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Sample records for length reduction technology

  1. Luminosity geometric reduction factor from colliding bunches with different lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In the interaction point of the future electron-Ion collider eRHIC, the electron beam bunches are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the proton beam bunches. With the introduction of a crossing angle, the actual number of collisions resulting from the bunch collision gets reduced. Here we derive the expression for the luminosity geometric reduction factor when the bunches of the two incoming beams are not equal.

  2. Development of Flow Accelerated Corrosion Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Bum; Choi, Won Yeol; Lee, Jong Chan; Lim, Dong Seok; Kwon, Byung Il; Ku, Hee Kwon; Kim, Jong Uk [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Development of flow accelerated corrosion reduction technology is necessary for prevent this kind of accidents. This study deals with development of flow accelerated corrosion reduction technology through platinum injection and developed of flow accelerated corrosion reduction technology by imitating water chemical condition in PWR secondary system in practice. In addition, in order to get reliability of water chemical simulator in PWR secondary system, analyzed and compared with test result through CFD analysis. This study composed test device that can simulate water chemical environment in PWR secondary system, in order to develop flow accelerated corrosion reduction , and evaluated the ratio of corrosion in water chemical environment in PWR secondary system. In conclusion, corrosion ratio of low alloy steel material that includes more Cr and Mo was lower. And the results were confirmed to be the maximum corrosion rate in the case that replicate the 90 elbow. Additionally, inserted Pt nano particle for developing flow accelerated corrosion rate reduction technology, the test results, it was confirmed for about 80% of the flow accelerated corrosion rate reduction than before input.

  3. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  4. Effect of digital noise reduction on the accuracy of endodontic file length determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh; Khademi, Abbas Ali; Shokraneh, Ali; Farhadi, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement accuracy of endodontic file length on periapical digital radiography after application of noise reduction digital enhancement. Thirty-five human single-rooted permanent teeth with canals measuring 20-24 mm in length were selected. ISO no.08 endodontic files were placed in the root canals of the teeth. The file lengths were measured with a digital caliper as the standard value. Standard periapical digital images were obtained using the Digora digital radiographic system and a dental X-ray unit. In order to produce the enhanced images, the noise reduction option was applied. Two blinded radiologists measured the file lengths on the original and enhanced images. The measurements were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (a=0.05). Both the original and enhanced digital images provided significantly longer measurements compared with the standard value (P 0.05). Noise reduction digital enhancement did not influence the measurement accuracy of the length of the thin endodontic files on the digital periapical radiographs despite the fact that noise reduction could result in the elimination of fine details of the images.

  5. Technology development for gene discovery and full-length sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelo Bento Soares

    2004-07-19

    In previous years, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, we developed methods for construction of normalized and subtracted cDNA libraries, and constructed hundreds of high-quality libraries for production of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). Our clones were made widely available to the scientific community through the IMAGE Consortium, and millions of ESTs were produced from our libraries either by collaborators or by our own sequencing laboratory at the University of Iowa. During this grant period, we focused on (1) the development of a method for preferential cloning of tissue-specific and/or rare transcripts, (2) its utilization to expedite EST-based gene discovery for the NIH Mouse Brain Molecular Anatomy Project, (3) further development and optimization of a method for construction of full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, and (4) modification of a plasmid vector to maximize efficiency of full-length cDNA sequencing by the transposon-mediated approach. It is noteworthy that the technology developed for preferential cloning of rare mRNAs enabled identification of over 2,000 mouse transcripts differentially expressed in the hippocampus. In addition, the method that we optimized for construction of full-length-enriched cDNA libraries was successfully utilized for the production of approximately fifty libraries from the developing mouse nervous system, from which over 2,500 full-ORF-containing cDNAs have been identified and accurately sequenced in their entirety either by our group or by the NIH-Mammalian Gene Collection Program Sequencing Team.

  6. Pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of CO, HC, and smoke emissions while maintaining acceptable NO(x) emissions without affecting fuel consumption, durability, maintainability, and safety was accomplished. Component combustor concept screening directed toward the demonstration of advanced combustor technology required to meet the EPA exhaust emissions standards for class P2 turboprop engines was covered. The combustion system for the Allison 501-D22A engine was used, and three combustor design concepts - reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel were evaluated.

  7. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  8. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  9. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  10. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  11. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  12. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  13. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motilal SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region. The poor experience shortfalls in economic welfare; gaps in access to good quality education and health care; deficiencies in the provision of physical infrastructure; and political barriers that stifle personal initiative and self-development. They are unable to participate in governance, which is necessary for a healthy democracy and peaceful development. The poverty encourages corruption, anti-social activities like drugs, smuggling, prostitution, and all sorts of deviant behavior. Poverty is considered an unacceptable human condition Moreover, despite the vast advances that are being made in the spheres of science and technology, information and communication technology(ICT , medicine, capital mobility, etc., income disparities are ever widening, both within countries and nations – world's rich and poor nations. The trends in poverty reduction have recently worsened. The population growth in the developing countries is also adding to absolute number of poor. Overcoming poverty therefore remains the single most important challenge facing those involved in the development activities. It has been recognized by all multilateral and bilateral donors involved in development assistance that expected outcomes could not be achieved in the area of poverty reduction. Poverty constrains implementation of development initiatives because the poor (the beneficiaries are not able to

  14. arXiv Strong reduction of the effective radiation length in an oriented PWO scintillator crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, L.; Romagnoni, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bagli, E.; Ballerini, G.; Berra, A.; Brizzolani, C.; Camattari, R.; De Salvador, D.; Haurylavets, V.; Mascagna, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Soldani, M.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    We measured a considerable increase of the emitted radiation by 120 GeV/c electrons in an axially oriented lead tungstate scintillator crystal, if compared to the case in which the sample was not aligned with the beam direction. This enhancement resulted from the interaction of particles with the strong crystalline electromagnetic field. The data collected at the external lines of CERN SPS were critically compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the Baier Katkov quasiclassical method, highlighting a reduction of the scintillator radiation length by a factor of five in case of beam alignment with the [001] crystal axes. The observed effect opens the way to the realization of compact electromagnetic calorimeters/detectors based on oriented scintillator crystals in which the amount of material can be strongly reduced with respect to the state of the art. These devices could have relevant applications in fixed-target experiments as well as in satellite-borne gamma-telescopes.

  15. Reduction in laboratory turnaround time decreases emergency room length of stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitin Kaushik,1 Victor S Khangulov,2 Matthew O’Hara,2 Ramy Arnaout3,4 1Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boston Strategic Partners, Inc., Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Pathology, 4Division of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA USA Objective: Laboratory tests are an important contributor to treatment decisions in the emergency department (ED. Rapid turnaround of laboratory tests can optimize ED throughout by reducing the length of stay (LOS and improving patient outcomes. Despite evidence supporting the effect of shorter turnaround time (TAT on LOS and outcomes, there is still a lack of large retrospective studies examining these associations. Here, we evaluated the effect of a reduction in laboratory TAT on ED LOS using retrospective analysis of Electronic Health Records (EHR. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of ED encounters from a large, US-based, de-identified EHR database and a separate analysis of ED encounters from the EHR of an ED at a top-tier tertiary care center were performed. Additionally, an efficiency model calculating the cumulative potential LOS time savings and resulting financial opportunity due to laboratory TAT reduction was created, assuming other factors affecting LOS are constant. Results: Multivariate regression analysis of patients from the multisite study showed that a 1-minute decrease in laboratory TAT was associated with 0.50 minutes of decrease in LOS. The single-site analysis confirmed our findings from the multisite analysis that a positive correlation between laboratory TAT and ED LOS exists in the ED population as a whole, as well as across different patient acuity levels. In addition, based on the calculations from the efficiency model, for a 5-, 10- and 15-minute TAT reduction, the single-site ED can potentially admit a total of 127, 256 and 386 additional

  16. Current status and future potential for advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, L.; Naughton, M.D.; Papaiya, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    With escalating costs for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plants, and the possibility of unavailability of disposal space, some nuclear power utilities responded by commiting to implementing advanced volume reduction (VR) systems. This paper presents recent experience to implement advanced volume reduction technologies; their performance and typical operating and capital costs. This experience in the light of current economic conditions may enable us to predict the direction that future advanced VR technology commitments is taking

  17. Evaluation of a cut-to-length system implementing fuel reduction treatments on the Coconino National Forest in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Bob Rummer; Jason Thompson

    2006-01-01

    A Cut-to-Length (CTL) system was evaluated for production and cost while implementing fuel reduction treatments in two stands on the Coconino National Forest in Arizona. Product recovery and fire behavior within each stand after treatment were also examined. Only trees less than 16 inches diameter breast height (DBH) were harvested. After logs were forwarded to a...

  18. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  19. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  20. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  1. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  2. Effects of spatially varying slip length on friction drag reduction in wall turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yosuke; Frohnapfel, Bettina; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    2011-01-01

    A series of direct numerical simulation has been made of turbulent flow over hydrophobic surfaces, which are characterized by streamwise periodic micro-grooves. By assuming that the size of micro-grooves is much smaller than the typical length-scale of near-wall turbulent structures, the dynamical boundary condition is expressed by a mobility tensor, which relates the slip velocity and the surface shear stress. Based on the derived mathematical relationship between the friction drag and different dynamical contributions, it is shown how the turbulence contribution can be extracted and analyzed.

  3. Reduction of parasitic interferences in digital holographic microscopy by numerically decreased coherence length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmeier, S.; Langehanenberg, P.; von Bally, G.; Kemper, B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large coherence length of laser light, optical path length (OPL) resolution in laser based digital holographic microscopy suffers from parasitic interferences caused by multiple reflections within the experimental setup. Use of partially coherent light reduces this drawback but requires precise and stable matching of object and reference arm's OPLs and limits the spatial frequency of the interference pattern in off-axis holography. Here, we investigate if the noise properties of spectrally broadened light sources can be generated numerically. Therefore, holograms are coherently captured at different laser wavelengths and the corresponding reconstructed wave fields are numerically superimposed utilizing variable weightings. Gaussian and rectangular spectral shapes of the so synthesized field are analyzed with respect to the resulting noise level, which is quantified in OPL distributions of a reflective test target. Utilizing a Gaussian weighting, the noise level is found to be similar to the one obtained with the partially coherent light of a superluminescent diode. With a rectangular shaped synthesized spectrum, noise is reduced more efficient than with a Gaussian one. The applicability of the method in label-free cell analysis is demonstrated by quantitative phase contrast images obtained from living cancer cells.

  4. 2-22 Study of Oxidation/reduction Volatilization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan; Cunmin[1; Cao; Shiwei[1; Tian; Yuan[1; Qin; Zhi[1

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced dry head-end processing of spent fuel reprocessing, the oxidation-reduction volatilization technology will use for pulverizing uranium oxide ceramic pellets, decladding, and removal of most of volatile and semi-volatile fission elements, 3H, 14C, Kr, Xe, I, Cs, Ru and Tc, from fuel prior to main treatment process. The AIROX and ORIOX process, including circulation of oxidation in oxygen atmosphere and reduction in hydrogen atmosphere, researched on international at present, is considered to be the first choice for head-end processing.

  5. Read length and repeat resolution: exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt J Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. CONCLUSIONS: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length.

  6. Read length and repeat resolution: Exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Cahill, Matt J.

    2010-07-12

    Background: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. Conclusions: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length. 2010 Cahill et al.

  7. Read length and repeat resolution: Exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Cahill, Matt J.; Kö ser, Claudio U.; Ross, Nicholas E.; Archer, John A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. Conclusions: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length. 2010 Cahill et al.

  8. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  9. Pipeline cost reduction through effective project management and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [TransCanada Pipeline Ltd., Alberta (Canada); Babuk, T. [Empress International Inc., Westwood, NJ (United States); Mohitpour, M. [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Murray, M.A. [National Energy Board of Canada (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Pipelines are regarded by many as passive structures with the technology involved in their construction and operation being viewed as relatively simple and stable. If such is the case how can there be much room for cost improvement? In reality, there have been many technological and regulatory innovations required within the pipeline industry to meet the challenges posed by ever increasing consumer demand for hydrocarbons, the effects of aging infrastructure and a need to control operating and maintenance expenditures. The importance of technology management, as a subset of overall project management, is a key element of life cycle cost control. Assurance of public safety and the integrity of the system are other key elements in ensuring a successful pipeline project. The essentials of best practise project management from an owner/ operator's perspective are set out in the paper. Particular attention is paid to the appropriate introduction of new technology, strategic procurement practice and material selection, indicating that capital cost savings of up to 15% are achievable without harming life cycle cost. The value of partnering leading to technical innovation, cost savings and improved profitability for all the participants is described. Partnering also helps avoid duplicated effort through the use of common tools for design, planning schedule tracking and reporting. Investing in appropriate technology development has been a major source of cost reduction in recent years and the impact of a number of these recently introduced technologies in the areas of materials, construction processes and operation and maintenance are discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by replacing some items on the manifest. Examples include reuse of trash as radiation shielding or propellant. This paper provides the status of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACS) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station (ISS) technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags (MCTBs) for potential reuse on orbit. Autonomous logistics management (ALM) is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew requirements for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. Development of a heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is underway. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology

  11. Development of technology for reduction of radiotoxicity of uranium mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwangwook; Lee, E. H.; Yang, H. B.

    2012-03-01

    The phase 1 of this research project was carried out as a project entitled 'Development of technology for reduction of actinide radiotoxicity' in 2007 to 2009. Its phase 2 was carried out as a project entitled 'Development of technology for reduction of radiotoxicity of uranium mixture' in 2010 to 2011. Five unit research items to accomplish it such as evaluation of dissolution and aquatic chemistry characteristics of U, TRU, RE, and etc elements evaluation of chemical and electrolytic dissolution characteristics of U and SIMFUEL oxides evaluation of removal of environmentally-detrimental elements, and high purity precipitation of uranium evaluation of salt-free electrolytic decarbonation characteristics, and recovery of used carbonate salt, and development of the process to treat uranium mixture materials and the relevant unit equipments and system with engineering concept. were carried out. The obtained results were as follows. -Evaluation of chemical characteristics of several uranium oxide materials and verification of insolubility properties of TRU oxides in carbonate media -Suggestion of the optimal conditions for dissolutions of uranium and SIMFUEL oxides - Development of technology for co-precipitation of environmentally-detrimental elements - Development of an electrolytic recycle way of used carbonate salt solution - Suggestion of a new conceptual process, named COL process to treat spent nuclear fuel, uranium-bearing wastes with high and low contents

  12. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Technology for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Chu, Andrew; Ewert, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects is the Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project, which has the goal of reducing logistics resupply items through direct and indirect means. Various technologies under development in the project will reduce the launch mass of consumables and their packaging, enable reuse and repurposing of items, and make logistics tracking more efficient. Repurposing also reduces the trash burden onboard spacecraft and indirectly reduces launch mass by one manifest item having two purposes rather than two manifest items each having only one purpose. This paper provides the status of each of the LRR technologies in their third year of development under AES. Advanced clothing systems (ACSs) are being developed to enable clothing to be worn longer, directly reducing launch mass. ACS has completed a ground exercise clothing study in preparation for an International Space Station technology demonstration in 2014. Development of launch packaging containers and other items that can be repurposed on-orbit as part of habitation outfitting has resulted in a logistics-to-living (L2L) concept. L2L has fabricated and evaluated several multi-purpose cargo transfer bags for potential reuse on-orbit. Autonomous logistics management is using radio frequency identification (RFID) to track items and thus reduce crew time for logistics functions. An RFID dense reader prototype is under construction and plans for integrated testing are being made. A heat melt compactor (HMC) second generation unit for processing trash into compact and stable tiles is nearing completion. The HMC prototype compaction chamber has been completed and system development testing is under way. Research has been conducted on the conversion of trash-to-gas (TtG) for high levels of volume reduction and for use in propulsion systems. A steam reformation system was selected for further system definition of the TtG technology.

  14. Application of Circulation Control Technology to Airframe Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Sankar, L. N.; Englar, R. J.; Munro, Scott E.; Li, Yi; Gaeta, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work performed by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under NASA Langley Grant NAG-1-2146, which was awarded as a part of NASA's Breakthrough Innovative Technologies (BIT) initiative. This was a three-year program, with a one-year no-cost extension. Each year's study has been an integrated effort consisting of computational fluid dynamics, experimental aerodynamics, and detailed noise and flow measurements. Year I effort examined the feasibility of reducing airframe noise by replacing the conventional wing systems with a Circulation Control Wing (CCW), where steady blowing was used through the trailing edge of the wing over a Coanda surface. It was shown that the wing lift increases with CCW blowing and indeed for the same lift, a CCW wing was shown to produce less noise. Year 2 effort dealt with a similar study on the role of pulsed blowing on airframe noise. The main objective of this portion of the study was to assess whether pulse blowing from the trailing edge of a CCW resulted in more, less, or the same amount of radiated noise to the farfield. Results show that a reduction in farfield noise of up to 5 dB is measured when pulse flow is compared with steady flow for an equivalent lift configuration. This reduction is in the spectral region associated with the trailing edge jet noise. This result is due to the unique advantage that pulsed flow has over steady flow. For a range of frequencies, more lift is experienced with the same mass flow as the steady case. Thus, for an equivalent lift and slot height, the pulsed system can operate at lower jet velocities, and hence lower jet noise. The computational analysis showed that for a given time-averaged mass flow rate, pulsed jets give a higher value of C(sub l) and a higher L/D than equivalent steady jets. This benefit is attributable to higher instantaneous jet velocities, and higher instantaneous C(sub mu) values for the pulsed jet. Pulsed jet benefits increase at higher

  15. Reduction Potato s hydric soil erosion using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, E.; Rios, V.; Zelaya, D.; Rios, E.; Lepen, F.; Padilla, P.; Soria, F.

    The potato's crop has an econ omic importance in Tucuman's agricultural PBI (Gross Product Income) because its rank is fourth(4°). Production's potato area is a breakable agro system; its geographic location is in Pedemonte's agro-ecological region so is essential to handle hydric erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is improve crop's potato irrigation management through satellite information merge with farm's practices. The space technology consented to obtain Digital Model Soil using both unique differential and dual frequency GPS signals and total station. The irrigation practices were carried out due to irrigation management (FAO) and satellite imagine software (ENVI). Preliminary results of this experience allowed to follow the crop's growing through multitemporal study; reprogramming farm's irrigation practices intended for manage reduction hydric erosion and heighten economically its productivity for the next period

  16. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop manufactured by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 501-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  17. Technologies for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulica Arsenie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to gas turbines, their main problem concerning pollutant emissions is represented by nitric oxides. Among other emissions, sulphur oxides being much reduced due to the use of liquid distilled and gas fuels with a low content of sulphur. Using water or steam injection became the favourite method during the '80s and especially the '90s since "dry" methods and catalytic reduction were both at the beginning of the development phase. Catalytic convertors have been used since the '80s and they are still used although the costs of renewing the catalyst are very high. In the last twenty years a gradual decrease has been registered on the limits of nitric oxides from 75 ppm to 25 ppm, and now the target is oriented towards the 9 ppm level. The evolution of burning technologies of combustion makes it possible to control the level of production of nitric oxides even from the source without being necessary to use "humid" methods. This, of course, opened the market for gas turbines because they can function even in areas with limited quality water reserves, such as maritime platforms and in the desert. In this paper, we are going to show that, although water injection is still used, "dry" control technologies of burning became favourite methods for the majority of users on the industrial power generators market. The great dependency between the creation of nitric oxides and the temperature reveals the effect of direct water or steam injection on reducing nitric oxides. Recent research showed that a reduction up to 85% of nitric oxides may be obtained by using the water or steam injection all together with the improvement of aerodynamic character of the burning room.

  18. Research on the application in disaster reduction for using cloud computing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Fan, Yida; Wang, Xingling

    Cloud Computing technology has been rapidly applied in different domains recently, promotes the progress of the domain's informatization. Based on the analysis of the state of application requirement in disaster reduction and combining the characteristics of Cloud Computing technology, we present the research on the application of Cloud Computing technology in disaster reduction. First of all, we give the architecture of disaster reduction cloud, which consists of disaster reduction infrastructure as a service (IAAS), disaster reduction cloud application platform as a service (PAAS) and disaster reduction software as a service (SAAS). Secondly, we talk about the standard system of disaster reduction in five aspects. Thirdly, we indicate the security system of disaster reduction cloud. Finally, we draw a conclusion the use of cloud computing technology will help us to solve the problems for disaster reduction and promote the development of disaster reduction.

  19. OC30 - Fracture reduction with nitrous oxide at the children's emergency department shortens the length of stay and reduces the use of full anaesthesia in the operating department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sigrid; Wentzel, Anna-Pia; Ekstrom, Malin

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Accreditation and quality improvement. Dislocated fractures are common in the children's emergency department (ER). All forms of fracture reduction are very painful requiring nitrous oxide. The purpose is to shorten the length of stay in the hospital as well as sustain a high quality of care. All nurses received theoretical and practical training in the use of nitrous oxide. Evaluations with the families were made by telephone. A total of 40 enclosed fracture reductions were made at the ER, leading to a reduction of 33 patients in the operating department and the length of stay was shortened - this compared to the same time in 2014. No adverse event was reported and no patient felt any increase in pain during the treatment. All patients would repeat the procedure if necessary. The treatment has reduced the length of stay in the hospital without affecting the other patients in the ER or the quality of care.

  20. Development of technology for reduction of actinide radiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Yang, H. B.; Chung, D. Y.; Lim, J. K.; Joo, K. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, J. T.; Choi, E. K.

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a technology of recovery of U, which occupies most of the volume in the spent fuel, from spent nuclear fuel with concepts of highly-enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which would be help in helpful for the spent fuel management in views of a volume reduction of the high level active waste and recycle of uranium. A technology with characteristics of U being dissolved alone from the spent the fuel in a carbonate system, while the TRU oxides and most of the fission products remain undissolved, and all the carbonate used in the system being recycled in a salt-free way was suggested. Four unit research items to accomplish it such as 1. a technique for a selective oxidative dissolution-leaching of uranium, 2. a technique for a high purity precipitation of uranium, 3. a technique for removal of environmentally-detrimental elements, and 4. a technique for a salt-free electrolytic recovery of used carbonate salt were carried out. The obtained results were as follows. - Evaluation of chemical characteristics and verification of insolubility properties of TRU oxides in carbonate media - Evaluation of aquatic chemical and dissolution characteristics of rare earth and transition elements in carbonate media - Measurements of the dissolution rates of U oxide and SIMFUEL and their solubilities in carbonate media - Evaluation of co-precipitation of environmentally-detrimental elements - Development of an electrolytic recycle way of used carbonate salt solution - Suggestion of a new conceptual process, named COL process

  1. Development of technology for reduction of actinide radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Yang, H. B.; Chung, D. Y.; Lim, J. K.; Joo, K. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, J. T.; Choi, E. K.

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a technology of recovery of U, which occupies most of the volume in the spent fuel, from spent nuclear fuel with concepts of highly-enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which would be help in helpful for the spent fuel management in views of a volume reduction of the high level active waste and recycle of uranium. A technology with characteristics of U being dissolved alone from the spent the fuel in a carbonate system, while the TRU oxides and most of the fission products remain undissolved, and all the carbonate used in the system being recycled in a salt-free way was suggested. Four unit research items to accomplish it such as 1. a technique for a selective oxidative dissolution-leaching of uranium, 2. a technique for a high purity precipitation of uranium, 3. a technique for removal of environmentally-detrimental elements, and 4. a technique for a salt-free electrolytic recovery of used carbonate salt were carried out. The obtained results were as follows. - Evaluation of chemical characteristics and verification of insolubility properties of TRU oxides in carbonate media - Evaluation of aquatic chemical and dissolution characteristics of rare earth and transition elements in carbonate media - Measurements of the dissolution rates of U oxide and SIMFUEL and their solubilities in carbonate media - Evaluation of co-precipitation of environmentally-detrimental elements - Development of an electrolytic recycle way of used carbonate salt solution - Suggestion of a new conceptual process, named COL process

  2. Marked reduction in length of stay for patients with psychiatric emergencies after implementation of a comanagement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoi, Steven K; Jewel Shim, J; McCulloch, Charles E; Grimes, Barbara; Govindarajan, Prasanthi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with psychiatric emergencies often spend excessive time in an emergency department (ED) due to limited inpatient psychiatric bed capacity. The objective was to compare traditional resident consultation with a new model (comanagement) to reduce length of stay (LOS) for patients with psychiatric emergencies. The costs of this model were compared to those of standard care. This was a before-and-after study conducted in the ED of an urban academic medical center without an inpatient psychiatry unit from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009. Subjects were all adult patients seen by ED clinicians and determined to be a danger to self or others or gravely disabled. At baseline, psychiatry residents evaluated patients and made therapeutic recommendations after consultation with faculty. The comanagement model was fully implemented in September 2008. In this model, psychiatrists directly ordered pharmacotherapy, regularly monitored effects, and intensified efforts toward appropriate disposition. Additionally, increased attending-level involvement expedited focused evaluation and disposition of patients. An interrupted time series analysis was used to study the effects of this intervention on LOS for all psychiatric patients transferred for inpatient psychiatric care. Secondary outcomes included mean number of hours on ambulance diversion per month and the mean number of patients who left without being seen (LWBS) from the ED. A total of 1,884 patient visits were considered. Compared to the preintervention phase, median LOS for patients transferred for inpatient psychiatric care decreased by about 22% (p model was associated with a marked reduction in the LOS for this patient population. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Impact of new technologies on dose reduction in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ting-Yim; Chhem, Rethy K.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of slip ring technology enables helical CT scanning in the late 1980's and has rejuvenated CT's role in diagnostic imaging. Helical CT scanning has made possible whole body scanning in a single breath hold and computed tomography angiography (CTA) which has replaced invasive catheter based angiography in many cases because of its easy of operation and lesser risk to patients. However, a series of recent articles and accidents have heightened the concern of radiation risk from CT scanning. Undoubtedly, the radiation dose from CT studies, in particular, CCTA studies, are among the highest dose studies in diagnostic imaging. Nevertheless, CT has remained the workhorse of diagnostic imaging in emergent and non-emergent situations because of their ubiquitous presence in medical facilities from large academic to small regional hospitals and their round the clock accessibility due to their ease of use for both staff and patients as compared to MR scanners. The legitimate concern of radiation dose has sparked discussions on the risk vs benefit of CT scanning. It is recognized that newer CT applications, like CCTA and perfusion, will be severely curtailed unless radiation dose is reduced. This paper discusses the various hardware and software techniques developed to reduce radiation dose to patients in CT scanning. The current average effective dose of a CT study is ∼10 mSv, with the implementation of dose reduction techniques discussed herein; it is realistic to expect that the average effective dose may be decreased by 2-3 fold.

