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Sample records for length remains unchanged

  1. Intersubunit distances in full-length, dimeric, bacterial phytochrome Agp1, as measured by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) between different spin label positions, remain unchanged upon photoconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Sylwia; Njimona, Ibrahim; Renz, Anja; Feng, Juan; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Krauss, Norbert; Scheerer, Patrick; Nagano, Soshichiro; Lamparter, Tilman; Weber, Stefan

    2017-05-05

    Bacterial phytochromes are dimeric light-regulated histidine kinases that convert red light into signaling events. Light absorption by the N-terminal photosensory core module (PCM) causes the proteins to switch between two spectrally distinct forms, Pr and Pfr, thus resulting in a conformational change that modulates the C-terminal histidine kinase region. To provide further insights into structural details of photoactivation, we investigated the full-length Agp1 bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum using a combined spectroscopic and modeling approach. We generated seven mutants suitable for spin labeling to enable application of pulsed EPR techniques. The distances between attached spin labels were measured using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy to probe the arrangement of the subunits within the dimer. We found very good agreement of experimental and calculated distances for the histidine-kinase region when both subunits are in a parallel orientation. However, experimental distance distributions surprisingly showed only limited agreement with either parallel- or antiparallel-arranged dimer structures when spin labels were placed into the PCM region. This observation indicates that the arrangements of the PCM subunits in the full-length protein dimer in solution differ significantly from that in the PCM crystals. The pulsed electron-electron double resonance data presented here revealed either no or only minor changes of distance distributions upon Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  3. At the end of a two-year follow-up elevated TSH levels normalize or remain unchanged in most the children with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luca Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data about the natural evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH in pediatric age are very scanty. Moreover all the available reports in both aged and young patients were based on unselected study populations including also patients with either thyroid disorders or other pathological causes that are well known to be able to affect SH development and evolution. Aim of the study by Wasniewska et al was to prospectively evaluate for the first time the natural course of SH in children and adolescents with no underlying diseases and no risk factors that might interfere with the progression of SH. On the basis of the 2-year follow-up results, the Authors concluded that: a the natural course of TSH values in a pediatric population with idiopathic SH is characterized by a progressive decrease over time; b the majority of patients (88% normalized or maintained unchanged their TSH; and c TSH changes were not associated with changes of either FT4 values or clinical status or auxological parameters. Study design of this study is very accurate and the results are robust, thus supporting the Authors' conclusions.

  4. The Change of Perinatal Mortality Over Three Decades in a Reference Centre in the Aegean Region: Neonatal Mortality has decreased but Foetal Mortality Remains Unchanged

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    Nilgün Kültürsay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perinatal, foetal and neonatal mortality statistics are important to show the development of a health care system in a country. However, in our country there are very few national and regional data about the changing pattern of perinatal neonatal mortality along with the development of new technologies in this area. Aims: Evaluation of the changes in mortality rates and the causes of perinatal and neonatal deaths within years in a perinatal reference centre which serves a high-risk population. Study Design: Cross-sectional retrospective study. Methods: The perinatal, neonatal and foetal mortality rates in the years 1979-1980 (1st time point and 1988-1989 (2nd time point were compared with the year 2008 (3rd time point. The causes of mortality were assessed by Wigglesworth classification and death reports. The neonatal mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit was also calculated. Results: Foetal mortality rates were 44/1000, 31.4/1000 and 41.75/1000 births, perinatal mortality rates were 35.6/1000, 18.8/1000 and 9/1000 births, and neonatal mortality rates were 35.6/1000, 18.8/1000 and 9/1000 live births for the three study time points, respectively. The mortality rate in neonatal intensive care unit decreased consistently from 33%, to 22.6% and 10%, respectively, together with decreasing neonatal mortality rates. The causes of perinatal deaths were foetal death 85%, immaturity 4%, and lethal congenital malformations 8% according to Wigglesworth classification in 2008, showing the high impact of foetal deaths on this high perinatal mortality rate. Infectious causes of neonatal deaths decreased but congenital anomalies increased in the last decades. Conclusion: Although neonatal mortality rate decreased significantly; foetal mortality rate has stayed unchanged since the late eighties. In order to decrease foetal and perinatal mortality rates more efficiently, reducing consanguineous marriages and providing better antenatal care for

  5. Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Belnap, Jayne; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    1. Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome and, due to their extensive area, maintain large stocks of carbon (C). Accordingly, understanding how dryland C cycling will respond to climate change is imperative for accurately forecasting global C cycling and future climate. However, it remains difficult to predict how increased temperature will affect dryland C cycling, as substantial uncertainties surround the potential responses of the two main C fluxes: plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux. In addition to a need for an improved understanding of climate effects on individual dryland C fluxes, there is also notable uncertainty regarding how climate change may influence the relationship between these fluxes.2. To address this important knowledge gap, we measured a growing season's in situphotosynthesis, plant biomass accumulation, and soil CO2 efflux of mature Achnatherum hymenoides (a common and ecologically important C3 bunchgrass growing throughout western North America) exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (+2°C above ambient, warmed via infrared lamps) for three years.3. The 2°C increase in temperature caused a significant reduction in photosynthesis, plant growth, and soil CO2 efflux. Of important note, photosynthesis and soil respiration appeared tightly coupled and the relationship between these fluxes was not altered by the elevated temperature treatment, suggesting C fixation's strong control of both above-ground and below-ground dryland C cycling. Leaf water use efficiency was substantially increased in the elevated temperature treatment compared to the control treatment.4. Taken together, our results suggest notable declines in photosynthesis with relatively subtle warming, reveal strong coupling between above- and below-ground C fluxes in this dryland, and highlight temperature's strong effect on fundamental components of dryland C and water cycles.

  6. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterine cervix length remaining after LOOP-excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, A-L; Nicolas, F; Lavoué, V; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Porée, P; Levêque, J

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a correlation between the length of a conization specimen and the length of the cervix measured by vaginal ultrasonography after the operation Prospective observational study including patients less than 45 years with measurement of cervical length before and the day of the conization, and measuring the histological length of the specimen. Among the 40 patients enrolled, the average ultrasound measurements before conization was 26.9 mm (± 4.9 mm) against 18.1mm (± 4.4mm) after conization with a mean difference of 8.8mm (± 2.4mm) (difference statistically significant Pcervix length remove by loop-excision in our series is 33% (± 8.5%). A good correlation between the measurements of the specimen and the cervical ultrasound length before and after conization was found, as a significant reduction in cervical length after conization. The precise length of the specimen should be known in case of pregnancy and the prevention of prematurity due to conization rests on selected indications and efficient surgical technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. VAP rates unchanged

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    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  8. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm...... temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed...... counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period...

  9. Effect of length and diameter of fiber reinforced composite post (FRC on fracture resistance of remaining tooth structure

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    Mahdiyeh seifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post and core has been considered for endodontically treated tooth, especially in cases with severe damage crowns. Recently fiber reinforced composite posts (FRC post have been used in the treatment of endodontically treated teeth. Because the length and diameter of posts are effective in stress distribution, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of length and diameter of FRC post on fracture resistance. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 glass fiber posts with combination of 7mm, 9mm, and 12mm length and 1.1mm, 1.3mm and 1.5mm diameter were divided into 9 groups of 4. These posts were cemented in root canals by Panavia. Samples were tested with 45° compressive forces for the evaluation of fracture resistance. Datas were analyzed using SPSS soft ware and One- way and Two-way ANOVA analyses. Results: Fracture resistance did not increase significantly with the effect of length and diameter simultaneously (P=0.85. Samples with 12mm length and 1.5mm diameter had the greatest fracture resistance (1023/33N±239/22. The minimum fracture resistance had occurred in post with 7mm length and 1.5mm diameter (503/13N ±69/18. Fracture resistance increased significantly by increasing the length and the same diameter. Conclusion: It can be concluded that fracture resistance is affected by the length and not the diameter of FRC post.

  10. The Changed and Unchanged Situations in the Representation of Women in Contemporary Cinema

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    Arif Rohman

    2013-08-01

    education-woman’. The films also show that some aspects in the representation of women, such as the expectation of motherhood, the myth of sexuality, and the position of women as victims, remain unchanged.

  11. Three-dimensional Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells Remains Unchanged by X-ray and Carbon Ion Irradiation In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Iris; Storch, Katja; Kaestner, Ina; Vehlow, Anne [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Faethe, Christina; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Temme, Achim; Schackert, Gabriele [Section of Experimental Neurosurgery/Tumor Immunology, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@Oncoray.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Cell invasion represents one of the major determinants that treatment has failed for patients suffering from glioblastoma. Contrary findings have been reported for cell migration upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, the migration and invasion capability of glioblastoma cells on and in collagen type I were evaluated upon irradiation with X-rays or carbon ions. Methods and Materials: Migration on and invasion in collagen type I were evaluated in four established human glioblastoma cell lines exposed to either X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, clonogenic radiation survival, proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine positivity), DNA double-strand breaks ({gamma}H2AX/53BP1-positive foci), and expression of invasion-relevant proteins (eg, {beta}1 integrin, FAK, MMP2, and MMP9) were explored. Migration and invasion assays for primary glioblastoma cells also were carried out with X-ray irradiation. Results: Neither X-ray nor carbon ion irradiation affected glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, a finding similarly observed in primary glioblastoma cells. Intriguingly, irradiated cells migrated unhampered, despite DNA double-strand breaks and reduced proliferation. Clonogenic radiation survival was increased when cells had contact with extracellular matrix. Specific inhibition of the {beta}1 integrin or proliferation-associated signaling molecules revealed a critical function of JNK, PI3K, and p38 MAPK in glioblastoma cell invasion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that X-rays and carbon ion irradiation effectively reduce proliferation and clonogenic survival without modifying the migration and invasion ability of glioblastoma cells in a collagen type I environment. Addition of targeted agents against members of the MAPK and PI3K signaling axis to conventional chemoradiation therapy seems potentially useful to optimize glioblastoma therapy.

  12. Iron and Lactoferrin Levels Remain Unchanged in Parkin Deficient Mouse Brains: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disease in which loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to a variety of motor and non-motor deficits. Mutations in the Park2 or parkin gene have been implicated in familial forms of Parkinson’s disease. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a role in mitophagy, the degradation of damaged mitochondria. Defects in parkin are thought to impair mitophagy, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and an incr...

  13. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  14. Nuclear and energy policy in Korea. Unchanging illusion of nuclear energy and citizens' challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leem, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Korea is the tenth largest energy consumer in the world; the country ranks sixth in oil consumption, seventh in electricity consumption, and ninth in total CO2 emission. Korea now has 20 reactors in operation, nuclear power producing about 40% of its electricity. Its generating capacity from nuclear power plants is the sixth largest in the world; Korea currently exports nuclear technology. The rapid growth of this industry is attributed to extensive subsidy and protection from the Korean government; supported by government-initiated programs a powerful interest group, which consists of nuclear industries, technocrats, and governmental organizations concerned with nuclear policy, now exerts a major influence upon Korea's energy policy for nuclear expansion. Korea's nuclear power policymakers have, however, met opposition since End of the 1980s. The government's attempt to build a nuclear waste repository has provoked strong resistance from environmental movements and local citizens. Even if the government recently succeeded in designating Kyoungju as the nuclear waste site, the nuclear waste issue has awakened public interest in nuclear problems and strengthening public denunciation of Korea's expansive nuclear power policy. In addition, the activation of the Kyoto Protocol in February 2005 has impelled the government to redirect its energy policy towards a sustainable direction. This article focuses on the status and perspectives of Korea's nuclear power policy, enabling a discussion of the degree to which Korea's nuclear and energy policy has changed yet in many ways remains unchanged. (orig.)

  15. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  16. Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking: results from a large cross-sectional study with annual investigations over 21 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskorn, L; Nordkap, L; Bang, A K; Krause, M; Holmboe, S A; Egeberg Palme, D L; Winge, S B; Mørup, N; Carlsen, E; Joensen, U N; Blomberg Jensen, M; Main, K M; Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T K; Jørgensen, N

    2018-06-01

    How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period and none have studied simultaneous trends in lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional population-based study including ~300 participants per year (total number = 6386) between 1996 and 2016. The study is based on men from the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, with a median age of 19 years, and unselected with regard to fertility status and semen quality. The men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn and a physical examination performed and answered a comprehensive questionnaire, including information on lifestyle and the mother's pregnancy. Temporal trends in semen quality and lifestyle were illustrated graphically, and trends in semen parameters and the impact of prenatal and current lifestyle factors were explored in multiple regression analyses. Throughout the study period, 35% of the men had low semen quality. Overall, there were no persistent temporal trends in semen quality, testicular volume or levels of follicle-stimulating hormone over the 21 years studied. The men's alcohol intake was lowest between 2011 and 2016, whereas BMI, use of medication and smoking showed no clear temporal trends. Parental age increased, and exposure in utero to maternal smoking declined from 40% among men investigated in 1996-2000 to 18% among men investigated in 2011-2016. Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed despite the decrease in this exposure. Information of current and prenatal lifestyle was obtained by self-report, and the men delivered only one semen sample each. The significant decline in in utero exposure to maternal smoking, which was not reflected in an overall improvement of semen quality at the population level, suggest that other unknown adverse factors may maintain the low semen quality among Danish men. The study has received financial support from the ReproUnion; the Research fund of Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital; the European Union (Contract numbers BMH4-CT96-0314,QLK4-CT-1999-01422, QLK4-CT-2002-00603, FP7/2007-2013, DEER Grant agreement no. 212844); the Danish Ministry of Health; the Danish Environmental Protection Agency; A.P. Møller and wife Chastine McKinney Møllers foundation; and Svend Andersens Foundation. None of the funders had any role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of data, writing of the paper or publication decisions. N/A.

