, reaching this conclusion required us to implement methods that are insensitive to the presence of large idiosyncratic genomic features, which may co-exist along these fundamental universal structures.

  16. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  17. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  18. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  19. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  20. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  1. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  2. How Does Definition of Minimum Break Length Affect Objective Measures of Sitting Outcomes Among Office Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloster, Stine; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behaviour may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been...... described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers...

  3. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  4. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  5. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  6. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown.To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length.Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS.The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest.Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively.Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  7. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability.

  8. homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Ongeti

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... in toe length and toe-length ratios among the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. A total ... The toe-length ratios also displayed symmetrical differences for ... For the female population, all ratios were not significantly different.

  9. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  10. The Distribution of Lightning Channel Lengths in Northern Alabama Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, H. S.; Koshak, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is well known to be a major source of tropospheric NOx, and in most cases is the dominant natural source (Huntreiser et al 1998, Jourdain and Hauglustaine 2001). Production of NOx by a segment of a lightning channel is a function of channel segment energy density and channel segment altitude. A first estimate of NOx production by a lightning flash can be found by multiplying production per segment [typically 104 J/m; Hill (1979)] by the total length of the flash s channel. The purpose of this study is to determine average channel length for lightning flashes near NALMA in 2008, and to compare average channel length of ground flashes to the average channel length of cloud flashes.

  11. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  12. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  13. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  14. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  15. Chemical theory and modelling through density across length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the concepts that has played a major role in the conceptual as well as computational developments covering all the length scales of interest in a number of areas of chemistry, physics, chemical engineering and materials science is the concept of single-particle density. Density functional theory has been a versatile tool for the description of many-particle systems across length scales. Thus, in the microscopic length scale, an electron density based description has played a major role in providing a deeper understanding of chemical binding in atoms, molecules and solids. Density concept has been used in the form of single particle number density in the intermediate mesoscopic length scale to obtain an appropriate picture of the equilibrium and dynamical processes, dealing with a wide class of problems involving interfacial science and soft condensed matter. In the macroscopic length scale, however, matter is usually treated as a continuous medium and a description using local mass density, energy density and other related property density functions has been found to be quite appropriate. The basic ideas underlying the versatile uses of the concept of density in the theory and modelling of materials and phenomena, as visualized across length scales, along with selected illustrative applications to some recent areas of research on hydrogen energy, soft matter, nucleation phenomena, isotope separation, and separation of mixture in condensed phase, will form the subject matter of the talk. (author)

  16. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  17. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  18. Length-Weight relationships of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length-weight relationships (LWRs) of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar, cultured under continuous and periodic submergence in tidal ponds, for a period of seven months, February to August 2010 were determined. A total of 375 individuals each of pond A (continuous submergence) and B (periodic submergence) ...

  19. Estimation Issues and Generational Changes in Modeling Criminal Career Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian; Soothill, Keith; Piquero, Alex R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to model criminal career length using data from six different birth cohorts born between 1953 and 1978, totaling more than 58,000 males and females from England and Wales. A secondary aim of this article is to consider whether information available at the first court appearance leading to a conviction is associated with the…

  20. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  1. Demonstrativeness of using energy rather than mass as the unit of measure for a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golitsyn, G S

    2008-01-01

    Changing from the mass - length - time to the energy - length - time system of units is suggested as a means by which a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics can be more easily and conveniently solved using similarity analysis and dimensional methods. Eight examples are presented, with the derivations of the Stefan - Boltzmann radiation law, total kinetic energy of a hurricane, cosmic ray energy spectrum, etc. (methodological notes)

  2. Structure-guided investigation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen chain length regulators reveals regions critical for modal length control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalynych, Sergei; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2011-08-01

    The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with nonrandom (modal) chain length distribution. The number of the repeat O units in each individual O-antigen polymer depends on the Wzz chain length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) family. Different Wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units), despite having remarkably conserved structural folds. The molecular mechanism responsible for the selective preference for a certain number of O units is unknown. Guided by the three-dimensional structures of PCPs, we constructed a panel of chimeric molecules containing parts of two closely related Wzz proteins from Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri which confer different O-antigen chain length distributions. Analysis of the O-antigen length distribution imparted by each chimera revealed the region spanning amino acids 67 to 95 (region 67 to 95), region 200 to 255, and region 269 to 274 as primarily affecting the length distribution. We also showed that there is no synergy between these regions. In particular, region 269 to 274 also influenced chain length distribution mediated by two distantly related PCPs, WzzB and FepE. Furthermore, from the 3 regions uncovered in this study, region 269 to 274 appeared to be critical for the stability of the oligomeric form of Wzz, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Together, our data suggest that chain length determination depends on regions that likely contribute to stabilize a supramolecular complex.

  3. Length Scales of the Neutral Wind Profile over Homogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed profile for the neutral boundary layer is derived for a number of mixing-length parameterizations, which account for the height of the boundary layer. The wind speed profiles show good agreement with the reanalysis of the Leipzig wind profile (950 m high) and with combined cup–soni...

  4. Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    -called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...