  4. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    The diesel vehicle is relatively superior to gasoline vehicle on the fuel consumption, durability and combustion efficiency. However, exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles are known to be harmful to human health and environment. An experimental study of the diesel fuel reformation by a plasmatron and diesel engine exhaust cleaning by means of plasma chemical pretreatment of fuel is described. Plasma chemical reformation of fuel was carried by a DC arc plasmatron that was fabricated to increase an ability of the gas activation. Some portion of the fuel was activated in an arc discharge and turned into the hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The yield of reformation for the diesel fuel showed 80 % ∼ 100 % when the small quantities of fuel (flow rate up to about 6 cc/min) were reformed. The regulation for an emission from the diesel vehicle is getting more stringent, the research in the field of the in-cylinder processing technologies (pretreatment) becomes more important issue as well as the catalyst after-treatment. The used high durability plasmatron has the characteristics of low contamination level, low anode erosion rate, low plasma temperature, and effective activation of the process gas. The developed fuel reformation system with the plasmatron was connected to the air feeding inlet sleeve of the diesel engine Kookje 3T90LT-AC (Korea) in order to study the reduction of NOx content in the engine's emission. Tubular reformation chamber was connected to the engine through the heat exchanger DOVER B10Hx20/1P-SC-S. Its cooling jacket was connected in series with the cooling system of the plasmatron. At the exit of this device gas temperature did not exceed ∼40 .deg. C at plasmatron power up to 1.5 kW which seemed quite acceptable. Gas composition was studied here using RBR-Ecom KD gas analyzer. The design of the DC arc plasmatron applied for the plasma chemical fuel reformation was improved boosting the degree of fuel-air mixture activation that provided the

  5. The impact of sound technology on the distribution of shot lengths in Hollywood cinema, 1920 to 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Redfern

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sound technology on Hollywood is analysed through looking at the median shot lengths of silent films from the 1920s (n = 54 and early sound films (n = 106. The results show a large increase in the median shot lengths with the introduction of sound (Mann Whitney U = 554.0, Z = -8.33, p = <0.01, PS = 0.0968, estimated to be 2.0s (95% CI: 1.6, 2.4. The dispersion of shot lengths measured using the robust estimator Qn shows a similarly large increase in the dispersion of shot lengths with the transition to sound (Mann Whitney U = 319.0, Z = -9.18, p = <0.01, PS = 0.0557, estimated to be 2.0s (95% CI: 1.7, 2.4.

  6. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  7. Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology Treatability Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alleman, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced biological reductive dechlorination (EBRD) shows a great deal of promise for efficiently treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, but demonstration sites around the country were reporting mixed results...

  8. Propulsion Noise Reduction Research in the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale; Nark, Douglas; Fernandez, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Reduction (ANR) sub-project is focused on the generation, development, and testing of component noise reduction technologies progressing toward the NASA far term noise goals while providing associated near and mid-term benefits. The ANR sub-project has efforts in airframe noise reduction, propulsion (including fan and core) noise reduction, acoustic liner technology, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics for candidate conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations. The current suite of propulsion specific noise research areas is reviewed along with emerging facility and measurement capabilities. In the longer term, the changes in engine and aircraft configuration will influence the suite of technologies necessary to reduce noise in next generation systems.

  9. Critical Low-Noise Technologies Being Developed for Engine Noise Reduction Systems Subproject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's previous Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program delivered the initial technologies for meeting a 10-year goal of a 10-dB reduction in total aircraft system noise. Technology Readiness Levels achieved for the engine-noise-reduction technologies ranged from 4 (rig scale) to 6 (engine demonstration). The current Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project is building on those AST accomplishments to achieve the additional noise reduction needed to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise's 10-year goal, again validated through a combination of laboratory rig and engine demonstration tests. In order to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise goal for future aircraft of a 50- reduction in the perceived noise level, reductions of 4 dB are needed in both fan and jet noise. The primary objectives of the Engine Noise Reduction Systems (ENRS) subproject are, therefore, to develop technologies to reduce both fan and jet noise by 4 dB, to demonstrate these technologies in engine tests, and to develop and experimentally validate Computational Aero Acoustics (CAA) computer codes that will improve our ability to predict engine noise.

  10. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... technology. Through this notice, the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency invite the public to... technology for ships.\\1\\ At this time, the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency seek....S. Environmental Protection Agency, ``Regulatory Impact Analysis: Control of Air Pollution from...

  11. Development of reduction technology for oxide fuel. Behaviour of rare-earth in lithium reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Yuda, Ryoichi; Kurata, Masateru; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2000-01-01

    Solubility measurements of rare-earth oxides in molten LiCl-Li 2 O salt and reduction tests of UO 2 doped with rare-earth oxides were carried out to determine the behavior of rare-earths in lithium reduction process. The solubility of rare-earth oxides increases in the order of Gd 2 O concentration. In multi-element systems including 6 rare-earth oxides, the solubility of each element is smaller than that in the individual systems. In the reduction tests, more than 90% of UO 2 was reduced within 1 hour after starting reduction and about 7% of rare-earths eluded into the LiCl molten salt bath containing Li 2 O which is formed by the reduction of UO 2 . The rare-earth concentrations in the bath were evaluated using the solubility data, assuming that rare-earth oxides in multi-element systems form solid solution as the equilibrium solid phase and that the activity coefficients in the solid phase are independent of the compositions. The calculated concentrations are consistent with the experimental ones obtained in the reduction tests. (author)

  12. VOC reduction technology deveolpment as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, B.

    1993-01-01

    A strong industry is vital to U.S. Economic health and prosperity, but U.S. industry is facing serious challenges both domestically and internationally. One of these challenges is the reduction of volatile organic compounds emissions from industrial processes and products. To assist industry with these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Industrial Waste Reduction Program to improve energy efficiency and competitiveness to private industry through cost-effective waste material reduction. This paper describes the programs and the use of joint partnerships between the Department of Energy, industry, national laboratories, universities and others, in developing technologies which reduce VOC emissions while improving energy efficiency. This paper also describes the process and selection criteria for participation in the program, and briefly describes the following five VOC reduction technologies under development: Dual Cure Coatings, Solvent Reduction through use of a No-clean Soldering Process, Solvent Waste Minimization by Supercritical CO 2 Cleaning Process, ethanol Recovery Process, and Membrane Vapor Recovery Systems. The VOC reductions as well as the energy savings and other benefits to the U.S. are discussed

  13. The Effect of Length of Exposure to CALL Technology on Young Iranian EFL Learners' Grammar Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Dousti, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, integration of technology into education is a force worthy of contemplation. Among all the possible technological tools that can be integrated into EFL classes, computers seem to have achieved a more dominant position. One of the outstanding features of computers is their potential to present educational games and to…

  14. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  15. Development of a Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL) II: Improving Measurement of Lengths of Detected Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Youp; Choi, Jin; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Jang-Hyun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    As described in the previous paper (Park et al. 2013), the detector subsystem of optical wide-field patrol (OWL) provides many observational data points of a single artificial satellite or space debris in the form of small streaks, using a chopper system and a time tagger. The position and the corresponding time data are matched assuming that the length of a streak on the CCD frame is proportional to the time duration of the exposure during which the chopper blades do not obscure the CCD window. In the previous study, however, the length was measured using the diagonal of the rectangle of the image area containing the streak; the results were quite ambiguous and inaccurate, allowing possible matching error of positions and time data. Furthermore, because only one (position, time) data point is created from one streak, the efficiency of the observation decreases. To define the length of a streak correctly, it is important to locate the endpoints of a streak. In this paper, a method using a differential convolution mask pattern is tested. This method can be used to obtain the positions where the pixel values are changed sharply. These endpoints can be regarded as directly detected positional data, and the number of data points is doubled by this result.

  16. Digital Technology for Construction Period Reduction of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Y. M. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    PHILOSOPHIA, Inc. and Seoul National University have jointly developed a first-of-a-kind engineering (FOAKE) solution. The solution lends itself to the four-plus-dimensional (4{sup +}D) Technology{sup TM} resorting to three -dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) digital mockup (DMU). The aim is to minimize the working hours via process optimization by real-time exchange of design and process information in the ubiquitous system. The 4{sup +}D Technology{sup TM} in the 3D virtual reality (VR) space and time plus cost coordinates, is developed to reduce the construction time as well as cost of nuclear power plants (NPPs) by optimizing the manufacturing procedure and construction process. The 4{sup +}D Technology{sup TM} anchored to the 3D CAD DMU allows the interference of the NPP components to be checked upon early in the design stage, and the process sequences to be optimized. Moreover, its ergonomic and robotic technologies enable simulation of all the aspects of the workers, robots and machines involved in the construction process. One of the greatest advantages of the 4{sup +}D Technology{sup TM} lies in that any change of the overall process procedures can virtually be tested. On the other hand, it shall financially be unbearable to alter the procedures consisting of plenty of structures and components, complicated detailed processes and long work hours in the physical space.

  17. Digital Technology for Construction Period Reduction of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Y. M.; Suh, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    PHILOSOPHIA, Inc. and Seoul National University have jointly developed a first-of-a-kind engineering (FOAKE) solution. The solution lends itself to the four-plus-dimensional (4 + D) Technology TM resorting to three -dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) digital mockup (DMU). The aim is to minimize the working hours via process optimization by real-time exchange of design and process information in the ubiquitous system. The 4 + D Technology TM in the 3D virtual reality (VR) space and time plus cost coordinates, is developed to reduce the construction time as well as cost of nuclear power plants (NPPs) by optimizing the manufacturing procedure and construction process. The 4 + D Technology TM anchored to the 3D CAD DMU allows the interference of the NPP components to be checked upon early in the design stage, and the process sequences to be optimized. Moreover, its ergonomic and robotic technologies enable simulation of all the aspects of the workers, robots and machines involved in the construction process. One of the greatest advantages of the 4 + D Technology TM lies in that any change of the overall process procedures can virtually be tested. On the other hand, it shall financially be unbearable to alter the procedures consisting of plenty of structures and components, complicated detailed processes and long work hours in the physical space

  18. SNCR technology for NO sub x reduction in the cement industry. [Selective non-catalytic reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupper, D; Brentrup, L [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    1992-03-01

    This article discusses the selective non-catalytic (SNCR) process for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases from cement plants. Topics covered include operating experience, injection of additives, selection of the additive, operating costs, reduction efficiency of SNCR, capital expenditure, secondary emissions and cycles of ammonium. (UK).

  19. Fibre Length Reduction in Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymers during Compounding and Injection Moulding—Experiments Versus Numerical Prediction of Fibre Breakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Albrecht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To establish injection-moulded, natural fibre-reinforced polymers in the automotive industry, numerical simulations are important. To include the breakage behaviour of natural fibres in simulations, a profound understanding is necessary. In this study, the length and width reduction of flax and sisal fibre bundles were analysed experimentally during compounding and injection moulding. Further an optical analysis of the fibre breakage behaviour was performed via scanning electron microscopy and during fibre tensile testing with an ultra-high-speed camera. The fibre breakage of flax and sisal during injection moulding was modelled using a micromechanical model. The experimental and simulative results consistently show that during injection moulding the fibre length is not reduced further; the fibre length was already significantly reduced during compounding. For the mechanical properties of a fibre-reinforced composite it is important to overachieve the critical fibre length in the injection moulded component. The micromechanical model could be used to predict the necessary fibre length in the granules.

  20. Technology Evaluation for Conditioning of Hanford Tank Waste Using Solids Segregation and Size Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, Michael L.; Stone, M. E.; Herman, D. T.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Duignan, Mark R.; Smith, Gary L.; Wells, Beric E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-24

    The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm. The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application. Any technology selected would require testing to verify the ability to meet the High-Level Waste Feed Waste Acceptance Criteria to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility.

  1. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  2. Health Technology Assessment of pathogen reduction technologies applied to plasma for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Americo; Berrino, Alexandra; Casini, Marina; Codella, Paola; Facco, Giuseppina; Fiore, Alessandra; Marano, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Marco; Midolo, Emanuela; Minacori, Roberta; Refolo, Pietro; Romano, Federica; Ruggeri, Matteo; Sacchini, Dario; Spagnolo, Antonio G.; Urbina, Irene; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Although existing clinical evidence shows that the transfusion of blood components is becoming increasingly safe, the risk of transmission of known and unknown pathogens, new pathogens or re-emerging pathogens still persists. Pathogen reduction technologies may offer a new approach to increase blood safety. The study is the output of collaboration between the Italian National Blood Centre and the Post-Graduate School of Health Economics and Management, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. A large, multidisciplinary team was created and divided into six groups, each of which addressed one or more HTA domains. Plasma treated with amotosalen + UV light, riboflavin + UV light, methylene blue or a solvent/detergent process was compared to fresh-frozen plasma with regards to current use, technical features, effectiveness, safety, economic and organisational impact, and ethical, social and legal implications. The available evidence is not sufficient to state which of the techniques compared is superior in terms of efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness. Evidence on efficacy is only available for the solvent/detergent method, which proved to be non-inferior to untreated fresh-frozen plasma in the treatment of a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. With regards to safety, the solvent/detergent technique apparently has the most favourable risk-benefit profile. Further research is needed to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost-effectiveness profile of the different pathogen-reduction techniques. The wide heterogeneity of results and the lack of comparative evidence are reasons why more comparative studies need to be performed. PMID:27403740

  3. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  4. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  5. Hemostatic function of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may influence the hemostatic potential of stored platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) stored in PLT additive solution (SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT treatment (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were compared...

  6. Reduction of Milling Time by Using CAQ Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaujec Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on reducing machining time by using 3D optical scanner of ATOS Triplescan II. Workpiece was a forging die, which was renovated by hard facing. The contribution deals with comparing the CAM simulation of roughing process according to the STL model imported from ATOS, and simulation without thus-defined workpiece. The results indicate a significant improvement of machining time based on CAQ technology and usage of the ATOS device for measuring the errors of weld deposit.

  7. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  8. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR CONDITIONING OF HANFORD TANK WASTE USING SOLIDS SEGREGATION AND SIZE REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M.; Stone, M.; Herman, D.; Lambert, D.; Duignan, M.; SMITH, G.; WELLS, B.; LUMETTA, G.; ENDRELIN, C.; ADKINS, H.

    2014-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application.

  10. TRU-waste decontamination and size reduction review, June 1983, US DOE/PNC technology exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A review of transuranic (TRU) noncombustible waste decontamination and size reduction technology is presented. Electropolishing, vibratory cleaning, and spray decontamination processes developed at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are highlighted. TRU waste size reduction processes at (PNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), and SRL are also highlighted

  11. Pollution Reduction Technology Program, Turboprop Engines, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; Herman, A. S.; Tomlinson, J. G.; Vaught, J. M.; Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust pollutant emissions were measured from a 501-D22A turboprop engine combustor and three low emission combustor types -- reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel, operating over a fuel-air ratio range of .0096 to .020. The EPAP LTO cycle data were obtained for a total of nineteen configurations. Hydrocarbon emissions were reduced from 15.0 to .3 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle, CO from 31.5 to 4.6 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle with an increase in NOx of 17 percent, which is still 25% below the program goal. The smoke number was reduced from 59 to 17. Emissions given here are for the reverse flow Mod. IV combustor which is the best candidate for further development into eventual use with the 501-D22A turboprop engine. Even lower emissions were obtained with the advanced technology combustors.

  12. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  13. An Exceptional Purity of Sound: Noise Reduction Technology and the Inevitable Noise of Sound Recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, M.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of noise has resisted many attempts at framing it within a singular conceptual framework. Critically questioning the tendency to do so, this article asserts the complexities of different noise-phenomena by analysing a specific technology: technological noise reduction systems. Whereas

  14. SU-E-I-62: Reduction of Susceptibility Artifacts by Increasing the Bandwidth (BW) and Echo Train Length (ETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, P; Boci, N; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Glotsos, D; Oikonomou, G; Bakas, A; Roka, V; Cavouras, D; Lavdas, E; Sakkas, G; Tsagkalis, A; Chatzivasileiou, V; Batsikas, G; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this present study is to increase bandwidth (BW) and echo train length (ETL) in Proton Density Turbo Spin Echo (PD TSE) sequences with and without fat saturation (FS) as well as in Turbo Inversion Recovery Magnitude sequences (TIRM) in order to assess whether these sequences are capable of reducing susceptibility artifacts. Methods: We compared 1) TIRM coronal (COR) with the same sequence with increased both BW and ETL 2) Conventional PD TSE sagittal (SAG) with FS with an increased BW 3) Conventional PD TSE SAG without FS with an increased BW 4) Conventional PD TSE SAG without FS with increased both BW and ETL. A quantitative analysis was performed to measure the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis was performed by two radiologists in order to evaluate the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and fat suppression. The depiction of cartilage, menisci, muscles, tendons and bone marrow were also qualitatively analyzed. Results: The quantitative analysis found that the modified TIRM sequence is significantly superior to the conventional one regarding the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. In the qualitative analysis, the modified TIRM sequence was superior to the corresponding conventional one in eight characteristics out of ten that were analyzed. The modified PD TSE with FS was superior to the corresponding conventional one regarding the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and depiction of bone marrow and cartilage while achieving effective fat saturation. The modified PD TSE sequence without FS with a high (H) BW was found to be superior corresponding to the conventional one in the case of cartilage. Conclusion: Consequently, TIRM sequence with an increased BW and ETL is proposed for producing images of high quality and modified PD TSE with H BW for smaller metals, especially when FS is used

  15. Further studies on beam breakup growth reduction by cavity cross-couplings in recirculating accelerators: Effects of long pulse length and multiturn recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, D.; Lau, Y.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Cavity cross-coupling was recently found to reduce beam breakup (BBU) growth in a recirculating accelerator known as the Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA). Here, we extend the analysis in two prespects: ong beam pulse lengths and a SLIA upgrade geometry which accelerates a 10 kA, 35 ns beam to 25 MeV via a 70 cavity, 7 turn recirculation. We found that when the beam pulse length τ exceeds the beam's transit time τ' between cross-coupled cavities, BBU growth may be worsened as a result of the cross-coupling among cavities. This situation is not unlike other long pulse recirculating accelerators where beam recirculation leads to beam breakup of a regenerative type. Thus, the advantage of BBU reduction by cavity cross-coupling is restricted primarily to beams with τ<τ', a condition envisioned for all SLIA geometries. For the 70 gap, 7 turn SLIA upgrade, we found that cavity cross-coupling may reduce BBU growth up to factors of a thousand when the quality factor Q of the deflecting modes are relatively high (like 100). In these high Q cases, the amount of growth reduction depends on the arrangement and sequence of beam recirculation. For Q < or approx. 20, BBU growth reduction by factors of hundreds is observed, but this reduction is insensitive to the sequence of beam recirculation. The above conclusions were based on simple models of cavity coupling that have been used in conventional microwave literature. Not addressed is the detail design consideration that leads to the desired degree of cavity coupling. (orig.)

  16. The effects of noise reduction technologies on the acceptance of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Kristy Jones; Plyler, Patrick N

    2013-09-01

    Directional microphones (D-Mics) and digital noise reduction (DNR) algorithms are used in hearing aids to reduce the negative effects of background noise on performance. Directional microphones attenuate sounds arriving from anywhere other than the front of the listener while DNR attenuates sounds with physical characteristics of noise. Although both noise reduction technologies are currently available in hearing aids, it is unclear if the use of these technologies in isolation or together affects acceptance of noise and/or preference for the end user when used in various types of background noise. The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of D-Mic, DNR, or the combination of D-Mic and DNR on acceptance of noise and preference when listening in various types of background noise. An experimental study in which subjects were exposed to a repeated measures design was utilized. Thirty adult listeners with mild sloping to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss participated (mean age 67 yr). Acceptable noise levels (ANLs) were obtained using no noise reduction technologies, D-Mic only, DNR only, and the combination of the two technologies (Combo) for three different background noises (single-talker speech, speech-shaped noise, and multitalker babble) for each listener. In addition, preference rankings of the noise reduction technologies were obtained within each background noise (1 = best, 3 = worst). ANL values were significantly better for each noise reduction technology than baseline; and benefit increased significantly from DNR to D-Mic to Combo. Listeners with higher (worse) baseline ANLs received more benefit from noise reduction technologies than listeners with lower (better) baseline ANLs. Neither ANL values nor ANL benefit values were significantly affected by background noise type; however, ANL benefit with D-Mic and Combo was similar when speech-like noise was present while ANL benefit was greatest for Combo when speech spectrum noise was

  17. First COSTECH scientific and technological conference: Science and technology for growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognised worldwide that science and technology is central to creating wealth and improving the quality of life. Indeed, the main difference between the developed countries and developing countries is the level of science, technology and innovative developments and applications. It is therefore necessary to undertake deliberate efforts to ensure that science science and technology is adequately and effectively applied if sustainable national economic development is to be achieved. Recognizing the role of Science and Technology in social economic development of the nation, the government of the URT has provided an enabling environment for the application of Science and Technology in its endeavour to bring about the desired national advancements. (author)

  18. Do Voluntary Pollution Reduction Programs (VPRs) Spur Innovation in Environmental Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Carrion-Flores, Carmen E.; Innes, Robert; Sam, Abdoul G.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the EPA's 33/50 program, we study whether a VPR can prompt firms to develop new environmental technologies that yield future emission reduction benefits. Because pollutant reductions generally require costly reformulations of products and/or production processes, environmental over-compliance induced by a VPR may potentially spur environmental innovation that can reduce these costs. Conversely, a VPR may induce a participating firm to divert resources from environmental rese...

  19. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  20. Combinative Particle Size Reduction Technologies for the Production of Drug Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosizing is a suitable method to enhance the dissolution rate and therefore the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The success of the particle size reduction processes depends on critical factors such as the employed technology, equipment, and drug physicochemical properties. High pressure homogenization and wet bead milling are standard comminution techniques that have been already employed to successfully formulate poorly soluble drugs and bring them to market. However, these techniques have limitations in their particle size reduction performance, such as long production times and the necessity of employing a micronized drug as the starting material. This review article discusses the development of combinative methods, such as the NANOEDGE, H 96, H 69, H 42, and CT technologies. These processes were developed to improve the particle size reduction effectiveness of the standard techniques. These novel technologies can combine bottom-up and/or top-down techniques in a two-step process. The combinative processes lead in general to improved particle size reduction effectiveness. Faster production of drug nanocrystals and smaller final mean particle sizes are among the main advantages. The combinative particle size reduction technologies are very useful formulation tools, and they will continue acquiring importance for the production of drug nanocrystals.

  1. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  2. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  3. Analysis of Global CCS Technology, Regulations and Its Potential for Emission Reduction with Focus on China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology, the progress in CCS demonstration projects, and regulations and policies related to CCS. Barriers and limitations for the large-scale deployment of CCS are discussed. CCS and different technological solutions for emission reduction (e.g., energy conservation and renewable energy) are compared. The analysis shows that China should carefully evaluate the negative impacts of CCS deployment and needs to enhance ...

  4. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow...

  5. Impact of Friction Reduction Technologies on Fuel Economy for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-13

    UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release IMPACT OF FRICTION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES ON FUEL ECONOMY FOR GROUND VEHICLES G. R. Fenske , R. A. Erck...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) G.R. Fenske ; R.A. Erck; O.O. Ajayi; A. Masoner’ A.S. Confort 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  6. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  7. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  8. Enhanced registered nurse care coordination with sensor technology: Impact on length of stay and cost in aging in place housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn; Lane, Kari; Phillips, Lorraine J; Despins, Laurel A; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Gregory L; Koopman, Richelle J; Hicks, Lanis; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    When planning the Aging in Place Initiative at TigerPlace, it was envisioned that advances in technology research had the potential to enable early intervention in health changes that could assist in proactive management of health for older adults and potentially reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to compare length of stay (LOS) of residents living with environmentally embedded sensor systems since the development and implementation of automated health alerts at TigerPlace to LOS of those who are not living with sensor systems. Estimate potential savings of living with sensor systems. LOS for residents living with and without sensors was measured over a span of 4.8 years since the implementation of sensor-generated health alerts. The group living with sensors (n = 52) had an average LOS of 1,557 days (4.3 years); the comparison group without sensors (n = 81) was 936 days (2.6 years); p = .0006. Groups were comparable based on admission age, gender, number of chronic illnesses, SF12 physical health, SF12 mental health, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), activities of daily living, independent activities of daily living, and mini-mental status examination scores. Both groups, all residents living at TigerPlace since the implementation of health alerts, receive registered nurse (RN) care coordination as the standard of care. Results indicate that residents living with sensors were able to reside at TigerPlace 1.7 years longer than residents living without sensors, suggesting that proactive use of health alerts facilitates successful aging in place. Health alerts, generated by automated algorithms interpreting environmentally embedded sensor data, may enable care coordinators to assess and intervene on health status changes earlier than is possible in the absence of sensor-generated alerts. Comparison of LOS without sensors TigerPlace (2.6 years) with the national median in residential senior housing (1.8 years) may be attributable to the RN care coordination

  9. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels: An overview of oxide reduction in pyroprocessing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical reduction process has been used to reduce spent oxide fuel to a metallic form using pyroprocessing technology for a closed fuel cycle in combination with a metal-fuel fast reactor. In the electrochemical reduction process, oxides fuels are loaded at the cathode basket in molten Li2O–LiCl salt and electrochemically reduced to the metal form. Various approaches based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental studies have been used to understand the electrode reaction and efficiently treat spent fuels. The factors that affect the speed of the electrochemical reduction have been determined to optimize the process and scale-up the electrolysis cell. In addition, demonstrations of the integrated series of processes (electrorefining and salt distillation with the electrochemical reduction have been conducted to realize the oxide fuel cycle. This overview provides insight into the current status of and issues related to the electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels.

  10. Trajectories towards clean technology. Example of volatile organic compound emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis-Bergouignan, Marie-Claude; Oltra, Vanessa; Saint Jean, Maider [IFREDE-E3i, University Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, Avenue Leon Duguit, Pessac 33608 (France)

    2004-02-20

    This article is based on the observation that, up until now, corporate investment has been limited in clean technologies despite the will of governmental authorities to stimulate them in order to cope with the demands of sustainable development. The paper deals with the issue of the development of clean technologies and the role of regulations as clean technology promoters. It tries to apprehend the characteristics and specificity of clean technology from both an empirical and a theoretical point of view, so as to understand which are the most favourable (or inversely, the most detrimental) conditions for their development. We use case studies concerning the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the chemical and metallurgical industries. These two examples highlight the problems created by the shift from a 'with-solvent paradigm' to a 'solvent-free paradigm' and the way clean technology trajectories may spread within such paradigms. We show that the problem of clean technology development primarily resides in some factors that impede technological adoption, although a strong and mixed incentives framework prevails. Such impediments are sector-specific, leading to different clean technology trajectories among sectors and indicating areas of sectoral intervention that could become the cornerstones of complementary technology policy.