  17. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

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    Broberg Per

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  19. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  20. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  1. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  2. Unchanged thymidine triphosphate pools and thymidine metabolism in two lines of thymidine kinase 2-mutated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangini, Miriam; Rampazzo, Chiara; Franzolin, Elisa; Lara, Mari-Carmen; Vilà, Maya R; Martí, Ramon; Bianchi, Vera

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine in mitochondria. Its function becomes essential for dTTP synthesis in noncycling cells, where cytosolic dTTP synthesis via R1/R2 ribonucleotide reductase and thymidine kinase 1 is turned down. Mutations in the nuclear gene for TK2 cause a fatal mtDNA depletion syndrome. Only selected cell types are affected, suggesting that the other cells compensate for the TK2 deficiency by adapting the enzyme network that regulates dTTP synthesis outside S-phase. Here we looked for such metabolic adaptation in quiescent cultures of fibroblasts from two TK2-deficient patients with a slow-progressing syndrome. In cell extracts, we measured the activities of TK2, deoxycytidine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase, deoxynucleotidases and the amounts of the three ribonucleotide reductase subunits. Patient cells contained 40% or 5% TK2 activity and unchanged activities of the other enzymes. However, their mitochondrial and cytosolic dTTP pools were unchanged, and also the overall composition of the dNTP pools was normal. TK2-dependent phosphorylation of [(3)H]thymidine in intact cells and the turnover of the dTTP pool showed that even the fibroblasts with 5% residual TK2 activity synthesized dTTP at an almost normal rate. Normal fibroblasts apparently contain more TK2 than needed to maintain dTTP during quiescence, which would explain why TK2-mutated fibroblasts do not manifest mtDNA depletion despite their reduced TK2 activity.

  3. [11C]-Flumazenil metabolites: Measurements of unchanged ligand in plasma using thin layer chromatography and rapid liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loc'h, C.; Hantraye, Ph.; Khalili-Varasteh, M.; Maziere, B.; Delforge, J.; Brouillet, E.; Syrota, A.; Maziere, M.

    1990-01-01

    To study in vivo benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors using PET, Flumazenil, an imidazobenzodiazepine with selective antagonistic actions, has been labeled with 11 C on its methyl group. The accurate determination of in vivo binding parameters using biomathematical models requires the knowledge of radioligand metabolism and the measurement of the plasmatic concentration of unchanged radioligand is mandatory. The present report describes and compares rapid and simple analytical procedures to measure unchanged [ 11 C]-Flumazenil in plasma

  4. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, John L; Laney Smith, Alyssa; Ortega, Yvette K; Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2016-08-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their effects in isolation. We sampled soil from two intermountain grassland communities where we also measured the relative abundance of plant species. In greenhouse experiments, we quantified the direction and magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks for 10 target species that spanned a range of abundances in the field. In soil from both sites, plant-soil feedbacks were mostly negative, with more abundant species suffering greater negative feedbacks than rare species. In contrast, the average response to competition for each species was unrelated with its abundance in the field. We also determined how competitive response varied among our target species when plants competed in live vs. sterile soil. Interspecific competition reduced plant size, but the strength of this negative effect was unchanged by plant-soil feedbacks. Finally, when plants competed interspecifically, we asked how conspecific-trained, heterospecific-trained, and sterile soil influenced the competitive responses of our target species and how this varied depending on whether target species were abundant or rare in the field. Here, we found that both abundant and rare species were not as harmed by competition when they grew in heterospecific-trained soil compared to when they grew in conspecific-cultured soil. Abundant species were also not as harmed by competition when growing in sterile vs. conspecific-trained soil, but this was not the case for rare species. Our results suggest that abundant plants accrue species-specific soil pathogens to a greater extent than rare species. Thus, negative feedbacks may be critical for preventing abundant species from

  5. The Changing Role of Salespeople and the Unchanging Feeling toward Selling: Implications for the HEI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo; Cardinali, Silvio; Palanga, Paola; Pacelli, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Over the past five decades, several studies have shown that students' reticence toward choosing a sales career has remained constant. Their lack of awareness and misconceptions regarding a sales job are two reasons behind this negative perception and lack of students' "work readiness." Using a conceptual model on student intention to…

  6. Unchanged Levels of Soluble CD14 and IL-6 Over Time Predict Serious Non-AIDS Events in HIV-1-Infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Meena; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Somasunderam, Anoma; Martinez, Maria Laura; Yu, Xiaoying; Arduino, Roberto C.; Bell, Tanvir K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1-infected persons have increased risk of serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Increased circulating levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at a single time point have been associated with SNAEs. However, whether changes in these biomarker levels predict SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons is unknown. We hypothesized that greater decreases in inflammatory biomarkers would be associated with fewer SNAEs. We identified 39 patients with SNAEs, including major cardiovascular events, end stage renal disease, decompensated cirrhosis, non-AIDS-defining malignancies, and death of unknown cause, and age- and sex-matched HIV-1-infected controls. sCD14, sCD163, and IL-6 were measured at study enrollment (T1) and proximal to the event (T2) or equivalent duration in matched controls. Over ∼34 months, unchanged rather than decreasing levels of sCD14 and IL-6 predicted SNAEs. Older age and current illicit substance abuse, but not HCV coinfection, were associated with SNAEs. In a multivariate analysis, older age, illicit substance use, and unchanged IL-6 levels remained significantly associated with SNAEs. Thus, the trajectories of sCD14 and IL-6 levels predict SNAEs. Interventions to decrease illicit substance use may decrease the risk of SNAEs in HIV-1-infected persons. PMID:27344921

  7. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  8. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  9. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  10. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  11. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  12. ["Should the staff's attitude towards the patients remain unchanged, I will not guarantee anything." Protest masculinity and coping of "rebellious patients" at the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital on the eve of deinstitutionalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the illness experiences of male patients from the Heidelberg University Psychiatric Hospital during the protests against Psychiatry in the year 1973. Protest is one of the most important expressions of masculinity in socially disadvantaged men, such as men with mental disorders. The analysis of 100 medical records shows that some patients tried to construct themselves as men in a way that was explicitly motivated by antipsychiatric ideas: They questioned psychiatric authority, behaved "sexually inappropriate", or used drugs. On the eve of psychiatric reform in West Germany those patients were well aware that the alternative--complying with the treatment--would put them at considerable risk. In addition to the usual inference of hegemonic or normative masculinities as risk-factors, the behavior of those ,,rebellious patients" has to be interpreted as individual coping strategies.

  13. Bond length variation in Zn substituted NiO studied from extended X-ray absorption fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. D.; Poswal, A. K.; Kamal, C.; Rajput, Parasmani; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Jha, S. N.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2017-06-01

    Bond length behavior for Zn substituted NiO is determined through extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed at ambient conditions. We report bond length value of 2.11±0.01 Å for Zn-O of rock salt (RS) symmetry, when Zn is doped in RS NiO. Bond length for Zn substituted NiO RS ternary solid solutions shows relaxed behavior for Zn-O bond, while it shows un-relaxed behavior for Ni-O bond. These observations are further supported by first-principles calculations. It is also inferred that Zn sublattice remains nearly unchanged with increase in lattice parameter. On the other hand, Ni sublattice dilates for Zn compositions up to 20% to accommodate increase in the lattice parameter. However, for Zn compositions more than 20%, it does not further dilate. It has been attributed to the large disorder that is incorporated in the system at and beyond 20% of Zn incorporation in the cubic RS lattice of ternary solid solutions. For these large percentages of Zn incorporation, the Ni and the Zn atoms re-arrange themselves microscopically about the same nominal bond length rather than systematically increase in magnitude to minimize the energy of the system. This results in an increase in the Debye-Waller factor with increase in the Zn concentration rather than a systematic increase in the bond lengths.

  14. Reducing length of stay in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A three year institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraj, Ali; Hussein, Ahmed E; Esfahani, Darian R; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Aletich, Victor A; Charbel, Fady T

    2017-08-01

    Hospital length of stay is a common metric of excellence in health care. With limited data evaluating hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in this study we explore multiple prognostic factors and present our institutional experience in shortening LOS. 345 SAH patients were reviewed over a three year period. Patient demographics, hemorrhage grade, hospital course, hospital costs, and LOS were reviewed. Angiogram-negative SAH, Hunt and Hess (HH) Grade 5, and early mortalities were excluded. During this period a physician-led daily multidisciplinary huddle was established to identify and expedite patient discharge needs. 174 patients met inclusion criteria. Significant predictors of increased hospital LOS on univariate analysis included higher HH grade, hydrocephalus, need for ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunt, clinical vasospasm, pneumonia, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis, and urinary tract infection. Need for shunt, clinical vasospasm, and pneumonia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Mean LOS times decreased to less than those cited in earlier studies, with mean hospital LOS dropping from 21.6days to 14.1. Total hospital costs per SAH patient decreased from $328K to $269K. Readmission rate and breakdown by patient discharge site remained unchanged. Need for ventriculoperitoneal shunt, clinical vasospasm, and pneumonia were found predictive of longer LOS in SAH patients. A physician-led daily multidisciplinary huddle is a potentially valuable tool to identify patient discharge needs and lower LOS and cost in SAH patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously 1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  16. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  17. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  18. Effects of heat-moisture treatment reaction conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of maize starch: moisture and length of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhongquan; Yao, Tianming; Zhao, Yue; Ye, Xiaoting; Kong, Xiangli; Ai, Lianzhong

    2015-04-15

    Changes in the properties of normal maize starch (NMS) and waxy maize starch (WMS) after heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions were investigated. NMS and WMS were adjusted to moisture levels of 20%, 25% and 30% and heated at 100 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The results showed that moisture content was the most important factor in determining pasting properties for NMS, whereas the heating length was more important for WMS. Swelling power decreased in NMS but increased in WMS, and while the solubility index decreased for both samples, the changes were largely determined by moisture content. The gelatinisation temperatures of both samples increased with increasing moisture content but remained unchanged with increasing heating length. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance ratio was affected to different extents by the moisture levels but remained constant with increasing the heating length. The X-ray intensities increased but relative crystallinity decreased to a greater extent with increasing moisture content. This study showed that the levels of moisture content and length of heating had significant impacts on the structural and physicochemical properties of normal and waxy maize starches but to different extents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  20. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  1. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  2. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  3. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  4. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  5. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  6. Chloroquine resistant P. falciparum prevalence is low and unchanged between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Schmidt, Berit Aydin; Lebbad, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine resistant malaria was first reported in Guinea-Bissau in 1990 but chloroquine remains the most commonly used antimalarial in the country. Since 1990, we have conducted nearly annual standardized WHO in vitro micro-tests to assess chloroquine resistance. We have identified pfcrt 76T...... and other genetic polymorphisms in samples from 1992, 1993, 1995, 2004 and 2005. We have also monitored drug prescriptions for febrile illnesses. The mean proportion of in vitro tests indicating chloroquine resistance was 33% (range 14-54%) with the exception of an outlying value year 2000. The proportion...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum detected by in vitro testing did not increase over time. Pfcrt 76T was associated with chloroquine resistance but pfmdr1 86Y was not. The mean pfcrt 76T prevalence varied between 13% and 38%. The prevalence of SNPs at Pfcrt positions 76, 271, 326 and pfmdr1 position 86 did...

  7. The host transcriptome remains unaltered during the establishment of coral-algal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Christian R; Schwarz, Jodi A; Schnetzer, Julia; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Desalvo, Michael K; Szmant, Alina M; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    Coral reefs are based on the symbiotic relationship between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. We followed gene expression of coral larvae of Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata after exposure to Symbiodinium strains that differed in their ability to establish symbioses. We show that the coral host transcriptome remains almost unchanged during infection by competent symbionts, but is massively altered by symbionts that fail to establish symbioses. Our data suggest that successful coral-algal symbioses depend mainly on the symbionts' ability to enter the host in a stealth manner rather than a more active response from the coral host.

  8. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  9. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  11. The determination of unchanged [11C]diprenorphine, [11C]L-deprenyl and [11C]raclopride in plasma by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthra, S.K.; Turton, D.R.; Price, G.; Ahier, R.; Martin, F.; Hume, S.; Cremer, J.

    1990-01-01

    In PET studies a knowledge of the fraction of radioactivity in plasma representing unchanged 11 C-labelled ligand/tracer is essential for correction of the arterial plasma input curve. A number of different approaches (e.g. HPLC and TLC/OPTLC) to the determination of unchanged radio-ligand/tracer have been reported for 11 C-labelled carfentanil, raclopride and L-deprenyl and for 76 Br-labelled bromolisuride. The authors report here how they have applied the simple work-up and analytical procedure, originally reported for [ 11 C]carfentanil, to establish the percentage of unmchanged 11 C-labelled diprenorphine, L-deprenyl and raclopride in human and animal plasma as a function of time

  12. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  13. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  14. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  15. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  16. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  17. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  18. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  19. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  20. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  1. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  2. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  3. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  4. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  5. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  6. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  7. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  8. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  9. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  10. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  11. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  12. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  13. Underlying mechanisms leading to El Niño-to-La Niña transition are unchanged under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2018-05-01

    El Niño's transitions play critical roles in modulating severe weather and climate events. Therefore, understanding the dynamic factors leading to El Niño's transitions and its future projection is a great challenge in predicting the diverse socioeconomic influences of El Niño over the globe. This study focuses on two dynamic factors controlling the El Niño-to-La Niña transition from the present climate and to future climate, using the observation, the historical and the RCP8.5 simulations of Coupled Model Intercomparison phase 5 climate models. The first is the inter-basin coupling between the Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific through the subtropical high variability. The second is the enhanced sensitivity between sea surface temperature and a deep tropical convection in the central tropical Pacific during the El Niño's developing phase. We show that the dynamic factors leading to El Niño-to-La Niña transition in the present climate are unchanged in spite of the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations. We argue that the two dynamic factors are strongly constrained by the climatological precipitation distribution over the central tropical Pacific and western North Pacific as little changed from the present climate to future climate. This implies that two dynamical processes leading to El Niño-to-La Niña transitions in the present climate will also play a robust role in global warming.