  5. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  6. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia: Impact on length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Joe; Ahmed, Mohammed; Gama, Rousseau; Liew, Leonard; Buch, Harit; Cullen, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a recognized complication following thyroid surgery. Variability in the definition of hypocalcemia and different opinions on its management can lead to unnecessary patient morbidity and longer hospital stays as a result of inappropriate or untimely treatment. Therefore, we developed a management guideline for the recognition and treatment of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, and we conducted a retrospective study to assess its impact on length of stay (LOS). Between April 1, 2007, and March 31, 2009, 29 adults had undergone a total or completion thyroidectomy at our large district general hospital. Of this group, postoperative hypocalcemia (defined as a serum calcium level of effect on July 1, 2009, and from that date through June 30, 2010, 18 more adults had undergone a total or completion thyroidectomy. Of that group, hypocalcemia developed in 7 patients (38.9%); the guideline was actually followed in 5 of these 7 cases (71.4%). In the preguideline group, the development of hypocalcemia increased the mean LOS from 2.0 days to 7.0 days (p hypocalcemia in these cases was highly variable and was dictated by variations in practice rather than patient needs. In the postguideline group, postoperative hypocalcemia increased the mean LOS from 2.7 days to only 3.7 days (p = 0.07). While the difference between LOS in the two hypocalcemic groups did not reach statistical significance, we believe it merely reflects the relatively small number of patients rather than any lack of guideline efficacy. The implementation of a simple flowchart guideline for the management of postoperative hypocalcemia in our hospital has resulted in more uniform management and a reduced LOS.

  7. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  8. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed......: Computation of colorectal length from capsule passage was possible in 60 of the 67 3D-Transit recordings. Length of the colorectum measured with MRI and 3D-Transit was respectively 95 cm (75-153 cm) and 99 cm (77-147 cm), P = 0.15. Coefficient of variation (CV) between MRI and 3D-Transit was 7.8%. Apart from...... the cecum / ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). Length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 cm (73-119 cm) and 103 cm (75-123 cm), P = 0.67. CV...

  9. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  10. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  11. Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Benjamin D; Ludington, William B; Marshall, Wallace F

    2009-10-05

    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly.

  12. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  13. Relationships of body lengths with mouth opening and prey length of nemipterid fishes (Regan, 1913 in the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Paul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship among total length (TL of fish with mouth opening namely horizontal opening (MH, vertical opening (VH, mouth area (MA and fork length (FL of seven sympatric nemipterid fish species and to know the relationship between total length and consumed prey length of five sympatric species sampled from the Gulf of Thailand in 2015. A total 883 fish were investigated collected from both cruise surveys and fishing port survey. TL was linearly and log-linearly related with both MV and MH for three and four species, respectively. MA’s were always the log linear relation of TL and shapes were nearly oval for all species. FL in all TL-FL relationships were proportional to the TL’s in all species (r2 = 0.94, P  .5 and in invertebrate prey items for N. tambuloides (P > .5. So, this study clearly confirms that nemipterid fishes of different sizes feed on all different specific prey items according to its own body size and feed according to size class for prey items available nearby.

  14. Do shorter lengths of stay increase readmissions after total joint replacements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai S. Sibia, MD, MBA

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Early discharge does not increase readmissions and may help attenuate costs associated with TJRs. Further refinement of protocols may allow for more patients to be safely discharged on postoperative day 1.

  15. What determines length of stay after total hip and knee arthroplasty? A nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Hansen, Hans Christian; Holm, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    satisfaction with components of their stay, co-morbidity, sex and age. RESULTS: Mean LOS was 7.4 and 8.0 days after THA and TKA, respectively staying from 4.5 to 12 days. Departments with short hospital stay were characterised by both logistical (homogenous entities, regular staff, high continuity, using more...

  16. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  19. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  20. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  1. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  2. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  3. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  4. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  5. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-01-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium

  6. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Ali [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan 313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestanian, Ramin [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-13

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  7. [Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P

    2009-01-01

    Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.

  8. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  9. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  10. Speciation of Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on aedeagus length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamu Iwahashi

    2000-01-01

    A species complex of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Southeast Asia is composed of 52 species (Drew and Hancock, 1994) and while some of these species are economically very important, distinguishing them based on morphological characters has been difficult (White and Elson-Harris 1992). Specifically, there is considerable difficulty in differentiating between males of two pairs of sympatric species, B. philippinensis Drew and Hancock/B. occipitalis (Bezzi) in the Philippines and B. carambolae Drew and Hancock/B. papayae Drew and Hancock in Indonesia. This may be, in part, because the evolutionary processes within this species complex are still very dynamic, and that natural hybridisation between sympatric species pairs might be occurring on a regular basis (He and Haymer 1997). Iwaizumi et al. (1997) developed a simple method to differentiate the two sets of sympatric species based on aedeagus lengths. However, these flies had been reared artificially under laboratory conditions and only a small number of specimens (n=5) was used. Consequently, they were not able to obtain a frequency distribution of the aedeagus length for each species. Iwahashi (1998) measured a larger number of wild flies collected on Guimaras Is, Philippines, and found that flies with the aedeagus length of 2.89 mm are B. philippinensis. Iwahashi (1999) also showed that the measurement of the aedeagal length of fruit flies is a reliable characteristic for distinguishing between the 2 sympatric species pairs in the B. dorsalis complex. This being so, it may also be interesting to interpret phylogenetic relationships among B. dorsalis complex species based on the aedeagus length. Thus, aedeagus lengths of different populations of five B. dorsalis complex species are measured and their relationships discussed

