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Sample records for length plant height

  1. Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K

    2012-01-01

    Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....

  2. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  3. Neonatal Length Growth and Height at Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisbault, Manon; Simon, Laure; Hanf, Mathieu; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Birth length is correlated to height at 2 years and is a predictor of adult height. However, little is known about the relationship between length growth during neonatal hospitalization and height at 2 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between length growth during neonatal hospitalization and height at 2 years in preterm infants. A total of 1,760 preterm infants of less than 35 weeks of gestational age were included. Neonatal length growth was defined by the difference between length Z-scores at discharge and at birth according to Olsen curves. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) before and after adjustment for the risk of being in the 1st quintile of the height Z-score at 2 years. Height at 2 years was positively associated with birth length (p years was significantly associated with birth length (adjusted OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.38-0.49, for one Z-score) and with neonatal length growth (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.76, for one Z-score) before and after adjustment for perinatal variables. In addition to birth length, neonatal length growth was associated with height at 2 years. These findings point to the need for a close follow-up of the length of preterm infants during hospitalization, so as to start an early management of those patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Mutants for plant height in hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Four hexaploid triticale varieties namely Beagle, Coorong, TL 419 and Welsh were subjected to gamma rays (100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy) and to aqueous solution of EMS (0.5%, (8h, 12h, 16h). In all four varieties, three types of mutants for plant height were observed: Semidwarf - the mutant plants are 20-25 cm shorter than the shortest plant in the control. Dwarf - mutant plants grow up to 40-60 cm. Stunted - mutant plants grow up to 10-20 cm. The segregation pattern suggests that semidwarf mutants are quantitatively inherited, showing continuous segregation in M 3 , M 4 and M 5 , whereas dwarf and stunted are monogenic recessive. They showed true breeding in M 3 and later generations. The semi-dwarf, dwarf and stunted mutants can be used as initial material for development of new varieties with short straw and resistance to lodging. (author)

  5. Nationwide age references for sitting height, leg length, and sitting height/height ratio, and their diagnostic value for disproportionate growth disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Heel, W.J.M. van; Dijkman-Neerincx, R.H.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To obtain age references for sitting height (SH), leg length (LL), and SH/H ratio in the Netherlands; to evaluate how SH standard deviation score (SDS), LL SDS, SH/H SDS, and SH/LL SDS are related to height SDS; and to study the usefulness of height corrected SH/H cut-off lines to detect

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEIGHT, SITTING HEIGHT AND SUBISCHIAL LEG LENGTH IN DUTCH CHILDREN - PRESENTATION OF NORMAL VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DEBRUIN, R

    A widely used method of judging body proportions is to consider the ratio of sitting height to height (SH/H) related to age. A drawback of this method is that only one derived variable is used. A pairwise consideration of the original measurements provides more information. In this study data from

  7. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  8. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Impact of direct substitution of arm span length for current standing height in elderly COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Arm span length is related to standing height and has been studied as a substitute for current standing height for predicting lung function parameters. However, it has never been studied in elderly COPD patients. Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of substituting arm span length for current standing height in the evaluation of pulmonary function parameters and severity classification in elderly Thai COPD patients. Materials and methods: Current standing height and arm span length were measured in COPD patients aged >60 years. Postbronchodilator spirometric parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, and ratio of FEV1/FVC (FEV1%, were used to classify disease severity according to global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria. Predicted values for each parameter were also calculated separately utilizing current standing height or arm span length measurements. Student’s t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to compare differences between the groups. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: A total of 106 COPD patients with a mean age of 72.1±7.8 years, mean body mass index of 20.6±3.8 kg/m2, and mean standing height of 156.4±8.3 cm were enrolled. The mean arm span length exceeded mean standing height by 7.7±4.6 cm (164.0±9.0 vs 156.4±8.3 cm, P<0.001, at a ratio of 1.05±0.03. Percentages of both predicted FVC and FEV1 values based on arm span length were significantly lower than those using current standing height (76.6±25.4 vs 61.6±16.8, P<0.001 and 50.8±25.4 vs 41.1±15.3, P<0.001. Disease severity increased in 39.6% (42/106 of subjects using arm span length over current standing height for predicted lung function. Conclusion: Direct substitution of

  10. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  11. Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.