  14. Unchanged content of oxidative enzymes in fast-twitch muscle fibers and V˙O2 kinetics after intensified training in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Thomassen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    perturbation during INT. Pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics was determined in eight trained male cyclists (V˙O2-max: 59 ± 4 (means ± SD) mL min(-1) kg(-1)) during MOD (205 ± 12 W ~65% V˙O2-max) and INT (286 ± 17 W ~85% V˙O2-max) exercise before and after a 7-week HIT period (30-sec sprints and 4-min intervals) with a 50...... DW(-1) min(-1)) of CS (56 ± 8 post-HIT vs. 59 ± 10 pre-HIT), HAD (27 ± 6 vs. 29 ± 3) and PFK (340 ± 69 vs. 318 ± 105) and the capillary to fiber ratio (2.30 ± 0.16 vs. 2.38 ± 0.20) was unaltered following HIT. V˙O2 kinetics was unchanged with HIT and the speed of the primary response did not differ...... of oxidative enzymes in fast-twitch fibers, and did not change V˙O2 kinetics....

  15. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  17. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  18. Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation of patients with pulmonary hyperinflation. Influence of low respiratory rate with unchanged minute volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi, L L; Barvais, L; Sokolow, Y; Yernault, J C; d'Hollander, A A

    2002-01-01

    We measured lung mechanics and gas exchange during one-lung ventilation (OLV) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using three respiratory rates (RR) and unchanged minute volume. We studied 15 patients about to undergo lung surgery, during anaesthesia, and placed in the lateral position. Ventilation was with constant minute volume, inspiratory flow and FIO2. For periods of 15 min, RR of 5, 10, and 15 bpm were applied in a random sequence and recordings were made of lung mechanics and an arterial blood gas sample was taken. Data were analysed with the repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test with Bonferroni correction. PaO2 changes were not significant. At the lowest RR, PaCO2 decreased (from 42 (SD 4) mm Hg at RR 15-41 (4) mm Hg at RR 10 and 39 (4) mm Hg at RR 5, P<0.01), and end-tidal carbon dioxide increased (from 33 (5) mm Hg at RR 15 to 35 (5) mm Hg at RR 10 and 36 (6) mm Hg at RR 5, P<0.01). Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) was reduced even with larger tidal volumes (from 6 (4) cm H2O at RR 15-5 (4) cm H2O at RR 10, and 3 (3) cm H2O at RR 5, P<0.01), most probably caused by increased expiratory time at the lowest RR. A reduction in RR reduces PEEPi and hypercapnia during OLV in anaesthetized patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

  19. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  20. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  1. Proteomic patterns analysis with multivariate calculations as a promising tool for prompt differentiation of early stage lung tissue with cancer and unchanged tissue material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzki Tomasz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer diagnosis in tissue material with commonly used histological techniques is sometimes inconvenient and in a number of cases leads to ambiguous conclusions. Frequently advanced immunostaining techniques have to be employed, yet they are both time consuming and limited. In this study a proteomic approach is presented which may help provide unambiguous pathologic diagnosis of tissue material. Methods Lung tissue material found to be pathologically changed was prepared to isolate proteome with fast and non selective procedure. Isolated peptides and proteins in ranging from 3.5 to 20 kDa were analysed directly using high resolution mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF with sinapic acid as a matrix. Recorded complex spectra of a single run were then analyzed with multivariate statistical analysis algorithms (principle component analysis, classification methods. In the applied protocol we focused on obtaining the spectra richest in protein signals constituting a pattern of change within the sample containing detailed information about its protein composition. Advanced statistical methods were to indicate differences between examined groups. Results Obtained results indicate changes in proteome profiles of changed tissues in comparison to physiologically unchanged material (control group which were reflected in the result of principle component analysis (PCA. Points representing spectra of control group were located in different areas of multidimensional space and were less diffused in comparison to cancer tissues. Three different classification algorithms showed recognition capability of 100% regarding classification of examined material into an appropriate group. Conclusion The application of the presented protocol and method enabled finding pathological changes in tissue material regardless of localization and size of abnormalities in the sample volume. Proteomic profile as a complex, rich in signals spectrum of proteins

  2. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  4. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  5. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  6. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  7. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  8. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  9. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  10. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  11. Stability and dewetting of metal nanoparticle filled thin polymer films: control of instability length scale and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Das, Soma; Das, Anindya; Sharma, Satinder K; Raychaudhuri, Arup K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2010-07-27

    We investigate the influence of gold nanoparticle addition on the stability, dewetting, and pattern formation in ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composite films by examining the length and time scales of instability, morphology, and dynamics of dewetting. For these 10-50 nm thick (h) polystyrene (PS) thin films containing uncapped gold nanoparticles (diameter approximately 3-4 nm), transitions from complete dewetting to arrested dewetting to absolute stability were observed depending on the concentration of the particles. Experiments show the existence of three distinct stability regimes: regime 1, complete dewetting leading to droplet formation for nanoparticle concentration of 2% (w/w) or below; regime 2, partial dewetting leading to formation of arrested holes for NP concentrations in the range of 3-6%; and regime 3, complete inhibition of dewetting for NP concentrations of 7% and above. Major results are (a) length scale of instability, where lambdaH approximately hn remains unchanged with NP concentration in regime 1 (n approximately 2) but increases in regime 2 with a change in the scaling relation (n approximately 3-3.5); (b) dynamics of instability and dewetting becomes progressively sluggish with an increase in the NP concentration; (c) there are distinct regimes of dewetting velocity at low NP concentrations; (d) force modulation AFM, as well as micro-Raman analysis, shows phase separation and aggregation of the gold nanoparticles within each dewetted polymer droplet leading to the formation of a metal core-polymer shell morphology. The polymer shell could be removed by washing in a selective solvent, thus exposing an array of bare gold nanoparticle aggregates.

  12. Enhanced glucose cycling and suppressed de novo synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate result in a net unchanged hepatic glucose output in ob/ob mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, RHJ; Grefhorst, A; van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Hammer, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kuipers, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic; however, the cause of hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Methods. Glucose metabolism in vivo in 9-h fasted ob/ob mice and lean littermates was studied by infusing [U-C-13]-glucose, [2-C-13]-glycerol,

  13. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  15. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  16. Atazanavir intracellular concentrations remain stable during pregnancy in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focà, Emanuele; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonito, Andrea; Simiele, Marco; Domenighini, Elisabetta; D'Avolio, Antonio; Quiros Roldan, Eugenia; Trentini, Laura; Casari, Salvatore; Di Perri, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Bonora, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Atazanavir (300 mg) boosted by ritonavir (100 mg) is the preferred third drug in pregnancy. However, there is still discordance on atazanavir dose increase during the third trimester. To evaluate plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir concentrations in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after delivery. This was an observational study. HIV-infected pregnant patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine had been prospectively enrolled after having signed a written informed consent form. Plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir Ctrough (24 ± 3 h after drug intake) were measured at each visit during the first, second and third trimesters and post-partum using validated HPLC-MS and HPLC-photodiode array methods (with direct evaluation of cellular volume). Data are described as median (IQR) and compared through non-parametric tests. Twenty-five patients were enrolled; at baseline, the median age was 32 years (27-35). All patients had plasma HIV RNA  0.05). This is the first demonstration that intracellular atazanavir exposure remains unchanged during pregnancy supporting the standard 300/100 mg atazanavir/ritonavir dosing throughout pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  19. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  20. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  1. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  2. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  3. Leukocyte telomere length and late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, R.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, possibly as a consequence of accelerated cellular aging. Cellular aging, indexed by telomere length (TL) shortening, has been linked to depression in adults younger than 60 years; however, it remains

  4. The compound microscope: optical tube length or parfocalization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J M; Comastri, S A

    2005-01-01

    In various well-known textbooks for undergraduate students of physics, the compound microscope is described as having a standardized 'optical tube length'. On the other hand, in order to fulfil the parfocalization condition required by the human visual system to understand the relation between what is viewed with and without the microscope, the distance between the object and its image through the objective must remain constant as objectives are interchanged. In this paper, we show that these two requirements are not compatible in microscopes containing a revolver with various objectives and that the 'optical tube length' (which differs from the mechanical tube length) cannot be standardized. Moreover, we consider the Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN) and the Japanese Industry Standards (JIS) norms employed in the microscope industry for standardization of the object-to-intermediate image distance, the parfocal distance and the mechanical tube length

  5. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  6. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  7. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  9. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  10. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  11. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  12. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  13. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  14. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  15. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  16. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  17. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  18. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  19. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  20. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  1. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  2. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Yang Shihe; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong

    2009-01-01

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μAcm -2 from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vμm -1 , 9 Vμm -1 , and 4 Vμm -1 , respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  3. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijuan, E-mail: ljzhao@dhu.edu.c [Applied Physics Department, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pang Qi [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Yang Shihe [Chemistry Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-10

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of approx0.1 muAcm{sup -2} from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vmum{sup -1}, 9 Vmum{sup -1}, and 4 Vmum{sup -1}, respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  4. Instrument to determine prestress remaining in a damaged bridge girder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civjan, Scott A.; Jirsa, James O.; Carrasquillo, Ramon L.; Fowler, David W.

    1998-03-01

    An instrument has been developed to estimate stress levels in prestress strands in existing members. The prototype instrument applies a lateral load to an exposed prestressing strand and measures the resulting displacements. The instrument was calibrated for 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) diameter seven-wire strand with exposed lengths of 1.5 feet (0.46 m) to 3.75 feet (1.14 m). It was tested to determine its accuracy, precision, and usefulness in the field. Strand forces were consistently estimated to within ten percent of the actual load. The device was also utilized in the placement of strand splices and was found to be more reliable in checking induced strand tensions than the standard torque wrench method.

  5. The relative tail of longevity and the mean remaining lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Vaupel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaupel (1998 posed the provocative question, "When it comes to death, how do people and flies differ from Toyotas?" He suggested that as the force of natural selection diminishes with age, structural reliability concepts can be profitably used in mortality analysis. Vaupel (2003 went a step further, using simulations to investigate the impact of redundancy, repair capacity, and heterogeneity on the relative length of post-reproductive life spans, called relative tails of longevity. His 2003 paper showed that structural redundancy and the possibility of repair decrease the relative tail of longevity, whereas greater heterogeneity increases it. Here, we consider the problem in much greater generality and prove these results analytically. Structures with repairable and non-repairable components are considered. Heterogeneity is described by a frailty-type model and different definitions of the tail of longevity are discussed.

  6. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  7. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  8. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  9. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  11. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  12. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  13. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  14. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  17. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  18. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  19. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  20. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  1. Effects of brood size manipulation and common origin on phenotype and telomere length in nestling collared flycatchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voillemot Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is accumulating that telomere length is a good predictor of life expectancy, especially early in life, thus calling for determining the factors that affect telomere length at this stage. Here, we investigated the relative influence of early growth conditions and origin (genetics and early maternal effects on telomere length of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis at fledging. We experimentally transferred hatchlings among brood triplets to create reduced, control (i.e. unchanged final nestling number and enlarged broods. Results Although our treatment significantly affected body mass at fledging, we found no evidence that increased sibling competition affected nestling tarsus length and telomere length. However, mixed models showed that brood triplets explained a significant part of the variance in body mass (18% and telomere length (19%, but not tarsus length (13%, emphasizing that unmanipulated early environmental factors influenced telomere length. These models also revealed low, but significant, heritability of telomere length (h2 = 0.09. For comparison, the heritability of nestling body mass and tarsus length was 0.36 and 0.39, respectively, which was in the range of previously published estimates for those two traits in this species. Conclusion Those findings in a wild bird population demonstrate that telomere length at the end of the growth period is weakly, but significantly, determined by genetic and/or maternal factors taking place before hatching. However, we found no evidence that the brood size manipulation experiment, and by extension the early growth conditions, influenced nestling telomere length. The weak heritability of telomere length suggests a close association with fitness in natural populations.

  2. Longitudinal changes in telomere length and associated genetic parameters in dairy cattle analysed using random regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise A Seeker

    Full Text Available Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1 characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2 estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3 investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan. RLTL measurements were analysed using Legendre polynomials in a random regression model to describe TL profiles and genetic variance over age. The analyses were based on 1,328 repeated RLTL measurements of 308 female Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. A quadratic Legendre polynomial was fitted to the fixed effect of age in months and to the random effect of the animal identity. Changes in RLTL, heritability and within-trait genetic correlation along the age trajectory were calculated and illustrated. At a population level, the relationship between RLTL and age was described by a positive quadratic function. Individuals varied significantly regarding the direction and amount of RLTL change over life. The heritability of RLTL ranged from 0.36 to 0.47 (SE = 0.05-0.08 and remained statistically unchanged over time. The genetic correlation of RLTL at birth with measurements later in life decreased with the time interval between samplings from near unity to 0.69, indicating that TL later in life might be regulated by different genes than TL early in life. Even though animals differed in their RLTL profiles significantly, those differences were not correlated with productive lifespan (p = 0.954.