  11. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  12. Heartbeat Cycle Length Detection by a Ballistocardiographic Sensor in Atrial Fibrillation and Sinus Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Daniel Zink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart rate monitoring is especially interesting in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and is routinely performed by ECG. A ballistocardiography (BCG foil is an unobtrusive sensor for mechanical vibrations. We tested the correlation of heartbeat cycle length detection by a novel algorithm for a BCG foil to an ECG in AF and sinus rhythm (SR. Methods. In 22 patients we obtained BCG and synchronized ECG recordings before and after cardioversion and examined the correlation between heartbeat characteristics. Results. We analyzed a total of 4317 heartbeats during AF and 2445 during SR with a correlation between ECG and BCG during AF of r=0.70 (95% CI 0.68–0.71, P<0.0001 and r=0.75 (95% CI 0.73–0.77, P<0.0001 during SR. By adding a quality index, artifacts could be reduced and the correlation increased for AF to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74–0.77, P<0.0001, n=3468 and for SR to 0.85 (95% CI 0.83–0.86, P<0.0001, n=2176. Conclusion. Heartbeat cycle length measurement by our novel algorithm for BCG foil is feasible during SR and AF, offering new possibilities of unobtrusive heart rate monitoring. This trial is registered with IRB registration number EK205/11. This trial is registered with clinical trials registration number NCT01779674.

  13. [Deep brain recording and length of surgery in stereotactic and functional neurosurgery for movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teijeiro, Juan; Macías, Raúl J; Maragoto, Carlos; García, Iván; Alvarez, Mario; Quintanal, Nelson E

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to study the length of multi-unit recordings (MURs) of brain activity in 20 years of movement disorder neurosurgeries and to determine the number of times in which it was necessary for the teams using single-unit recording (SUR) to explore all the electrode tracks in the simultaneously recorded sites (SRS). This was a retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of MUR length on 4,296 tracks in 952 surgeries. The exclusion criteria were: tracks with fewer than 5 recorded signals, tracks that had a signal length different from the habitual 2s, or there being unusual situations not related to the MUR, as well as the first 20 surgeries of each surgical target. This yielded a total of 3,448 tracks in 805 surgeries. We also determined the number of the total 952 surgeries in which all the tracks in the SURs of the SRS were explored. The mean and its confidence interval (P=.05) of time per MUR track were 5.49±0.16min in subthalamic nucleus surgery, 8.82±0.24min in the medial or internal globus pallidus) and 18.51±1.31min in the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. For the total sum of tracks per surgery, in 75% of cases the total time was less than 39min in subthalamic nucleus, almost 42min in the medial or internal globus pallidus and less than 1h and 17min in ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. All the tracks in the SUR SRS were explored in only 4.2% of the surgeries. The impact of MUR on surgical time is acceptable for this guide in objective localization for surgical targets, without having to use several simultaneous electrodes (not all indispensable in most of the cases). Consequently, there is less risk for the patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. s -wave scattering length of a Gaussian potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszki, Peter; Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Brand, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We provide accurate expressions for the s -wave scattering length for a Gaussian potential well in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. The Gaussian potential is widely used as a pseudopotential in the theoretical description of ultracold-atomic gases, where the s -wave scattering length is a physically relevant parameter. We first describe a numerical procedure to compute the value of the s -wave scattering length from the parameters of the Gaussian, but find that its accuracy is limited in the vicinity of singularities that result from the formation of new bound states. We then derive simple analytical expressions that capture the correct asymptotic behavior of the s -wave scattering length near the bound states. Expressions that are increasingly accurate in wide parameter regimes are found by a hierarchy of approximations that capture an increasing number of bound states. The small number of numerical coefficients that enter these expressions is determined from accurate numerical calculations. The approximate formulas combine the advantages of the numerical and approximate expressions, yielding an accurate and simple description from the weakly to the strongly interacting limit.

  15. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  16. Effect of Amphiphilic Alkyl Chain Length Upon Purified LATEX Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amira Amir Hassan; Amir Hashim Mohd Yatim

    2015-01-01

    Rubber particles in purified latex (PL) are stabilized by a film of protein and fatty acid soap (surfactant). Saturated straight-chain fatty acid soaps can assist an enhancement of latex stability. However, whether the alkyl chain length plays an important role in increasing the stability is still an issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of alkyl chain length of anionic surfactant on the stability of purified latex. The fatty acid soap of decanoate (9), laurate (11), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (12) and palmitate (15) were used. The numbers in parentheses indicating the number of carbon present in alkyl chain of the soap. The results showed that the impact of alkyl chain length on the stability of latex is in the order of laurate > decanoate > SDS > palmitate > purified latex accordingly. The alkyl chain length does giving a significant effect on latex stability after longer stirring time. The particle size of latex with the presence of surfactant is greater compare to a single particle itself due to extension of particles diameter. Thus suitable interaction of the nonpolar tail of surfactant with the hydrophobic regions of latex surface played a major role in maintaining a stable latex system. (author)

  17. Top Grafting Performance of Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones as Affected by Scion Budwood Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing budwood number is an efficient effort to overcome problemsrelated with limited scion materials. The objective of this research was to studythe effect of scion budwood number in some clones on the performance of graftedcocoa seedlings. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia at an elevationof 48 m above sea level. Layout for this study used factorial with 2 factors inrandomized complete block design, with four replications for every treatment.The first factor was clone type, namely MCC 02 and Sulawesi 1; whereas the secondfactor was number of grafted scion budwood, namely one, two, and three graftedbudwoods. There was no interaction between clone and number of scion budwoodfor variables of shoot length, stem girth, content of total chlorophyll, chlorophylla, and chlorophyll b. Meanwhile, there was interaction for stomatal conductanceand stomatal diffusion resistance. Clone significantly affected photosynthesisand stomatal diffusion resistance, while number of scion budwood affected significantlythe shoot length. Photosynthesis activity of MCC 02 was higher comparedto Sulawesi 1. In average, stomatal diffusion resistance of Sulawesi 1 was higherthan MCC 02. The shoot length of one grafted budwood was higher than thetwo or three grafted budwood.