  11. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  12. Reducing Radiation Dose in Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Using Image Noise Reduction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrati, Mirlind; Langenbrink, Lukas; Piatkowski, Michal; Michaelsen, Jochen; Reimann, Doris; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to quantitatively evaluate the reduction of radiation dose in coronary angiography and angioplasty with the use of image noise reduction technology in a routine clinical setting. Radiation dose data from consecutive 605 coronary procedures (397 consecutive coronary angiograms and 208 consecutive coronary interventions) performed from October 2014 to April 2015 on a coronary angiography system with noise reduction technology (Allura Clarity IQ) were collected. For comparison, radiation dose data from consecutive 695 coronary procedures (435 coronary angiograms and 260 coronary interventions) performed on a conventional coronary angiography system from October 2013 to April 2014 were evaluated. Patient radiation dosage was evaluated based on the cumulative dose area product. Operators and operator practice did not change between the 2 evaluated periods. Patient characteristics were collected to evaluate similarity of patient groups. Image quality was evaluated on a 5-grade scale in 30 patients of each group. There were no significant differences between the 2 evaluated groups in gender, age, weight, and fluoroscopy time (6.8 ± 6.1 vs 6.9 ± 6.3 minutes, not significant). The dose area product was reduced from 3195 ± 2359 to 983 ± 972 cGycm(2) (65%, p technology. Image quality was graded as similar between the evaluated systems (4.0 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, not significant). In conclusion, a new x-ray technology with image noise reduction algorithm provides a substantial reduction in radiation exposure without the need to prolong the procedure or fluoroscopy time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation dose reduction during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt implantation using a new imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, C., E-mail: c.spink@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Avanesov, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt, T. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Grass, M. [Philips Research, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, G. [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G.; Bannas, P.; Koops, A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The new imaging technology halved the radiation exposure. • DSA image quality observed was not decreased after technology upgrade. • Radiation time and contrast consumption not significantly increased using the new technology. - Abstract: Objective: To compare patient radiation dose in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation before and after an imaging-processing technology upgrade. Methods: In our retrospective single-center-study, cumulative air kerma (AK), cumulative dose area product (DAP), total fluoroscopy time and contrast agent were collected from an age- and BMI-matched collective of 108 patients undergoing TIPS implantation. 54 procedures were performed before and 54 after the technology upgrade. Mean values were calculated and compared using two-tailed t-tests. Two blinded, independent readers assessed DSA image quality using a four-rank likert scale and the Wilcoxcon test. Results: The new technology demonstrated a significant reduction of 57% of mean DAP (402.8 vs. 173.3 Gycm{sup 2}, p < 0.001) and a significant reduction of 58% of mean AK (1.7 vs. 0.7 Gy, p < 0.001) compared to the precursor technology. Time of fluoroscopy (26.4 vs. 27.8 min, p = 0.45) and amount of contrast agent (109.4 vs. 114.9 ml, p = 0.62) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The DSA image quality of the new technology was not inferior (2.66 vs. 2.77, p = 0.56). Conclusions: In our study the new imaging technology halved radiation dose in patients undergoing TIPS maintaining sufficient image quality without a significant increase in radiation time or contrast consumption.

  14. Image Sharing Technologies and Reduction of Imaging Utilization: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R.; Jung, Hye-Young; Ostrovsky, Aaron; Das, Lala Tanmoy; McGinty, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Image sharing technologies may reduce unneeded imaging by improving provider access to imaging information. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the impact of image sharing technologies on patient imaging utilization. Methods Quantitative evaluations of the effects of PACS, regional image exchange networks, interoperable electronic heath records, tools for importing physical media, and health information exchange systems on utilization were identified through a systematic review of the published and gray English-language literature (2004–2014). Outcomes, standard effect sizes (ESs), settings, technology, populations, and risk of bias were abstracted from each study. The impact of image sharing technologies was summarized with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models. Results A total of 17 articles were included in the review, with a total of 42 different studies. Image sharing technology was associated with a significant decrease in repeat imaging (pooled effect size [ES] = −0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.25, −0.09]; P utilization (pooled ES = 0.20; 95% CI = [0.07, 0.32]; P = .002). For all outcomes combined, image sharing technology was not associated with utilization. Most studies were at risk for bias. Conclusions Image sharing technology was associated with reductions in repeat and unnecessary imaging, in both the overall literature and the most-rigorous studies. Stronger evidence is needed to further explore the role of specific technologies and their potential impact on various modalities, patient populations, and settings. PMID:26614882

  15. Carbon emissions reductions and technology gaps in the world's factory, 1990–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Chen, Zhongfei

    2016-01-01

    China's manufacturing industries are traditionally energy-intensive sectors and are responsible for over half of the country's total CO_2 emissions. In this paper, we propose a global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach to measure the CO_2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing sectors during the period of 1990–2012. This approach allows us to simultaneously consider technological heterogeneity in manufacturing, non-radial slacks, and undesirable outputs. The global level of environmental technology is incorporated into the efficiency model to improve discriminating power and comparability. The results indicate significant differences in CO_2-emissions-reduction performance among five broad groups of Chinese manufacturing industries. The “global technologies/ innovators group” is the most efficient under meta-frontier technologies, with the smallest technology gap. Meanwhile, the “energy-/resource-intensive commodities group” is, on average, the least efficient. Therefore, the Chinese government should implement targeted policies that encourage firms in the global technologies/innovators group to increase market share while supporting those in the energy-/resource-intensive commodities group to upgrade their technologies. - Highlights: • Global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach is proposed. • It measures CO_2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing during 1990–2012. • The impact of group heterogeneity is incorporated. • Global technologies/innovators group is the most efficient under meta-frontier. • Energy-/resource-intensive commodities group is, on average, the least efficient.

  16. First COSTECH scientific and technological conference: Science and technology for growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushi, S.J.S.; Raphael, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Due to high rate of deforestation and environmental degradation caused by felling of trees for fuel, it is imperative that alternative energy resources be sought and exploited. This country, is rich in coal reserves estimated at 1.2 -1.9 billion tonnes, enough to serve the country for many years to come, but coal usage for domestic purposes i.e, cooking and crop drying is still not common in this country and therefore efforts are needed to promote its utilization. The paper discusses the problem of fuel wood use in Tanzania and the efforts made so far to develop the capacity for coal utilization as an alternative fuel to fuel wood. In addition, the paper highlights the experiences of formulating entrepreneurship in developing coal- biomass briquettes as a technology transfer model. The production and tests carried out on coal-biomass utilization technology, has shown that there is a breakthrough and potential for coal biomass utilization at domestic and institutional levels in Tanzania.(author)

  17. How to achieve emission reductions in Germany and the European Union. Energy policy, RUE with cross cutting technologies, Pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-10-01

    The German presentations will cover three main topics. These are: (1) Energy policy on the national level and in the European Community. (2) Rational use of energy and efficiency improvements by cross cutting technologies. (3) Optimizing heat recovery and heat recovery network with Pinch technology. Actual development of carbon dioxide emissions and scenarios to forecast for the future development will be presented. It will be shown, that long term agreements are widely used in the EC to obtain a reduction of emissions. Specific attention will also be placed on the burden sharing in the EC and the other GHG. In the second part the efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, waste heat recovery, electric motors, compressed air systems, cooling systems, lighting and heat pumps. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application have to be overcome which will be discussed. In the last part a systematic method for the optimization of heat recovery networks is presented. The Pinch technology, developed in the late seventies is an easy and reliable way to obtain quickly a good insight into the heat flows of a process. The basics of Pinch technology will be presented with a simple example and the presentation of an in deep analysis of a fertilizer complex. (orig.)

  18. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  19. EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MARINE DIESEL ENGINES: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Pamık, Murat; Nuran, Mustafa; Cerit, A.Güldem

    2015-01-01

    International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopts international marine safety regulations. The regulations incorporated under Annex VI of IMO's International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) entered into force in May 2005. These regulations define the limits for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from ship exhausts.In this context, emission reduction technologies needed for enviroment protection and satisfy to sustainabletransportation. ...

  20. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  1. Shredder and incinerator technology for volume reduction of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.

    1986-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating alternatives and developing technology for treatment of radioactive wastes generated during commercial nuclear activities. Transuranic wastes that require volume reduction include spent HEPA filters, sample and analytical cell waste, and general process trash. A review of current technologies for volume reduction of these wastes led to the selection and testing of several low-speed shredder systems and three candidate incineration processes. The incinerators tested were the electrically heated control-led-air, gas-heated controlled-air, and rotary kiln. Equipment tests were conducted using simulated commercial transuranic wastes to provide a data base for the comparison of the various technologies. The electrically driven, low-speed shredder process was selected as the preferred method for size reduction of the wastes prior to incineration. All three incinerators effectively reduced the waste volume. Based on a technical and economic evaluation on the incineration processes, the recommended system for the commercial waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment

  2. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  3. Technical feasibility study on volumetric reduction of radioactive wastes using plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, E.S.P.; Dellamano, J.C.; Carneiro, A.L.G.; Santos, R.C.; Potiens Junior, A.J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Petraconi, G., E-mail: edu.petraconi@usp.br [Instituto Tecnológico da Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The radioactive waste arising from nuclear reactors, hospitals, industry and research institutes are generated daily with a considerable amount. To final dispose of these radioactive waste safely and cost effectively, they must be transformed into physical and chemical compounds suitable for radionuclides immobilization with maximum volume and exhaust gaseous reduction. In this scope, among the promising technologies for the radioactive waste treatment, plasma technology allows reducing substantially the waste volume after exposing them to temperatures above 2,500 deg C. In the planning and management of radioactive waste, the challenges related to plasma technology are presented as a motivation factor for the possible implantation of plasma reactors in nuclear plants and research centers aiming at improving the process of radioactive waste management. (author)

  4. Technical feasibility study on volumetric reduction of radioactive wastes using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, E.S.P.; Dellamano, J.C.; Carneiro, A.L.G.; Santos, R.C.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Petraconi, G.

    2017-01-01

    The radioactive waste arising from nuclear reactors, hospitals, industry and research institutes are generated daily with a considerable amount. To final dispose of these radioactive waste safely and cost effectively, they must be transformed into physical and chemical compounds suitable for radionuclides immobilization with maximum volume and exhaust gaseous reduction. In this scope, among the promising technologies for the radioactive waste treatment, plasma technology allows reducing substantially the waste volume after exposing them to temperatures above 2,500 deg C. In the planning and management of radioactive waste, the challenges related to plasma technology are presented as a motivation factor for the possible implantation of plasma reactors in nuclear plants and research centers aiming at improving the process of radioactive waste management. (author)

  5. Technology learning for fuel cells. An assessment of past and potential cost reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Kramer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells have gained considerable interest as a means to efficiently convert the energy stored in gases like hydrogen and methane into electricity. Further developing fuel cells in order to reach cost, safety and reliability levels at which their widespread use becomes feasible is an essential prerequisite for the potential establishment of a 'hydrogen economy'. A major factor currently obviating the extensive use of fuel cells is their relatively high costs. At present we estimate these at about 1100 EUR(2005)W for an 80 kW fuel cell system but notice that specific costs vary markedly with fuel cell system power capacity. We analyze past fuel cell cost reductions for both individual manufacturers and the global market. We determine learning curves, with fairly high uncertainty ranges, for three different types of fuel cell technology - AFC, PAFC and PEMFC - each manufactured by a different producer. For PEMFC technology we also calculate a global learning curve, characterised by a learning rate of 21% with an error margin of 4%. Given their respective uncertainties, this global learning rate value is in agreement with those we find for different manufacturers. In contrast to some other new energy technologies, R and D still plays a major role in today's fuel cell improvement process and hence probably explains a substantial part of our observed cost reductions. The remaining share of these cost reductions derives from learning-by-doing proper. Since learning-by-doing usually involves a learning rate of typically 20%, the residual value for pure learning we find for fuel cells is relatively low. In an ideal scenario for fuel cell technology we estimate a bottom-line for specific (80 kW system) manufacturing costs of 95 EUR(2005)W. Although learning curves observed in the past constitute no guarantee for sustained cost reductions in the future, when we assume global total learning at the pace calculated here as the only cost reduction mechanism, this ultimate cost

  6. Breast cancer survivors' beliefs and preferences regarding technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and

  7. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  8. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Wolska, Beata M. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K. [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm{sup 2}). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image

  9. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya; Xie, Hui; Wolska, Beata M.; Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K.; Vidovich, Mladen I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm"2). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm"2 ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm"2 ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image-noise compared to

  10. Evaluation of technologies for the reduction of emissions and removal of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Aim of this work is the detailed and transparent evaluation of the technologies in question for the reduction of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and for CO2 removal. For this purpose it is of particular importance to differentiate between the technically possible and the economically thinkable or the ecologically efficient by taking into account the particular conditions in the FRG (West and East German states). Based on the analysis of CO2 flows in the FRG energy conversion technologies in the areas power generation, road traffic and supply of households and small consumers with heat which emit together more than 80% of the total amount of CO2 are chosen for the comparative evaluation. On the basis of a comparative system-analytical evaluation of individual measures a demand-orientated consumption, emission and cost model can be established for the areas power generation, low-temperature heat and road traffic. The characteristic parameters determined in the evaluations serve as basis for such a model. If this model is conceived in a way that also developments in time can be shown it is possible to find out in scenario calculations to which extent these new technologies can contribute in future to a cost-effective reduction of CO2 emissions. The investigation period for the development in time of CO2 emission in the areas mentioned above was chosen to be 25 years (1990-2015). (orig./KW) [de

  11. The economic impact of regional waste disposal on advanced volume reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Waste volume reduction has received increased emphasis over the past decade as annual operating costs have risen from $250,000/year to $3,500,000 for 1983. Emphasis has been given to developing and designing into new nuclear plants process and DAW volume reduction technologies such as fluidized-bed dryers incinerators, and evaporative-solidification systems. The basis for these systems was originally the correct perception that a crisis would be reached with the, then available, shallow land disposal sites which would increase costs substantially and possible jeopardize power plant operations. With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and increased emphasis on interim on-site storage of low-level waste, the ''economics of volume reduction'' are susceptible to increased uncertainties. This paper reviews some previous volume reduction economic analyses and evaluates the revised economics based upon the development of regional waste disposal sites, improved waste generation and processing practices, and the increased use of interim on-site storage. Several case studies are presented

  12. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  13. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  14. New technology for sulfide reductions and increased oil recovery: Petroleum project fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-14

    This Fact Sheet is written for the Inventions and Innovations Program about a new technology for sulfide reduction and increased oil recovery. The new technology, called Bio-Competitive Exclusion (BCX), results in greater oil production and prevents the production of corrosive hydrogen sulfide in oil and gas reservoirs. This BCX process is initiated and maintained by a new product, called Max-Well 2000, in which nutrients are custom designed to stimulate targeted beneficial microorganisms that live in every oil and gas reservoir. Rapid growth of these microorganisms excludes activity of harmful sulfide-producing bacteria and produces by-products that serve as effective tertiary oil recovery agents and as sulfide degradation agents. Oil and gas production is both increased and sweetened.

  15. Adoption of voluntary water-pollution reduction technologies and water quality perception among Danish farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farmers is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives to do so. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzes the level of adoption of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water quality......, existing regulatory measures and their implementation strategies. In general, farmers perceive the water quality to be above average and indicate a strong opposition to penalties for non-compliance. Results of two ordered probit models on adoption and perception show a significant importance of farm...... and soil types, farm size and slopes and information availability. These findings point to the need for increased information dissemination on water quality requirements both at national and regional levels and technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives....

  16. A reduction in growth rate of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 counteracts productivity advances in medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production from gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinn Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution of plastics based on fossil raw material by biodegradable plastics produced from renewable resources is of crucial importance in a context of oil scarcity and overflowing plastic landfills. One of the most promising organisms for the manufacturing of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA is Pseudomonas putida KT2440 which can accumulate large amounts of polymer from cheap substrates such as glucose. Current research focuses on enhancing the strain production capacity and synthesizing polymers with novel material properties. Many of the corresponding protocols for strain engineering rely on the rifampicin-resistant variant, P. putida KT2442. However, it remains unclear whether these two strains can be treated as equivalent in terms of mcl-PHA production, as the underlying antibiotic resistance mechanism involves a modification in the RNA polymerase and thus has ample potential for interfering with global transcription. Results To assess PHA production in P. putida KT2440 and KT2442, we characterized the growth and PHA accumulation on three categories of substrate: PHA-related (octanoate, PHA-unrelated (gluconate and poor PHA substrate (citrate. The strains showed clear differences of growth rate on gluconate and citrate (reduction for KT2442 > 3-fold and > 1.5-fold, respectively but not on octanoate. In addition, P. putida KT2442 PHA-free biomass significantly decreased after nitrogen depletion on gluconate. In an attempt to narrow down the range of possible reasons for this different behavior, the uptake of gluconate and extracellular release of the oxidized product 2-ketogluconate were measured. The results suggested that the reason has to be an inefficient transport or metabolization of 2-ketogluconate while an alteration of gluconate uptake and conversion to 2-ketogluconate could be excluded. Conclusions The study illustrates that the recruitment of a pleiotropic mutation, whose effects might

  17. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thornton C [SCRA Appiled R& D

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  18. LCOE reduction potential of parabolic trough and solar tower CSP technology until 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Hennecke, Klaus; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), with an installed capacity of 4.9 GW by 2015, is a young technology compared to other renewable power generation technologies. A limited number of plants and installed capacity in a small challenging market environment make reliable and transparent cost data for CSP difficult to obtain. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the DLR German Aerospace Center gathered and evaluated available cost data from various sources for this publication in order to yield transparent, reliable and up-to-date cost data for a set of reference parabolic trough and solar tower plants in the year 2015 [1]. Each component of the power plant is analyzed for future technical innovations and cost reduction potential based on current R&D activities, ongoing commercial developments and growth in market scale. The derived levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 2015 and 2025 are finally contrasted with published power purchase agreements (PPA) of the NOOR II+III power plants in Morocco. At 7.5% weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and 25 years economic life time, the levelized costs of electricity for plants with 7.5 (trough) respectively 9 (tower) full-load hours thermal storage capacity decrease from 14-15 -ct/kWh today to 9-10 -ct/kWh by 2025 for both technologies at direct normal irradiation of 2500 kWh/(m².a). The capacity factor increases from 41.1% to 44.6% for troughs and from 45.5% to 49.0% for towers. Financing conditions are a major cost driver and offer potential for further cost reduction with the maturity of the technology and low interest rates (6-7 - ct/kWh for 2% WACC at 2500 kWh/(m2.a) in 2025).

  19. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  20. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  1. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  2. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  3. The Managerial Reduction in the Management Technologies Transposition Process to Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Trescastro Bergue

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the phenomenon of the implementation of technologies designed in the management business, with emphasis on relations with public organizations. It proposes a reflection on the concept of sociological reduction by Guerreiro Ramos, recovering its roots in Husserl and Heidegger and their relationship with the concepts of creative adaptation and the translation of managerial issues. Contextualized in the paradigm of new public management and the list of values and assumptions on which this movement is based, the analysis of the reproduction of practices known in private organizations by public ones seeking their legitimacy has revealed the formality and ceremonial aspect of this contemporary phenomenon. The importance of bringing knowledge from the organizational field that subsidizes management as well as the coherence of these cultural objects in terms of concepts and assumptions of organization are highlighted here. The process of transpositions, contrasting with reproducible traits of Brazilian managerial culture that are historically constructed but consistent with the notion of sociological reduction, requires a critical, conscious and engaged attitude on the part of members of the organization not only regarding the relevance of the imported content but also giving new meaning to the concepts underlying the management technologies.

  4. Using vehicle-to-grid technology for frequency regulation and peak-load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey D.; Zhang, K. Max

    This paper explores the potential financial return for using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a grid resource. While there is little financial incentive for individuals when the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service is used exclusively for peak reduction, there is a significant potential for financial return when the V2G service is used for frequency regulation. We propose that these two uses for V2G technology are not mutually exclusive, and that there could exist a "dual-use" program that utilizes V2G for multiple uses simultaneously. In our proposition, V2G could be used for regulation on a daily basis to ensure profits, and be used for peak reduction on days with high electricity demand and poor ambient air quality in order to reap the greatest environmental benefits. The profits for the individual in this type of dual-use program are close to or even higher than the profits experienced in either of the single-use programs. More importantly, we argue that the external benefits of this type of program are much greater as well. At higher V2G participation rates, our analysis shows that the market for regulation capacity could become saturated by V2G-based regulation providers. At the same time, there is plenty of potential for widespread use of V2G technology, especially if the demand for regulation, reserves, and storage grows as more intermittent renewable resources are being incorporated into the power systems.

  5. Quantitative Decision Making Model for Carbon Reduction in Road Construction Projects Using Green Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction projects. According to a study on carbon emissions, the carbon emissions generated during the construction stage of road projects account for approximately 76 to 86% of the total carbon emissions, far exceeding the other stages, such as maintenance or demolition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quantitative decision making model that supports the application of green technologies (GTs to reduce carbon emissions during the construction stage of road construction projects. First, the authors selected environmental soundness, economic feasibility and constructability as the key assessment indices for evaluating 20 GTs. Second, a fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FS/QCA was used to establish an objective decision-making model for the assessment of both the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the key indices. To support the developed model, an expert survey was performed to assess the applicability of each GT from a practical perspective, which was verified with a case study using two additional GTs. The proposed model is expected to support practitioners in the application of suitable GTs to road projects and reduce carbon emissions, resulting in better decision making during road construction projects.

  6. Development of metallic uranium recovery technology from uranium oxide by Li reduction and electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Kawabe, Akihiro; Yuda, Ryouichi; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Reiko; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yahata, Hidetsugu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop technology for pre-treatment of oxide fuel reprocessing through pyroprocess. In the pre-treatment process, it is necessary to reduce actinide oxide to metallic form. This paper outlines some experimental results of uranium oxide reduction and recovery of refined metallic uranium in electrorefining. Both uranium oxide granules and pellets were used for the experiments. Uranium oxide granules was completely reduced by lithium in several hours at 650degC. Reduced uranium pellets by about 70% provided a simulation of partial reduction for the process flow design. Almost all adherent residues of Li and Li 2 O were successfully washed out with fresh LiCl salt. During electrorefining, metallic uranium deposited on the iron cathode as expected. The recovery efficiencies of metallic uranium from reduced uranium oxide granules and from pellets were about 90% and 50%, respectively. The mass balance data provided the technical bases of Li reduction and refining process flow for design. (author)

  7. Reduction and Immobilization of Potassium Permanganate on Iron Oxide Catalyst by Fluidized-Bed Crystallization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Xia Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3 as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton. It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4 to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect of KMnO4 concentration, BT-3 dosage, and operational solution pH. The results showed that the pH solution was a significant factor in the reduction of KMnO4. At the optimum level, pHf 6, KMnO4 was virtually reduced in 10 min. A pseudo-first order reaction was employed to describe the reduction rate of KMnO4.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  9. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m...

  10. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    the complete life cycle modeling of CCTs. The advanced technologies include super-critical (super-C), ultra super-critical (USC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The results show that the higher efficiency technologies have lower potential impacts. Compared with the average level of power...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...... and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy...

  12. Report of the Project Research on Disaster Reduction using Disaster Mitigating Information Sharing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu

    For the purpose of reducing disaster damage by applying information sharing technologies, "the research on disaster reduction using crisis-adaptive information sharing technologies" was carried out from July, 2004 through March 2007, as a three year joint project composed of a government office and agency, national research institutes, universities, lifeline corporations, a NPO and a private company. In this project, the disaster mitigating information sharing platform which is effective to disaster response activities mainly for local governments was developed, as a framework which enables information sharing in disasters. A prototype of the platform was built by integrating an individual system and tool. Then, it was applied to actual local governments and proved to be effective to disaster responses. This paper summarizes the research project. It defines the platform as a framework of both information contents and information systems first and describes information sharing technologies developed for utilization of the platform. It also introduces fields tests in which a prototype of the platform was applied to local governments.

  13. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies - FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2016-01-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  14. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies – FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  15. A plasma melting technology for volume reduction of noncombustible radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Jae; Moon, Young Pyo

    1998-01-01

    In Korea, there is a strong need for the development of radioactive waste volume reduction technology. Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been searching for ways to reduce the radioactive volume significantly and to produce stable waste forms. In particular, plasma treatment technology has caught KEPR's attention for treating noncombustible radwaste because this technology may far surpass conventional methods. The potential for greater control of temperature, faster reaction times, better control of processing, lower capital costs, greater throughput and more efficient use of energy is there. For the plasma melting study of noncombustible waste, KEPRI has leased a lab scale multipurpose plasma furnace system and performed preliminary tests. Using simulated noncombustible waste based on field survey data from nuclear power plants, lab scale melting experiments have been carried out. The properties of molten slag vary with additives and noncombustible waste materials. KEPRI's current study is focused on finding an optimum composition ratio of various noncombustible wastes for melting, investigating physical properties of molten slag, and obtaining operating parameters for continuous operation. (author)

  16. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  17. Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes 18–32 nm in Edge Length: The Effects of Polyol on Reduction Kinetics, Size Control, and Reproducibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18–32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG) -- the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis -- with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in...

  18. Volume reduction technology development for solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Young Min

    1998-07-01

    A great deal of solid wastes, which have various physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, are generated from the nuclear fuel cycle facility as well as radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes. The treatment of the large quantity of solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have great technical, economical and social effects on the domestic policy decision on the nuclear fuel cycle, such as operation and maintenance of the facility, waste disposal, etc. Cement immobilization, super compaction, and electrochemical dissolution were selected as the volume reduction technologies for solid wastes, which will generated from the domestic nuclear fuel cycle facility in the future. And the assessment of annual arisings and the preliminary conceptual design of volume reduction processes were followed. Electrochemical decontamination of α-radionuclides from the spent fuel hulls were experimentally investigated, and showed the successful results. However, β/γ radioactivity did not reduce to the level below which hulls can be classified as the low-level radioactive waste and sent to the disposal site for the shallow land burial. The effects of the various process variables in the electrochemical decontamination were experimentally analysed on the process. (author). 32 refs., 32 tabs., 52 figs

  19. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  20. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  1. Reduction of Driver Stress Using AmI Technology while Driving in Motorway Merging Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Kashif; Riener, Andreas; Ferscha, Alois

    High average intensity of traffic and problems like traffic congestions, road safety, etc. are challenging problems striking highway operators in these days. With the broad application of intelligent transport systems (ITS), particularly for the most dense street sections, some of these problems can be minimized or even solved; supplementary great potential is attributed to applications based on state-of-the art technology like car-to-x communication, for instance by extending an individuals "field of vision" by observations taken from all the vehicles in front. In this work we present a simulation based approach for improving driving experience and increasing road safety in merging sections by redirecting vehicles in advance according to a negotiation of requirements and desires of the flowing traffic on the main road and cars merging from the entrance lane. The simulation experiments performed in a cellular automaton based environment were data driven and on real scale, using traffic flow data on a minute-by-minute basis from a large urban motorway in a main city of the European Union. Our results have shown that the application of AmI technology has potential to influence driver's behavior (seamlessly invoking for a lane change well before an abrupt merging point) resulting in a reduction of panic, particularly for sections with limited range of view.