  3. Telomere length of anterior crucial ligament after rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsot, Elodie; Langberg, Henning; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of ligaments following injury is a slow process compared to the healing of many other tissues and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the proliferative potential of ligaments by assessing telomere length within three distinct parts...... of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) obtained during ACL reconstruction: the macroscopically injured proximal part and macroscopically noninjured mid- and distal portions in eight subjects (age 28 ± 8 years). The mean telomere length in ACL was within normal range of values usually reported for other...... tissues indicating that the endogenous machinery responsible for the proliferative potential of ligament is not implicated in its poor healing capacity. The three ACL parts showed similar mean TRF lengths (distal part: 11.5 ± 0.8 kbp, mid-portion: 11.8 ± 1.2 kbp, proximal part: 11.9 ± 1.6 kbp...

  4. Changes in hip joint muscle-tendon lengths with mode of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Patrick O; Franz, Jason; Dicharry, Jay; Kerrigan, D Casey

    2010-02-01

    We have reported that peak hip extension is nearly identical in walking and running, suggesting that anatomical constraints, such as flexor muscle tightness may limit the range of hip extension. To obtain a more mechanistic insight into mobility at the hip and pelvis we examined the lengths of the muscle-tendons units crossing the hip joint. Data defining the three-dimensional kinematics of 26 healthy runners at self-selected walking and running speeds were obtained. These data were used to scale and drive musculoskeletal models using OpenSIM. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths were calculated for the trailing limb illiacus, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris long head and the advancing limb biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. The magnitude and timing of MTU length peaks were each compared between walking and running. The peak length of the right (trailing limb) illiacus MTU, a pure hip flexor, was nearly identical between walking and running, while the maximum length of the rectus femoris MTU, a hip flexor and knee extensor, increased during running. The maximum length of the left (leading limb) biceps femoris was also unchanged between walking and running. Further, the timing of peak illiacus MTU length and peak contralateral biceps femoris MTU length occurred essentially simultaneously during running, at a time during gait when the hamstrings are most vulnerable to stretch injury. This latter finding suggests exploring the role for hip flexor stretching in combination with hamstring stretching to treat and/or prevent running related hamstring injury. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  6. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  7. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  8. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  9. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  10. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  11. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  12. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n?=?37,639) and children/adolescents (n?=?28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes...

  13. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  14. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  16. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  17. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  18. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  19. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  20. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  1. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  2. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  3. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  5. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  6. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  8. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  9. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  10. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  11. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  12. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  13. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  14. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  15. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  16. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  17. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  18. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  2. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  3. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  4. The Effect of Time and Fusion Length on Motion of the Unfused Lumbar Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michelle C; Bastrom, Tracey P; Petcharaporn, Maty; Shah, Suken A; Betz, Randal R; Samdani, Amer; Lonner, Baron; Miyanji, Firoz; Newton, Peter O

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess L4-S1 inter-vertebral coronal motion of the unfused distal segments of the spine in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) after instrumented fusion with regards to postoperative time and fusion length, independently. Coronal motion was assessed by standardized radiographs acquired in maximum right and left bending positions. The intervertebral angles were measured via digital radiographic measuring software and the motion from the levels of L4-S1 was summed. The entire cohort was included to evaluate the effect of follow-up time on residual motion. Patients were grouped into early (10 years) follow-up groups. A subset of patients (n = 35) with a primary thoracic curve and a nonstructural modifier type "C" lumbar curve were grouped as either selective fusion (lowest instrumented vertebra [LIV] of L1 and above) or longer fusion (LIV of L2 and below) and effect on motion was evaluated. The data for 259 patients are included. The distal residual unfused motion (from L4 to S1) remained unchanged across early, midterm, to long-term follow-up. In the selective fusion subset of patients, a significant increase in motion from L4 to S1 was seen in the patients who were fused long versus the selectively fused patients, irrespective of length of follow-up time. Motion in the unfused distal lumbar segments did not vary within the >10-year follow-up period. However, in patients with a primary thoracic curve and a nonstructural lumbar curve, the choice to fuse longer versus shorter may have significant consequences. The summed motion from L4 to S1 is 50% greater in patients fused longer compared with those patients with a selective fusion, in which postoperative motion is shared by more unfused segments. The implications of this focal increased motion are unknown, and further research is warranted but can be surmised. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  6. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  7. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  8. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  9. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  10. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  11. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  12. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  13. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  14. Adaptive treatment-length optimization in spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2018-04-01

    Recent theoretical research on spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy has focused on optimization models that adapt fluence-maps to the evolution of tumor state, for example, cell densities, as observed in quantitative functional images acquired over the treatment course. We propose an optimization model that adapts the length of the treatment course as well as the fluence-maps to such imaged tumor state. Specifically, after observing the tumor cell densities at the beginning of a session, the treatment planner solves a group of convex optimization problems to determine an optimal number of remaining treatment sessions, and a corresponding optimal fluence-map for each of these sessions. The objective is to minimize the total number of tumor cells remaining (TNTCR) at the end of this proposed treatment course, subject to upper limits on the biologically effective dose delivered to the organs-at-risk. This fluence-map is administered in future sessions until the next image is available, and then the number of sessions and the fluence-map are re-optimized based on the latest cell density information. We demonstrate via computer simulations on five head-and-neck test cases that such adaptive treatment-length and fluence-map planning reduces the TNTCR and increases the biological effect on the tumor while employing shorter treatment courses, as compared to only adapting fluence-maps and using a pre-determined treatment course length based on one-size-fits-all guidelines.

  15. Length dependence of force generation exhibit similarities between rat cardiac myocytes and skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, Laurin M; McDonald, Kerry S

    2010-08-01

    According to the Frank-Starling relationship, increased ventricular volume increases cardiac output, which helps match cardiac output to peripheral circulatory demand. The cellular basis for this relationship is in large part the myofilament length-tension relationship. Length-tension relationships in maximally calcium activated preparations are relatively shallow and similar between cardiac myocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. During twitch activations length-tension relationships become steeper in both cardiac and skeletal muscle; however, it remains unclear whether length dependence of tension differs between striated muscle cell types during submaximal activations. The purpose of this study was to compare sarcomere length-tension relationships and the sarcomere length dependence of force development between rat skinned left ventricular cardiac myocytes and fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres. Muscle cell preparations were calcium activated to yield 50% maximal force, after which isometric force and rate constants (k(tr)) of force development were measured over a range of sarcomere lengths. Myofilament length-tension relationships were considerably steeper in fast-twitch fibres compared to slow-twitch fibres. Interestingly, cardiac myocyte preparations exhibited two populations of length-tension relationships, one steeper than fast-twitch fibres and the other similar to slow-twitch fibres. Moreover, myocytes with shallow length-tension relationships were converted to steeper length-tension relationships by protein kinase A (PKA)-induced myofilament phosphorylation. Sarcomere length-k(tr) relationships were distinct between all three cell types and exhibited patterns markedly different from Ca(2+) activation-dependent k(tr) relationships. Overall, these findings indicate cardiac myocytes exhibit varied length-tension relationships and sarcomere length appears a dominant modulator of force development rates. Importantly, cardiac myocyte length

  16. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  17. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  18. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  19. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  20. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  1. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  2. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  3. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  4. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  5. Stereoselective determination of unchanged and glucuroconjugated eliprodil, a new anti-ischaemic drug, in human plasma and urine by precolumn derivatization and column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, B; Ripamonti, M; Rouchouse, A; Ascalone, V

    1996-04-05

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination in human plasma and urine of the enantiomers of eliprodil, (+/-)-alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)-4[(4-fluorophenyl) methyl]piperidine-1-ethanol hydrochloride, a new anti-ischaemic agent administered as a racemate. Both enantiomers are present in human plasma in unchanged and glucuroconjugated form, whereas only the glucuroconjugated form is excreted into urine; as a consequence, such metabolites in human plasma and urine should be submitted to enzymatic deconjugation with beta-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli) before being extracted. The general method involves a liquid-liquid extraction of eliprodil and internal standard from alkalinized plasma or urine with n-hexane, evaporation of the organic phase and derivatization with (S)-(+)-naphthylethyl isocyanate to give carbamate diastereoisomeric derivatives of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-eliprodil and internal standard; after evaporation of the derivatizing mixture and dissolution of the residue in a small volume of phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), an aliquot is injected into a column-switching HPLC system. The derivatized sample extract is purified on a precolumn filled with C8-bonded silica material, which is flushed with acetonitrile-water, then diastereoisomers of eliprodil and the internal standard are automatically transferred by the mobile phase to the analytical column. The analytical column is a C8 type, specially deactivated for basic compounds, the mobile phase is 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.6)-methanol-acetonitrile (42:2:56) at a flow-rate of 1.2 ml min-1 and fluorimetric detector operating at lambda ex = 275 nm and lambda em = 336 nm is used. The retention times, under these conditions, are about 16 and 17 min for (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-eliprodil diastereoisomers, respectively, and about 19 min for the first-eluted diastereoisomer of the internal standard. During the analysis time, the precolumn, reset in a different path from that of the

  6. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  7. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  8. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  9. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  10. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  11. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  12. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  13. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  14. Design LDPC Codes without Cycles of Length 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseon Kim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for constructing LDPC codes without cycles of length 4 and 6. Firstly, we design 3 submatrices with different shifting functions given by the proposed schemes, then combine them into the matrix specified by the proposed approach, and, finally, expand the matrix into a desired parity-check matrix using identity matrices and cyclic shift matrices of the identity matrices. The simulation result in AWGN channel verifies that the BER of the proposed code is close to those of Mackay's random codes and Tanner's QC codes, and the good BER performance of the proposed can remain at high code rates.

  15. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  16. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  17. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  18. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  19. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  20. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  1. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  2. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  3. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  4. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  5. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  6. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  7. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  8. Time Remains

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2014-01-01

    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute 'problem of time'. Under our view, duration is still regarded as relative, but te...

  9. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  10. Ultrashort Channel Length Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinshui; Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Scherr, Martin; Wang, Chuan

    2015-09-22

    This paper reports high-performance top-gated black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors with channel lengths down to 20 nm fabricated using a facile angle evaporation process. By controlling the evaporation angle, the channel length of the transistors can be reproducibly controlled to be anywhere between 20 and 70 nm. The as-fabricated 20 nm top-gated BP transistors exhibit respectable on-state current (174 μA/μm) and transconductance (70 μS/μm) at a VDS of 0.1 V. Due to the use of two-dimensional BP as the channel material, the transistors exhibit relatively small short channel effects, preserving a decent on-off current ratio of 10(2) even at an extremely small channel length of 20 nm. Additionally, unlike the unencapsulated BP devices, which are known to be chemically unstable in ambient conditions, the top-gated BP transistors passivated by the Al2O3 gate dielectric layer remain stable without noticeable degradation in device performance after being stored in ambient conditions for more than 1 week. This work demonstrates the great promise of atomically thin BP for applications in ultimately scaled transistors.

  11. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  12. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  13. Safety of PEGylated recombinant human full-length coagulation factor VIII (BAX 855) in the overall context of PEG and PEG conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidl, R; Fuchs, S; Bossard, M; Siekmann, J; Turecek, P L; Putz, M

    2016-01-01

    BAX 855 is a PEGylated human full-length recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) based on licensed rFVIII (ADVATE). The applied PEGylation technology has been optimized to retain functionality of the FVIII molecule, improve its pharmacokinetic properties and allow less frequent injections while maintaining efficacy. The aim of this study was to confirm that the excellent safety profile of ADVATE remains unchanged after PEGylation. Non-clinical safety studies with BAX 855 and its respective unbound polyethylene glycol (PEG) were conducted in several species. The distribution of a single dose of radiolabelled BAX 855 was further investigated in rats. Publically available safety data on PEG alone and PEGylated biomolecules were summarized and reviewed for specific safety findings attributable to PEG or PEGylated biopharmaceuticals. Safety pharmacology studies in rabbits and macaques and repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and macaques identified no safety issues. Results of a distribution study in rats administered radiolabelled BAX 855 showed that radioactivity was completely excreted; urine was the major elimination route. A 28-day study in rats dosed with the unbound PEG constituent (PEG2ru20KCOOH) of BAX 855 showed no adverse or non-adverse effects. Safety data for PEG and PEG-protein conjugates indicate no safety concerns associated with PEG at clinically relevant dose levels. Although vacuolation of certain cell types has been reported in mammals, no such vacuolation was observed with BAX 855 or with the unbound PEG constituent. Non-clinical safety evaluation of PEG and BAX 855 identified no safety signals; the compound is now in clinical development for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. © 2015 Baxalta Innovations GmbH. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007ab, 2008 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006 Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977 Getz 1961 Reig 1970 Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods reconstruction of paleoenvironment documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars

  15. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007a;b, 2008; 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006; Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification; quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977; Getz 1961; Reig 1970; Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods; reconstruction of paleoenvironment; documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars when

  16. 1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)aminopentane HCl, 3-F-BPAP, antagonizes the enhancer effect of (-)-BPAP in the shuttle box and leaves the effect of (-)-deprenyl unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joseph; Miklya, Ildikó; Knoll, Berta; Yasusa, Takuya; Shimazu, Seiichiro; Yoneda, Fumio

    2002-09-13

    The subcutaneous administration of 1 mg/kg tetrabenazine, once daily for 5 days, which depletes the catecholamine stores in the brain, significantly inhibits in rats the acquisition of a two-way conditioned avoidance reflex in the shuttle box. Enhancer substances, the tryptamine-derived selective and highly potent enhancer, R-(-)-1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane HCl [(-)-BPAP] (0.05-10 mg/kg), the beta-phenylethylamine (PEA)-derived enhancer, (-)-deprenyl (1-5 mg/kg) and the (-)-deprenyl analogue, free of MAO-B inhibitory potency, (-)-1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane HCl [(-)-PPAP], (1-5 mg/kg), antagonize in a dose-dependent manner the inhibition of learning caused by tetrabenazine. 1-(Benzofuran 2 yl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)aminopentane HCl [3 F BPAP], a newly synthetized analogue of (-)-BPAP with low specific activity, significantly antagonized the enhancer effect of (-)-BPAP but left the effect of (-)-deprenyl and (-)-PPAP unchanged. This is the first proof for a difference in the mechanism of action between a PEA-derived enhancer substance and its tryptamine-derived peer.