  18. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  19. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  20. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  1. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  2. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  3. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  4. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  5. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  6. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  7. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  8. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  9. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  10. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  11. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness....

  12. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  13. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  14. The effects of session length on demand functions generated using FR schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T Mary; Kinloch, Jennifer; Poling, Alan

    2011-05-01

    In comparing open and closed economies, researchers often arrange shorter sessions under the former condition than under the latter. Several studies indicate that session length per se can affect performance and there are some data that indicate that this variable can influence demand functions. To provide further data, the present study exposed domestic hens to series of increasing fixed-ratio schedules with the length of the open-economy sessions varied over 10, 40, 60, and 120 min. Session time affected the total-session response rates and pause lengths. The shortest session gave the greatest response rates and shortest pauses and the longest gave the lowest response rates and longest pauses. The total-session demand functions also changed with session length: The shortest session gave steeper initial slopes (i.e., the functions were more elastic at small ratios) and smaller rates of change of elasticity than the longest session. Response rates, pauses, and demand functions were, however, similar for equivalent periods of responding taken from within sessions of different overall lengths (e.g., total-session data for 10-min sessions and the data for the first 10 min of 120-min sessions). These findings suggest that differences in session length can confound the results of studies comparing open and closed economies when those economies are arranged in sessions that differ substantially in length, hence data for equivalent-length periods of responding, rather than total-session data, should be of primary interest under these conditions.

  15. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  17. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  18. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  19. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  20. Rare copy number deletions predict individual variation in intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A Yeo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in "mutation load" emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent copy number variations (CNVs, and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77 had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = -.30, p = .01. As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES, we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other, as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed.

  1. Rare Copy Number Deletions Predict Individual Variation in Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Gangestad, Steven W.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in human intellectual functioning shows substantial heritability, as demonstrated by a long history of behavior genetic studies. Many recent molecular genetic studies have attempted to uncover specific genetic variations responsible for this heritability, but identified effects capture little variance and have proven difficult to replicate. The present study, motivated an interest in “mutation load” emerging from evolutionary perspectives, examined the importance of the number of rare (or infrequent) copy number variations (CNVs), and the total number of base pairs included in such deletions, for psychometric intelligence. Genetic data was collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample of 202 adult individuals with alcohol dependence, and a subset of these (N = 77) had been administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). After removing CNV outliers, the impact of rare genetic deletions on psychometric intelligence was investigated in 74 individuals. The total length of the rare deletions significantly and negatively predicted intelligence (r = −.30, p = .01). As prior studies have indicated greater heritability in individuals with relatively higher parental socioeconomic status (SES), we also examined the impact of ethnicity (Anglo/White vs. Other), as a proxy measure of SES; these groups did not differ on any genetic variable. This categorical variable significantly moderated the effect of length of deletions on intelligence, with larger effects being noted in the Anglo/White group. Overall, these results suggest that rare deletions (between 5% and 1% population frequency or less) adversely affect intellectual functioning, and that pleotropic effects might partly account for the association of intelligence with health and mental health status. Significant limitations of this research, including issues of generalizability and CNV measurement, are discussed. PMID:21298096

  2. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  3. Length of Barrett's segment predicts failure of eradication in radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tyler; Allamneni, Chaitanya; Cowley, Kevin; Eick, John; Gullick, Allison; Peter, Shajan

    2018-05-21

    We aim to investigate factors that may contribute to failure of eradication of dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus among patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation treatment. A retrospective review of patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's Esophagus was performed. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical history, length of Barrett's Esophagus, number of radiofrequency ablation sessions, and histopathology. Subsets of patients achieving complete eradication were compared with those not achieving complete eradication. A total of 107 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's Esophagus, the majority white, overweight, and male. Before treatment, 63 patients had low-grade dysplasia, and 44 patients had high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. Complete eradication was achieved in a majority of patients (57% for metaplasia, and 76.6% for dysplasia). Failure of eradication occurred in 15.7% of patients. The median number of radiofrequency ablation treatments in patients achieving complete eradication was 3 sessions, compared to 4 sessions for failure of eradication (p = 0.06). Barrett's esophagus length of more than 5 cm was predictive of failure of eradication (p Radiofrequency ablation for dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus is a proven and effective treatment modality, associated with a high rate of complete eradication. Our rates of eradication from a center starting an ablation program are comparable to previously published studies. Length of Barrett's segment > 5 cm was found to be predictive of failure of eradication in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation.

  4. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  5. Change in Length of Growing Season by State, 1895-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the total change in length of the growing season, time of first fall frost and time of last spring frost from 1895 to 2015 for each of the contiguous...

  6. Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within...

  7. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  8. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  9. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  11. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  12. Prediction of the Length of Upcoming Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2017-12-01

    The forecast of solar cycle (SC) characteristics is crucial particularly for several space-based missions. In the present study, we propose a new model for predicting the length of the SC. The model uses the information of the width of an autocorrelation function that is derived from the daily sunspot data for each SC. We tested the model on Versions 1 and 2 of the daily international sunspot number data for SCs 10 - 24. We found that the autocorrelation width Aw n of SC n during the second half of its ascending phase correlates well with the modified length that is defined as T_{cy}^{n+2} - Tan. Here T_{cy}^{n+2} and T_{ a}n are the length and ascent time of SCs n+2 and n, respectively. The estimated correlation coefficient between the model parameters is 0.93 (0.91) for Version 1 (Version 2) sunspot series. The standard errors in the observed and predicted lengths of the SCs for Version 1 and Version 2 data are 0.38 and 0.44 years, respectively. The advantage of the proposed model is that the predictions of the length of the upcoming two SCs ( i.e., n+1, n+2) are readily available at the time of the peak of SC n. The present model gives a forecast of 11.01, 10.52, and 11.91 years (11.01, 12.20, and 11.68 years) for the length of SCs 24, 25, and 26, respectively, for Version 1 (Version 2).