  2. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  3. Effect of automatic control technologies on emission reduction in small-scale combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M. [Control Engineering Laboratory, University of Oulu (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    Automatic control can be regarded as a primary measure for preventing combustion emissions. In this view, the control technology covers broadly the control methods, sensors and actuators for monitoring and controlling combustion. In addition to direct control of combustion process, it can also give tools for condition monitoring and optimisation of total heat consumption by system integration thus reducing the need for excess conversion of energy. Automatic control has already shown its potential in small-scale combustion. The potential, but still unrealised advantages of automatic control in this scale are the adaptation to changes in combustion conditions (fuel, environment, device, user) and the continuous optimisation of the air/fuel ratio. Modem control technology also covers combustion condition monitoring, diagnostics, and the higher level optimisation of the energy consumption with system integration. In theory, these primary measures maximise the overall efficiency, enabling a significant reduction in fuel consumption and thus total emissions per small-scale combustion unit, specifically at the annual level.

  4. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  5. Application of the combinative particle size reduction technology H 42 to produce fast dissolving glibenclamide tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Jaime; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2013-07-16

    Standard particle size reduction techniques such as high pressure homogenization or wet bead milling are frequently used in the production of nanosuspensions. The need for micronized starting material and long process times are their evident disadvantages. Combinative particle size reduction technologies have been developed to overcome the drawbacks of the standard techniques. The H 42 combinative technology consists of a drug pre-treatment by means of spray-drying followed by standard high pressure homogenization. In the present paper, spray-drying process parameters influencing the diminution effectiveness, such as drug and surfactant concentration, were systematically analyzed. Subsequently, the untreated and pre-treated drug powders were homogenized for 20 cycles at 1500 bar. For untreated, micronized glibenclamide, the particle size analysis revealed a mean particle size of 772 nm and volume-based size distribution values of 2.686 μm (d50%) and 14.423 μm (d90%). The use of pre-treated material (10:1 glibenclamide/docusate sodium salt ratio spray-dried as ethanolic solution) resulted in a mean particle size of 236 nm and volume-based size distribution values of 0.131 μm (d50%) and 0.285 μm (d90%). These results were markedly improved compared to the standard process. The nanosuspensions were further transferred into tablet formulations. Wet granulation, freeze-drying and spray-drying were investigated as downstream methods to produce dry intermediates. Regarding the dissolution rate, the rank order of the downstream processes was as follows: Spray-drying>freeze-drying>wet granulation. The best drug release (90% within 10 min) was obtained for tablets produced with spray-dried nanosuspension containing 2% mannitol as matrix former. In comparison, the tablets processed with micronized glibenclamide showed a drug release of only 26% after 10 min. The H 42 combinative technology could be successfully applied in the production of small drug nanocrystals. A

  6. Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes 18–32 nm in Edge Length: The Effects of Polyol on Reduction Kinetics, Size Control, and Reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18–32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG) -- the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis -- with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in the early stage to generate a large number of seeds and a relatively slow growth rate thereafter; both factors were critical to the formation of Ag nanocubes with small sizes and in high purity (>95%). The edge length of the Ag nanocubes could be easily tailored in the range of 18–32 nm by quenching the reaction at different time points. For the first time, we were able to produce uniform sub-20 nm Ag nanocubes in a hydrophilic medium and on a scale of ~20 mg per batch. It is also worth pointing out that the present protocol was remarkably robust, showing good reproducibility between different batches and even for DEGs obtained from different vendors. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity of synthesis outcomes to the trace amounts of impurities in a polyol, a major issue for reproducibility and scale up synthesis, did not exist in the present system. PMID:23317148

  7. Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18-32 nm in edge length: the effects of polyol on reduction kinetics, size control, and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yiqun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Xia, Younan

    2013-02-06

    This article describes a robust method for the facile synthesis of small Ag nanocubes with edge lengths controlled in the range of 18-32 nm. The success of this new method relies on the substitution of ethylene glycol (EG)--the solvent most commonly used in a polyol synthesis--with diethylene glycol (DEG). Owing to the increase in hydrocarbon chain length, DEG possesses a higher viscosity and a lower reducing power relative to EG. As a result, we were able to achieve a nucleation burst in the early stage to generate a large number of seeds and a relatively slow growth rate thereafter; both factors were critical to the formation of Ag nanocubes with small sizes and in high purity (>95%). The edge length of the Ag nanocubes could be easily tailored in the range of 18-32 nm by quenching the reaction at different time points. For the first time, we were able to produce uniform sub-20 nm Ag nanocubes in a hydrophilic medium and on a scale of ∼20 mg per batch. It is also worth pointing out that the present protocol was remarkably robust, showing good reproducibility between different batches and even for DEGs obtained from different vendors. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity of synthesis outcomes to the trace amounts of impurities in a polyol, a major issue for reproducibility and scale up synthesis, did not exist in the present system.

  8. Radiation exposure reduction technologies for a Japanese Advanced BWR (Dose Rate Reduction Experience in Shika Unit 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Koji; Ishimaru, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Motohiro; Sato, Yoshiteru; Morita, Shoichi

    2012-09-01

    Operating experiences of the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) have been accumulated in Japan since the first ABWRs Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS unit 6 and 7 came into service. Shika NPS unit 2 (Shika-2) of Hokuriku Electric Power Co. is the fourth ABWR plant in Japan. Since ABWRs have no piping of the reactor recirculation system (RRS), which is the largest source of radiation in conventional BWRs, carbon steel piping of the reactor water cleanup system (RWCU) and residual heat removal system (RHR) are the largest source in ABWRs. Therefore we have focused on reduction methods of radioactive material on carbon steel surface in order to reduce the quantity of occupational exposure in Shika-2. In Shika-2 the following methods have been adopted. Before fuel loading, alkaline pre-filming process was applied to the RWCU piping during plant startup testing. After start of operation, the feed water iron concentration control (or nickel/iron ratio control) method was applied. Furthermore, during shutdown operation the RHR system was operated when the reactor water temperature was dropped to 120 degree C with the use of condenser heat sink cooling operation. These dose rate reduction methods worked well in Shika-2 as expected. The quantity of occupational exposure at the 3 rd outage in Shika-2 was approximately 0.35 person-Sv. On the basis of the results obtained thus far, the occupational dose expected at the outage after deposition amount of radioactivity reaching the equilibrium state has been estimated to be around 0.5 person-Sv. This value is considered to be in low level compared with the worldwide statistics. (authors)

  9. Application of Primary Abatement Technology for Reduction of N2O Emmision in Petrokemija Nitric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić, L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial nitric acid production by oxidation of gaseous ammonia with Ostwald procedure produces an unwanted by-product – colorless nitrous oxide, N2O. As emission of N2O represents a very serious problem due of its huge contribution to global warming, certain measures focused on its maximum reduction should be undertaken. Minimization of N2O emission in nitric acid production can be achieved in different parts of the process flow, depending on the applied available technologies. For the abatement of N2O emissions in Petrokemija's nitric acid production processes from the list of the best available technologies chosen were primary and secondary abatement technologies. The mentioned ensures reduction of N2O by use of improved selective heterogeneous catalysts in the step of gaseous ammonia oxidation. Precious metals in the shape of gauzes are used as selective heterogeneous catalyst in primary technology, while in the case of secondary technology the Fe2 O3 catalyst on Al2O3 support in the shape of spherical pellets is chosen. Shown is the application of primary technology for the abatement of N2O in both nitric acid production facilities and their comparison with classical heterogeneous catalyst and preparation for the installation of secondary selective catalyst. N2O emissions with the application of primary technology in both production facilities were reduced from 12 kg of N2O to 7 kg of N2O per ton of pure HNO3. With the primary reduction in N2O emissions the foundation was established for further reduction with the secondary technology to the final value of 0.7 kg of N2O per ton of pure HNO3, which represents mass concentration in the tail gas below 200 mg m-3 (at n. c.. With the applied technologies for the abatement of N2O emissions in Petrokemija's nitric acid production the future prescribed emission limit value will be satisfied.

  10. Reduction of the immunostainable length of the hippocampal dentate granule cells’ primary cilia in 3xAD-transgenic mice producing human Aβ1-42 and tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Atkinson, Trevor; LaFerla, Frank M.; Ito, Shingo; Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Whitfield, James

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aβ and tau-induced neurofibrillary tangles play a key role in Alzheimer’s disease. ► Aβ 1-42 and mutant tau protein together reduce the primary cilium length. ► This shortening likely reduces cilium-dependent neurogenesis and memory function. ► This provides a model of an Aβ/tau targeting of a neuronal signaling organelle. -- Abstract: The hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of the two sites of continuous neurogenesis in adult rodents and humans. Virtually all dentate granule cells have a single immobile cilium with a microtubule spine or axoneme covered with a specialized cell membrane loaded with receptors such as the somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR ). The signals from these receptors have been reported to stimulate neuroprogenitor proliferation and the post-mitotic maturation of newborn granule cells into functioning granule cells. We have found that in 6–24-months-old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model mice (3xTg-AD) producing both Aβ 1-42 and the mutant human tau protein tau P301L, the dentate granule cells still had immunostainable SSTR3- and p75 NTR -bearing cilia but they were only half the length of the immunostained cilia in the corresponding wild-type mice. However, the immunostainable length of the granule cell cilia was not reduced either in 2xTg-AD mice accumulating large amounts of Aβ 1-42 or in mice accumulating only a mutant human tau protein. Thus it appears that a combination of Aβ 1-42 and tau protein accumulation affects the levels of functionally important receptors in 3xTg-AD mice. These observations raise the important possibility that structural and functional changes in granule cell cilia might have a role in AD.

  11. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  12. Estimating CO{sub 2} Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO{sub 2} Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co., LTD(ETP), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Estimating potential of CO{sub 2} emission reduction of non-capture CO{sub 2} utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO{sub 2} emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO{sub 2} of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO{sub 2} emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO{sub 3} (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO{sub 3}). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO{sub 2} reduction through the CO{sub 2} carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO{sub 2} emission technology.

  13. A comprehensive proteomics study on platelet concentrates: Platelet proteome, storage time and Mirasol pathogen reduction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Vishal; De Cuyper, Iris M; Papadopoulos, Petros; van der Meer, Pieter F; Daal, Brunette B; Villa-Fajardo, María; de Korte, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2018-03-19

    Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent a blood transfusion product with a major concern for safety as their storage temperature (20-24°C) allows bacterial growth, and their maximum storage time period (less than a week) precludes complete microbiological testing. Pathogen inactivation technologies (PITs) provide an additional layer of safety to the blood transfusion products from known and unknown pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. In this context, PITs, such as Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT), have been developed and are implemented in many countries. However, several studies have shown in vitro that Mirasol PRT induces a certain level of platelet shape change, hyperactivation, basal degranulation, and increased oxidative damage during storage. It has been suggested that Mirasol PRT might accelerate what has been described as the platelet storage lesion (PSL), but supportive molecular signatures have not been obtained. We aimed at dissecting the influence of both variables, that is, Mirasol PRT and storage time, at the proteome level. We present comprehensive proteomics data analysis of Control PCs and PCs treated with Mirasol PRT at storage days 1, 2, 6, and 8. Our workflow was set to perform proteomics analysis using a gel-free and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach. Semi-quantification was based on LFQ signal intensities of identified proteins using MaxQuant/Perseus software platform. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008119. We identified marginal differences between Mirasol PRT and Control PCs during storage. However, those significant changes at the proteome level were specifically related to the functional aspects previously described to affect platelets upon Mirasol PRT. In addition, the effect of Mirasol PRT on the platelet proteome appeared not to be exclusively due to an accelerated or enhanced PSL. In summary, semi-quantitative proteomics allows to discern between proteome changes due to

  14. Calculating length of gestation from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) database versus vital records may alter reported rates of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Diop, Hafsatou

    2014-05-01

    To compare length of gestation after assisted reproductive technology (ART) as calculated by three methods from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) and vital records (birth and fetal death) in the Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data System (PELL). Historical cohort study. Database linkage analysis. Live or stillborn deliveries. None. ART deliveries were linked to live birth or fetal death certificates. Length of gestation in 7,171 deliveries from fresh autologous ART cycles (2004-2008) was calculated and compared with that of SART CORS with the use of methods: M1 = outcome date - cycle start date; M2 = outcome date - transfer date + 17 days; and M3 = outcome date - transfer date + 14 days + day of transfer. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare methods. Singleton and multiple deliveries were included. Overall prematurity (delivery 45% of deliveries and by more than 1 week in >22% of deliveries. Each method differed from each other. Estimates of preterm birth in ART vary depending on source of data and method of calculation. Some estimates may overestimate preterm birth rates for ART conceptions. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers...... or the performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  16. Analysis of parameters for technological equipment of parallel kinematics based on rods of variable length for processing accuracy assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsov, A. G.; Shamutdinov, A. H.; Blokhin, D. A.; Krivonos, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    A new classification of parallel kinematics mechanisms on symmetry coefficient, being proportional to mechanism stiffness and accuracy of the processing product using the technological equipment under study, is proposed. A new version of the Stewart platform with a high symmetry coefficient is presented for analysis. The workspace of the mechanism under study is described, this space being a complex solid figure. The workspace end points are reached by the center of the mobile platform which moves in parallel related to the base plate. Parameters affecting the processing accuracy, namely the static and dynamic stiffness, natural vibration frequencies are determined. The capability assessment of the mechanism operation under various loads, taking into account resonance phenomena at different points of the workspace, was conducted. The study proved that stiffness and therefore, processing accuracy with the use of the above mentioned mechanisms are comparable with the stiffness and accuracy of medium-sized series-produced machines.

  17. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  18. Strategic GHG reduction through the use of ground source heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanova, J; Dowlatabadi, H

    2007-01-01

    Higher energy prices and concern about climate change is drawing increasing attention to ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Their clear advantage lies in being able to provide heating using 25 to 30% of the energy consumed by even the most efficient conventional alternatives. Their drawback has been high capital costs and uncertainty about whether the emissions associated with the electric power used to energise the system has higher system-wide emissions than the highest-efficiency furnaces. This study delineates circumstances under which GSHP systems achieve net emission reductions, for different electricity generation methods, heat pump efficiencies, and heating loads. We illustrate the effect of relative fuel prices on annual operating savings using fuel prices in multiple countries. Annual operating savings determine how rapidly the technology achieves payback and then generates return on the initial capital investment. Finally, we highlight the least cost supply curve for using GSHP to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Using the United States as a base reference case, this study explores the potential of GSHP in cold-climate countries worldwide

  19. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reduction in Thai road transport by ethanol bus technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Saisirirat, Peerawat; Sukkasi, Sittha; Tongroon, Manida; Fukuda, Tuenjai; Fukuda, Atsushi; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy demand modeling in Thai road transportation sector was developed. ► Such model was used to assess environment impact by ethanol bus technology (ED95). ► Ethanol bus technology (ED95) shows beneficial impacts to Thailand. ► Increase in ethanol demand and decrease in GHG emission in Thailand by ethanol bus. ► Ethanol bus (ED95) has been successfully demonstrated in Thailand. -- Abstract: Over decades, Thailand energy consumption has been concentrated in three main sectors, namely manufacturing, power and transportation. Energy consumption in transportation sector has also been dominated by road transport due to limited coverage by rail and water transportation. Hence, road transport has been a major contributor for greenhouse gas emission in Thailand over recent years. Along with global warming concern throughout the world, Thailand has taken various adaptation and mitigation measures, especially the strong policy push to use carbon–neutral biofuel in transportation sector due to Thailand competitive advantage in agriculture sector. National Renewable Energy Plan (2008–2022) has set challenging targets of 9 and 4.5 million liters/day of ethanol and biodiesel consumption by 2022, respectively. Various blends of ethanol in gasoline (10%, 20% and 85%) and biodiesel in diesel (up to 5%) have been commercially available. However, since current consumption of diesel is twice as much of gasoline, ethanol blend in gasoline would widen the imbalance consumption of gasoline and diesel. The present study however offers an insight into a possibility to use ethanol as diesel substitute. A case study of ethanol bus technology was investigated by recourse to energy demand modeling. Necessary data, such as a number of vehicles (NVs) for various vehicle types, vehicle kilometer of travel (VKT) and fuel economy (FE) were collected, with reasonable assumptions made for those unavailable data, to construct predicative energy demand model. Scenario

  20. Technology priorities for transport in Asia: assessment of economy-wide CO2 emissions reduction for Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Marpaung, Charles O. P.

    2015-01-01

    mitigations actions (NAMA) given their strong contribution for development and therefore a methodology based on in-put out-put decomposition analysis is proposed for analysing economy wide CO2 emissions reductions. The methodology has been applied for the transport sector of Lebanon where alternative fuels...... of technologies and availability of technology characteristics. Non-motorized transport, mass transit and technologies that improve vehicle energy efficiency emerged as the three most preferred technology choices for the countries. These technology choices can be appropriate candidates for nationally appropriate......,improvement to cars (private and taxis) and buses for public transport were prioritized by stakeholders. The economy-wide CO2 emission reduce by 2,269 thousand tons by 2020 if the prioritized technologies are implemented in Lebanon. Fuel mix effect and structural effect would reduce CO2 emission by 2,611 thousand...

  1. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Karen; Smith, Fred; Perry, Jay; Green, Steve

    2004-01-01

    When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.

  2. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  3. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  4. Balance of the air pollution reduction effect of new technologies in East Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampet, T.; Broege, M.; Jappe, H.; Jones, E.; Koerner, T.; Lindner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2010, the energy supply in the new Federal States of Germany must undergo a reduction of environmental pollution. This is possible by changing of energy sources (e.g. reduction of using of brown coal), reduction of energy losses, reduction of emissions by improvements in the quality of fuel and by technical improvements for keeping air clean (e.g. dust filters). (VT)

  5. ISD technology: a strategy for reduction of low-dose radiation exposure in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.A.; Larsen, K.; Fertel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to refocus the current national health care debate. It is the first attempt to provide scientists, health care providers, health care policy makers, politicians, health care payers and public health advocates with a method to improve health care and cut costs through decision-making strategies based primarily on medical standards and secondarily on fiscal considerations. The method for decision-making described in this paper proves more cost-effective and medically sound than current practices. Illness Specific Diagnostic (ISD) tables are introduced as a method to reduce inappropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. The use of ISD tables destroys the myth of a single medical standard of care and focuses on the diagnostician as the individual most capable of diagnosing disease(s) in human beings. Additionally, ionizing radiation has been used routinely under the guise that the resulting benefits outweigh the risks involved in a procedure. This dubious tradition is questioned in this document. Attention is drawn to the inappropriate amount of radiation patients receive when ionizing diagnostic tests are performed with marginal or no diagnostic benefit. The results of a pilot study are presented that explicate the reduction of needless radiation to patients and associated reduction of costs that becomes possible in the presence of appropriate scientific medical standards. Ultimately, quality medicine is indeed the most cost-effective medicine possible. The current practice by which the United States Congress issues laws aimed at dictating quality medicine is both desperate and dangerous. Politicians and legislators would be wise to focus their efforts on methodologies that establish standards of care in a scientific manner that does not interfere with medical practice. ISD technology is precisely such a scientific method. It establishes the standard of medical care at the facility from which the ISD tables are generated

  6. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Mechanical Performance of Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller, Principal Investigator; Kabiri-Bamoradian, Contributors: Khalil; Delgado-Garza, Abelardo; Murugesan, Karthik; Ragab, Adham

    2011-09-13

    provided to NADCA for distribution to the industry. Power law based meta-models for predicting machine tie bar loading and for predicting maximum parting surface separation were successfully developed and tested against simulation results for a wide range of machines and experimental data. The models proved to be remarkably accurate, certainly well within the requirements for practical application. In addition to making die structural modeling more accessible, the work advanced the state-of-the-art by developing improved modeling of cavity pressure effects, which is typically modeled as a hydrostatic boundary condition, and performing a systematic analysis of the influence of ejector die design variables on die deflection and parting plane separation. This cavity pressure modeling objective met with less than complete success due to the limits of current finite element based fluid structure interaction analysis methods, but an improved representation of the casting/die interface was accomplished using a combination of solid and shell elements in the finite element model. This approximation enabled good prediction of final part distortion verified with a comprehensive evaluation of the dimensions of test castings produced with a design experiment. An extra deliverable of the experimental work was development of high temperature mechanical properties for the A380 die casting alloy. The ejector side design objective was met and the results were incorporated into the metamodels described above. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 2.03 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2009, a market penetration of 70% by 2014 is 4.26 trillion BTU's/year by 2019. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting

  8. Volume reduction technology of radioactive waste and clearance practice of contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao

    2016-01-01

    • One of principles of RW management is minimization and reduction: - Advance process and facilities should be reasonably applied to reduce the waste generation (''Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution'', 2003); - Operator of RW storage facilities should dispose or clear up solid waste timely (''Regulations on the safety of RW management'', 2011); • Reduction principle: - Control of generation; - Use of volume reduction technique; - Clearance of slightly contaminated material

  9. Reductions in Average Lengths of Stays for Surgical Procedures Between the 2008 and 2014 United States National Inpatient Samples Were Not Associated With Greater Incidences of Use of Postacute Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) based reimbursement creates incentives for reduction in hospital length of stay (LOS). Such reductions might be accomplished by lesser incidences of discharges to home. However, we previously reported that, while controlling for DRG, each 1-day decrease in hospital median LOS was associated with lesser odds of transfer to a postacute care facility (P = .0008). The result, though, was limited to elective admissions, 15 common surgical DRGs, and the 2013 US National Readmission Database. We studied the same potential relationship between decreased LOS and postacute care using different methodology and over 2 different years. The observational study was performed using summary measures from the 2008 and 2014 US National Inpatient Sample, with 3 types of categories (strata): (1) Clinical Classifications Software's classes of procedures (CCS), (2) DRGs including a major operating room procedure during hospitalization, or (3) CCS limiting patients to those with US Medicare as the primary payer. Greater reductions in the mean LOS were associated with smaller percentages of patients with disposition to postacute care. Analyzed using 72 different CCSs, 174 DRGs, or 70 CCSs limited to Medicare patients, each pairwise reduction in the mean LOS by 1 day was associated with an estimated 2.6% ± 0.4%, 2.3% ± 0.3%, or 2.4% ± 0.3% (absolute) pairwise reduction in the mean incidence of use of postacute care, respectively. These 3 results obtained using bivariate weighted least squares linear regression were all P < .0001, as were the corresponding results obtained using unweighted linear regression or the Spearman rank correlation. In the United States, reductions in hospital LOS, averaged over many surgical procedures, are not accomplished through a greater incidence of use of postacute care.

  10. Operational Protection of Information Technology Assets. A Commander's Guide to Risk Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamby, Janice

    1997-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of any military action. The U.S. military increasingly relies on the force multiplier effect yielded by technological superiority and plans to conduct information warfare...

  11. Innovation in technology for the least product price and cost - a new minimum cost relation for reductions during technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the concepts of human learning, we show and introduce a new method to obtain least product cost and price that includes the effect of innovation and technological learning in manufacturing and production. This key result is a new paradigm instead of the usual economic 'power law' formulation. The new analysis is based on extensive analysis of many technological systems, and is directly related to the presence of learning as experience is accumulated. The results agree with the observed data. By using a consistent basis, the method replaces previous empirical 'power law' descriptions of the technological learning curve with a new 'marginal minimum cost equation' (MCE). (author)

  12. Acoustic Performance of Novel Fan Noise Reduction Technologies for a High Bypass Model Turbofan at Simulated Flights Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David M.; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Two novel fan noise reduction technologies, over the rotor acoustic treatment and soft stator vane technologies, were tested in an ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan model in the NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The performance of these technologies was compared to that of the baseline fan configuration, which did not have these technologies. Sideline acoustic data and hot film flow data were acquired and are used to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments. The material used for the over the rotor treatment was foam metal and two different types were used. The soft stator vanes had several internal cavities tuned to target certain frequencies. In order to accommodate the cavities it was necessary to use a cut-on stator to demonstrate the soft vane concept.

  13. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  14. High precision NC lathe feeding system rigid-flexible coupling model reduction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, He; Hua, Qingsong; Cheng, Lianjun; Zhang, Hongxin; Zhao, Qinghai; Mao, Xinkai

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the use of dynamic substructure method of reduction of order to achieve effective reduction of feed system for high precision NC lathe feeding system rigid-flexible coupling model, namely the use of ADAMS to establish the rigid flexible coupling simulation model of high precision NC lathe, and then the vibration simulation of the period by using the FD 3D damper is very effective for feed system of bolt connection reduction of multi degree of freedom model. The vibration simulation calculation is more accurate, more quickly.

  15. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  16. Cost and Performance Report for Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT) Treatability Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alleman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced biological reductive dechlorination (EBRD) shows a great deal of promise for efficiently treating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, but demonstration sites around the country were reporting mixed results...

  17. Whole blood pathogen reduction technology and blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review with regional discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Nkohkwo, Asa?ah; Agbor, Gabriel; Asongalem, Emmanuel; Tagny, Claude; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite vast improvements in transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, there remain serious concerns on the safety and adequacy of the blood supply across the region. Objective: This review paper ascertains the role of pathogen reduction technology (PRT) in improving blood safety and supply adequacy in the region. Method: The state of blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed. Meetings, seminars and correspondence were undertaken with key clinic...

  18. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of combustor pressure rig screening tests was conducted on three combustor concepts applied to the TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of evaluating their relative emissions reduction potential consistent with prescribed performance, durability, and envelope contraints. The three concepts and their modifications represented increasing potential for reducing emission levels with the penalty of increased hardware complexity and operational risk. Concept 1 entailed advanced modifications to the present production TFE731-2 combustion system. Concept 2 was based on the incorporation of an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection system. Concept 3 was a staged premix/prevaporizing combustion system. Significant emissions reductions were achieved in all three concepts, consistent with acceptable combustion system performance. Concepts 2 and 3 were identified as having the greatest achievable emissions reduction potential, and were selected to undergo refinement to prepare for ultimate incorporation within an engine.

  19. A Modeled Carbon Emission Analysis Of Rampal Power Plant In Bangladesh And A Review Of Carbon Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chand Mazumder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available todays most important concern of Bangladesh is power generation. Government has planned a 1320 MW coal-fired power station at Rampal near Sundarbans. Environmentalists have indicated that this plant will face environmental issues. So we tried finding the capability of Sundarbans to face carbon emissions. We figured out approximate carbon emission of that power plant using an arbitrary operational model. We found 3.16MKg of carbon emission daily. We used mangroves carbon sequestration rate to calculate the carbon tolerance level of Sundarbans and found approximately 4.2 MKg of carbon per day.The amount of emission we found here is marginal with the ability of Sundarbans as it is already contributing to sequester carbon from other sources. We studied and showed technology wise carbon reductions. It is possible to reduce 90 to 95 carbon emissioby using these technologies. We recommend these advanced technologies to ensure sundarbans environmental safety.