  17. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  18. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  20. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  1. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  2. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  3. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  4. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  6. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  7. New method of steganalysis for text data obtained by synonym run-length encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Nechta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a new stegoanalysis method for detecting a text obtained by the synonym Run-Length Encoding. The analyzed RLE-method allows us to keep some statistical properties of the text after a secret message embedding. In particular, the probabilities distribution of the bits in the extracted message and the probabilities distribution of using text synonyms keep unchanged, that ensures a high secrecy degree of the considered embedding method. In this paper we show that the embedded message changes the probabilities distribution of bit-series lengths in the extracted message, and this fact is used for our stegoanalysis. It was shown that the embedded message breaks the statistical structure of the container, and this fact is used for the stegoanalysis. The constructed stegotest compares the probability distribution of runs (with length no more than 5 bits in the message extracted from the container with reference distributions corresponding to an empty and embedded containers.  Reference distributions were obtained by analysing of 1000 natural-text containers taken from the Gutenberg Project library. In this paper we consider two approaches for obtaining reference distributions. The first approach deals with analyzing the statistic of the message extracted from the container in the usual way (using the Tyrannosaurus Lex program. The second approach involves an additional decoding of the message in accordance with the analyzed run-length encoding algorithm. Experimental results allow us to assert that the first approach is more effective. The Kullback-Leibler measure is used as a divergence measure of two probability distributions. It was shown that the proposed method makes it possible to detect presence of the secret message in the container with a number of synonyms equal to 500, while false negative error is 1.5% and false positive error is 1.3%. In comparison with the known analogs, the proposed method demonstrates higher

  8. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  9. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  10. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  11. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  12. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  13. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  14. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  15. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  16. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  17. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  18. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  19. Genetic association of telomere length with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Yu, Chengxiao; Huang, Mingtao; Du, Fangzhi; Song, Ci; Ma, Zijian; Zhai, Xiangjun; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Jibin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Jia, Weihua; Jin, Guangfu; Li, Shengping; Zhou, Weiping; Liu, Jianjun; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-10-01

    Observational studies show an association between telomere length and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the relationship is controversial. Particularly, it remains unclear whether the association is due to confounding or biases inherent in conventional epidemiological studies. Here, we applied Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate whether telomere length is causally associated with HCC risk. Individual-level data were from HBV-related HCC Genome-wide association studies (1,538 HBV positive HCC patients and 1,465 HBV positive controls). Genetic risk score, as proxy for actual measured telomere length, derived from nine telomere length-associated genetic variants was used to evaluate the effect of telomere length on HCC risk. We observed a significant risk signal between genetically increased telomere length and HBV-related HCC risk (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.31, P=0.002). Furthermore, a U-shaped curve was fitted by the restricted cubic spline curve, which indicated that either short or long telomere length would increase HCC risk (P=0.0022 for non-linearity test). Subgroup analysis did not reveal significant heterogeneity between different age, gender, smoking status and drinking status groups. Our results indicated that a genetic background that favors longer or shorter telomere length may increase HBV-related HCC risk-a U-shaped association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  1. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  2. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  3. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  4. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  5. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  6. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  7. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  8. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  9. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  10. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  11. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  12. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  13. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  14. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  15. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  16. Stability of a short Rayleigh length laser resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Crooker

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the prospect of constructing a short Rayleigh length free-electron laser in a high-vibration environment, we demonstrate the use of a collection of rays to study the effect of mirror vibration and distortion on the behavior of the fundamental optical mode of a cold-cavity resonator. We find that the ray collection accurately describes both on-axis and off-axis optical beams. We show that a tilt or transverse shift of a mirror causes the optical mode to rock about the original resonator axis, while a longitudinal mirror shift or a change in the mirror’s radius of curvature causes the beam diameter at a mirror to successively dilate and contract on the mirror. Results are in excellent agreement with analytic calculations and wave front propagation simulations as long as the mirrors remain large with respect to the beam diameter.

  17. Ultrasound cervical length in predicting preterm birth: Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health problem. It is associated with a 15–20 per cent mortality rate and remains responsible for 75 per cent of perinatal deaths in foetuses without anomalies. Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of cervical length measured in the first trimester (11–14 Weeks of amenorrhea “WA” and the second trimester (20–24 Weeks of amenorrhea” WA” in an asymptomatic population of singleton pregnancies to assess the risk of spontaneous preterm birth compared to the digital assessment. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study involving 117 asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies between January and December 2015. Results In our study, the clinical examination had a low positive predictive value and a low sensibility for screening women at risk of preterm delivery. Cervical length less than 35mm between 12–14WA and 30mm between 22–24WA predicts the occurrence of preterm birth with a high sensitivity (Se, and specificity (Sp. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound screening of preterm delivery is now highly recommended.

  18. Detecting many-body-localization lengths with cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuefei; Li, Xiaopeng

    2018-03-01

    Considering ultracold atoms in optical lattices, we propose experimental protocols to study many-body-localization (MBL) length and criticality in quench dynamics. Through numerical simulations with exact diagonalization, we show that in the MBL phase the perturbed density profile following a local quench remains exponentially localized in postquench dynamics. The size of this density profile after long-time-dynamics defines a localization length, which tends to diverge at the MBL-to-ergodic transition as we increase the system size. The determined localization transition point agrees with previous exact diagonalization calculations using other diagnostics. Our numerical results provide evidence for violation of the Harris-Chayes bound for the MBL criticality. The critical exponent ν can be extracted from our proposed dynamical procedure, which can then be used directly in experiments to determine whether the Harris-Chayes-bound holds for the MBL transition. These proposed protocols to detect localization criticality are justified by benchmarking to the well-established results for the noninteracting three-dimensional Anderson localization.

  19. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  20. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  1. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  2. The Effect of Physical Activity agains the Telomere Length in the Leukocytes Cells of KONI Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are strands of non coding DNA at the ends of chromosomes that have the primary function to protect DNA from damage and maintain chromosomal stability. Physical exercise will increase the antioxidant activity can increase telomere proteins, lengthen telomeres and or protein networks associated with telomere so that the telomere remains long, or stopping telomere shortening. Telomere length was also associated with age. The purpose of the research was to determine telomere length of leukocyte cells in the KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee athletes in Jakarta. The research method is descriptive, by measuring telomere length using quantitative PCR on leukocyte cells. Samples are KONI athletes from several sports, including men and women athletes, with ages between 15-20 years. Used a control group (not athletes is students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of YARSI. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between telomere length group of athletes with the control group in both sexes. Similarly, telomere length between athlete male with female athletes also showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. It was concluded that physical exercise in athletes KONI at the age of 15- 20 years had no effect on telomere length in leukocytes. The results of this study provide information about the telomere length in Indonesian athletes at an early age.

  3. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  5. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation

  6. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  7. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  8. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  9. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  10. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  11. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  12. Turbulence closure for mixing length theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  13. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  14. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  15. Influence of ultraviolet ray irradiation on length of egg hatchability and on length of incubation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)

  16. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  17. Examination of Tycho Brahe's remains at the Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenik, Jan; Kucera, Jan; Havranek, Vladimir; Kubesova, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews nuclear analytical methods employed for analysis of Tycho Brahe's remains in Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The samples included hair, beard, eyebrow, bones and teeth, which were obtained during reopening of the Tycho Brahe's tomb in Prague in November 2010. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the reason of Tycho Brahe's death, namely the possibility of poisoning by mercury. Determination of a large number of elements was performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using both relative and k 0 standardization. Sectioned hair and beard samples were analyzed to determine element concentration profiles along the hair length. The main emphasis was put on determination of Hg, which was carried out by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Selected hair and beard samples were also studied using ion microprobe for 2D distribution of various elements, including mercury. (author)

  18. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  19. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.

    1988-01-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained

  1. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  2. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  3. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  4. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  5. Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.

  6. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Concept of formation length in radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The features of electromagnetic processes are considered which connected with finite size of space region in which final particles (photon, electron-positron pair) are formed. The longitudinal dimension of the region is known as the formation length. If some external agent is acting on an electron while traveling this distance the emission process can be disrupted. There are different agents: multiple scattering of projectile, polarization of a medium, action of external fields, etc. The theory of radiation under influence of the multiple scattering, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect, is presented. The probability of radiation is calculated with an accuracy up to 'next to leading logarithm' and with the Coulomb corrections taken into account. The integral characteristics of bremsstrahlung are given, it is shown that the effective radiation length increases due to the LPM effect at high energy. The LPM effect for pair creation is also presented. The multiple scattering influences also on radiative corrections in a medium (and an external field too) including the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron and the polarization tensor as well as coherent scattering of a photon in a Coulomb field. The polarization of a medium alters the radiation probability in soft part of spectrum. Specific features of radiation from a target of finite thickness include: the boundary photon emission, interference effects for thin target, multi-photon radiation. The theory predictions are compared with experimental data obtained at SLAC and CERN SPS. For electron-positron colliding beams following items are discussed: the separation of coherent and incoherent mechanisms of radiation, the beam-size effect in bremsstrahlung, coherent radiation and mechanisms of electron-positron creation

  8. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  9. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  10. Customization of biliopancreatic limb length to modulate and sustain antidiabetic effect of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A; Rhoads, D B; Tavakkoli, A

    2018-02-01

    Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize biliopancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the antidiabetic effect of RYGB. Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb and were compared with control animals. After 2 and 4 wk, portal and systemic blood was sampled during intestinal glucose infusion. Portosystemic gradient was used to calculate intestinal glucose utilization (G util ), absorption (G absorp ), and hormone secretion. Intestinal morphology and gene expression were assessed. At 2 wk, G absorp progressively decreased with increasing BP limb length; this pattern persisted at 4 wk. G util increased ≈70% in both RYGB-20cm and -40cm groups at 2 wk. At 4 wk, G util progressively increased with limb length. Furthermore, Roux limb weight, and expression of hexokinase and preproglucagon, exhibited a similar progressive increase. At 4 wk, glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2 levels were higher after RYGB-40cm, with associated increased secretion. We conclude that BP limb length modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. Early postoperatively, a longer BP limb reduces G absorp . Later, G util , Roux limb hypertrophy, hormone secretion, and hormone levels are increased with longer BP limb. Sustained high incretin levels may prevent weight regain and T2D relapse. These data provide the basis for customizing BP limb length according to patient characteristics and desired metabolic effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Biliopancreatic limb length in gastric bypass modulates multiple antidiabetic mechanisms, analogous to the dose-response relationship of a drug. With a longer biliopancreatic limb, Roux limb hypertrophy, increased glucose utilization

  11. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points...

  12. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  13. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  14. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Empirical scaling of the length of the longest increasing subsequences of random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2017-02-01

    We provide Monte Carlo estimates of the scaling of the length L n of the longest increasing subsequences of n-step random walks for several different distributions of step lengths, short and heavy-tailed. Our simulations indicate that, barring possible logarithmic corrections, {{L}n}∼ {{n}θ} with the leading scaling exponent 0.60≲ θ ≲ 0.69 for the heavy-tailed distributions of step lengths examined, with values increasing as the distribution becomes more heavy-tailed, and θ ≃ 0.57 for distributions of finite variance, irrespective of the particular distribution. The results are consistent with existing rigorous bounds for θ, although in a somewhat surprising manner. For random walks with step lengths of finite variance, we conjecture that the correct asymptotic behavior of L n is given by \\sqrt{n}\\ln n , and also propose the form for the subleading asymptotics. The distribution of L n was found to follow a simple scaling form with scaling functions that vary with θ. Accordingly, when the step lengths are of finite variance they seem to be universal. The nature of this scaling remains unclear, since we lack a working model, microscopic or hydrodynamic, for the behavior of the length of the longest increasing subsequences of random walks.

  16. The relationship between telomere length and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Lee

    Full Text Available Some have suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a disease of accelerated aging. Aging is characterized by shortening of telomeres. The relationship of telomere length to important clinical outcomes such as mortality, disease progression and cancer in COPD is unknown. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, we measured telomere length of peripheral leukocytes in 4,271 subjects with mild to moderate COPD who participated in the Lung Health Study (LHS. The subjects were followed for approximately 7.5 years during which time their vital status, FEV(1 and smoking status were ascertained. Using multiple regression methods, we determined the relationship of telomere length to cancer and total mortality in these subjects. We also measured telomere length in healthy "mid-life" volunteers and patients with more severe COPD. The LHS subjects had significantly shorter telomeres than those of healthy "mid-life" volunteers (p<.001. Compared to individuals in the 4(th quartile of relative telomere length (i.e. longest telomere group, the remaining participants had significantly higher risk of cancer mortality (Hazard ratio, HR, 1.48; p = 0.0324 and total mortality (HR, 1.29; p = 0.0425. Smoking status did not make a significant difference in peripheral blood cells telomere length. In conclusion, COPD patients have short leukocyte telomeres, which are in turn associated increased risk of total and cancer mortality. Accelerated aging is of particular relevance to cancer mortality in COPD.