  13. [Myopia: frequency of lattice degeneration and axial length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, M D; Roldán Pallarés, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lattice retinal degeneration and axial length of the eye in different grades of myopia. A sample of 200 eyes from 124 myopic patients was collected by chance. The average age was 34.8 years (20-50 years) and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 diopters (D). The eyes were grouped according to the degree of refraction defect, the mean axial length of each group (Scan A) and the frequency of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship between these variables was studied. The possible influence of age on our results was also considered. For the statistical analysis, the SAS 6.07 program with the variance analysis for quantitative variables, and chi(2) test for qualitative variables with a 5% significance were used. A multivariable linear regression model was also adjusted. The highest frequency of lattice retinal degeneration occurred in those myopia patients having more than 15 D, and also in the group of myopia patients between 3 and 6 D, but this did not show statistical significance when compared with the other myopic groups. If the axial length is assessed, a greater frequency of lattice retinal degeneration is also found when the axial length is 25-27 mm and 29-30 mm, which correspond, respectively, to myopias between 3-10 D and more than 15 D. When the multivariable linear regression model was adjusted, the axial length showed the existence of lattice retinal degeneration (beta 0.41 mm; p=0.08) adjusted by the number of diopters (beta 0.38 mm; plattice retinal degeneration was found for myopias with axial eye length between 29-30 mm (more than 15 D), and 25-27 mm (between 3-10 D).

  14. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  15. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  16. Biotic and Abiotic factors governing nestling-period length in the ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Stodola; David Buehler; Daniel Kim; Kathleen Franzreb; Daniel Linder

    2010-01-01

    In many songbirds, the nesting period for a breeding attempt is extremely short, often lasting only a few weeks. Breeding adults can shorten this period by decreasing the number of eggs laid or reducing the length of the nestling period. Nestling-period length has received little attention in the literature but could have profound effects on annual fecundity, because...

  17. A numerical investigation of the interplay between fireline length, geometry, and rate of spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Canfield; R. R. Linn; J. A. Sauer; M. Finney; J. Forthofer

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on coupled dynamics and resultant geometry of fireline segments of various ignition lengths. As an example, for ignition lines of length scales typical for field experiments, fireline curvature is the result of a competition between the head fire and the flanks of the fire. A number of physical features (i.e. buoyancy and wind field divergence...

  18. Constructing solvable groups with derived length four and four character degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to construct solvable groups with derived length four and four character degrees. We then use this method to present a number of new families of groups with derived length four and four character degrees.

  19. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  20. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  2. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  3. Irrational Numbers Can "In-Spiral" You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leslie D.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the instructional process of helping students visualize irrational numbers. Students learn to create a spiral, called "the wheel of Theodorus," which demonstrates irrational and rational lengths. Examples of student work help the reader appreciate the delightful possibilities of this project. (Contains 4 figures.)

  4. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  6. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  7. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  8. Holographic screening length in a hot plasma of two sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaja, A.N.; Kassim, H. Abu; Yusof, N.

    2015-01-01

    We study the screening length L max of a moving quark-antiquark pair in a hot plasma, which lives in a two sphere, S 2 , using the AdS/CFT correspondence in which the corresponding background metric is the four-dimensional Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. The geodesic of both ends of the string at the boundary, interpreted as the quark-antiquark pair, is given by a stationary motion in the equatorial plane by which the separation length L of both ends of the string is parallel to the angular velocity ω. The screening length and total energy H of the quark-antiquark pair are computed numerically and show that the plots are bounded from below by some functions related to the momentum transfer P c of the drag force configuration. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the reference frame of the moving quark-antiquark pair, in which the background metrics are ''Boost-AdS'' and Kerr-AdS black holes. Comparing both black holes, we argue that the mass parameters M Schx of the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole and M Kerr of the Kerr-AdS black hole are related at high temperature by M Kerr = M Sch (1-a 2 l 2 ) 3/2 , where a is the angular momentum parameter and l is the AdS curvature. (orig.)

  9. Standardization of methods of expressing lengths and weights of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Ralph

    1948-01-01

    Fishery workers in the United States and Canada are unable to think readily in terms of the metric system of weights and measurements. Even long experience does not make it possible to form a clear idea as to the actual size of fish for which lengths and weights are given in metric units, without first converting to the English system. A more general adoption of the English system of weights and measurements in fishery work is recommended. The use of English units exclusively is suggested for articles of a popular or semi-popular nature, but in more formal publications the key information, at least, should be recorded in both systems. In highly technical papers metric units alone may prove satisfactory. Agreement is also lacking as to which length measurement of fish is suited best for uniform adoption. The total length is recommended here for the reason that it is the only measurement that includes all of the fish. This length is defined as the distance from the tip of the head (jaws closed) to the tip of the tail with the lobes compressed so as to give the maximum possible measurement.