  20. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  1. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  2. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  3. A Novel Technology for Simultaneous TOC Reduction and Biofouling Prevention, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recycling of water using biological processes is a primary goal of NASA's advanced life support programs. This proposal concerns a technology to simultaneously...

  4. The Integration of Technology into Treatment Programs to Aid in the Reduction of Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Chad; Asbury, Caitlyn; Bolduc, Brandon; Camerlengo, Chelsea; Gotthardt, Julia; Healy, Lauren; Waialae, Laura; Zeigler, Ceirra; Childers, Jennifer; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, roughly $600 billion is spent on pain management ? usually in the form of addictive opioid drugs. Due to the dangers associated with long-term opiate-based pain medication, the development of additional strategies for chronic pain management is warranted. The advent of smartphones and associated technology has provided healthcare providers with a unique opportunity to provide pain management support. This review summarizes of the use of technology to supplement chronic p...

  5. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  6. Experimental Studies on the Physics and Technology of Polymer Drag-Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanratty, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... Rheo-optical studies in a Couette device showed that effective polymer solutions develop turbidity over a range of shear rates characteristic of those used in the flow loop. This study shows that the drag reduction can be enhanced by using mixing and delivery procedures which enhance the formation aggregates.

  7. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology : an update on efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for

  8. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  9. Current state of the technology measures of accident from contamination by the radioactive substance. 4. volume reduction of removing soil treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The removed materials that were generated via decontamination work and contaminated with radioactive cesium are mainly soil, the total amount of which is estimated at about 16 million to 22 million m3 in Fukushima Prefecture. Since cesium 137 has a short half-life of 30 years, the amount that needs final disposal after 30 years is expected to be 6 million m3 plus. In order to rationally and safely promote the transport, storage, and disposal of removed contaminants, volume reduction as much as possible is important, which requires relevant techniques. The biggest challenge of the volume reduction is an appropriate use of a low concentration of or purified/reproduced soil that occurs in the process. Since the recycled soil is not completely consumed only by intermediate processing facilities, there is a possibility to be used at outside facilities. There are needs for the tests and securement of qualities and standards according to the application, as well as the empirical data of practicality and long-term safety. It includes not only technical problem-solving, technology dissemination, and standardization, but also the construction of social acceptability. To do this, it is important that researchers and engineers in many fields in addition to those of soil jointly own common agenda and perform cross-cutting initiatives. After this, the social acceptance of volume reduction technology and the treatment of decontaminated waste would make a progress. (A.O.)

  10. ARV robotic technologies (ART): a risk reduction effort for future unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2006-05-01

    The Army's ARV (Armed Robotic Vehicle) Robotic Technologies (ART) program is working on the development of various technological thrusts for use in the robotic forces of the future. The ART program will develop, integrate and demonstrate the technology required to advance the maneuver technologies (i.e., perception, mobility, tactical behaviors) and increase the survivability of unmanned platforms for the future force while focusing on reducing the soldiers' burden by providing an increase in vehicle autonomy coinciding with a decrease in the total number user interventions required to control the unmanned assets. This program will advance the state of the art in perception technologies to provide the unmanned platform an increasingly accurate view of the terrain that surrounds it; while developing tactical/mission behavior technologies to provide the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) the capability to maneuver tactically, in conjunction with the manned systems in an autonomous mode. The ART testbed will be integrated with the advanced technology software and associated hardware developed under this effort, and incorporate appropriate mission modules (e.g. RSTA sensors, MILES, etc.) to support Warfighter experiments and evaluations (virtual and field) in a military significant environment (open/rolling and complex/urban terrain). The outcome of these experiments as well as other lessons learned through out the program life cycle will be used to reduce the current risks that are identified for the future UGV systems that will be developed under the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the early integration of an FCS-like autonomous navigation system onto a tracked skid steer platform.

  11. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Songolzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  13. A study of ECC water bypass reduction technology for an improvement of core cooling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C. G.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.

    2006-02-01

    The research for the reduction of ECC water bypass fraction was mainly performed to develop the flow mechanisms that ECC water can penetrate more effectively into a lower downcomer. Evaluation were carried out for the effect of major parameters on the bypass of ECC water in the downcomer with DVI. The following various physical models were derived for the reduction of the bypass fraction of ECC water: models of changing DVI injection angle, models of rearranging relative angles of DVI nozzles, model of grooved-and-subchannel type core barrel, model of dual core barrel. CFD analysis and MARS design verification were performed for the derived models as a first step performance estimation. Through out air-water verification experiments, quantitative evaluation were performed for each model, and three most efficient models were suggested. Examination were carried out for the requirement of structural modification and the change in structural integrity due to the adoption of one of the schemes

  14. Methods and technologies for cost reduction in the design of water cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Specialists Meeting was organized in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors. Its purpose was to provide an international forum for review and discussion on recent results in research and development on different methods and technologies of current and advanced water-cooled reactor power plants, which can lead to reduced investment and operation, maintenance and fuel-cycle costs of the plants. 27 specialists representing 10 countries and the IAEA took part in the meeting. 10 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  16. The chemical, microbial, sensory and technological effects of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in fresh pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, MacDonald; Steyn, Hannes; Charimba, George; Bothma, Carina; Hugo, Celia J; Hugo, Arno

    2016-09-01

    The reduction of sodium in processed meat products is synonymous with the use of salt replacers. Rarely has there been an assessment of the use of intermediate salt levels as a sodium reduction strategy in itself. In this study, 1 and 1.5% salt levels were compared with 0 and 2% controls in fresh pork sausages for effects on chemical, microbial, sensory and technological stability. Although significant (P sausages stored at 4 °C on days 6 and 9 and stored at -18 °C on days 90 and 180; taste, texture and overall liking during sensory evaluation; and % cooking loss, % total loss and % refrigeration loss. Consumers were able to differentiate between the 2 and 1% added NaCl treatments in terms of saltiness. This study indicated that salt reduction to intermediate levels can be considered a sodium reduction strategy in itself but that further research with regards to product safety is needed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The effectiveness of riboflavin and ultraviolet light pathogen reduction technology in eliminating Trypanosoma cruzi from leukoreduced whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Alcover, M Magdalena; Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of this technology for the elimination of T. cruzi parasites in artificially contaminated whole blood units (WBUs) and thus for decreasing the risk of T. cruzi transfusion transmission. The contaminated WBUs were leukoreduced by filtration and treated with riboflavin and UV light. The level of pathogen reduction was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a viability assay. The RNA (cDNA) quantification of the parasites showed a more than 99% reduction of viable T. cruzi parasites after leukoreduction and a complete reduction (100%) after the riboflavin and UV light treatment. Riboflavin and UV light treatment and leukoreduction used in conjunction appears to eliminate significant amounts of viable T. cruzi in whole blood. Both strategies could complement other blood bank measures already implemented to prevent the transmission of T. cruzi via blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Information and Communication Technologies and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries : the Case of Sub Saharan Africa countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Tcheeko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to support poverty reduction efforts and strategies in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. These interest ended up revealing how much the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs of many african nations have underestimated the importance of ICTs as a development tool. The fact that so little was mentionned about the use of ICTs for poverty alleviation and creation of employment highlighted the confusion, and uncertainty of decision makers. At the country level, ICT is still to be effectively integrated into national poverty alleviation and development strategies. The question then is how ICTs can help achieve those objectives. How can ICTs be used as tools to fight against poverty? Poverty is widely recognized as multidimensional, encompassing food security, health, education, rights, security and dignity, amongst others as stressed by Bachelor and al in a model showing the intricate linkages between ICTs and most PRSP goals. The link between ICTs and poverty reduction strategy is therefore not that obvious. Although, researchers and development partners involved in poverty alleviation recognize more easily the linkage between ICT and poverty reduction strategies. In any case, it is a prerequisite to have a conducive environment and country readiness for ICTs implementation. Unfortunately, in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries, there is not yet a clear and effective policy and strategy for the use of ICT.

  19. Study on collaborative optimization control of ventilation and radon reduction system based on multi-agent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianyong; Meng Lingcong; Zou Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    According to the radioactive safety features such as radon and its progeny, combined with the theory of ventilation system, structure of multi-agent system for ventilation and radon reduction system is constructed with the application of multi agent technology. The function attribute of the key agent and the connection between the nodes in the multi-agent system are analyzed to establish the distributed autonomous logic structure and negotiation mechanism of multi agent system of ventilation and radon reduction system, and thus to implement the coordination optimization control of the multi-agent system. The example analysis shows that the system structure of the multi-agent system of ventilation and reducing radon system and its collaborative mechanism can improve and optimize the radioactive pollutants control, which provides a theoretical basis and important application prospect. (authors)

  20. Reality check : the role of realism in stress reduction using media technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of virtual and other mediated environments for therapeutic purposes. However, in the domain of restorative environments, virtual reality (VR) technology has hardly been used. Here the tendency has been to use mediated real environments, striving for maximum

  1. The Integration of Technology into Treatment Programs to Aid in the Reduction of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Chad; Asbury, Caitlyn; Bolduc, Brandon; Camerlengo, Chelsea; Gotthardt, Julia; Healy, Lauren; Waialae, Laura; Zeigler, Ceirra; Childers, Jennifer; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, roughly $600 billion is spent on pain management - usually in the form of addictive opioid drugs. Due to the dangers associated with long-term opiate-based pain medication, the development of additional strategies for chronic pain management is warranted. The advent of smartphones and associated technology has provided healthcare providers with a unique opportunity to provide pain management support. This review summarizes of the use of technology to supplement chronic pain management regimens. Smartphone and internet-based applications that employ online journals facilitate improved communication between patient and clinician and allow for more personalized care and improved pain management. For instance, the e-Ouch application provides a platform for pain logs as well as feedback and coaching to patients via Twitter postings and blogs. Other applications provide online resources and blogs to improve patient education, which has shown to relieve patient symptoms through lifestyle modification. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on the psychological coping mechanisms. The application of technology and smartphone apps toward pain management shows promise toward reducing the use of opioids in pain management, but has yet to be incorporated as a standard practice. More robust studies critically evaluating the efficacy of these technology-based therapies need to be conducted before standardization and insurance coverage can become reality.

  2. Can Information and Communications Technology Application Contribute to Poverty Reduction? Lessons from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluyemi, Samuel Taiwo; Mejabi, Omenogo Veronica

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing optimism among international organizations such as United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can transform developing countries such as Nigeria to developed ones in a relatively short time. Experiences from Asian and European countries such as India, Bangladesh, Malaysia,…

  3. Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project: Development-Friendly Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, P.

    1998-10-30

    This paper provides an overview of TCAPP, including the methodology, the results to date, and proposed future activities. It includes a detailed description of the technology cooperation frameworks completed by each country, the process that produced them and the plans for how TCAPP will help to implement the directions articulated by the country teams. The US Government initiated the Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project (TCAPP) in August 1997 in recognition of the need to establish a mechanism for implementing Article 4.5 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. ''The developed country partners shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention.'' TCAPP builds support for implementing clean energy technologies by facilitating collaboration among the participating countries, the US and other OECD countries, international donors, and the private sector. The governments of Brazil, China, Kazakhstan, Mexico and the Philippines are currently participating and helping to shape this initiative. International donors and the private sector have also been actively engaged in the design and implementation of this pilot program.

  4. Competition between biofuels. Modeling technological learning and cost reductions over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, M.; Junginger, M.; Faaij, A.; Lensink, S.M.; Londo, H.M.

    2009-10-01

    A key aspect in modeling the (future) competition between biofuels is the way in which production cost developments are computed. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to construct a (endogenous) relation between cost development and cumulative production (2) to implement technological learning based on both engineering study insights and an experience curve approach, and (3) to investigate the impact of different technological learning assumptions on the market diffusion patterns of different biofuels. The analysis was executed with the European biofuel model BioTrans, which computes the least cost biofuel route. The model meets an increasing demand, reaching a 25% share of biofuels of the overall European transport fuel demand by 2030. Results show that 1st generation biodiesel is the most cost competitive fuel, dominating the early market. With increasing demand, modestly productive oilseed crops become more expensive rapidly, providing opportunities for advanced biofuels to enter the market. While biodiesel supply typically remains steady until 2030, almost all additional yearly demands are delivered by advanced biofuels, supplying up to 60% of the market by 2030. Sensitivity analysis shows that (a) overall increasing investment costs favour biodiesel production, (b) separate gasoline and diesel subtargets may diversify feedstock production and technology implementation, thus limiting the risk of failure and preventing lock-in and (c) the moment of an advanced technology's commercial market introduction determines, to a large degree, its future chances for increasing market share.

  5. Regulations on the allocating of subsidies to promote the development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. The subsidies are for purchase of equipment, materials, etc. and other expendures approved. The contents are as follows: applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, payment of subsidies, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, patent rights, payment of the earnings, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  6. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  7. Regulations on allocating the sums of money regarding of development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for the sums of money regarding research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. Expenses cover the purchase of equipment, personnel expenditures, travelling expenses, communication, etc. The contents are as follows: the application for subsidy allocations, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for a subsidy allocation, patent rights, utilization etc. of the results, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  8. Natural gas reburning technology for NOx reduction from MSW combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penterson, C.A.; Abbasi, H.; Khinkis, M.J.; Wakamura, Y.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A technology for reducing emissions from municipal solid waste combustion systems through advanced combustion techniques is being developed. Pilot testing of natural gas reburning was first performed in the Institute of Gas Technology's pilot-scale furnace under conditions simulating the firing of 1.7 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.5 MWth) of MSW. Pilot testing then continued in Riley Stoker Corporation's 3 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.88 MWth), 7 ton/day, pilot-scale MSW combustor using actual MSW in both test series, injection of up to 15% (HHV basis) natural gas reduced NO, by 50--70% while maintaining or improving combustion efficiency as measured by CO and hydrocarbon emissions and temperature stability. This paper will review the test results and discuss the status of the full-scale field demonstration testing that is planned for 1990

  9. Review of Risk Reduction Methods using Probabilistic Safety Assessment Insights and Improved Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan; Choi, Byung-Pil [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As seen in the process of the periodic safety review of domestic nuclear power plants, the risk management objectives such as core damage frequency and large early release frequency are not easy to be met without continuous safety improvements and the integratoin of the improved technologies into the PSA evaluation methodologies. Because external event analyses have a protion of uncertainty factors in the current analysis methodologies, the technical efforts in various perspectives.

  10. Draft Technical Protocol: A Treatability Test for Evaluating the Potential Applicability of the Reductive Anaerobic Biological in Situ Treatment Technology (Rabitt) to Remediate Chloroethenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    This draft, unvalidated protocol describes a comprehensive approach for conducting a phased treatability test to determine the potential for employing the Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology (RABITT...

  11. The pollution reduction technology program for can-annular combustor engines - Description and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutant reduction and performance characteristics were determined for three successively more advanced combustor concepts. Program Element I consisted of minor modifications to the current production JT8D combustor and fuel system to evaluate means of improved fuel preparation and changes to the basic airflow distribution. Element II addressed versions of the two-staged Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and represented a moderate increase in hardware complexity and difficulty of development. The concept selected for Element III employed vaporized fuel as a means of achieving minimum emission levels and represented the greatest difficulty of development and adaptation to the JT8D engine. Test results indicate that the Element I single-stage combustors were capable of dramatic improvement in idle pollutants. The multistage combustors evaluated in Program Elements II and III simultaneously reduced CO, THC and NOx emissions, but were unable to satisfy the current 1979 EPA standards.

  12. Use of GIS in the estimation and development of risk reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    The occurrence probability of a severe accident in the nuclear power plant is very small because the safety of a plant and the public is considered in the design and operation of a nuclear power plant. However, if a severe accident occurs, the establishment of a reduction strategy of damages resulting from it is essential because the effect of it on the human and the environment is very large. The important criterion which determines the severity of an accident is risk, which is defined as the product of its frequently and the consequence. The establishment of countermeasures in order to estimate and reduce risks quantitatively can be a very powerful tool to minimize the effect of an accident on the human and the environment. The research on the establishment of a framework which integrates a geographic information system (GIS), a database management system (DBMS), and decision making support system (DMSS) is considered very actively. Based on these systems, we can accomplish the estimation and display of risks and the development of reduction methodologies which are essential parts of an accident management of a nuclear power plant. The GIS plays a role to support users to systematize and comprehend spatial relationships of information which are necessary for the decision making. Through the DBMS, we can establish and manage spatial and attribute data, and use them in the query and selection. The DMSS is a computer-based information system which makes a necessary decision easily. In this study, we reviewed the fundamental concepts of a GIS and examined the methodology for the use of it in the estimation and display of risks. Also, we established the fundamental GIS platform of a Yonggwang site and the necessary database systems for the estimation of risks. (author). 17 refs., 9 tabs., 34 figs

  13. Optimized Deposition Parameters & Coating Properties of Cobalt Phosphorus Alloy Electroplating for Technology Insertion Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    of tensile yield strength (Fty) and the runout load (107 cycles), with no more than four points per load. Load and cycles to failure were used to...were coated with 0.002” nCo-P at Integran Technologies Inc. or 0.002” at FRC-SE. Testing was conducted using CS-17 wheels at FRC-SE. 3.2 RESULTS...Abrasive wear tests shall be conducted using the Taber wear test apparatus in accordance with ASTM D4060 using a CS-17 wheel . The wear rate of

  14. The Use of Assessment Center Technology for the Prevention and Reduction of Professional Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalnova I.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamism of professional activity, increasing workload and working time shortage, high social responsibility for results and other factors increase the probability of formation of burnout in government employees. This actualizes the search for new forms and methods of professional qualification of government employees based on an assessment of their psychological qualities. We discuss the problem of professional and personal burnout in Rosreestr employees, reveal the symptoms of this syndrome. As a tool for preventing and reducing the negative impact of professional deformation in Rosreestr workers, we propose the use of assessment center technology successfully tested in the international practice and requiring adaptation to Russian realities.

  15. Recent technologies for reduction of aircraft propulsion noise. Kokuki engine soon teigenka no saikin no gijutsu shinpo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H [National Aerospace Lab., Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-10

    Inside the jet engine, the propulsion engine for an aircraft, a high speed air current is flowing, and the rotors such as the fan, compress or, turbine and so forth are rotating with a high speed in its flowing current. The flow itself in which a high speed exhaust jet is discharged in the air from engine exhaust port, and the aerodynamic noise generated by an interaction of the flow with the material bodies are the main noise sources of the aircraft engine. Because the supersonic planes are necessary to fly with mach number 2 - 3 during cruising, the turbojet engine with a large jet exhaust speed or the low bypass ratio turbofan engine is selected. Since a noise reduction by reducing the jet exhaust speed, which was an effective measure for the high subsonic speed passenger plane, can not be applied, a reduction of the supersonic jet noise, which is hard to be reduced, becomes a necessity. In addition, in recent years, a research and development of the advanced turbo prop (ATP) aircraft with a further higher thrust efficiency are advanced as well. The aerodynamical noise reduction technologies of these engines for supersonic airplanes are summarized. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  17. Possibilities for the reduction of cadmium use and emission by development of new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevington, C F.P.

    1984-01-01

    This report is based on a review of the more recently published literature, supplemented by discussions with some of the authors and other experts. Cadmium production and consumption statistics for the world and the EEC are presented, also collation of estimates of human activity-caused burdening of the environment (European Communities). Substitution possibilities and problems are examined for the five main applications for which no technically satisfactory or economic alternatives have been demonstrated. With appropriate waste disposal management, cadmium pigments and stabilizers in domestic and industrial refuse do not appear to be significant sources of environmental dispersal. Special concern attaches to the chemically active wastes from electroplating operations and the growing volume of discarded nickel-cadmium batteries; technology is available for recovering and recycling cadmium from these sources, but implementation poses formidable problems. More research and development is needed to establish technology for reducing cadmium release from the production and use of phosphate fertilisers, and any solution is likely to be expensive.

  18. Science and Technology Networks : A Helping Hand to Boost Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trogrlić, RobertŠakić; Cumiskey, Lydia; Triyanti, Annisa; Duncan, Melanie J.; Eltinay, Nuha; Hogeboom, Rick J.; Jasuja, Mansi; Meechaiya, Chinaporn; Pickering, Christina J.; Murray, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 underlines the importance of Science and Technology (S&T) and S&T networks for effective disaster risk reduction (DRR). The knowledge of existing S&T networks and their exact role in DRR, however, is limited. This opinion piece initiates a

  19. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  1. Reality check: the role of realism in stress reduction using media technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Y A W; Ijsselsteijn, W A

    2006-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of virtual and other mediated environments for therapeutic purposes. However, in the domain of restorative environments, virtual reality (VR) technology has hardly been used. Here the tendency has been to use mediated real environments, striving for maximum visual realism. This use of photographic material is mainly based on research in aesthetics judgments that has demonstrated the validity of this type of simulations as representations of real environments. Thus, restoration therapy is developing under the untested assumption that photorealistic images have the optimal level of realism, while in therapeutic applications 'experiential realism' seems to be the key rather than visual realism. The present paper discusses this contrast and briefly describes data of three studies aimed at exploring the importance and meaning of realism in the context of restorative environments.

  2. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  3. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  4. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  5. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Von L. [Advanced Technology Inst., Virginia Beach, VA (United States)

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  8. Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Hoy

    2014-09-01

    Diesel use on farms in the United States has remained relatively constant since 1985, decreasing slightly in 2009, which may be attributed to price increases and the economic recession. During this time, the United States’ harvested area also has remained relatively constant at roughly 300 million acres. In 2010, farm diesel use was 5.4% of the total United States diesel use. Crops accounting for an estimated 65% of United States farm diesel use include corn, soybean, wheat, hay, and alfalfa, respectively, based on harvested crop area and a recent analysis of estimated fuel use by crop. Diesel use in these cropping systems primarily is from tillage, harvest, and various other operations (e.g., planting and spraying) (Figure 3). Diesel efficiency is markedly variable due to machinery types, conditions of operation (e.g., soil type and moisture), and operator variability. Farm diesel use per acre has slightly decreased in the last two decades and diesel is now estimated to be less than 5% of farm costs per acre. This report will explore current trends in increasing diesel efficiency in the farm sector. The report combines a survey of industry representatives, a review of literature, and data analysis to identify nascent technologies for increasing diesel efficiency

  9. [State of the art and future trends in technology for computed tomography dose reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado Cantera, A; Hernández-Girón, I; Salvadó Artells, M; Rodríguez González, R

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of helical and multislice acquisitions in CT scanners together with decreased image reconstruction times has had a tremendous impact on radiological practice. Technological developments in the last 10 to 12 years have enabled very high quality images to be obtained in a very short time. Improved image quality has led to an increase in the number of indications for CT. In parallel to this development, radiation exposure in patients has increased considerably. Concern about the potential health risks posed by CT imaging, reflected in diverse initiatives and actions by official organs and scientific societies, has prompted the search for ways to reduce radiation exposure in patients without compromising diagnostic efficacy. To this end, good practice guidelines have been established, special applications have been developed for scanners, and research has been undertaken to optimize the clinical use of CT. Noteworthy technical developments incorporated in scanners include the different modes of X-ray tube current modulation, automatic selection of voltage settings, selective organ protection, adaptive collimation, and iterative reconstruction. The appropriate use of these tools to reduce radiation doses requires thorough knowledge of how they work. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  11. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  12. The international research progress of Ammonia(NH3) emissions and emissions reduction technology in farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-03-01

    NH3 is the important factor leading to the grey haze, and one of the main causes of environmental problems of serious ecological imbalance, such as acid rain and air quality deterioration. The fertilizer excessive application of the current farmland results NH3 emissions intensity greatly. In order to clear the farmland NH3 emissions research status and achievements, the literature of farmland NH3 emission related were retrievaled by the SCI journals and Chinese science citation database. Some factors of NH3 emission were analyzed such as soil factors, climate factors and farmland management measures. The research progress was inductived on farmland NH3 emission reduction technology. The results will help to clarify farmland NH3 emissions research progress. The theoretical guidance was provided on the future of farmland NH3 emissions research.