  17. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  18. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  19. Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed

  20. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  1. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkl, W.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic

  3. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  4. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  5. Telomere length maintenance--an ALTernative mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Foxon, J; Jeyapalan, J N; Mendez-Bermudez, A; Novo, C L; Williams, J; Cotton, V E

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanism is utilised by approximately 10% of human tumours and a higher proportion of some types of sarcomas. ALT+ cell lines and tumours show heterogeneous telomere length, extra-chromosomal circular and linear telomeric DNA, ALT associated promyelocytic bodies (APBs), a high frequency of post-replication exchanges in telomeres (designated as telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, T-SCE) and high instability at a GC-rich minisatellite, MS32 (D1S8). It is clear that there is a link between the minisatellite instability and the mechanism that underpins ALT, however currently the nature of this relationship is uncertain. Single molecule analysis of telomeric DNA from ALT+ cell lines and tumours has revealed complex telomere mutations that have not been seen in cell lines or tumours that express telomerase. These complex telomere mutations cannot be explained by T-SCE but must arise by another inter-molecular process. The break-induced replication (BIR) model that may explain the observed high frequency of T-SCE and the presence of complex telomere mutations is reviewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  7. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  8. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  9. Information Cost, Memory Length and Market Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diks, Cees; Li, Xindan; Wu, Chengyao

    2018-07-01

    In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability. A second, related, goal is to study the way markets absorb new information, especially when the market is unstable and the price is far from being fully informative. We find that the dynamics become locally unstable and prices may deviate far from the fundamental price, routing to chaos through bifurcation, with increasing information costs or decreasing memory length of the uninformed traders.

  10. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  11. Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...

  12. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  13. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  14. Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; Apel, Robert; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja; Van Wilsem, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the relationship between imprisonment length and employment outcomes. The data are a unique prospective, longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees (N = 702). All subjects thus experience prison confinement of varying lengths, although the durations are relatively short

  15. Optical Arc-Length Sensor For TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed subsystem of tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding system measures length of welding arc optically. Viewed by video camera, in one of three alternative optical configurations. Length of arc measured instead of inferred from voltage.

  16. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  17. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  18. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  19. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  20. Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length and the Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, Laila; Wang, Biqi; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length...... at baseline was 6.95±0.57 kb. During 15.1±4.2 years mean follow-up, 184 participants (64 women) developed AF. Chronological age was associated with increased risk of AF (hazard ratio per 10-year increase, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-2.72). There was no significant association between LTL and incident...... evidence for a significant association between LTL and risk of incident AF....

  1. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, L.; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    style. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two groups of men with negative (n = 97) and positive (n = 93) change in cognitive performance were selected from a birth cohort of 1985 Danish men born in 1953. Cognitive performance of each individual was assessed at age similar to 20 and 56 years. Leukocyte...... telomere length at age similar to 58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte...... telomere length than men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol (adjusted...

  2. Simulated biologic intelligence used to predict length of stay and survival of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, K E; Izenberg, S D; Williams, M D; Luterman, A

    1996-01-01

    From July 13, 1988, to May 14, 1995, 1585 patients with burns and no other injuries besides inhalation were treated; 4.5% did not survive. Artificial neural networks were trained on patient presentation data with known outcomes on 90% of the randomized cases. The remaining cases were then used to predict survival and length of stay in cases not trained on. Survival was predicted with more than 98% accuracy and length of stay to within a week with 72% accuracy in these cases. For anatomic area involved by burn, burns involving the feet, scalp, or both had the largest negative effect on the survival prediction. In survivors burns involving the buttocks, transport to this burn center by the military or by helicopter, electrical burns, hot tar burns, and inhalation were associated with increasing the length of stay prediction. Neural networks can be used to accurately predict the clinical outcome of a burn. What factors affect that prediction can be investigated.

  3. Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.

  4. Critical lengths of error events in convolutional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    1994-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  5. Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  6. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet is an ancient legume species whose immature pods serve as a vegetable in south and south-east Asia. The objective of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with quantitative traits such as inflorescence length, peduncle length from branch to axil, peduncle length from ...

  7. How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...

  8. Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Sparidae along the. Kenyan coast are unknown. This study investigated the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830, a sparid, found in. Malindi, Kenya, from June to August 2008. The length-weight coefficients ...

  9. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,

  10. Advantages and risks in increasing cyclone separator length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, AC; de Groot, M; Peng, W; Dries, HWA; Kater, J

    The effect of cyclone length on separation efficiency and pressure drop has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by varying the length of the cylindrical segment of a cylinder-on-cone cyclone. Experimental results based on cyclone lengths from 2.65 to 6.15 cyclone diameters showed a

  11. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  12. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Infinite coherence time of edge spins in finite-length chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceira, Ivo A.; Mila, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the recent observation that exponentially long coherence times can be achieved for edge spins in models with strong zero modes, we study the impact of level crossings in finite-length spin chains on the dynamics of the edge spins. Focusing on the X Y spin-1 /2 chain with a transverse or longitudinal magnetic field, two models relevant to understanding recent experimental results on cobalt adatoms, we show that the edge spins can remain coherent for an infinite time even for a finite-length chain if the magnetic field is tuned to a value at which there is a level crossing. Furthermore, we show that the edge spins remain coherent for any initial state for the integrable case of a transverse field because all states have level crossings at the same value of the field, while the coherence time is increasingly large for lower temperatures in the case of a longitudinal field, which is nonintegrable.

  14. Numerical modelling of the flow and isotope separation in centrifuge Iguasu for different lengths of the rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N. [National Research Nuclear University, “MEPhI” Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Numerical modelling and optimization of the gas flow and isotope separation in the Iguasu gas centrifuge (GC) for uranium enrichment have been performed for different lengths of the rotor. The calculations show that the specific separative power of the GC reduces with the length of the rotor. We show that the reduction of the specific separative power is connected with the growth of the pressure in the optimal regime and corresponding growth of temperature to prevent the working gas sublimation. The specific separative power remains constant with the growth of the rotor length provided that the temperature of the gas is taken to be constant.

  15. Asymptotically optimum multialternative sequential procedures for discernment of processes minimizing average length of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of multialternative sequential discernment of processes is formulated in terms of conditionally optimum procedures minimizing the average length of observations, without any probabilistic assumptions about any one occurring process, rather than in terms of Bayes procedures minimizing the average risk. The problem is to find the procedure that will transform inequalities into equalities. The problem is formulated for various models of signal observation and data processing: (1) discernment of signals from background interference by a multichannel system; (2) discernment of pulse sequences with unknown time delay; (3) discernment of harmonic signals with unknown frequency. An asymptotically optimum sequential procedure is constructed which compares the statistics of the likelihood ratio with the mean-weighted likelihood ratio and estimates the upper bound for conditional average lengths of observations. This procedure is shown to remain valid as the upper bound for the probability of erroneous partial solutions decreases approaching zero and the number of hypotheses increases approaching infinity. It also remains valid under certain special constraints on the probability such as a threshold. A comparison with a fixed-length procedure reveals that this sequential procedure decreases the length of observations to one quarter, on the average, when the probability of erroneous partial solutions is low.

  16. The shifting trajectory of growth in femur length during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Ashild; Johnsen, Synnøve L; Nguyen, Tuan V; Kiserud, Torvid; Seeman, Ego

    2010-05-01

    Bone size is a determinant of bone strength and tracks in its percentile of origin during childhood and adolescence. We hypothesized that the ranking of an individual's femur length (FL) is established in early gestation and tracks thereafter. Fetal FL was measured serially using 2D ultrasound in 625 Norwegian fetuses. Tracking was assessed using Pearson correlation, a generalized estimating equation model, and by calculating the proportion of fetuses whose FL remained within the same quartile. Baseline FL Z-score (weeks 10 to 19) and later measurements correlated, but more weakly as gestation advanced: r = 0.59 (weeks 20 to 26); r = 0.45 (weeks 27 to 33); and r = 0.32 (weeks 34 to 39) (p baseline FL Z-score, placental weight (150 g), maternal height (5 cm), and weight (10 kg), was associated with a 0.25, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.05 SD higher FL Z-score at the end of gestation, respectively (p ranging from <0.001 to 0.02). Tracking within the same percentile throughout the whole of gestation, as suggest by growth charts, is uncommon. Deviation from tracking is more common and is the result of changes in growth velocity within and between fetuses and is partly influenced by maternal, fetal, and placental factors. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-02-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  18. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  19. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  20. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  1. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  2. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  3. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  4. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  5. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  6. Automated path length and M56 measurements at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M 56 ) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 μs pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M 56 has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control

  7. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2014-01-24

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.

  8. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length and personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, R; Suzuki, A; Enokido, M; Matsumoto, Y; Shibuya, N; Kamata, M; Goto, K; Otani, K

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects. The subjects were 209 unrelated healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th-5th grade. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of neuroticism (Ppersonality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental and modeling study on relation of pedestrian step length and frequency under different headways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Cao, Shuchao; Liu, Chi; Song, Weiguo

    2018-06-01

    It is important to study pedestrian stepping behavior and characteristics for facility design and pedestrian flow study due to pedestrians' bipedal movement. In this paper, data of steps are extracted based on trajectories of pedestrians from a single-file experiment. It is found that step length and step frequency will decrease 75% and 33%, respectively, when global density increases from 0.46 ped/m to 2.28 ped/m. With the increment of headway, they will first increase and then remain constant when the headway is beyond 1.16 m and 0.91 m, respectively. Step length and frequency under different headways can be described well by normal distributions. Meanwhile, relationships between step length and frequency under different headways exist. Step frequency decreases with the increment of step length. However, the decrease tendencies depend on headways as a whole. And there are two decrease tendencies: when the headway is between about 0.6 m and 1.0 m, the decrease rate of the step frequency will increase with the increment of step length; while it will decrease when the headway is beyond about 1.0 m and below about 0.6 m. A model is built based on the experiment results. In fundamental diagrams, the results of simulation agree well with those of experiment. The study can be helpful for understanding pedestrian stepping behavior and designing public facilities.

  10. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  11. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  13. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  14. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  15. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  16. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  17. Thermal significance of fission-track length distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The semi-analytical solution of an equation describing the production and shortening of fission tracks in apatite suggests that certain thermal histories have unique length-distribution 'signatures'. Isothermal-heating histories should be characterized by flattened, length-shortened distributions; step-heating histories should be characterized by bimodal track length distributions; and linear-cooling histories should be characterized by negatively skewed, length-shortened distributions. The model formulated here to investigate track length distributions can be used to constrain the thermal histories of natural samples for which unbiased track length data are available - provided that the geologic history of the system of interest can be used to partially constrain one of the unknowns in the model equations, time or temperature. (author)

  18. Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.

    1997-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, Ol'ga V

    2009-01-01

    By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  20. Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign

  1. Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)

  2. Cervical length measurement: comparison of transabdominal and transvaginal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue C; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    2015-01-01

    to external cervical os. Bland- Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate differences between TA and TV measurements. Results: The validity of the TA method depended on cervical length. Although the TA method underestimated cervical length by 2.0 mm on average (P ... plots showed an inverse trend with shorter cervixes. In women with a cervix test to detect cervical length

  3. Potts ferromagnet correlation length in hypercubic lattices: Renormalization - group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, E.M.F.; Hauser, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Through a real space renormalization group approach, the q-state Potts ferromagnet correlation length on hierarchical lattices is calculated. These hierarchical lattices are build in order to simulate hypercubic lattices. The high-and-low temperature correlation length asymptotic behaviours tend (in the Ising case) to the Bravais lattice correlation length ones when the size of the hierarchical lattice cells tends to infinity. It is conjectured that the asymptotic behaviours several values of q and d (dimensionality) so obtained are correct. Numerical results are obtained for the full temperature range of the correlation length. (Author) [pt

  4. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  5. Universal and idiosyncratic characteristic lengths in bacterial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Ivan; Frémont, Paul; Rivoire, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes. Since bacteria live in very different physico-chemical conditions and since their genomes lack translational invariance, whether larger, universal characteristic lengths exist is a non-trivial question. Here, we examine this problem by leveraging the large number of fully sequenced genomes available in public databases. By analyzing GC content correlations and the evolutionary conservation of gene contexts (synteny) in hundreds of bacterial chromosomes, we conclude that a fundamental characteristic length around 10–20 kb can be defined. This characteristic length reflects elementary structures involved in the coordination of gene expression, which are present all along the genome of nearly all bacteria. Technically, reaching this conclusion required us to implement methods that are insensitive to the presence of large idiosyncratic genomic features, which may co-exist along these fundamental universal structures.

  6. The relationship of protein conservation and sequence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Anna R

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins. However, additional evolutionary forces that affect the length of a protein may be revealed by studying the length distributions of proteins evolving under weaker functional constraints. Results We performed sequence comparisons to distinguish highly conserved and poorly conserved proteins from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. For all organisms studied, the conserved and nonconserved proteins have strikingly different length distributions. The conserved proteins are, on average, longer than the poorly conserved ones, and the length distributions for the poorly conserved proteins have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the conserved proteins whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. For the two prokaryotes studied, the poorly conserved proteins approximate the minimal length distribution expected for a diverse range of structural folds. Conclusions There is a relationship between protein conservation and sequence length. For all the organisms studied, there seems to be a significant evolutionary trend favoring shorter proteins in the absence of other, more specific functional constraints.