  10. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  11. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  12. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  13. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  14. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  15. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  16. Total elbow arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean-David; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Morrey, Bernard F; Morrey, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a less common indication for total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Higher complication rates in younger, active patients may offset short-term improvements in pain and function. The purpose of this study was to determine pain relief, functional outcomes, complications, and survival of TEA in this population. Between 1984 and 2011, 20 consecutive TEAs were performed for primary elbow osteoarthritis. Two patients died before the 2-year follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range, 51-85 years). Outcome measures included pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, satisfaction, complications, and reoperations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range, 2-20 years). Three elbows sustained mechanical failures. Complications included intraoperative fracture (n = 2), wound irrigation and débridement (n = 1), bony ankylosis (n = 1), humeral loosening (n = 1), humeral component fracture (n = 1), and mechanical failure of a radial head component (n = 1). Fifteen elbows without mechanical failure were examined clinically. Pain improved from 3.6 to 1.5 (P  .05), with preoperative flexion contractures not improving. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores were available for 13 elbows without mechanical failure, averaging 81.5 points (range, 60-100 points); these were graded as excellent (n = 5), good (n = 2), and fair (n = 6). Subjectively, all patients without mechanical failure were satisfied. TEA represents a reliable surgical option for pain relief in patients with primary osteoarthritis. However, restoration of extension is not always obtained, indicating that more aggressive soft tissue releases or bony resection should be considered. Complications occurred in a large number of elbows, but mechanical failure was low considering the nature of this population and the length of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  18. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  19. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  20. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  1. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  2. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.

  3. Morphology Characterization of PP/Clay Nanocomposites Across the Length Scales of the Structural Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Abranyi, Agnes; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela

    2006-01-01

    The structure and rheological properties of a large number of layered silicate poly(propylene) nanocomposites were studied with widely varying compositions. Morphology characterization at different length scales was achieved by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Rheological measurements supplied additional

  4. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  5. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  6. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  7. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  8. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  9. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  10. An upper bound on the number of errors corrected by a convolutional code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length.......The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length....

  11. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.

  12. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  13. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M.

    2003-01-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 x 10 15 W cm -2 . The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO 2 producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n e = 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and temperatures of T e = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ∼1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length (∼2 mm). increasing to 12% for ∼7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths

  14. Cervical Length in Patients at Risk for Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Martha W F; McIntire, Donald D; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; Twickler, Diane D

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate cervical length measurements in women with placenta accreta compared to women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa and evaluate this relationship in terms of vaginal bleeding, preterm labor, and preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 1997 and 2011 of gravidas with more than 1 prior cesarean delivery who had a transvaginal ultrasound examination between 24 and 34 weeks for a low-lying placenta or placenta previa. Cervical length was measured from archived images in accordance with national guidelines by a single investigator, who was blinded to outcomes and ultrasound reports. The diagnosis of placental accreta was based on histologic confirmation. For study purposes, preterm birth was defined as less than 36 weeks, and cervical lengths of 3 cm or less were considered short. Standard statistical analyses were used. A total of 125 patients met inclusion criteria. The cohort was divided into patients with (n = 43 [34%]) and without (n = 82 [66%]) placenta accreta and stratified by gestational age at the ultrasound examinations. Women with placenta accreta had shorter cervical length measurements during their 32- to 34-week ultrasound examinations (mean ± SD, 3.23 ± 0.98 versus 3.95 ± 1.0 cm; P accreta had shorter cervical lengths at 32 to 34 weeks than women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa, but this finding did not correlate with a higher risk of vaginal bleeding or preterm labor resulting in preterm birth before 36 weeks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Number projection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  16. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  17. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  18. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  19. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  20. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  1. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  2. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  3. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  4. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  5. Sex identification and reconstruction of length of humerus from its fragments: An Egyptian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Mohamed Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to calculate the total length of the humerus and identify the sex from its fragments in Egyptians. One hundred and fifty dry adult right humeri (75 male and 75 female were studied. The humeri were divided into seven fragments according to specific anatomical landmarks. Data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. The longest fragmentary portion revealed a good result with closest proximity to the total length of humerus. All fragments showed significant sexual differences (P < 0.001 between males and females except H2. Total length of humerus revealed the highest percentage of accuracy (93.3% followed by H4 (86.7% and H7 (83.3% for sex identification. Finally, from measurements of different humeral fragments in Egyptian population; the length of the humerus can be estimated and the sex can be identified.

  6. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  7. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  8. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  9. Lossless quantum data compression and variable-length coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Kim; Felbinger, Timo

    2002-01-01

    In order to compress quantum messages without loss of information it is necessary to allow the length of the encoded messages to vary. We develop a general framework for variable-length quantum messages in close analogy to the classical case and show that lossless compression is only possible if the message to be compressed is known to the sender. The lossless compression of an ensemble of messages is bounded from below by its von-Neumann entropy. We show that it is possible to reduce the number of qbits passing through a quantum channel even below the von Neumann entropy by adding a classical side channel. We give an explicit communication protocol that realizes lossless and instantaneous quantum data compression and apply it to a simple example. This protocol can be used for both online quantum communication and storage of quantum data

  10. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  11. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  12. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  13. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed. (review article)