  13. Space Technology for Reduction of Desert Areas on Earth and Weather Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SANDU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In precedent papers the authors presented the idea of a space system composed of two opposite parabolic mirrors (large and small having the same focal point. This system is able to concentrate solar power in a strong light beam having irradiance of hundreds or thousands of times stronger than the solar irradiance on Earth's orbit. The system can be placed on a Sun synchronous orbit around the Earth or on the Earth’s orbit around the Sun at a distance of several hundred km from ground. When the concentrated light beam is directed toward the Earth surface it can locally melt, vaporize or decomposes tones of ground in its elements. This is happening because when the ground is hit by the light beam, ground temperature can reach thousands of degrees Celsius. At such temperatures the matter is decomposed into constitutive elements. For example, the silicate oxides which are frequently found in the composition of desert ground are decomposed into oxygen and silicon. Similarly, other oxides release oxygen and other type of oxides or constitutive elements. A network of deep and large channels can be dug in this way in hot deserts as Sahara. When these channels are connected with the seas & oceans, a network of water channels is created in those deserts. In this way, the local climate of deserts will change because channel water is vaporized during daytime when air temperature reaches 50ºC and condenses during nighttime when air temperature is around 0ºC. Presence of clouds over the hot deserts can lead to a reduction of ground temperature and rain follows. The channel water can be desalinized for producing drinking water and for irrigation using simple equipment. In addition to these advantages, channel deserts can be a solution for melting of polar ice calottes and flooding of seaside areas that are inhabited areas. On the other hand, the system composed of two opposite mirrors can be used for strength decreasing or deviation of hurricanes and

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Innovative Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian

    2012-08-15

    Semi-solid metal (SSM) processing has emerged as an attractive method for near-net-shape manufacturing due to the distinct advantages it holds over conventional near-net-shape forming technologies. These advantages include lower cycle time, increased die life, reduced porosity, reduced solidification shrinkage, improved mechanical properties, etc. SSM processing techniques can not only produce the complex dimensional details (e.g. thin-walled sections) associated with conventional high-pressure die castings, but also can produce high integrity castings currently attainable only with squeeze and low-pressure permanent mold casting processes. There are two primary semi-solid processing routes, (a) thixocasting and (b) rheocasting. In the thixocasting route, one starts from a non-dendritic solid precursor material that is specially prepared by a primary aluminum manufacturer, using continuous casting methods. Upon reheating this material into the mushy (a.k.a. "two-phase") zone, a thixotropic slurry is formed, which becomes the feed for the casting operation. In the rheocasting route (a.k.a. "slurry-on-demand" or "SoD"), one starts from the liquid state, and the thixotropic slurry is formed directly from the melt via careful thermal management of the system; the slurry is subsequently fed into the die cavity. Of these two routes, rheocasting is favored in that there is no premium added to the billet cost, and the scrap recycling issues are alleviated. The CRP (Trade Marked) is a process where the molten metal flows through a reactor prior to casting. The role of the reactor is to ensure that copious nucleation takes place and that the nuclei are well distributed throughout the system prior to entering the casting cavity. The CRP (Trade Marked) has been successfully applied in hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e., 390 alloy) where two liquids of equal or different compositions and temperatures are mixed in the reactor and creating a SSM slurry. The process has been mostly

  15. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu, Guzay; Honselaar, Michel; Thiel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO 2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO 2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO 2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO 2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H 2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO 2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  16. Treatment of blood with a pathogen reduction technology using UV light and riboflavin inactivates Ebola virus in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cap, Andrew P.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Keil, Shawn D.; Staples, Hilary M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A.; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L.; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L.; Goodrich, Raymond P.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called ‘convalescent plasma,’ is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV + RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV + RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of ebolavirus disease (EVD). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV + RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1–3 were: 4.21 log10 GFP units/mL, 4.96 log10 infectious units per mL, and 4.23 log10 plaque forming units per mL (PFU/mL). Conditions tested in the first three experiments included: 1. EBOV-GFP + UV + RB; 2. EBOV-GFP + RB only; 3 EBOV-GFP + UV only; 4. EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5. Virus-free control + UV only; and 6. Virus-free control without RB or UV. RESULTS UV + RB reduced EBOV titers to non-detectable levels in both non-human primate serum (≥ 2.8 to 3.2 log reduction) and human whole blood (≥ 3.0 log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. CONCLUSION Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV + RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV + RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. PMID:27001363

  17. Treatment of blood with a pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin inactivates Ebola virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Keil, Shawn D; Staples, Hilary M; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2016-03-01

    Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called "convalescent plasma," is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV+RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV+RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV+RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum, and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1 to 3 were 4.21 log GFP units/mL, 4.96 log infectious units/mL, and 4.23 log plaque-forming units/mL. Conditions tested in the first three experiments included the following: 1-EBOV-GFP plus UV+RB; 2-EBOV-GFP plus RB only; 3-EBOV-GFP plus UV only; 4-EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5-virus-free control plus UV only; and 6-virus-free control without RB or UV. UV+RB reduced EBOV titers to nondetectable levels in both nonhuman primate serum (≥2.8- to 3.2-log reduction) and human whole blood (≥3.0-log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV+RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV+RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Whole blood pathogen reduction technology and blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review with regional discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkohkwo, Asa'ah; Agbor, Gabriel; Asongalem, Emmanuel; Tagny, Claude; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2016-01-01

    Despite vast improvements in transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, there remain serious concerns on the safety and adequacy of the blood supply across the region. This review paper ascertains the role of pathogen reduction technology (PRT) in improving blood safety and supply adequacy in the region. The state of blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed. Meetings, seminars and correspondence were undertaken with key clinicians, scientists and professional bodies in the region, including the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Africa, to examine the suitability of PRT for improving the safety of whole blood transfusion, a prevalent transfusion format in the region. Existing literature suggests that combining PRT with current blood safety measures (such as serology) would improve the safety and adequacy of the blood supply for transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa. This was echoed by the findings of the stakeholder meetings. Following a detailed appraisal of two leading PRT systems, the Mirasol ® PRT System and the Cerus S-303 System, we suggest that companies conduct comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the agents used for PRT and publish this in the scientific literature. We also recommend that the safety and efficacy of these technologies should be established in a randomised clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  1. The Global Potential for Drastic Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. On the interaction between technological innovation, sustainable growth and lifestyle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggink, J.J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    Technological innovation is often viewed as the key to drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and rightly so. In fact there are already a number of technologies on the shelf that could fix global warming problems in no time. The trouble is that few people in the developing world can afford them or that few people in the developed world find them acceptable. Most people are simply too poor or too critical. So what are the decisive fault lines that should distinguish a climate-friendly next century from a climate-hostile past? First, only a more equal world will make drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions affordable. Secondly, mankind will have to accept that in addition to technological innovation, drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions depends on lifestyle innovation.

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  3. Noise reduction technology reduces radiation dose in chronic total occlusions percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Benincasa, Susanna; Bellini, Barbara; Candilio, Luciano; Poletti, Enrico; Carlino, Mauro; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-03-23

    Chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with high radiation dose. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a noise reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation dose during CTO PCI. A total of 187 CTO PCIs performed between February 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed according to the angiographic systems utilized: Standard (n = 60) versus NRT (n = 127). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Primary endpoints were Cumulative Air Kerma at Interventional Reference Point (AK at IRP), which correlates with patient's tissue reactions; and Kerma Area Product (KAP), a surrogate measure of patient's risk of stochastic radiation effects. An Efficiency Index (defined as fluoroscopy time/AK at IRP) was calculated for each procedure. Image quality was evaluated using a 5-grade Likert-like scale. After PSM, n = 55 pairs were identified. Baseline and angiographic characteristics were well matched between groups. Compared to the Standard system, NRT was associated with lower AK at IRP [2.38 (1.80-3.66) vs. 3.24 (2.04-5.09) Gy, p = 0.035], a trend towards reduction for KAP [161 (93-244) vs. 203 (136-363) Gycm 2 , p = 0.069], and a better Efficiency Index [16.75 (12.73-26.27) vs. 13.58 (9.92-17.63) min/Gy, p = 0.003]. Image quality was similar between the two groups (4.39 ± 0.53 Standard vs. 4.34 ± 0.47 NRT, p = 0.571). In conclusion, compared with a Standard system, the use of NRT in CTO PCI is associated with lower patient radiation dose and similar image quality.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  5. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  6. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides

  7. Construction of an SNP-based high-density linkage map for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liuxi; Gao, Fengyun; Siqin, Bateer; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.

  8. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-11-01

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    years ago had at least five players has been narrowed to two companies—one in single-system EPS (IdleAir) and the other in dual-system EPS (Shorepower Technologies). Use of EPS by truck drivers has not met initial expectations for a variety of reasons. One area where EPS has particular promise, however, is in the cost-effective provision of reliable air-conditioning. This analysis is focused strictly on cost and fuel savings; it does not consider the important benefits of reduced emissions (i.e., greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants). It is important to note that all IR options provide some emissions benefits. Even where an IR option may not have a rapid ROI, the emissions-reduction benefit may be considerable. Finally, as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) set stricter standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, the emissions benefits of IR strategies will become increasingly important.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  11. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  12. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  13. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring

    OpenAIRE

    Adatto, Maurice A.; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M.; Morren, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirt...

  14. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  15. Calibration of redox potential in sperm wash media and evaluation of oxidation-reduction potential values in various assisted reproductive technology culture media using MiOXSYS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panner Selvam, M K; Henkel, R; Sharma, R; Agarwal, A

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation-reduction potential describes the balance between the oxidants and antioxidants in fluids including semen. Various artificial culture media are used in andrology and IVF laboratories for sperm preparation and to support the development of fertilized oocytes under in vitro conditions. The composition and conditions of these media are vital for optimal functioning of the gametes. Currently, there are no data on the status of redox potential of sperm processing and assisted reproduction media. The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation-reduction potential values of the different media and to calibrate the oxidation-reduction potential values of the sperm wash medium using oxidative stress inducer cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid. Redox potential was measured in 10 different media ranging from sperm wash media, freezing media and assisted reproductive technology one-step medium to sequential media. Oxidation-reduction potential values of the sequential culture medium and one-step culture medium were lower and significantly different (p value to identify the physiological range of oxidation-reduction potential that does not have any adverse effect on normal physiological sperm function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  17. In situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media fate/transport, in situ control technologies, and risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In this project, in situ remediation technologies are being tested and evaluated for both source control and mass removal of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds in low permeability media (LPM). This effort is focused on chlorinated solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) in the vadose and saturated zones of low permeability, massive deposits, and stratified deposits with inter-bedded clay lenses. The project includes technology evaluation and screening analyses and field-scale testing at both clean and contaminated sites in the US and Canada. Throughout this project, activities have been directed at understanding the processes that influence DNPAL compound migration and treatment in LPM and to assessing the operation and performance of the remediation technologies developed and tested. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  19. Reduction of the immunostainable length of the hippocampal dentate granule cells' primary cilia in 3xAD-transgenic mice producing human A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Balu, E-mail: Balu.Chakravarthy@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Human Health Therapeutics, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gaudet, Chantal; Menard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Atkinson, Trevor [Human Health Therapeutics, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); LaFerla, Frank M. [Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Ito, Shingo [Human Health Therapeutics, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Pra, Ilaria [Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Whitfield, James [Human Health Therapeutics, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} and tau-induced neurofibrillary tangles play a key role in Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}{sub 1-42} and mutant tau protein together reduce the primary cilium length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This shortening likely reduces cilium-dependent neurogenesis and memory function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This provides a model of an A{beta}/tau targeting of a neuronal signaling organelle. -- Abstract: The hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of the two sites of continuous neurogenesis in adult rodents and humans. Virtually all dentate granule cells have a single immobile cilium with a microtubule spine or axoneme covered with a specialized cell membrane loaded with receptors such as the somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}). The signals from these receptors have been reported to stimulate neuroprogenitor proliferation and the post-mitotic maturation of newborn granule cells into functioning granule cells. We have found that in 6-24-months-old triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (3xTg-AD) producing both A{beta}{sub 1-42} and the mutant human tau protein tau{sub P301L,} the dentate granule cells still had immunostainable SSTR3- and p75{sup NTR}-bearing cilia but they were only half the length of the immunostained cilia in the corresponding wild-type mice. However, the immunostainable length of the granule cell cilia was not reduced either in 2xTg-AD mice accumulating large amounts of A{beta}{sub 1-42} or in mice accumulating only a mutant human tau protein. Thus it appears that a combination of A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau protein accumulation affects the levels of functionally important receptors in 3xTg-AD mice. These observations raise the important possibility that structural and functional changes in granule cell cilia might have a role in AD.

  20. An Investigation of Technologies for Hazardous Sludge Reduction at AFLC (Air Force Logistics Command) Industrial Waste Treatment Plants. Volume 2. Literature Review of Available Technologies for Treating Heavy Metal Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    136 J. Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration . .. .. . .. 139 K. Ferrous Sulfate Reduction ................. 143 L. Integrated Treatment...curative (or restorative ) categories. Some methods fall into both categories. The technologies have 5’. been in use for several decades, but applications... restoring it to operating condition. To aid in determining what purification method to use and to prevent bath misuse a log of bath use is important

  1. Two pathogen reduction technologies--methylene blue plus light and shortwave ultraviolet light--effectively inactivate hepatitis C virus in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Eike; Gravemann, Ute; Friesland, Martina; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Müller, Thomas H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Seltsam, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Contamination of blood products with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause infections resulting in acute and chronic liver diseases. Pathogen reduction methods such as photodynamic treatment with methylene blue (MB) plus visible light as well as irradiation with shortwave ultraviolet (UVC) light were developed to inactivate viruses and other pathogens in plasma and platelet concentrates (PCs), respectively. So far, their inactivation capacities for HCV have only been tested in inactivation studies using model viruses for HCV. Recently, a HCV infection system for the propagation of infectious HCV in cell culture was developed. Inactivation studies were performed with cell culture-derived HCV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a model for HCV. Plasma units or PCs were spiked with high titers of cell culture-grown viruses. After treatment of the blood units with MB plus light (Theraflex MB-Plasma system, MacoPharma) or UVC (Theraflex UV-Platelets system, MacoPharma), residual viral infectivity was assessed using sensitive cell culture systems. HCV was sensitive to inactivation by both pathogen reduction procedures. HCV in plasma was efficiently inactivated by MB plus light below the detection limit already by 1/12 of the full light dose. HCV in PCs was inactivated by UVC irradiation with a reduction factor of more than 5 log. BVDV was less sensitive to the two pathogen reduction methods. Functional assays with human HCV offer an efficient tool to directly assess the inactivation capacity of pathogen reduction procedures. Pathogen reduction technologies such as MB plus light treatment and UVC irradiation have the potential to significantly reduce transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (−50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

  3. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (-50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

  4. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  5. Reduction of total labor length through the addition of parenteral dextrose solution in induction of labor in nulliparous: results of DEXTRONS prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Josianne; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Lewin, Antoine; Fraser, William; Bureau, Yves-André

    2017-05-01

    Prolonged labor is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and very few interventions are known to shorten labor course. Skeletal muscle physiology suggests that glucose supplementation might improve muscle performance in case of prolonged exercise and this situation is analogous to the gravid uterus during delivery. Therefore, it seemed imperative to evaluate the impact of adding carbohydrate supplements on the course of labor. We sought to provide evidence as to whether intravenous glucose supplementation during labor induction in nulliparous women can reduce total duration of active labor. We performed a single-center prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing the use of parental intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline to normal saline in induced nulliparous women. The study was conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital setting. Participants, caregivers, and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy at term with cephalic presentation and favorable cervix. Based on blocked randomization, patients were assigned to receive either 250 mL/h of intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline or 250 mL/h of normal saline for the whole duration of induction, labor, and delivery. The primary outcome studied was the total length of active labor. Secondary outcomes included duration of the active phase of second stage of labor, the mode of delivery, Apgar scores, and arterial cord pH. In all, 100 patients were randomized into each group. A total of 193 patients (96 in the dextrose with normal saline group and 97 in the normal saline group) were analyzed in the study. The median total duration of labor was significantly less in the dextrose with normal saline group (499 vs 423 minutes, P = .024) than in the normal saline group. The probabilities of a woman being delivered at 200 minutes and 450 minutes were 18.8% and 77.1% in the dextrose with normal saline group vs 8

  6. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 2. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with cerium(IV) and ISO 7097-1 uses a titration with potassium dichromate

  7. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  8. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  9. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  10. How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...

  11. TIC and energy: Digital technologies and the environment; Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication; Data Centres; Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Patrice; Gossart, Cedric; Garello, Rene; Richard, Philippe; Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Bourgoint, Jean-Claude; Zeddam, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of the present situation of technologies of information and communication (TICs) in terms of energy consumption, and of their perspectives of evolution. More precisely, the authors propose an overview of negative and positive impacts of TICs on the environment (Digital technologies and the environment), discuss an analysis of energy consumption by the different components of the Internet (Understanding the energy challenges for technologies of information and communication), comment efforts which have been already achieved to reduce the energy consumed by data centre equipment (Data Centres), and present action developed and implemented by the Orange Group to manage its energy consumption in its networks and in its information system (Energy savings and reduction of CO_2 emissions, objectives and action plan of the Orange Group)

  12. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  13. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M; Morren, Grietje

    2014-09-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirty-five patients received one treatment per week over 6 weeks to their abdomen/flank, buttock, or thigh areas and were followed up to 3 months post completion of the treatment protocol. This new device has an increased power in the bipolar RF, as this parameter appears to be the most important energy modality for volume reduction. Patient circumferences were measured and comparisons of baseline and post treatment outcomes were made. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) measurements were performed in 12 patients to evaluate the reduction in adipose tissue volume, and a cutometer device was used to assess improvements in skin tightening. We observed a gradual decline in patient circumferences from baseline to post six treatments. The overall body shaping effect was accompanied with improvement in skin tightening and was clearly noticeable in the comparison of the before and after treatment clinical photographs. These findings correlated with measurements of adipose tissue volume and skin firmness/elasticity using diagnostic US and cutometer, respectively. The thickness of the fat layer showed on average a 29% reduction between baseline and the 1-month follow up. The average reduction in the circumference of the abdomen/flanks, buttocks, and thighs from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was 1.4, 0.5, and 1.2 cm, respectively, and 93% of study participants demonstrated a 1-60% change in fat layer thickness. Patients subjectively described comfort and satisfaction from treatment, and 97% of

  14. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    n/a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed

  16. Impact of idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions and available idle-reduction technologies for diesel vehicles – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M. Ashrafur; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Abedin, M.J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper we reviewed the impact of diesel vehicles idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emission. • Fuel consumption and emissions during idling are very high compared to driving cycle. • The effects of various operating on fuel consumption and exhaust emission were discussed. • Available idle-reduction technologies impact on idling fuel consumption and emissions were discussed. • Idling reduction technologies reduce fuel consumption and emissions significantly. - Abstract: In order to maintain cab comfort truck drivers have to idle their engine to obtain the required power for accessories, such as the air conditioner, heater, television, refrigerator, and lights. This idling of the engine has a major impact on its fuel consumption and exhaust emission. Idling emissions can be as high as 86.4 g/h, 16,500 g/h, 5130 g/h, 4 g/h, and 375 g/h for HC, CO 2 , CO, PM, and NOx, respectively. Idling fuel consumption rate can be as high as 1.85 gal/h. The accessory loading, truck model, fuel-injection system, ambient temperature, idling speed, etc., also affect significantly the emission levels and fuel consumption rate. An increase in accessory loading and ambient temperature increases the emissions and fuel consumption. During idling, electronic fuel-injection systems reduce HC, PM, and CO emission, but increase NOx emissions compared with a mechanical fuel-injection system. An increase of idling speed increases fuel consumption rate. There are many systems available on the market to reduce engine idling and improve air quality and fuel consumption rate, such as an auxiliary power unit (APU), truck stop electrification, thermal storage systems, fuel cells, and direct fire heaters. A direct fire heater reduces fuel consumption by 94–96% and an APU reduces consumption by 60–87%. Furthermore, these technologies increase air quality significantly by reducing idling emissions, which is the reason why they are considered as key alternatives to

  17. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  18. Development of advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel. Reduction of coating failure fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Tobita, Tsutomu; Yoshimuta, Sigeharu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Tomimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Oda, Takafumi

    1998-11-01

    The advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel has been developed to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel particles, which leads to an improvement of the reactor safety. The present report reviews the results of the relevant work. The mechanisms of the coating failure of the fuel particles during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the fuel was improved outstandingly. (author)

  19. A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, K. B.

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines, by means of a contract with Kaiser Engineers and with Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation as a subcontractor, has sponsored a technological and an economic evaluation of six candidate processes for the manufacture of alumina from certain U. S. raw materials other than bauxite. This paper describes each process. Flow diagrams and the total energy requirement for each process are included. Important characteristics affecting the economics of producing alumina by each process are discussed, and some presently unsolved technical problems are identified. The extraction of alumina from clay via hydrochloric acid with iron separation by solvent extraction, and the crystallization of intermediate AlCl3·6H2O through the introduction of HCl gas into the pregnant mother liquor, appears to be technically feasible and the most attractive of the six raw material/process combinations.

  20. Application of mixed based membrane technology from component materials bintaro, zeolite and bentonite to reduction of songket waste liquid cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Muhammad Hatta; Saleh, Abdullah; Asip, Faisol; Makmun, Akbar; Defi

    2017-11-01

    Application of membrane technology based on clay mixture, Activated Carbon from Bintaro, Zeolite and Bentonit to process the waste water of Songket cloth is Palembang traditionally cloth. The applied research is into the superior field of industrial and household waste processing with membrane ceramic technology. The objective of this research is to design the liquid waste separation tool of jumputan cloth using better and simpler ceramic membrane so that it can help the artisans of Palembang songket or songket in processing the waste in accordance with the standard of environmental quality standard (BML) and Pergub Sumsel no. 16 in 2005. The specific target to be achieved can decrease the waste of cloth jumputan in accordance with applicable environmental quality standards the method used in achieving the objectives of this study using 2 processes namely the adsorption process using activated carbon and the separation process using a ceramic membrane based on the composition of the mixture. The activated carbon from bintaro seeds is expected to decrease the concentration of liquid waste of Songket cloth. Bintaro seeds are non-edible fruits where the composition contains organic ingredients that can absorb because contains dyes and filler metals. The process of membranization in the processing is expected to decrease the concentration of waste better and clear water that can be used as recycled water for household use. With the composition of a mixture of clay-based materials: zeolite, bentonit, activated carbon from bintaro seeds are expected Find the solution and get the novelty value in the form of patent in this research

  1. Review of CO2 Reduction Technologies using Mineral Carbonation of Iron and Steel Making Slag in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhana Selamat, Siti; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Rashid, Muhammad Hanif Abdul; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Ismail, Al Emran; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Zain, Mohd Zamzuri Mohd; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Seiji, Yokoyama

    2017-10-01

    Climate change, greenhouse gas effect, and global warming is envisioning to turn more awful and more terrible by year. Since the leading cause of global warming is uncontrolled CO2 in atmosphere. The amount of unused steel slag is expected to increment later on, steel industries is one of the mechanical industries that contribute the CO2 emission. That because this businesses deliver carbon in light of powers reductant and substantial volume of steel. The changes of atmosphere these day is truly developing concern and that make steel creator are confronted with test of discovering methods for bringing down CO2 emission. Malaysia is working decidedly in the diminishment of CO2 gas. There are a few techniques in decreasing the amount of CO2 in the air as underlined by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), an organization under the United Country however CCS is an extremely encouraging innovation to moderate CO2 emission in air. Mineral carbonation is another technique to store carbon dioxide permanently, long term stability and vast capacity.

  2. Application of imaging spectroscopic reflectometry for characterization of gold reduction from organometallic compound by means of plasma jet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodák, Jiří, E-mail: jiri.vodak@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Nečas, David [RG Plasma Technologies, CEITEC Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Macak, Jan M [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nám. Čs. Legií 565, 530 02 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Řičica, Tomáš; Jambor, Roman [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Ohlídal, Miloslav [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Metallic gold is reduced from an organometallic compound layer using a plasma jet. • Imaging spectroscopic reflectometry is used to locate areas with metallic gold. • The results are completed with XPS and optical microscopy observations. - Abstract: This work presents a new application of imaging spectroscopic reflectometry to determine a distribution of metallic gold in a layer of an organogold precursor which was treated by a plasma jet. Gold layers were prepared by spin coating from a solution of the precursor containing a small amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone on a microscopy glass, then they were vacuum dried. A difference between reflectivity of metallic gold and the precursor was utilized by imaging spectroscopic reflectometry to create a map of metallic gold distribution using a newly developed model of the studied sample. The basic principle of the imaging spectroscopic reflectometry is also shown together with the data acquisition principles. XPS measurements and microscopy observations were made to complete the imaging spectroscopic reflectometry results. It is proved that the imaging spectroscopic reflectometry represents a new method for quantitative evaluation of local reduction of metallic components from metaloorganic compounds.

  3. Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based large-scale photonic integrated circuits are becoming important, due to the need for higher complexity and lower cost for optical transmitters, receivers and optical buffers. In this paper, passive technologies for large-scale photonic integrated circuits are described, including polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction. The design rule for polarization beam splitters based on asymmetrical directional couplers is summarized and several novel designs for ultra-short polarization beam splitters are reviewed. A novel concept for realizing a polarization splitter–rotator is presented with a very simple fabrication process. Realization of silicon-based light non-reciprocity devices (e.g., optical isolator, which is very important for transmitters to avoid sensitivity to reflections, is also demonstrated with the help of magneto-optical material by the bonding technology. Low-loss waveguides are another important technology for large-scale photonic integrated circuits. Ultra-low loss optical waveguides are achieved by designing a Si3N4 core with a very high aspect ratio. The loss is reduced further to <0.1 dB m−1 with an improved fabrication process incorporating a high-quality thermal oxide upper cladding by means of wafer bonding. With the developed ultra-low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides, some devices are also demonstrated, including ultra-high-Q ring resonators, low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating (demultiplexers, and high-extinction-ratio polarizers.

  4. Intelligent building operating technologies : a cost-effective reduction in building energy consumption[Business case for a climate change solution]. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, J.

    2004-04-01

    Much of the energy consumed in the commercial and institutional (C and I) buildings sector is wasted due to poor building operation. The sector accounts for 13 per cent of secondary energy use in Canada, and contributes about the same proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy use in this sector could be reduced if the operation of the buildings were improved. The CANMET Energy Technology Centre in Varennes, Quebec has developed a set of software solutions called Intelligent Building Operating Technologies to address this problem. The software program applies artificial intelligence algorithms to existing building energy management control systems to diagnose equipment and system problems. The software provides performance reports and allows the operator to optimize the operation of the building. The proposed control strategies could be applied to 60 per cent of the building surface area in Canada, resulting energy consumption reductions of 12 per cent annually, or 14 TWh of electricity and 1.5 billion cubic metres of natural gas. The savings amount to $1.8 billion and 7 Mt of GHG emissions annually. It was suggested that a national retro-commissioning program would eliminate the barriers to improving building operation and help research and development aimed at Intelligent Building Operating Technologies. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Reduction of harmful emissions from a diesel engine fueled by kapok methyl ester using combined coating and SNCR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Saravanan, C.G.; Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.E.; Lee, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal barrier coating was accomplished by coating the engine components with PSZ. • Under-utilized kapok oil biodiesel was used as renewable fuel in a coated engine. • The BTE of the engine was improved by 9% with reduced BSFC. • CO, HC and smoke were reduced by 40%, 35.3% and 21.4%, respectively. • After implementing SCR assembly, the NO X emission was decreased by 13.4%. - Abstract: This research work has been formulated to reduce the stinging effect of NO X emission on atmospheric environment from a coated diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. As such, in the current study, we attempted to harness the renewable source of energy from in-edible kapok oil, which is normally under-utilized despite being a viable feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. Notably, steam treatment process followed by crushing of the kapok seeds in a mechanical expeller was done to extract large quantities of kapok oil for the application of diesel engine, which is quite distinct of a method adopted herein. The conventional trans-esterification process was availed to synthesize KME (kapok methyl ester) and the physical and thermal properties of it were estimated by ASTM standard methods. Subsequently, two blends of KME with diesel such as B25 (KME – 25% and diesel – 75%) and B50 (KME – 50% and diesel – 50%) were prepared and tested in a single cylinder diesel engine with thermal barrier coating. To help realize the coating process, PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia), a pertinent coating material in respect of its poor thermal conductivity and better durability, has been chosen as the coating material to be applied on engine components by plasma spray coating technique. As an outcome of the coating study, B50 was found to show improved BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than that in an uncoated engine, with notable decrease in major emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke. However, due to reduction in heat losses and increase in in

  8. Study and modeling of the reduction of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen chloride by dry injection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wuyin

    1997-05-01

    The potential and mechanism to reduce acid gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), by dry Ca-based sorbents have been studied to improve the efficiency of the process and sorbent utilization. Several natural limestones were tested for SO{sub 2} removal. Calcium conversion as high as 45 % was achieved in the first 0.3 s at 1000 deg C, 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} and Ca/S=1. A SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 95 % was reached at Ca/S=2. Two models for estimating the sulfation of CaO at high temperature are presented. Short-residence-time sulfation is described by a pore size distribution model and long-residence-time sulfation by a particle expansion model. The pore size distribution model explains the effects of particle size, pore size distribution and partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, suggesting these three factors be the most important for CaO conversion. For particles larger than 1-2 {mu}m in furnace sorbent injection, pore diameters of 50-300 Aa are desirable. When large particles or long residence times are used, as in fluidized bed combustion, the particle expansion model shows the particle size and the sorbent type to be the main factors affecting the reaction. By using the selected limestone and additives the simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal was also measured. Several ammonium salts as well as urea were tested. Urea was found to give the highest NO{sub x} removal efficiency. To fully utilize the unreacted Ca-based sorbents, the spent sorbents from SO{sub 2} reduction processes were tested in a fixed-bed reactor to measure the capacity for HCl removal at 150-600 deg C. The results showed that all spent materials could react with HCl to some extent. After being calcined and slaked, they even showed the same reactivity as pure Ca(OH){sub 2}. A shrinking core model was derived for fixed-bed reactor. For the best sorbent tested, the multiple sorbent utilization reached about 80 %. 100 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  9. SU-G-IeP3-05: Effects of Image Receptor Technology and Dose Reduction Software On Radiation Dose Estimates for Fluoroscopically-Guided Interventional (FGI) Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Z; Dave, J; Eschelman, D; Gonsalves, C [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of image receptor technology and dose reduction software on radiation dose estimates for most frequently performed fluoroscopically-guided interventional (FGI) procedures at a tertiary health care center. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for retrospective analysis of FGI procedures performed in the interventional radiology suites between January-2011 and December-2015. This included procedures performed using image-intensifier (II) based systems which were subsequently replaced, flat-panel-detector (FPD) based systems which were later upgraded with ClarityIQ dose reduction software (Philips Healthcare) and relatively new FPD system already equipped with ClarityIQ. Post procedure, technologists entered system-reported cumulative air kerma (CAK) and kerma-area product (KAP; only KAP for II based systems) in RIS; these values were analyzed. Data pre-processing included correcting typographical errors and cross-verifying CAK and KAP. The most frequent high and low dose FGI procedures were identified and corresponding CAK and KAP values were compared. Results: Out of 27,251 procedures within this time period, most frequent high and low dose procedures were chemo/immuno-embolization (n=1967) and abscess drainage (n=1821). Mean KAP for embolization and abscess drainage procedures were 260,657, 310,304 and 94,908 mGycm{sup 2}, and 14,497, 15,040 and 6307 mGycm{sup 2} using II-, FPD- and FPD with ClarityIQ- based systems, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in KAP values for embolization procedures with respect to different systems but for abscess drainage procedures significant differences were only noted between systems with FPD and FPD with ClarityIQ (p<0.05). Mean CAK reduced significantly from 823 to 308 mGy and from 43 to 21 mGy for embolization and abscess drainage procedures, respectively, in transitioning to FPD systems with ClarityIQ (p<0.05). Conclusion: While transitioning from II- to FPD- based

  10. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  12. Full length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    chemical oxidation and reduction, electro-chemical treatment and ion-pair extraction were extensively used ... The present study is an effort to develop a fungal-based treatment system for the cleaning of dye industrial ..... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 178:1056-. 1063. Raju, N. S., Venkataramana ...