  7. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  8. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  9. Concentration and length dependence of DNA looping in transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Han

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, transcriptional regulation involves the binding of transcription factors at sites on the DNA that are not immediately adjacent to the promoter of interest. This action at a distance is often mediated by the formation of DNA loops: Binding at two or more sites on the DNA results in the formation of a loop, which can bring the transcription factor into the immediate neighborhood of the relevant promoter. These processes are important in settings ranging from the historic bacterial examples (bacterial metabolism and the lytic-lysogeny decision in bacteriophage, to the modern concept of gene regulation to regulatory processes central to pattern formation during development of multicellular organisms. Though there have been a variety of insights into the combinatorial aspects of transcriptional control, the mechanism of DNA looping as an agent of combinatorial control in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes remains unclear. We use single-molecule techniques to dissect DNA looping in the lac operon. In particular, we measure the propensity for DNA looping by the Lac repressor as a function of the concentration of repressor protein and as a function of the distance between repressor binding sites. As with earlier single-molecule studies, we find (at least two distinct looped states and demonstrate that the presence of these two states depends both upon the concentration of repressor protein and the distance between the two repressor binding sites. We find that loops form even at interoperator spacings considerably shorter than the DNA persistence length, without the intervention of any other proteins to prebend the DNA. The concentration measurements also permit us to use a simple statistical mechanical model of DNA loop formation to determine the free energy of DNA looping, or equivalently, the for looping.

  10. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  11. Length of Residence and Vehicle Ownership in Relation to Physical Activity Among U.S. Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale; Ornelas, India; Saelens, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity among U.S. immigrants over time is not well understood. Transportation may affect this trajectory. Using a survey of documented immigrants (N = 7240), we performed simple, then multivariable logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95 % CIs between length of residence (LOR) and both light-to-moderate (LPA) and vigorous (VPA) activity. We adjusted for demographic variables, then vehicle ownership to assess changes in ORs. Compared to new arrivals, all four LOR time-intervals were associated with lower odds of LPA and higher odds of VPA in simple analysis. All ORs for LPA remained significant after including demographics, but only one remained significant after adding vehicle ownership. Two ORs for VPA remained significant after including demographics and after adding vehicle ownership. Immigrants lower their light-to-moderate activity the longer they reside in the U.S., partly from substituting driving for walking. Efforts to maintain walking for transportation among immigrants are warranted.

  12. Axial length elongation in adults with long-standing unilateral traumatic cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral eye elongation with resultant axial myopia has been reported to occur secondary to visual deprivation from birth or early childhood. Acquired axial length elongation secondary to visual deprivation in adults has rarely been reported. Aim: To report acquired axial myopia in adults with visual deprivation due to long-standing unilateral traumatic cataract. Methods: Eleven consecutive adult patients who presented for cataract surgery with unilateral, long-standing, mature, traumatic cataracts and an interocular axial length difference of more than 1 mm were studied. Patients with a post-operative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of < 6/12 were excluded to rule out possible pre-existing anisometropic amblyopia. Results: Of the 11 patients with significant interocular axial length difference, 5 patients were excluded on the basis of possible pre-existing amblyopia. The remaining 6 patients had final BCVA of 6/12 or better. The median length of the cataractous eyes was 2.83 mm longer than the fellow eyes (range 1.12 mm – 3.52 mm. The intraocular lens power required for emmetropia was 6.8 dioptres (range 3.5 dioptres – 11.5 dioptres less in the cataractous eyes. A refractive outcome within 1 dioptre of the target refraction was achieved in all patients. The median delay between ocular trauma and cataract surgery was 20 years (range 8–24 years. Conclusion: Significant unilateral axial length elongation may occur in adults with longstanding traumatic cataracts and visual deprivation. A potential correlation may exist between delay to surgery and degree of axial length difference. This rare phenomenon must be considered when determining intraocular lens power to avoid post-operative refractive surprises.

  13. Quantitative relationship between nanotube length and anodizing current during constant current anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulian; Cheng, Weijie; Du, Fei; Zhang, Shaoyu; Ma, Weihua; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti anodization was performed by constant current rather than constant voltage. • The nanotube length was controlled by ionic current rather than dissolution current. • Electronic current can be estimated by the nanotube length and the anodizing current. • Dissolution reaction hardly contributes electric current across the barrier layer. - Abstract: The growth kinetics of anodic TiO 2 nanotubes (ATNTs) still remains unclear. ATNTs are generally fabricated under potentiostatic conditions rather than galvanostatic ones. The quantitative relationship between nanotube length and anodizing current (J total ) is difficult to determine, because the variable J total includes ionic current (J ion ) (also called oxide growth current J grow =J ion ) and electronic current (J e ), which cannot be separated from each other. One successful approach to achieve this objective is to use constant current anodization rather than constant voltage anodization, that is, through quantitative comparison between the nanotube length and the known J total during constant current anodization, we can estimate the relative magnitudes of J grow and J e . The nanotubes with lengths of 1.24, 2.23, 3.51 and 4.70 μm, were formed under constant currents (J total ) of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mA, respectively. The relationship between nanotube length (y) and anodizing current (x =J total =J grow +J e ) can be expressed by a fitting equation: y=0.23(x-10.13), from which J grow (J grow = x -10.13) and J e (∼10.13 mA) could be inferred under the present conditions. Meanwhile, the same conclusion could also be deduced from the oxide volume data. These results indicate that the nanotube growth is attributed to the oxide growth current rather than the dissolution current.

  14. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  15. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  16. The potential and biological test on cloned cassava crop remains on local sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, R.; Umar, S.; Hanum, C.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at knowing the potential of cloned cassava crop remains dry matter and the impact of the feeding of the cloned cassava crop remains based complete feed on the consumption, the body weight gain, and the feed conversion of the local male sheep with the average of initial body weight of 7.75±1.75 kg. The design applied in the first stage research was random sampling method with two frames of tile and the second stage research applied Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three (3) treatments and four (4) replicates. These treatments consisted of P1 (100% grass); P2 (50% grass, 50% complete feed pellet); P3 (100% complete feed from the raw material of cloned cassava crop remaining). Statistical tests showed that the feeding of complete feed whose raw material was from cloned cassava crop remains gave a highly significant impact on decreasing feed consumption, increasing body weight, lowering feed conversion, and increasing crude protein digestibility. The conclusion is that the cloned cassava crop remains can be used as complete sheep feed to replace green grass and can give the best result.

  17. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  18. The first Neanderthal remains from an open-air Middle Palaeolithic site in the Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ella; Hovers, Erella; Ekshtain, Ravid; Malinski-Buller, Ariel; Agha, Nuha; Barash, Alon; Mayer, Daniella E Bar-Yosef; Benazzi, Stefano; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Levin, Lihi; Greenbaum, Noam; Mitki, Netta; Oxilia, Gregorio; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel; Soudack, Michalle; Yeshurun, Reuven; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Nir, Nadav; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Rak, Yoel; Barzilai, Omry

    2017-06-07

    The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel. The hominin remains represent three individuals: EQH1, a nondiagnostic skull fragment; EQH2, an upper right third molar (RM 3 ); and EQH3, lower limb bones of a young Neandertal male. EQH2 and EQH3 constitute the first diagnostic anatomical remains of Neandertals at an open-air site in the Levant. The optically stimulated luminescence ages suggest that Neandertals repeatedly visited 'Ein Qashish between 70 and 60 ka. The discovery of Neandertals at open-air sites during the late MP reinforces the view that Neandertals were a resilient population in the Levant shortly before Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens populated the region.

  19. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  1. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  3. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  4. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  5. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  6. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate a...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...... on the interactions between humans and past plant communities....

  7. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  8. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  9. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  10. Effects of Huge Earthquakes on Earth Rotation and the length of Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the co-seismic Earth rotation changes for several typical great earthquakes since 1960 based on Dahlen¡¦s analytical expression of Earth inertia moment change, the excitation functions of polar motion and, variation in the length of a day (ΔLOD. Then, we derived a mathematical relation between polar motion and earthquake parameters, to prove that the amplitude of polar motion is independent of longitude. Because the analytical expression of Dahlen¡¦s theory is useful to theoretically estimate rotation changes by earthquakes having different seismic parameters, we show results for polar motion and ΔLOD for various types of earthquakes in a comprehensive manner. The modeled results show that the seismic effect on the Earth¡¦s rotation decreases gradually with increased latitude if other parameters are unchanged. The Earth¡¦s rotational change is symmetrical for a 45° dip angle and the maximum changes appear at the equator and poles. Earthquakes at a medium dip angle and low latitudes produce large rotation changes. As an example, we calculate the polar motion and ΔLOD caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake using two different fault models. Results show that a fine slip fault model is useful to compute co-seismic Earth rotation change. The obtained results indicate Dahlen¡¦s method gives good approximations for computation of co-seismic rotation changes, but there are some differences if one considers detailed fault slip distributions. Finally we analyze and discuss the co-seismic Earth rotation change signal using GRACE data, showing that such a signal is hard to be detected at present, but it might be detected under some conditions. Numerical results of this study will serve as a good indicator to check if satellite observations such as GRACE can detect a seismic rotation change when a great earthquake occur.

  11. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  12. The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  13. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  14. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  16. Design Matters: The Impact of CAPI on Interview Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…

  17. length-weight relationship of hepsetus odoe in lapai - agaie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Usman

    biometric relationship so that data collected from the field can be transform into appropriate indices (Ecoutin et al., 2005). Length and weight are two useful parameters used especially in fisheries assessment. This relationship known as length-weight relationship (LWR), is commonly used in the analysis of fisheries data.

  18. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  19. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...

  20. A Small Crack Length Evaluation Technique by Electronic Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The results of crack evaluation by conventional UT(Ultrasonic Test)is highly depend on the inspector's experience or knowledge of ultrasound. Phased array UT system and its application methods for small crack length evaluation will be a good alternative method which overcome present UT weakness. This study was aimed at checking the accuracy of crack length evaluation method by electronic scanning and discuss about characteristics of electronic scanning for crack length evaluation. Especially ultrasonic phased array with electronic scan technique was used in carrying out both sizing and detect ability of crack as its length changes. The response of ultrasonic phased array was analyzed to obtain the special method of determining crack length without moving the transducer and detectability of crack minimal length and depth from the material. A method of crack length determining by electronic scanning for the small crack is very real method which has it's accuracy and verify the effectiveness of method compared to a conventional crack length determination

  1. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON CYCLE LENGTH IN ATRIAL-FLUTTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, MP; CRIJNS, HJGM; SZABO, BM; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    Objective-To examine the effect of exercise on cycle length in atrial flutter. Patients-15 patients with chronic atrial flutter. Seven patients were taking digoxin and six verapamil; two were not taking medication. Methods-All patients underwent bicycle ergometry. Flutter cycle length was measured

  2. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...

  3. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  4. Optimization of fracture length in gas/condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.; Sharma, M.M.; Pope, G.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A common practice that improves the productivity of gas-condensate reservoirs is hydraulic fracturing. Two important variables that determine the effectiveness of hydraulic fractures are fracture length and fracture conductivity. Although there are no simple guidelines for the optimization of fracture length and the factors that affect it, it is preferable to have an optimum fracture length for a given proppant volume in order to maximize productivity. An optimization study was presented in which fracture length was estimated at wells where productivity was maximized. An analytical expression that takes into account non-Darcy flow and condensate banking was derived. This paper also reviewed the hydraulic fracturing process and discussed previous simulation studies that investigated the effects of well spacing and fracture length on well productivity in low permeability gas reservoirs. The compositional simulation study and results and discussion were also presented. The analytical expression for optimum fracture length, analytical expression with condensate dropout, and equations for the optimum fracture length with non-Darcy flow in the fracture were included in an appendix. The Computer Modeling Group's GEM simulator, an equation-of-state compositional simulator, was used in this study. It was concluded that for cases with non-Darcy flow, the optimum fracture lengths are lower than those obtained with Darcy flow. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 22 figs., 1 appendix.

  5. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  6. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  7. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...

  8. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  9. Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…

  10. Prediction of the mixing length in effluent transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have been performed on estimating the transverse mixing length of effluents discharged into rivers. The proposed method is based on measured values of the dispersion coefficient. Field investigations were carried out in the River Vistula in the Warsaw area using radiotracer methods. The procedure can be used for predicting the mixing length in designing sewage systems. (author)

  11. Climate reconstructions derived from global glacier length records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, E.J.; Oerlemans, J.

    2004-01-01

    As glacier length fluctuations provide useful information about past climate, we derived historic fluctuations in the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) on the basis of 19 glacier length records from different parts of the world. We used a model that takes into account the geometry of the glacier,

  12. Comparison of digital radiography and apex locator with the conventional method in root length determination of primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E Neena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the Working length in primary teeth endodontics using intra oral digital radiovisiography and apex locator with conventional method for accuracy. Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 30 primary teeth which were indicated for pulpectomy in the patients of the age group of 5-11 years All experimental teeth had adequate remaining tooth structure for rubber dam isolation and radiographicaly visible canals. Endodontic treatment was required due to irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis. A standardized intraoral periapical radiograph of the tooth was taken using conventional method by paralleling technique. The distance between the source and the tooth, tooth and the films were standardized using X-ray positioning device. During the pulpectomy procedure, the working length was determined by digital radiograph and apex locator. The measurements were then compared with the conventional method of root canal measurement technique for accuracy Result: From the results obtained we can conclude that Working length determined in primary molars using digital radiography and Apex locator did not show any significant difference in the mean working length measurements when compared with the conventional radiographic method. Conclusions: Apex locator is comparable to conventional radiograph in determining the working length without radiation in the primary teeth. Intraoral digital radiography is the safest method in determining the working length with significant reduction in radiation exposure.Hence, both the techniques can be safely used as alternatives to conventional radiographic methods in determining working length in primary teeth.