  14. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  15. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  16. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  17. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  18. Modelo matemático para estimativa da área foliar total de bananeira 'Prata-anã' Esteem method of total leaf area of 'Prata anã' banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Zucoloto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo para estimar a área foliar total de bananeira, cultivar Prata-Anã, utilizando dimensões lineares da terceira folha, como o comprimento, a largura e o número total de folhas na emissão da inflorescência. As regressões lineares foram determinadas considerando-se a área foliar total de cada planta (AFT como variável dependente e o comprimento (C e a largura (L da terceira folha, o produto de CxL, o número total de folhas por planta (N e o produto de CxLxN como variáveis independentes. O modelo linear que melhor estimou a área foliar total (AFTe da bananeira 'Prata-Anã', ao nível de 5% de significância com R² de 0,89, foi a equação AFTe = 0,5187(CxLxN + 9603,5.The objective of this work was to estimate the total leaf area of banana, cultivar Prata Anã, according to the linear dimensions of the third leaf, such as the length and the width and the total number of leves in the inflorescence emission. The linear regressions were determined considering total leaf area of each plant (AFT such as dependent variable and the length (C and the width (L of the third leaf, the product of CxL, the total number of leaf per plant (N and the product of CxLxN as independent variables. The best linear model that estimated the total leaf area (AFTe of banana 'Prata Anã' at the level of 5% of significance with R² of 0,89 was the equation AFTe = 0.5187 (CxLxN + 9603.5.

  19. Asymptotic numbers: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed

  20. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  1. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  2. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  3. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  4. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  5. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  6. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  7. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  8. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  9. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  10. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  11. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  12. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  13. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  14. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  15. Influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a turbulent rectangular free jet of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length L ND = L 1 . • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length L SD . • Total length, L ND + L SD = L 2 , is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, L U . • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length L CV . • Total length, L ND + L SD + L CV = L 3 , is in agreement with average Potential core, L P . - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length L CIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio L CIH /H equal to L CIH /H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to L CIH /H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U ‾ 0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U ‾ 0 , remain below ±4% for a length L CIV , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio L CIV /H increases from L CIV /H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to L CIV /H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to L CIH /H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length L CIT , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio L CIT /H is equal to L CIV /H

  16. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  17. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  19. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  20. Static correlation lengths in QCD at high temperatures and finite densities

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, A; Philipsen, O

    2000-01-01

    We use a perturbatively derived effective field theory and three-dimensional lattice simulations to determine the longest static correlation lengths in the deconfined QCD plasma phase at high temperatures (T\\gsim 2 Tc) and finite densities (\\mu\\lsim 4 T). For vanishing chemical potential, we refine a previous determination of the Debye screening length, and determine the dependence of different correlation lengths on the number of massless flavours as well as on the number of colours. For non-vanishing but small chemical potential, the existence of Debye screening allows us to carry out simulations corresponding to the full QCD with two (or three) massless dynamical flavours, in spite of a complex action. We investigate how the correlation lengths in the different quantum number channels change as the chemical potential is switched on.

  1. On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.

  2. Population structure of Salmonella investigated by amplified fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torpdahl, M.; Ahrens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in determining the population structure of Salmonella. Methods and Results: A total of 89 strains were subjected to AFLP analysis using the enzymes BglII and BspDI, a combination...... that is novel in Salmonella. Both species S. bongori and S. enterica and all subsp. of S. enterica were represented with emphasis on S. enterica subsp. enterica using a local strain collection and strains from the Salmonella Reference Collection B (SARB). The amplified fragments were used in a band...

  3. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  4. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  5. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  6. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  7. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  8. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  9. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  10. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  11. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  12. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  13. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  14. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  15. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  16. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  18. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  19. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  20. Length weight relationship of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille, 1804) and Zenodon niger (Ruppell, 1835)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahayak, S

    The relationship between total length and total weight in balistids is not significantly different in males and females. The common equation for both the sexes in Sufflamen fraenatus is Log W= -9.0429+2.7296 log L or W=0.000000000905 L sup(2...

  1. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  2. Reproductive characteristics and the weight-length relationship in Anableps anableps (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae from the Amazon Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Albuquerque Oliveira

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the length-weight relationship and some aspects of the reproductive biology of Anableps anableps from the mouth of the Maracanã River, in the Brazilian state of Pará. The specimens were collected using two 30 m-long gillnets with 15 and 20 mm mesh size, as well as a 1 m-diameter hand net with a 10 mm mesh. A total of 865 specimens were collected, from which an adult sex ratio of 2.12 females per male was recorded (χ² = 13.07; p<0.05. Females presented positively allometric growth, whereas males were negatively allometric. In the additional analyses, the gonads of 371 female specimens were observed microscopically. Gonadal development was classified in three stages: immature (5.0%, maturing (12.0%, and mature (83.0%. Embryonic development was classified in five phases, according to the size of the embryo and the vitelline sac. Mean fecundity was 12 eggs/embryos per female (range: 1-37 eggs/embryos. A significant relationship was recorded between the standard length of females and ovaries weight (R² = 0.257; p < 0.001, and the number of embryos carried (R² = 0.573; p < 0.001. Mean body length of females at initial sexual maturation (L50 was estimated at 11.7 cm. The species reproduced throughout the year.

  3. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  4. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  5. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  6. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  7. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  8. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  9. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  10. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  11. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  12. Effect of evaporation section and condensation section length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.