  13. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  14. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  15. Survey on the reduction technology of greenhouse effect gas emission from automobiles; Jidosha kara no onshitsu koka gas haishutsuryo teigen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The developmental trend of the reduction technology of greenhouse effect gas emission from automobiles was surveyed. Development of low pollution, energy saving and substituting energy vehicles such as electric, methanol and natural gas vehicles is in rapid progress together with performance improvement of conventional gasoline vehicles. For example, since GDI engine directly injects fuel into cylinders, it can control an air/fuel ratio at will, and reduce CO2 emission. Lean burn engine vehicle and hybrid vehicle are also under development. Performance improvement of storage batteries for electric vehicles, in particular, that combined with solar cells, and the practicability of hybrid vehicles are being clarified. Among them, the superiority of fuel cell technology in the future is becoming clear from a general viewpoint, because of its high efficiency and no CO2 emission. As methanol is produced from plants, construction of cyclic energy systems is promising. However, since low emission vehicles are expensive, some policies such as legal obligation and subsidy system are important. 30 refs., 95 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  17. Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Androgenic hormones are important in normal embryonic development and maintenance of the structural integrity of the penis. This structural integrity is vital in the physiology of penile erection. Its alteration may therefore lead to functional impairment resulting in erectile dysfunction as seen in hypogonadic conditions.

  19. The German way to an energy efficient future. Process and cross cutting technology improvements for CO{sub 2} reductions and a competitive economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to show how Germany tries to improve the energy efficiency of the economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industry. Between 1990 to 1995 Germany has reduced its CO{sub 2} emission from 1029 to 933 million tonnes, which is equivalent to an emission reduction of 9%. To analyse and compare different options to reach the emission reduction target, multiple tools have been developed and can be used to help in setting policy priorities. The IKARUS model and database together with the use of energy efficiency indicators helps to keep the development of energy consumption and emission reduction on track to the reduction target. Voluntary agreements between industry and government had been worked out, to limit the emissions in the energy intensive sectors of the German industry. Results from the monitoring of this efforts will be presented together with a short evaluation of the factors influencing the improvements in energy efficiency. As energy related emissions can be reduced significantly by closing energy and material flows, the effect of recycling of energy intensive materials such as steel, glass, plastics, and paper is discussed. The possible role of renewables as energy carrier and feedstock is evaluated for the production of surfactants. If more oleochemical surfactants could be applied, this will help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the use of fossil fuels as feedstock. The efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, compressed air systems and electric motors. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application has to be overcome. One way to help decision makers in industry is the use of energy benchmarking. Benchmarking helps to analyse the energy efficiency of the own company in comparison to the competitors and to set appropriate targets and to prepare a road map of measures to

  20. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  1. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  2. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  3. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  4. Implementation of a Low Frame-Rate Protocol and Noise-Reduction Technology to Minimize Radiation Dose in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Candilio, Luciano; Latib, Azeem; Godino, Cosmo; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-05-01

    Limiting radiation exposure is necessary in radiological procedures. This study evaluates the impact of a radiological low frame-rate protocol in a standard angiographic system and the implementation of a noise-reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation exposure during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Transfemoral TAVR procedures performed between February 2016 and February 2017 were analyzed according to two angiographic systems, Standard and NRT, and further divided in four subgroups: (1) Standard 15 frames per second (fps) with 15 fps for both fluoroscopy and cine acquisitions; (2) Standard 7.5 fps with 7.5 fps for both fluoroscopy and cine acquisitions; (3) NRT 15 fps with 15 fps for both fluoroscopy and cine acquisitions; and (4) NRT 7.5 fps with 15 fps for fluoroscopy and 7.5 fps for cine acquisitions. Study endpoints were kerma area product (KAP) and cumulative air kerma at interventional reference point (AK at IRP). Significant differences were found in KAP (153 Gy·cm² [IQR, 95-234 Gy·cm²] vs 78.3 Gy·cm² [IQR, 54.4-103.5 Gy·cm²]; Pfps and Standard 7.5 fps groups (184 Gy·cm² [IQR, 128-262 Gy·cm²] vs 106.8 Gy·cm² [IQR, 76.87-181 Gy·cm²] [P<.01] and 0.973 Gy [IQR, 0.642-1.786 Gy] vs 0.64 Gy [IQR, 0.489-0.933 Gy] [P<.01], respectively). The present study suggests that the low frame-rate protocol in Standard system and NRT implementation allows a marked reduction of patient radiation exposure in TAVR procedures.

  5. Control and reduction of NOx emissions on light hydrocarbons combustion in fluidized bed combustors: a technological prospection surveys; Controle e reducao de emissoes de NOx durante queima de hidrocarbonetos leves em combustores a leito fluidizado: um estudo de prospeccao tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Douglas Alves; Winter, Eduardo [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims a technological prospecting study of the main technological agents involved in industrial light hydrocarbons combustion process. More specifically, the work approaches technologies applied to nitrogen oxides emissions control and reduction. Nitrogen oxides are typically known as 'NOx' (NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}). 'NOx' are byproducts from fuel burning in combustion systems, including also in fluidized bed combustion systems. The technological prospecting study employed 'technology foresight' as tool for evaluating the technological perspectives of the thermal generation, basis on environment protection. Such technological perspectives of the thermal generation were evaluated through invention patent documents. The query methodology for obtaining of patent documents employed a free patent base, known as ESPACENET. Additionally, the documents obtained were evaluated, considering beyond the countries and the publication dates, technological perspectives employed to 'NOx' emissions control and reduction. It is very important to highlight around 70% of the industrial technological information are just found in invention patent documents. (author)

  6. New technologies for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles; Nuevas tecnologias para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Violante, A.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The new technologies developed for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles can be classified by the way these try to reduce the use of energy. In the search for the technologies for the conservation of it the environmental problem is added, that although it is not the subject of this presentation results decisive for the evaluation of the performance of type of technology. The development of technologies in this field has followed three basic tendencies. First: The efficient improvement of internal combustion motors, which consist in the control and constant monitoring the functioning of these motors in order to determine the strictly necessary consumption for the motor operation in accordance with its load conditions. Second, the development of a system that utilizes alternate fuels, as is the case of hybrid vehicles, that utilize gas turbines that can burn these fuels. Third the development of electric driven and energy regeneration systems avoiding the use of fossil fuels. A fourth tendency could be considered, which consists in determining the best way of controlling and using the transportation time, with all the implicit benefits. The purpose of this paper is to answer all these questions beginning with a detailed revision of the main technological innovations developed by the leading car manufacturers at world level, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Ford, etc. concerned in bringing to the market the best vehicles that burn less or none fossil fuels and at the same time comply with the every day more strict standards on the environmental pollution subject. Through these innovations the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them are set forth, with special emphasis in the technologies that, to our concern, will be the most convenient to promote in the years to come. [Espanol] Las nuevas tecnologias desarrolladas para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles se pueden caracterizar por la manera en que estas tratan de reducir

  7. New technologies for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles; Nuevas tecnologias para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Violante, A; Dorantes Rodriguez, R [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The new technologies developed for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles can be classified by the way these try to reduce the use of energy. In the search for the technologies for the conservation of it the environmental problem is added, that although it is not the subject of this presentation results decisive for the evaluation of the performance of type of technology. The development of technologies in this field has followed three basic tendencies. First: The efficient improvement of internal combustion motors, which consist in the control and constant monitoring the functioning of these motors in order to determine the strictly necessary consumption for the motor operation in accordance with its load conditions. Second, the development of a system that utilizes alternate fuels, as is the case of hybrid vehicles, that utilize gas turbines that can burn these fuels. Third the development of electric driven and energy regeneration systems avoiding the use of fossil fuels. A fourth tendency could be considered, which consists in determining the best way of controlling and using the transportation time, with all the implicit benefits. The purpose of this paper is to answer all these questions beginning with a detailed revision of the main technological innovations developed by the leading car manufacturers at world level, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Ford, etc. concerned in bringing to the market the best vehicles that burn less or none fossil fuels and at the same time comply with the every day more strict standards on the environmental pollution subject. Through these innovations the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them are set forth, with special emphasis in the technologies that, to our concern, will be the most convenient to promote in the years to come. [Espanol] Las nuevas tecnologias desarrolladas para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles se pueden caracterizar por la manera en que estas tratan de reducir

  8. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  9. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. Reduction of radiation exposure while maintaining high-quality fluoroscopic images during interventional cardiology using novel x-ray tube technology with extra beam filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, A; de Feyter, P J; Hummel, W A; Keane, D; Roelandt, J R

    1994-06-01

    Radiographic technology plays an integral role in interventional cardiology. The number of interventions continues to increase, and the associated radiation exposure to patients and personnel is of major concern. This study was undertaken to determine whether a newly developed x-ray tube deploying grid-switched pulsed fluoroscopy and extra beam filtering can achieve a reduction in radiation exposure while maintaining fluoroscopic images of high quality. Three fluoroscopic techniques were compared: continuous fluoroscopy, pulsed fluoroscopy, and a newly developed high-output pulsed fluoroscopy with extra filtering. To ascertain differences in the quality of images and to determine differences in patient entrance and investigator radiation exposure, the radiated volume curve was measured to determine the required high voltage levels (kVpeak) for different object sizes for each fluoroscopic mode. The fluoroscopic data of 124 patient procedures were combined. The data were analyzed for radiographic projections, image intensifier field size, and x-ray tube kilovoltage levels (kVpeak). On the basis of this analysis, a reference procedure was constructed. The reference procedure was tested on a phantom or dummy patient by all three fluoroscopic modes. The phantom was so designed that the kilovoltage requirements for each projection were comparable to those needed for the average patient. Radiation exposure of the operator and patient was measured during each mode. The patient entrance dose was measured in air, and the operator dose was measured by 18 dosimeters on a dummy operator. Pulsed compared with continuous fluoroscopy could be performed with improved image quality at lower kilovoltages. The patient entrance dose was reduced by 21% and the operator dose by 54%. High-output pulsed fluoroscopy with extra beam filtering compared with continuous fluoroscopy improved the image quality, lowered the kilovoltage requirements, and reduced the patient entrance dose by 55% and

  12. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimate of the technological costs of CO{sub 2} emission reductions in passenger cars. Emission reduction potentials and their costs; Technikkostenschaetzung fuer die CO{sub 2}-Emissionsminderung bei Pkw. Emissionsminderungspotenziale und ihre Kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbener, Reinhard; Jahn, Helge; Wetzel, Frank [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 3.2 - Schadstoffminderung und Energieeinsparung im Verkehr

    2008-08-06

    The Federal Environmental Office intended to identify the current fuel consumption reduction potential and the cost of efficiency-enhancing measures on passenger cars. For this purpose, an extensive bibliographic search was carried out, and experts from research institutes and from the automobile supplier industry were asked for their opinion. The results are published in table form. (orig.)

  14. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  15. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  16. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  17. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  18. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  19. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  20. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  1. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  2. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  3. Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle

  4. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  6. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  7. The role for low carbon electrification technologies in poverty reduction and climate change strategies: A focus on renewable energy mini-grids with case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Cruickshank, Heather

    2012-01-01

    As a potential poverty reduction and climate change strategy, this paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy technologies for rural electrification in developing countries. Although each case must be considered independently, given a reliable fuel source, renewable energy mini-grids powered by biomass gasifiers or micro-hydro plants appear to be the favoured option due to their lower levelised costs, provision of AC power, potential to provide a 24 h service and ability to host larger capacity systems that can power a wide range of electricity uses. Sustainability indicators are applied to three case studies in order to explore the extent to which sustainable welfare benefits can be created by renewable energy mini-grids. Policy work should focus on raising awareness about renewable energy mini-grids, improving institutional, technical and regulatory frameworks and developing innovative financing mechanisms to encourage private sector investments. Establishing joint technology and community engagement training centres should also be encouraged. - Highlights: ► Renewable mini-grids are a valuable climate change and poverty reduction strategy. ► They can be cheaper than diesel on a levelized basis and offer grid level service. ► Awareness about mini-grids should be raised and institutional frameworks improved. ► Financing mechanisms should be developed to encourage private sector investments. ► Joint technology and community engagement training centres should be established.

  8. 1998 report on results of technological development of super metal. Innovative technological development for producing advanced structure controlled metallic material (high-speed large reduction rolling technology); 1998 nendo super metal no gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kodo soshiki kozo seigyo kinzoku zairyo sosei gijutsu kaihatsu (kosoku daiatsuka atsuen gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A report was made on the 1998 results concerning technological development of super metal. In the 'research and development of super metal', metallurgical examination has been made on crystal grain super refining process using a machining simulator, with studies carried out on crystal grain refining by utilizing large-strain deformation with more than 50% deformation for a single pass and a diploid structure. As a result, it was found that the crystal grain size can be refined to approximately 1{mu}m. Consequently, in fiscal 1998, a high-speed large reduction rolling test equipment was developed capable of rendering a sheathing technology in a mechanically testable size by a rolling method. This test equipment has such capacity as the maximum load of 1,000 ton and the maximum torque of 95 ton/m and is a rolling mill whose scale is largest in the nation on the laboratory level. The rolling speed can be 120mpm, a very fast speed for a large sized rolling mill. Moreover, equipped with an immediate water cooling facility adjacent to the rolls and an automatic operating system for example, it is a high function rolling mill capable of cooling and rolling that render the complex and delicate sheathing technology of super metal. (NEDO)

  9. International cooperation in the field of export control as risk reduction instrument for both nuclear technologies spreading and nuclear ecological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.V.; Odejchuk, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper is noted, that it is necessary to develop international flexible procedures for control of potentially hazardous materials, averting illicit spreading and in that time are minimally limiting development of a trade-commercial partnership. Efforts on prevention of unendorsed mass destruction weapon development by terrorist groups must carrying out in two directions: material transactions and intangible transfers (technologies, qualified personnel). Now efforts of international regimes are focused on the material component. But is is necessary to develop mechanism universal for all world community, for control of intangible transfer and preventing of unapproved transfers of 'sensitive' technologies

  10. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  11. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  12. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  13. The Role of Information Technology in Reduction of Administrative Corruption through Increasing of Information transparency, Improvement of Accountability and Promotion of Integrity; A Case Study of Saderat Bank Branches in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Sharifi-Renani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between information transparency, improve accountability and enhance the reliability and accuracy of the use of information technology (telephone, fax, computer and electronic banking services to reduce corruption in Saderat Bank Branches in Isfahan. The method of this study is Solidarity-Survey. This study uses Cohen, Morgan and Krejcie table and selectes 269 samples randomly among the 900 employees of Saderat Bank Branches. The data were obtained from the two questionnaires with content validity that confirmed by experts and stationary with Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the 0.96 and 0.92. Results were analyzed statistically with the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis and path analysis. Results showed that information transparency, improve accountability and enhance the reliability and integrity of information technology, including telephone and fax, computer and electronic banking services and have a direct relation with the reduction of corruption.

  14. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  15. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  16. ALS annual report 2005 - Main issue 5: 5. IVD colloquium on wood burning - systems management for the future. Fine dust reduction, condensing boiler technology, storage heaters. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains the papers presented at the 18th colloquium of the Stuttgart University WG on air pollution abatement, which was held jointly with the 5th Stuttgart wood furnaces colloquium this year. This was a good combination as wood has high relevance for air pollution abatement: On the one hand, wood as a fuel will reduce CO2 emissions, improve air quality and save resources. On the other hand, wood combustion may cause fine dust emissions, unpleasant smells and other side effects of incomplete combustion, especially in small furnaces. Fine dust emissions were characterized and future requirements on biomass combustion defined. After this, strategies for optimum design and construction, modern off-gas treatment technologies, high-efficiency combustion technologies, flameless combustion, and efficient combinations of wood furnaces and heat stores were gone into. The utilisation of pellets from cereals and straw was mentioned as well. (orig.)

  17. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  18. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  19. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  20. Highly recyclable and ultra-rapid catalytic reduction of organic pollutants on Ag-Cu@ZnO bimetal nanocomposite synthesized via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarapu, Manjari; Sarangapany, Saran; Suja, Devipriya P.; Arava, Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, synthesis of Ag-Cu alloy bimetal nanoparticles anchored on high surface and porous ZnO using a facile, greener and low-cost aqeous bark extract of Aglaia roxburghiana for highly active, ultra-rapid and stable catalyst is performed. The nanocomposite was scrupulously characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrophotometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, selected area (electron) diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the green synthesized Ag-Cu bimetal nanocomposite was evaluated in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) dyes. The different types of dye exhibited very high and effective catalytic activity within few seconds. The theoretical investigations reveal that the unique synergistic effect of Ag-Cu nanoparticles and immobilization over ZnO assists in the reduction of 4-NP, MB and Rh B. Loading and leaching of metal nanoparticles were obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the stable and efficient recyclability of nanocomposite by centrifugation after completion of the reaction was demonstrated. The results lead to the design different possible bimetal on ZnO with boosting and an effective catalyst for the environmental applications.

  1. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  2. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  3. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON's evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  4. Reduction of the number of defect signals in pressure vessel welds by a phased array ultrasonic test technology qualified beforehand in a blind test according to PDI specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, F.

    2007-01-01

    In German-language countries, ultrasonic testing of reactor pressure vessel welds in the context of recurrent inspection is based on the KTA rules. This test philosophy is based on the recording of all data of a test section and repeated comparison of these data at regular intervals. Each and every change during operation is displayed. There are many components in which no changes are observed over longer periods of time. Optimisation of the test procedure and test periods requires accurate knowledge of the component condition. This necessitates accurate data of available defects. However, current techniques only provide data for comparative analysis on the basis of reflectivity. Data on the length and depth of a relevant defect can only be obtained by qualified sizing techniques. The PDI programme provides exact rules for qualification of techniques for a given application. Using a PDI qualification with personal blind tests for all data evaluators, one obtains a basis for accurate defect dimensioning and thus for optimisation. In cooperation with KKL, IntelligeNDT AREVA in 2006 successfully underwent the PDI qualification process for phased array testing of longitudinal and circumferential welds in reactor pressure vessels. In addition to this qualification, a comparison was made with the results of the conventionally applied, KTA-oriented test procedure. One of the key elements of qualification is the characterisation of defects, i.e. the distinction between relevant and non-relevant data, which will help to reduce the displayed data. The contribution presents the results and experience of the qualification as well as a comparison of standard testing with a tandem function with the results of phased array testing. (orig.)

  5. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiangyao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Guiying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); An, Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu [Guangzhou Longest Environmental Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510660 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of VOCs removal during e-waste dismantling process. • EP-PC-ozonation integrated reactor show high and stable removal ability to VOCs. • Health risks of target VOCs decrease significantly after the treatment. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit’s high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit’s high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions.

  6. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  7. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  8. Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaipainen, Terhi; Liski, Jari; Pussinen, Ari; Karjalainen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1-6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon

  9. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Does improved access to diagnostic imaging results reduce hospital length of stay? A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurlen Petter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One year after the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT to support diagnostic imaging at our hospital, clinicians had faster and better access to radiology reports and images; direct access to Computed Tomography (CT reports in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR was particularly popular. The objective of this study was to determine whether improvements in radiology reporting and clinical access to diagnostic imaging information one year after the ICT introduction were associated with a reduction in the length of patients' hospital stays (LOS. Methods Data describing hospital stays and diagnostic imaging were collected retrospectively from the EMR during periods of equal duration before and one year after the introduction of ICT. The post-ICT period was chosen because of the documented improvement in clinical access to radiology results during that period. The data set was randomly split into an exploratory part used to establish the hypotheses, and a confirmatory part. The data was used to compare the pre-ICT and post-ICT status, but also to compare differences between groups. Results There was no general reduction in LOS one year after ICT introduction. However, there was a 25% reduction for one group - patients with CT scans. This group was heterogeneous, covering 445 different primary discharge diagnoses. Analyses of subgroups were performed to reduce the impact of this divergence. Conclusion Our results did not indicate that improved access to radiology results reduced the patients' LOS. There was, however, a significant reduction in LOS for patients undergoing CT scans. Given the clinicians' interest in CT reports and the results of the subgroup analyses, it is likely that improved access to CT reports contributed to this reduction.

  11. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines Area of Interest 1.0: Reliable and Affordable Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William; Winter, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The General Electric Reliable and Affordable Controls effort under the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has designed, fabricated, and tested advanced controls hardware and software to reduce emissions and improve engine safety and reliability. The original effort consisted of four elements: 1) a Hydraulic Multiplexer; 2) Active Combustor Control; 3) a Variable Displacement Vane Pump (VDVP); and 4) Intelligent Engine Control. The VDVP and Intelligent Engine Control elements were cancelled due to funding constraints and are reported here only to the state they progressed. The Hydraulic Multiplexing element developed and tested a prototype which improves reliability by combining the functionality of up to 16 solenoids and servo-valves into one component with a single electrically powered force motor. The Active Combustor Control element developed intelligent staging and control strategies for low emission combustors. This included development and tests of a Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle for fuel sequencing, a Fuel Multiplexer for individual fuel cup metering, and model-based control logic. Both the Hydraulic Multiplexer and Controlled Pressure Fuel Nozzle system were cleared for engine test. The Fuel Multiplexer was cleared for combustor rig test which must be followed by an engine test to achieve full maturation.

  12. Superior Rhythm Discrimination With the SmartShock Technology Algorithm - Results of the Implantable Defibrillator With Enhanced Features and Settings for Reduction of Inaccurate Detection (DEFENSE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginosawa, Yasushi; Kohno, Ritsuko; Honda, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Kan; Nozoe, Masatsugu; Uchida, Takayuki; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Sonoda, Koichiro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ideguchi, Takeshi; Kizaki, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Oba, Kageyuki; Higa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keiki; Tsunoda, Soichi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Abe, Haruhiko

    2017-08-25

    Shocks delivered by implanted anti-tachyarrhythmia devices, even when appropriate, lower the quality of life and survival. The new SmartShock Technology ® (SST) discrimination algorithm was developed to prevent the delivery of inappropriate shock. This prospective, multicenter, observational study compared the rate of inaccurate detection of ventricular tachyarrhythmia using the SST vs. a conventional discrimination algorithm.Methods and Results:Recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) equipped with the SST algorithm were enrolled and followed up every 6 months. The tachycardia detection rate was set at ≥150 beats/min with the SST algorithm. The primary endpoint was the time to first inaccurate detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) with conventional vs. the SST discrimination algorithm, up to 2 years of follow-up. Between March 2012 and September 2013, 185 patients (mean age, 64.0±14.9 years; men, 74%; secondary prevention indication, 49.5%) were enrolled at 14 Japanese medical centers. Inaccurate detection was observed in 32 patients (17.6%) with the conventional, vs. in 19 patients (10.4%) with the SST algorithm. SST significantly lowered the rate of inaccurate detection by dual chamber devices (HR, 0.50; 95% CI: 0.263-0.950; P=0.034). Compared with previous algorithms, the SST discrimination algorithm significantly lowered the rate of inaccurate detection of VT in recipients of dual-chamber ICD or CRT-D.