  13. The association between intelligence and telomere length: a longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Kingma

    Full Text Available Low intelligence has been associated with poor health and mortality, but underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that low intelligence is associated with accelerated biological ageing as reflected by telomere length; we suggested potential mediation of this association by unhealthy behaviors and low socioeconomic position. The study was performed in a longitudinal population-based cohort study of 895 participants (46.8% males. Intelligence was measured with the Generalized Aptitude-Test Battery at mean age 52.8 years (33-79 years, SD=11.3. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by PCR. Lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were assessed using written self-report measures. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and telomere length measured at the first assessment wave (T1, showed that low intelligence was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length at approximately 2 years follow-up (beta= .081, t=2.160, p= .031. Nearly 40% of this association was explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, while low socioeconomic position did not add any significant mediation. Low intelligence may be a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, thereby providing an explanation for its association with poor health and mortality.

  14. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  15. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  16. Impact of Cyclic Prefix length on OFDM system Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study on the impact of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) length on the downlink Capacity in a base-band synchronized SISO-OFDM context. To measure this impact, the capacity, measured in bits per second per hertz, is chosen as quality parameter. The study shows how the lengthening of the CP......) the useful OFDM symbol duration, 2) the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver and 3) the channel Power Delay Profile (PDP). Depending on the values of these parameters different optimum CP lengths are obtained. For a system using only one value of CP length we suggest an optimum value to be 4us...... for an OFDM symbol length of 40us and 6us for an OFDM symbol length of 80us....

  17. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Goodman, Brett Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  20. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  1. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  2. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... religious leaders of all Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations: (i) From whose tribal lands, at... objects; (ii) The names and appropriate methods to contact any traditional religious leaders who should be...

  3. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-07-12

    Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. A four-year-old female lizard E. macularius was evaluated due to a subcutaneous tumor in the occipito-pterional portion behind its right eye. A solid tumor beneath the skin was surgically enucleated under general anesthesia. Then, the ulcerated skin was dissected away together with the tumor. The necrotic edge of the remaining skin flap was carefully trimmed to leave as much of the pigmented portions as possible on the outskirt of the skin flap. The scar was covered with the remaining skin flap, and the uncovered lesion was protected with Vaseline containing gentamicin. The lesion was rapidly covered with regenerated dermis within a week, and the epidermis with round and well-oriented pigmented spots were almost completely restored in four months. The surgical suture of the skin flap after removal of the ulcerated margins resulted in the scar-free regeneration of the scales and the pigmented spots. And the pigmented spots of the remaining skin close to the lesion site might be a source of the regenerated spots.

  4. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  5. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  6. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  7. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  8. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys

    2014-09-01

    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  9. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  10. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  11. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  12. Editorial Forestry faces big issues to remain sustainable — a role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantation forestry remains an attractive land use, both from an economic perspective through the production of costeffective wood and from a sustainable development perspective through the generation of jobs in rural areas. The forest industry directly employs over 100 000 people and if one considers that all of plantation ...

  13. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  14. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Mexico; and Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. History and Description of the Remains Upon preparation for... Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION...-10909, February 20, 2001). The Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of...

  15. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  16. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  17. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  18. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  20. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  1. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  3. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  4. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  5. Mammalian remains from an Indian site on Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1963-01-01

    The animal remains (mostly of shells, fish, and turtles) collected by Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY at the Indian site Sint Jan II, Curaçao, in March, 1960, include a few specimens of mammals. As was the case with the Indian site Santa Cruz, on Aruba (HOOIJER, 1960), several forms are

  6. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisions in a will or advanced directive... Decreased United States Citizen Or National § 72.30 Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include...

  7. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding Registered Nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between Registered Nurses' motivation for entering the profession, occupational commitment and intent to remain with an employer until retirement. Identifying and supporting nurses who are strongly committed to their profession may be the single most influential intervention in combating the nursing shortage. An understanding of the characteristics these individuals possess could lead to a decline in the high attrition rates plaguing the profession. Using a survey design, Registered Nurses enrolled at the school of nursing and/or employed at the associated university medical centre of a large, not-for-profit state university were polled in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the variables of motivation for entry and occupational commitment could indicate intent to remain. The strongest indicators of intent to remain were normative commitment and age, with a 70% average rate of correctly estimating retention. Exp(B) values for normative commitment (1·09) and age (1·07) indicated that for each one-point increase on the normative commitment scale or one-point increase in age, the odds of remaining with an employer until retirement increased by 1·1%. Transformational changes in healthcare environments and nursing schools must be made to encourage loyalty and obligation, the hallmarks of normative commitment. Retention strategies should accommodate mature nurses as well as promote normative commitment in younger nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  9. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  10. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of remaining behavior of halogen on the fabrication of MOX pellet containing Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoko; Osaka, Masahiko; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2004-11-01

    It is important to limit the content of halogen elements, namely fluorine and chlorine that are sources of making cladding material corrode, in nuclear fuel from the viewpoint of quality assurance. The halogen content should be more carefully limited in the MOX fuel containing Americium (Am-MOX), which is fabricated in the Alpha-Gamma Facility (AGF) for irradiation testing to be conducted in the experimental fast reactor JOYO, because fluorine may remain in the sintered pellets owing to a formation of AmF 3 known to have a low vapor pressure and may exceeds the limit of 25 ppm. In this study, a series of experimental determination of halogen element in Am-MOX were performed by a combination method of pyrolysis and ion-chromatography for the purpose of an evaluation of behavior of remaining halogen through the sintering process. Oxygen potential, temperature and time were changed as experimental parameters and their effects on the remaining behavior of halogen were examined. It was confirmed that good pellets, which contained small amount of halogen, could be obtained by the sintering for 3 hour at 1700degC in the oxygen potential range from -520 to -390 kJ/mol. In order to analysis of fluorine chemical form in green pellet, thermal analysis was performed. AmF 3 and PuF 3 have been confirmed to remain in the green pellet. (author)

  12. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  13. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  14. Highly efficient full-length hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (strain TN) infectious culture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Jensen, Sanne B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. In the United States, most HCV-related disease is associated with genotype 1 infection, which remains difficult to treat. Drug and vaccine development was hampered by inability to culture...... full-length TN infection dose-dependently. Given the unique importance of genotype 1 for pathogenesis, this infectious 1a culture system represents an important advance in HCV research. The approach used and the mutations identified might permit culture development for other HCV isolates, thus......) culture systems in Huh7.5 cells. Here, we developed a highly efficient genotype 1a (strain TN) full-length culture system. We initially found that the LSG substitutions conferred viability to an intergenotypic recombinant composed of TN 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-NS5A and JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR; recovered...

  15. The length of teeth : A statistical analysis of the differences in length of human teeth for radiologic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.W.; Aken, J. van; Weerdt, G.P. van der

    Intraoral radiograms can be made according to the long tube paralleling technique utilizing aiming devices. An important factor in the design of these instruments is the length of the teeth to be radiographed. Reliable data regarding the length of the teeth in the different regions of the mouth are

  16. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  17. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other

  18. Variability in word reading performance of dyslexic readers: effects of letter length, phoneme length and digraph presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    The marked word-length effect in dyslexic children suggests the use of a letter-by-letter reading strategy. Such a strategy should make it more difficult to infer the sound of digraphs. Our main aim was to disentangle length and digraph-presence effects in word and pseudoword reading. In addition,

  19. Unchanged incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in a tertiary neonatal department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Nielsen, Anne Lysbeck; Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    was to determine our local incidence of NEC from 1996 to 2009. METHODS: The data in departmental clinical database containing information about admissions in the 1996-2009 period was compared with data in the Danish Patient Registry. Inconsistencies were resolved by reviewing the clinical records. The population...

  20. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  1. 'Being hit was normal': Teachers' (un)changing perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global and national concerns that corporal punishment is still being used, openly in certain milieus and surreptitiously in others, suggests that education stakeholders need to take cognisance of teachers' perceptions and experiences that influence their classroom discipline in the context of changing curriculum policies and ...

  2. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  3. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  4. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  5. Information content versus word length in random typing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that a linear relationship between a measure of information content and word length is expected from word length optimization and it has been shown that this linearity is supported by a strong correlation between information content and word length in many languages (Piantadosi et al 2011 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108 3825). Here, we study in detail some connections between this measure and standard information theory. The relationship between the measure and word length is studied for the popular random typing process where a text is constructed by pressing keys at random from a keyboard containing letters and a space behaving as a word delimiter. Although this random process does not optimize word lengths according to information content, it exhibits a linear relationship between information content and word length. The exact slope and intercept are presented for three major variants of the random typing process. A strong correlation between information content and word length can simply arise from the units making a word (e.g., letters) and not necessarily from the interplay between a word and its context as proposed by Piantadosi and co-workers. In itself, the linear relation does not entail the results of any optimization process. (letter)

  6. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  7. Evaluation of Efficient Line Lengths for Better Readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the major findings of a formal experiment about onscreen text line lengths are presented. The experiment examined the effects of four different line lengths on the reading speed and the reading efficiency. Efficiency is defined as a combination of reading speed and accuracy. Sixteen people between the age of 24 and 36 participated at the experiment. The subjects had to read four different texts with an average line length around 2000 characters. The texts contained substitution words, which had to be detected by the subjects to measure reading accuracy. Besides objective measures like reading speed and accuracy, the subjects were asked to subjectively vote on their reading experience. The results from our objective measures show strong similarities to those of the work done previously by different researchers. The absolute reading speed grows when the line length grows from CPL (Characters Per Line 30-120. The measured reading efficiency, however, doesn\\\\\\'t grow steadily, although a growing trend can be seen. This is due to the fact, that the test persons found in average more substitution words from the 60 CPL text than they did from the 30 and 90 CPL texts. The reading speed seems to increase while the line length increases but the overall comprehension seems to peak at medium line lengths. As in the previous studies, our test persons also prefer the medium (60 and 90 CPL line lengths, although they perform better when reading longer lines. In the overall subjective opinion 13 out of 16 test persons selected the 60 or 90 CPL line length as their favorite. The literature doesn\\\\\\'t truly provide a scientific explanation for the difference between the objective performance and the subjective preference. A natural hypothesis would be that the line length that is the fastest to read would also feel most comfortable to the readers but in the light of this and the earlier research it seems like this is not the case.

  8. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  9. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  10. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  11. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  12. Combined radiographic and anthropological approaches to victim identification of partially decomposed or skeletal remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, C.; O'Connor, J.E.; McNulty, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Victim identification is the priority in any scenario involving the discovery of single or multiple human remains for both humanitarian and legal reasons. Such remains may be incomplete and in various stages of decomposition. In such scenarios radiography contributes to both primary and secondary methods of identification; the comparison of ante-mortem dental radiographs to post-mortem findings is a primary identification method whereas the analysis of post-mortem skeletal radiographs to help create a biological profile and identify other individuating features is a secondary method of identification. This review will introduce and explore aspects of victim identification with a focus on the anthropological and radiography-based virtual anthropology approaches to establishing a biological profile, identifying other individuating factors and ultimately restoring an individual's identity. It will highlight the potential contribution that radiography, and radiographers, can make to the identification process and contribute to increasing awareness amongst radiographers of the value of their professional role in such investigations

  13. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  14. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  15. DNA analyses of the remains of the Prince Branciforte Barresi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, O; Martínez-Labarga, C; Favaro, M; Frezza, D; Mallegni, F

    2001-01-01

    The five skeletons found buried in the church of Militello di Catania, Sicily, were tentatively identified by morphological analysis and historical reports as the remains of Prince Branciforte Barresi, two of his children, his brother and another juvenile member of the family (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). In order to attempt to clarify the degree of relationships of the five skeletons, sex testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable segments I and II (HV1 and HV2) of control region were performed. Moreover, the 9 bp-deletion marker of region V (COII/tRNAlys) was examined. Molecular genetic analyses were consistent with historical expectations, although they did not directly demonstrate that these are in fact the remains of the Prince and his relatives, due to the impossibility of obtaining DNA from living maternal relatives of the Prince.

  16. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  17. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  18. Regulatory perspective on remaining challenges for utilization of pharmacogenomics-guided drug developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Yasuto; Ishiguro, Akihiro; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics-guided drug development has been implemented in practice in the last decade, resulting in increased labeling of drugs with pharmacogenomic information. However, there are still many challenges remaining in utilizing this process. Here, we describe such remaining challenges from the regulatory perspective, specifically focusing on sample collection, biomarker qualification, ethnic factors, codevelopment of companion diagnostics and means to provide drugs for off-target patients. To improve the situation, it is important to strengthen international harmonization and collaboration among academia, industries and regulatory agencies, followed by the establishment of an international guideline on this topic. Communication with a regulatory agency from an early stage of drug development is also a key to success.

  19. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  20. Length Contraction Should not be Independent of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In Special Theory of Relativity it looks that the length contraction along the direction of the motion is independent of time, i.e. if a rocket flies one second, or the rocket flies one year the rocket's along-the-motion length contraction is the same, since the contraction factor C (v) =√{ 1 -v2/c2 } depends on the rocket's relativistic speed (v) and on the light speed in vacuum (c) only. We find this as unrealistic, incomplete. It is logical that flying more and more it should increase the length contraction. What about the cosmic bodies that continuously travel, do they contract only once or are they continuously contracting?