  13. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  14. Outpatient rehabilitation care process factors and clinical outcomes among patients discharged home following unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Gerard P; Fritz, Julie M; Houck, L T C Kevin M; Hunter, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Research examining care process variables and their relationship to clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty has focused primarily on inpatient variables. Care process factors related to outpatient rehabilitation have not been adequately examined. We conducted a retrospective review of 321 patients evaluating outpatient care process variables including use of continuous passive motion, home health physical therapy, number of days from inpatient discharge to beginning outpatient physical therapy, and aspects of outpatient physical therapy (number of visits, length of stay) as possible predictors of pain and disability outcomes of outpatient physical therapy. Only the number of days between inpatient discharge and outpatient physical therapy predicted better outcomes, suggesting that this may be a target for improving outcomes after total knee arthroplasty for patients discharged directly home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sonourethrography of anterior urethral strictures: assessment of length and degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Jeong, Youn Sin

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed out experience of sonourethrography(SUG) in male anterior urethral strictures to correlate the stricture length and degree seen on SUG with those on urethroscopy, surgery or biopsy. During the recent 6 years,both the retrograde urethrography (RUG) and SUG were preformed in 50 occasions for 47 patients with anteriorurethral stricture, that were subsequently evaluated urethroscopically or at surgery. As a whole, the length of the stricture seen on SUG did not correlate very well with that seen on RGU (r2=0.71, p<0.005). Considering the data from the operation as the gold standard, SUG was more accurate than RUG in depicting the exact stricturelength (r2=0.97 and 0.75 respectively,p<0.005). The shorter the lesion, the more accurate the data obtained.Although SUG certainly identified periurethral tissue, it was not adequate in predicting the depth of spongiofibrosis compared with full-depth biopsies in 20 patients. In conclusion, SUG, a dynamic study, accurately defined the stricture site, number and calibre. When compared with RUG, SUG was more accurate in the measurement of stricture length and in the demonstration of periurethral tissue, making it a valuable method in the evaluation of patients with suspected anterior urethral strictures

  16. Coulomb corrections to scattering length and effective radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Popov, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    The problem considered is extraction of the ''purely nuclear'' scattering length asub(s) (corresponding to the strong potential Vsub(s) at the Coulomb interaction switched off) from the Coulomb-nuclear scattering length asub(cs), which is an object of experimental measurement. The difference between asub(s) and asub(cs) is especially large if the potential Vsub(s) has a level (real or virtual) with an energy close to zero. For this case formulae are obtained relating the scattering lengths asub(s) and asub(cs), as well as the effective radii rsub(s) and rsub(cs). The results are extended to states with arbitrary angular momenta l. It is shown that the Coulomb correction is especially large for the coefficient with ksup(2l) in the expansion of the effective radius; in this case the correction contains a large logarithm ln(asub(B)/rsub(0)). The Coulomb renormalization of other terms in the effective radius espansion is of order (rsub(0)/asub(B)), where r 0 is the nuclear force radius, asub(B) is the Bohr radius. The obtained formulae are tried on a number of model potentials Vsub(s), used in nuclear physics

  17. Comparison of reconfigurable structures for flexible word-length multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits. Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic. But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA. Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, e.g. regarding digital signal processing (DSP applications.

    In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison. This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures. All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array. Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

  18. Holographic screening length in a hot plasma of two sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaja, A.N. [University of Malaya, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Quantum Science Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kompleks PUSPITEK Serpong, Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Tangerang (Indonesia); Kassim, H. Abu; Yusof, N. [University of Malaya, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Quantum Science Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-15

    We study the screening length L{sub max} of a moving quark-antiquark pair in a hot plasma, which lives in a two sphere, S{sup 2}, using the AdS/CFT correspondence in which the corresponding background metric is the four-dimensional Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. The geodesic of both ends of the string at the boundary, interpreted as the quark-antiquark pair, is given by a stationary motion in the equatorial plane by which the separation length L of both ends of the string is parallel to the angular velocity ω. The screening length and total energy H of the quark-antiquark pair are computed numerically and show that the plots are bounded from below by some functions related to the momentum transfer P{sub c} of the drag force configuration. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the reference frame of the moving quark-antiquark pair, in which the background metrics are ''Boost-AdS'' and Kerr-AdS black holes. Comparing both black holes, we argue that the mass parameters M{sub Schx} of the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole and M{sub Kerr} of the Kerr-AdS black hole are related at high temperature by M{sub Kerr} = M{sub Sch}(1-a{sup 2}l{sup 2}){sup 3/2}, where a is the angular momentum parameter and l is the AdS curvature. (orig.)

  19. Tubing length for long-term oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Davidson, Josy; Carvalho, Andréa K; Iamonti, Vinícius C; Cortopassi, Felipe; Nascimento, Oliver A; Jardim, José R

    2015-02-01

    Most patients on long-term oxygen therapy use stationary oxygen delivery systems. It is not uncommon for guidelines to instruct patients to use tubing lengths no longer than 19.68 ft (6 m) when using an oxygen concentrator and 49.21 ft (15 m) when using cylinders. However, these concepts are not based on sufficient evidence. Thus, our objective was to evaluate whether a 98.42-ft (30-m) tubing length affects oxygen flow and FIO2 delivery from 1 cylinder and 2 oxygen concentrators. The 3 oxygen delivery systems were randomly selected, and 1, 3, and 5 L/min flows and FIO2 were measured 5 times at each flow at the proximal and distal outlets of the tubing by a gas-flow analyzer. Paired Student t test was used to analyze the difference between flows and FIO2 at proximal and distal outlets of tubing length. A total of 45 flows were measured between proximal and distal outlets of the 98.42-ft (30-m) tubing. Flows were similar for 1 and 3 L/min, but distal flow was higher than proximal flow at 5 L/min (5.57×5.14 L/min, Ptubing at flows 1, 3, and 5 L/min, but the mean difference between measurements was less than 1%. Tubing length of 98.42 ft (30 m) may be used by patients for home delivery oxygen with flows up to 5 L/min, as there were no important changes in flows or FIO2. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.