  13. Application of plasma shield technology to the reduction, treatment, and disposal of hazardous organic and/or mixed wastes with actinide recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.T.; Vaughan, L.L.; Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Bieniewski, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos research activities are currently directed at the application of the shielded hydrogen plasma torch to the direct production of actinide metals from a UF 6 feedstock. Two broad classes of thermal plasma reactors are currently in widespread use: the direct current (dc) arc jet system and the radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled system. Los Alamos has improved upon the basic rf plasma tube design using the concept of a transformer. The unique feature of the Los Alamos tube is a segmented, cooled, internal radiation shield. The Los Alamos shielded plasma torch routinely achieves temperatures exceeding 10,000 K and electron densities of 10 16 /cm 3 when operated continuously at one atmosphere of argon. These highly energetic conditions are sufficient to dissociate most chemical compounds into their constituent atoms. Based upon these characteristics, Los Alamos is currently investigating the application of the shielded plasma torch technology to the destruction of organic and mixed hazardous wastes, as well as the direct production of actinide metals from the halides and oxides, without the cogeneration of contaminated wastes. 5 refs., 4 figs

  14. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  15. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  16. Automated gauge block pair length difference calibration and associated uncertainty sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, W Jr; França, R S

    2015-01-01

    A reduction for interferometric uncertainties in length difference at gauge block pairs is presented. An automated processing designed to compensate geometric fringe visualization effects and four-alternate wringing technique are used to achieve small combined uncertainties for length difference calibrations, maintaining a good compliance with the EAL-G21 determinations. (paper)

  17. Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. R and D of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology in relation to machine tools; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kosaku kiki ni kanrensuru taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to machine tools, a method was studied for reducing consumption power at the time of standing-by, keeping the present processing accuracy, processing efficiency and operability, and the results of the study were as follows. As to the chip conveyer, the stand-by consumption power was reduced by approximately 75% by reducing the motor capacity by reviewing the effective operation method and the structure. Concerning the mist collector, a reduction of approximately 85% was confirmed by adopting the efficient operation method and high-efficient motor. Relating to the oil controller, an experiment was made on the frame thermal circulation system and the self-forced air cooling system. In terms of the rise in temperature, the controller is lower than the existing one, but it was found out that the consumption power could be reduced by about 14% and about 98%, respectively. About the coolant pump, the optimum inclination angle/necessary minimum flow rate of oil pan were confirmed, and a reduction of 47% was confirmed. As to the hydraulic pump, study was made of a method to substitute other power source for oil pressure and the intermittent operation of hydraulic unit, and effects of each were confirmed. Further studies were made of the control disc, reduction in air consumption, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  1. Destruction of TCE Using Oxidative and Reductive Pathways as Potential In-Situ Treatments for the Contaminated Paducah Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, S; Li, Y; Xu, J; Tee, Y; Lynch, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    When considering reductive technologies for ground water remediation, it is important to understand the underlying principles that govern kinetics of zero-valent metal dechlorination. Studies involving the use of nanoscale metals (characteristic length <100nm) for chloro-organic degradation have increased reaction rates by 1-2 orders of magnitude with minimal intermediate formation. Typically, these metals are synthesized using modifications of the aqueous phase reduction of metal ions using sodium borohydride presented by Glavee and coworkers. The use of a bimetallic system increases the reactivity of the particle surface by incorporating a second metal that can typically act as a hydrogenation promotor.

  2. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    relevant for flame length . For instance, Zelina and coworkers [9–11] have claimed that the UCC-HGC can achieve flame length reductions in the order of...turbulent flame length measurements are not discussed. Despite these controversies the UCC-HGC is still of interest because Zelina and coworkers [9...speed and flame length using the UCC-HGC. For this, however, the previous UCC-HGC rig [9– 11] is modified in order to operate at more realistic

  3. Outage reduction of Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Shigeru; Anma, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    In the Hamaoka nuclear power plant, we have worked on the outage reduction since 1993. In those days, the outage length in Hamaoka was 80 days or more, and was largely far apart from excellent results of European and American plants about the 30days. A concrete strategy to achieve the reduction process is the extension of working hours, the changing work schedule control unit for every hour, the equipment improvements, and the improvements of work environments, etc. We executed them one by one reflecting results. As a result, we achieved the outage for 57 days in 1995. Starting from this, we acquired the further outage reduction one by one and achieved the outage for 38 days in 1997 while maintaining safety and reliability of the plant. We advance these strategies further and we will aim at the achievement of the 30·35 days outage in the future. (author)

  4. The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear body ... was conducted in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, in the then ... Weekly weights and live body measurements of the kids were recorded from ...

  5. Statistical length of DNA based on AFM image measured by a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinqing; Qiu Xijun; Zhang Yi; Hu Jun; Wu Shiying; Huang Yibo; Ai Xiaobai; Li Minqian

    2001-01-01

    Taking advantage of image processing technology, the contour length of DNA molecule was measured automatically by a computer. Based on the AFM image of DNA, the topography of DNA was simulated into a curve. Then the DNA length was measured automatically by inserting mode. It was shown that the experimental length of a naturally deposited DNA (180.4 +- 16.4 nm) was well consistent with the theoretical length (185.0 nm). Comparing to other methods, the present approach had advantages of precision and automatism. The stretched DNA was also measured. It present approach had advantages of precision and automatism. The stretched DNA was also measured. It was shown that the experimental length (343.6 +- 20.7 nm) was much longer than the theoretical length (307.0 nm). This result indicated that the stretching process had a distinct effect on the DNA length. However, the method provided here avoided the DNA-stretching effect

  6. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  7. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  8. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  9. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  10. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  11. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  12. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  13. Report of study group 3.1 ''technological and economical developments for cost reduction of LNG facilities''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 3.1 ''developpements economiques et technologiques pour la reduction des couts dans les installations de GNL''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapallini, R.

    2000-07-01

    The design, engineering and operation of LNG base load liquefaction and re-gasification facilities is now considered a mature technology. However, process efficiency at these plants is limited by fundamental thermodynamic principles and no radical technology breakthroughs are expected in the near future. Three important aspects affecting the cost of production are the molecular weight of the gas, the amount of nitrogen in the feed and the acid gas composition. Variations in composition will also affect the design of the facilities and production rate. Previous projects have optimised economies of scale, using processes based on large industrial gas turbines, to achieve the minimum unit cost for LNG production. LNG producers have continued to focus on larger train designs to further capitalize on economies of scale as well as continued expansion of existing facilities. The latest plant designs expect the optimum integration with existing facilities to be a major factor in optimising specific capital costs. Whilst design codes and standards have not been discussed in many papers on LNG cost reduction, it is generally accepted that project specifications can significantly impact the project cost. The cost of equipment can be significantly inflated by onerous specifications with non standard requirements that vendors have trouble meeting. The possibility of developing gas projects will mainly be determined by the requirements of power generation and/or the industrial sector. As far as power generation is concerned, expansion will rely greatly on combined cycle plants. The competitiveness of LNG as regards power generation can be further improved by adopting integrated solutions. As in all other industrial projects, one of the first concerns for the investor when he envisages building an LNG liquefaction or re-gasification terminal is the selection of the site where the terminal will be located. (author)

  14. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  15. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  16. Production of carbonaceous materials with various lengths in small spheroidal fullerenes and long CNTs by tunable multi-walled carbon nanotube cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hoi; Shin, Ueon Sang [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Tunable cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using high pressure homogenizer and/or HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was accomplished, resulting in the production of short CNTs with minimum length of 35 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Zeta sizer analysis showed significant reduction of CNT length from this tunable cutting (e.g. from long and entangled pristine CNTs at about 20 μm to ≥1000 nm, ⁓400 nm, ⁓200 nm, and ⁓100 nm via high pressure jet-spraying cutting within 5 h, while chemical cutting process using greatly longer hours (48 h) showed a reduction only to about 1000 nm). When CNT sample of average 1000 nm length previously shortened by HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was subjected to the high pressure jet-spraying cutting process, the reduction progressed faster (≤1 h), producing ≥35 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated restricted formation of hydrophilic functional groups such as carboxylic group and hydroxyl group in the high pressure jet-spraying cutting, whereas an intensive formation of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of shortened CNT samples was found after chemical cutting. Such short CNT samples would fulfill the requirements for carbonaceous materials with various lengths in small spheroidal fullerenes and long CNTs. The short CNTs produced are promising for scientific and technological applications in many fields such as electronics, diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, and environmental or energy industries.

  17. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  18. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  19. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  20. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  1. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  2. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  3. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  4. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  5. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  6. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  8. Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel...

  9. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  10. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  11. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  12. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  13. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  14. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  15. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  16. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  17. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  18. Adaptation of an HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation of an HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction intervention for ... disinhibition risk reduction interventions for recently circumcised men for use in clinic ... medicine HIV prevention technologies into the male circumcision contexts.

  19. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  20. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  1. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  2. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  3. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  4. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  5. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  6. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  7. Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Hong, Sun-Seok; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung-Chul; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO{sub 2} emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.

  8. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as ...

  9. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  10. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  11. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  13. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  14. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  15. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. History-dependence of muscle slack length following contraction and stretch in the human vastus lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Peter W; Walsh, Lee D; D'Souza, Arkiev; Héroux, Martin E; Bolsterlee, Bart; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2018-06-01

    In reduced muscle preparations, the slack length and passive stiffness of muscle fibres have been shown to be influenced by previous muscle contraction or stretch. In human muscles, such behaviours have been inferred from measures of muscle force, joint stiffness and reflex magnitudes and latencies. Using ultrasound imaging, we directly observed that isometric contraction of the vastus lateralis muscle at short lengths reduces the slack lengths of the muscle-tendon unit and muscle fascicles. The effect is apparent 60 s after the contraction. These observations imply that muscle contraction at short lengths causes the formation of bonds which reduce the effective length of structures that generate passive tension in muscles. In reduced muscle preparations, stretch and muscle contraction change the properties of relaxed muscle fibres. In humans, effects of stretch and contraction on properties of relaxed muscles have been inferred from measurements of time taken to develop force, joint stiffness and reflex latencies. The current study used ultrasound imaging to directly observe the effects of stretch and contraction on muscle-tendon slack length and fascicle slack length of the human vastus lateralis muscle in vivo. The muscle was conditioned by (a) strong isometric contractions at long muscle-tendon lengths, (b) strong isometric contractions at short muscle-tendon lengths, (c) weak isometric contractions at long muscle-tendon lengths and (d) slow stretches. One minute after conditioning, ultrasound images were acquired from the relaxed muscle as it was slowly lengthened through its physiological range. The ultrasound image sequences were used to identify muscle-tendon slack angles and fascicle slack lengths. Contraction at short muscle-tendon lengths caused a mean 13.5 degree (95% CI 11.8-15.0 degree) shift in the muscle-tendon slack angle towards shorter muscle-tendon lengths, and a mean 5 mm (95% CI 2-8 mm) reduction in fascicle slack length, compared to the

  17. Selection of LWR cycle length and fuel reload fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Handwerk, C.S.; McMahon, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    The continuing evolution of fuel having ever higher burnup capability and the increased emphasis on high plant capacity factor to keep nuclear power cost-competitive, motivates re-examination of some basic fuel management strategies. Specifically, what are the economic optimum goals for the fraction of core to be refueled, 1/n, and the length of the intra-refueling cycle, T c . The authors present a simple model to study these questions. They conclude that unless substantial improvements in technology are forthcoming, or economic circumstances change significantly, departure from 2- to 4-batch management, or longer than 2- to 3-year cycles in LWRs is not supported by their analysis

  18. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  19. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model (SAE 2016-01-0910)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  20. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  1. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  2. [Recent advances of amplified fragment length polymorphism and its applications in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Tao; Li, Li

    2008-10-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a new molecular marker to detect genomic polymorphism. This new technology has advantages of high resolution, good stability, and reproducibility. Great achievements have been derived in recent years in AFLP related technologies with several AFLP expanded methodologies available. AFLP technology has been widely used in the fields of plant, animal, and microbes. It has become one of the hotspots in Forensic Botany. This review focuses on the recent advances of AFLP and its applications in forensic biology.

  3. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  4. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  5. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  6. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  7. Prospective Internally Controlled Blind Reviewed Clinical Evaluation of Cryolipolysis Combined With Multipolar Radiofrequency andVaripulseTechnology for Enhanced Subject Results in Circumferential Fat Reduction and Skin Laxity of the Flanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julius; Gold, Michael; Sadick, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for non-invasive skin tightening and body contouring procedures has led to several technological in- novations in energy-based devices such as ultrasound, radiofrequency and cryolipolysis. An emerging trend in the eld is to evaluate whether combination therapies for skin laxity/body contouring using energy-based devices can deliver superior clinical results and patient satisfaction. As such, the objective of this prospective, internal-controlled, blind clinical study was to assess the safety and efficacy of cryolipolysis followed by multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed electromagnetic elds (PEMF) and adjustable pulsed suction for the treatment of skin laxity in the flanks. Ten subjects with focal adiposities in the anks were enrolled in the study. All subjects received one session of cryolipolysis treatment and after randomization received two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF (spaced two weeks apart), followed by another two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF and adjustable pulsed suction (spaced two weeks apart). Clinical photography was used to monitor the subject's results at baseline, one week, three, and six months post treatment. Blinded reviewers and the treating inves- tigator assessed the clinical outcomes using the Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) scale. Side effects were recorded at every visit and patient satisfaction was noted at the one week, three and six-month follow-up using a 5-scale subject satisfaction assessment questionnaire. Analysis of the blinded investigator ratings demonstrated statistical significant enhanced skin laxity mean improvement of 1 grade on the GAI scale in subject treated with the combination treatment (cryolipolysis+RF/PEMF/suction) compared with the cryolipolysis treatment alone. The unblinded investigator GAI ratings also showed enhanced (20%) mean improvement of laxity in the combination treated subjects versus those receiving cryolipolysis alone. Over half of the participants reported

  8. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  9. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  10. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  11. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  13. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  14. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  15. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  16. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  17. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  18. Effect of evaporation section and condensation section length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.

  19. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  20. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  2. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  3. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterine cervix length remaining after LOOP-excision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, A-L; Nicolas, F; Lavoué, V; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Porée, P; Levêque, J

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a correlation between the length of a conization specimen and the length of the cervix measured by vaginal ultrasonography after the operation Prospective observational study including patients less than 45 years with measurement of cervical length before and the day of the conization, and measuring the histological length of the specimen. Among the 40 patients enrolled, the average ultrasound measurements before conization was 26.9 mm (± 4.9 mm) against 18.1mm (± 4.4mm) after conization with a mean difference of 8.8mm (± 2.4mm) (difference statistically significant Pcervix length remove by loop-excision in our series is 33% (± 8.5%). A good correlation between the measurements of the specimen and the cervical ultrasound length before and after conization was found, as a significant reduction in cervical length after conization. The precise length of the specimen should be known in case of pregnancy and the prevention of prematurity due to conization rests on selected indications and efficient surgical technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  5. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  6. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  7. TypeLoader: A fast and efficient automated workflow for the annotation and submission of novel full-length HLA alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendranath, V; Albrecht, V; Hayhurst, J D; Schöne, B; Robinson, J; Marsh, S G E; Schmidt, A H; Lange, V

    2017-07-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the discovery of novel allelic variants of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Commonly, only the exons encoding the peptide binding domains of novel HLA alleles are submitted. As a result, the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database lacks sequence information outside those regions for the majority of known alleles. This has implications for the application of the new sequencing technologies, which deliver sequence data often covering the complete gene. As these technologies simplify the characterization of the complete gene regions, it is desirable for novel alleles to be submitted as full-length sequences to the database. However, the manual annotation of full-length alleles and the generation of specific formats required by the sequence repositories is prone to error and time consuming. We have developed TypeLoader to address both these facets. With only the full-length sequence as a starting point, Typeloader performs automatic sequence annotation and subsequently handles all steps involved in preparing the specific formats for submission with very little manual intervention. TypeLoader is routinely used at the DKMS Life Science Lab and has aided in the successful submission of more than 900 novel HLA alleles as full-length sequences to the European Nucleotide Archive repository and the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database with a 95% reduction in the time spent on annotation and submission when compared with handling these processes manually. TypeLoader is implemented as a web application and can be easily installed and used on a standalone Linux desktop system or within a Linux client/server architecture. TypeLoader is downloadable from http://www.github.com/DKMS-LSL/typeloader. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Wildfire fuel harvesting and resultant biomass utilization using a cut-to-length/small chipper system

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Chad Bolding; Bobby L. Lanford

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of information concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of ground-based mechanical harvesting to reduce forest fuel buildup and produce energywood. Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting coupled with a small in-woods chipper provided a low impact way to harvest pre-commercial trees and tops along...

  9. Modeling length of stay as an optimized two-dass prediction problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.; Peek, N.; Voorbraak, F.; de Jonge, E.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a predictive model for the outcome length of stay at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU LOS), including the choice of an optimal dichotomization threshold for this outcome. Reduction of prediction problems of this type of outcome to a two-doss problem is a common strategy to

  10. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  11. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  12. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  13. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  14. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  15. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  16. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  17. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  18. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  19. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  20. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  1. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  2. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  3. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... of life. A new ethics is emerging, focused on longevity and spreading through healthcare policies and technologies . At activity centres active elderly talk about health in old age, share experiences with health technologies and reflect on longevity, while working out. Chronic diseases are common in old...... age, but this does not mean that you give up or accept decreased quality of life. Ends change as new means emerge . The technological and medical abilities change the reflexive longevity. One expects to live a long and healthy life. Thus, technology can be conceived as a world-changing mediation. What...

  4. Effects of footwear and stride length on metatarsal strains and failure in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firminger, Colin R; Fung, Anita; Loundagin, Lindsay L; Edwards, W Brent

    2017-11-01

    The metatarsal bones of the foot are particularly susceptible to stress fracture owing to the high strains they experience during the stance phase of running. Shoe cushioning and stride length reduction represent two potential interventions to decrease metatarsal strain and thus stress fracture risk. Fourteen male recreational runners ran overground at a 5-km pace while motion capture and plantar pressure data were collected during four experimental conditions: traditional shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length, and minimalist shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length. Combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling based on motion analysis and computed tomography data were used to quantify metatarsal strains and the probability of failure was determined using stress-life predictions. No significant interactions between footwear and stride length were observed. Running in minimalist shoes increased strains for all metatarsals by 28.7% (SD 6.4%; pRunning at 90% preferred stride length decreased strains for metatarsal 4 by 4.2% (SD 2.0%; p≤0.007), and no differences in probability of failure were observed. Significant increases in metatarsal strains and the probability of failure were observed for recreational runners acutely transitioning to minimalist shoes. Running with a 10% reduction in stride length did not appear to be a beneficial technique for reducing the risk of metatarsal stress fracture, however the increased number of loading cycles for a given distance was not detrimental either. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drag reduction in silica nanochannels induced by graphitic wall coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, J. H.; Zambrano, Harvey A.

    2017-11-01

    Transport of water in hydrophilic nanopores is of significant technological and scientific interest. Water flow through hydrophilic nanochannels is known to experience enormous hydraulic resistance. Therefore, drag reduction is essential for the development of highly efficient nanofluidic devices. In this work, we propose the use of graphitic materials as wall coatings in hydrophilic silica nanopores. Specifically, by conducting atomistic simulations, we investigate the flow inside slit and cylindrical silica channels with walls coated with graphene (GE) layers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. We develop realistic force fields to simulate the systems of interest and systematically, compare flow rates in coated and uncoated nanochannels under different pressure gradients. Moreover, we assess the effect that GE and CNT translucencies to wettability have on water hydrodynamics in the nanochannels. The influence of channel size is investigated by systematically varying channel heights and nanopore diameters. In particular, we present the computed water density and velocity profiles, volumetric flow rates, slip lengths and flow enhancements, to clearly demonstrate the drag reduction capabilities of graphitic wall coatings. We wish to thank partial funding from CRHIAM Conicyt/ Fondap Project 15130015 and computational support from DTU and NLHPC (Chile).

  6. Development of lengths of stay and DRG cost weights in dermatology from 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Andreas; Müller, Marcel L; Babapirali, Judith; Rompel, Rainer; Hensen, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The G-DRG per case payments are calculated annually on the basis of present output and cost data provided from German hospitals. The economic valuation of dermatology-related DRGs depends largely on inpatients' length of stay. At present, longitudinal analyses of dermatologic hospital data considering the development of length of stay under DRG conditions are not available. A multicenter, longitudinal study of clinical data from hospitals with different care levels was performed (n = 23). Frequent and relevant dermatologic diagnoses were grouped and analyzed over a time period of four years (2003-2006). The development of lengths of stay and of G-DRG cost weights were studied in detail. Descriptive statistical methods were applied. After introduction of DRG, the data reveal a) reduction of length of stay in inpatient dermatology and b) after an initial abrupt rise, DRG valuation of dermatologic groups moderately decreased over time. Both trends changed most rapidly in the early years but reached a stable niveau in 2006. The study furthermore points out that not only length of stay, but also other type of costs influence DRG calculations. German dermatology reflects the international trend showing reductions of length of stay after introduction of a DRG-based hospital funding system. The DRG calculation and valuation of inpatient services depend on the duration of hospital stay. However, increasing per diem costs resulting from higher performances of every inpatient bed day are also taken into account. Further reduction of length of stay must not threaten the quality of inpatient care in dermatology.

  7. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  8. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  9. The Performance of CSAM SAM when Cycle Length is extended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to verify validation of that, CPC Axial Power Distribution is compared with Axial Power Distribution based on ICI every week. The difference between CPC Axial Power Distribution and Axial Power Distribution based on ICI increases according as fuels are burned. It is called CPC Axial Power Distribution Root Mean Square Error (CPC RMS Error). SAM and calibration of ex-core detector are important factors influencing the magnitude of the difference. According to vendor, the difference is limited by 8%. Otherwise, CPC penalty increases as many as difference increase. Therefore, KHNP developed Constrained Simulated Annealing Method (CSAM), which has better performance than that of Least Square Method (LSM), to calculate SAM constant. The CSA SAM contributed largely to maintain CPC operating margin. Somewhat, KHNP is developing the technology to be able to operate nuclear power plants for 24 month to optimize their efficiency. This paper shows trends of CPC RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation. Trends are based on data of a few OPR1000s under operation. It is data of OPR1000s that CSA SAM is applied. KHNP is developing the technology to extend operation cycle length in order to optimize the operation efficiency of OPR1000. To verify effect of extended operation cycle length on CPC, CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation was expected using operation data of six cycles in OPR1000. In cases that CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error exceeds threshold, operation margin is decreased due to CPC penalty. To prevent CPC operation margin from being decreased, improved method to calculate SAM or to calibrate ex-core detector is required. KHNP will consider the way to maintain CPC operation margin along with 24 month operation technology development, hereafter.

  10. Photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5-6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10-15 years. (author)

  11. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  12. Recording length criteria as applied in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kroening, M.; Schober, H.; Fischdick, H.

    1983-01-01

    An appreciable method used to assess the quality and integrity of safety-related components in light water reactors is the ultrasonic examination, in which case great importance is attributed to the criteria pertaining to recording length and permissible defect size. The development of the recording length criteria as applied when employing this method of examination is portrayed, the latter being based on the criteria which have proven themselves throughout long years of practice in the examination of conventional components. When taking these criteria into account the application of conventional ultrasonic techniques often leads to problems in the case of thick-walled components the reason being that indications are overrated. Taking the design of reactor components as the basic point of consideration, modified criteria are derived particularly when the size of discontinuities calculated by fracture mechanics analyses is taken into account. The introduction of new ultrasonic examination techniques such as, for example, focussed probes revealed that a considerably more realistic assessment is possible and consequently results in a reduction of unnecessary repairs. A comparison of the size of indications determined using conventional and analytical technqiues renders possible the anchoring of an intermediate stage in the evaluation of indications which is encompassed in the consideration of the bundle divergence. Thus a new concept is realized for the evaluation of ultrasonic indications detected in reactor components, which in the meantime has found its way into the associated regulatory guides. (orig.)

  13. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  14. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  15. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  16. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  17. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  18. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  19. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  20. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  1. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  2. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  3. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  4. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  5. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  6. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  7. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  8. NF ISO 7097-1. Nuclear fuel technology - Uranium dosimetry in solutions, in uranium hexafluoride and in solids - Part 1: reduction with iron (II) / oxidation with potassium bi-chromate / titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This standard document describes the mode of operation of three different methods for the quantitative dosimetry of uranium in solutions, in UF 6 and in solids: reduction by iron (II), oxidation by potassium bi-chromate and titration. (J.S.)

  9. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  10. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Does the use of bedside pelvic ultrasound decrease length of stay in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamburaj, Ravi; Sivitz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasounds by emergency medicine (EM) and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have increased because of ultrasonography training during residency and fellowship. The availability of ultrasound in radiology departments is limited or difficult to obtain especially during nighttime hours. Studies have shown that EM physicians can accurately perform goal-directed ultrasound after appropriate training. The goal of this study was to compare the length of stay for patients receiving an ultrasound to confirm intrauterine pregnancies. The hypothesis of this study is that a bedside ultrasound by a trained EM/PEM physician can reduce length of stay in the emergency department (ED) by 1 hour. This was a case cohort retrospective review for patients aged 13 to 21 years who received pelvic ultrasounds in the ED during 2007. Each patient was placed into 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received bedside ultrasounds done by institutionally credentialed EM/PEM attending physicians. Group 2 received radiology department ultrasound only. Each group had subanalysis done including chief complaint, time of presentation, time to completion of ultrasound, length of stay, diagnosis, and disposition. Daytime was defined as presentation between 7 AM and 9 PM when radiology ultrasound technologists were routinely available. We studied 330 patients, with 244 patients (74%) in the bedside ultrasound group. The demographics of both groups showed no difference in age, presenting complaints, discharge diagnoses, and ultimate disposition. Group 1 had a significant reduction (P ultrasound compared with group 2 (mean, 82 minutes [range, 1-901 minutes] vs 149 minutes [range, 7-506 minutes]) and length of stay (142 [16-2268] vs. 230 [16-844]). Of those presenting during the day (66%), group 1 showed a significant reduction in length of stay (P ultrasound by trained EM/PEM physicians produced a significant reduction in length of stay in the ED, regardless of radiology ultrasound technologist

  12. Reduction - competitive tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, L.; Bargerstock, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inventory reduction is one of the few initiatives that represent significant cost-reduction potential that does not result in personnel reduction. Centerior Energy's Perry nuclear power plant has embarked on an aggressive program to reduce inventory while maintaining plant material availability. Material availability to the plant was above 98%, but at an unacceptable 1994 inventory book value of $47 million with inventory carrying costs calculated at 30% annually

  13. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  14. Process energy reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowthian, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Process Energy Reduction (PER) is a demand-side energy reduction approach which complements and often supplants other traditional energy reduction methods such as conservation and heat recovery. Because the application of PER is less obvious than the traditional methods, it takes some time to learn the steps as well as practice to become proficient in its use. However, the benefit is significant, often far outweighing the traditional energy reduction approaches. Furthermore, the method usually results in a better process having less waste and pollution along with improved yields, increased capacity, and lower operating costs

  15. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  16. Metallothermic reduction of molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of the investigations conducted so far on metallothermic reduction of high grade molybdenite with particular emphasis on the work carried out in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Based on thermochemical considerations, the paper first introduces a number of metallic reductants suitable for use in metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. Aluminium, sodium and tin are found to be suitable reducing agents and very rightly they have found most applications in the research and development efforts on metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. The reduction with tin was conducted on fairly large scale both in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction was reported to be invariant depending mainly on the reduction temperature and a temperature of the order of 1250deg to 1300degC was required for good metal recovery. In comparison to tin, aluminothermic reduction of molybdenite was studied more extensively and it was conducted in closed bomb, vacuum and also in open atmosphere. In aluminothermic reduction, the influence of amount of reducing agent, amount of heat booster, preheating temperature and charging procedure on these metal yield was studied in detail. The reduction generally yielded massive molybdenum metal contaminated with aluminium as the major impurity element. Efforts were made to purify the reduced metal by arc melting, electron beam melting and molten salt electrorefining. 9 refs. (author)

  17. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation

  18. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  19. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  20. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.