  12. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  14. From dwarves to giants? Plant height manipulation for biomass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Fernandez, Maria G; Becraft, Philip W; Yin, Yanhai; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The increasing demand for lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels provides value to vegetative plant tissue and leads to a paradigm shift for optimizing plant architecture in bioenergy crops. Plant height (PHT) is among the most important biomass yield components and is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the energy grasses maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). We discuss the scientific advances in the identification of PHT quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the understanding of pathways and genes controlling PHT, especially gibberellins and brassinosteroids. We consider pleiotropic effects of QTLs or genes affecting PHT on other agronomically important traits and, finally, we discuss strategies for applying this knowledge to the improvement of dual-purpose or dedicated bioenergy crops.

  15. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhoef

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Values of the momentum roughness length, z0, and displacement height, d, derived from wind profiles and momentum flux measurements, are selected from the literature for a variety of sparse canopies. These include savannah, tiger-bush and several row crops. A quality assessment of these data, conducted using criteria such as available fetch, height of wind speed measurement and homogeneity of the experimental site, reduced the initial total of fourteen sites to eight. These datapoints, combined with values carried forward from earlier studies on the parameterization of z0 and d, led to a maximum number of 16 and 24 datapoints available for d and z0, respectively. The data are compared with estimates of roughness length and displacement height as predicted from a detailed drag partition model, R92 (Raupach, 1992, and a simplified version of this model, R94 (Raupach, 1994. A key parameter in these models is the roughness density or frontal area index, λ. Both the comprehensive and the simplified model give accurate predictions of measured z0 and d values, but the optimal model coefficients are significantly different from the ones originally proposed in R92 and R94. The original model coefficients are based predominantly on measured aerodynamic parameters of relatively closed canopies and they were fitted `by eye'. In this paper, best-fit coefficients are found from a least squares minimization using the z0 and d values of selected good-quality data for sparse canopies and for the added, mainly closed canopies. According to a statistical analysis, based on the coefficient of determination (r2, the number of observations and the number of fitted model coefficients, the simplified model, R94, is deemed to be the most appropriate for future z0 and d predictions. A CR value of 0.35 and a cd1 value of about 20 are found to be appropriate for a large range of canopies varying in density from closed to very sparse. In this case, 99% of the total variance

  16. Enhancing auxin accumulation in maize root tips improves root growth and dwarfs plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Xinrui; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Guangfeng; Peng, Zhenghua; Zhang, Juren

    2018-01-01

    Maize is a globally important food, feed crop and raw material for the food and energy industry. Plant architecture optimization plays important roles in maize yield improvement. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are important for regulating auxin spatiotemporal asymmetric distribution in multiple plant developmental processes. In this study, ZmPIN1a overexpression in maize increased the number of lateral roots and inhibited their elongation, forming a developed root system with longer seminal roots and denser lateral roots. ZmPIN1a overexpression reduced plant height, internode length and ear height. This modification of the maize phenotype increased the yield under high-density cultivation conditions, and the developed root system improved plant resistance to drought, lodging and a low-phosphate environment. IAA concentration, transport capacity determination and application of external IAA indicated that ZmPIN1a overexpression led to increased IAA transport from shoot to root. The increase in auxin in the root enabled the plant to allocate more carbohydrates to the roots, enhanced the growth of the root and improved plant resistance to environmental stress. These findings demonstrate that maize plant architecture can be improved by root breeding to create an ideal phenotype for further yield increases. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of plant height between male sterile plants obtained by space flight and male fertile plants in Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Moju; Huang Wenchao; Pan Guangtang; Rong Tingzhao; Zhu Yingguo

    2004-01-01

    F 2 fertility segregation population and the sister-cross fertility segregation population, which descended from the male sterile material, were analysed by their plant height of different growing stage between 2 populations of male sterile plants and male fertile plants. The plant height of different fertility plants come to the significance at 0.01 level in different stage through the whole growing period. The differences become more and more large with the development of plants, the maximum difference happens in adult stage. The increasing amount of different stage also shows significance at 0.01 level between two kinds of different fertility plants

  18. Spatio-temporal evaluation of plant height in corn via unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; Assefa, Yared; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Peralta, Nahuel R.; Griffin, Terry W.; Sharda, Ajay; Ferguson, Allison; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal data on plant growth are critical to guide crop management. Conventional methods to determine field plant traits are intensive, time-consuming, expensive, and limited to small areas. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of data collected via unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at critical corn (Zea mays L.) developmental stages for plant height and its relation to plant biomass. The main steps followed in this research were (1) workflow development for an ultrahigh resolution crop surface model (CSM) with the goal of determining plant height (CSM-estimated plant height) using data gathered from the UAS missions; (2) validation of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing plant height (measured plant height); and (3) final estimation of plant biomass via integration of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing stem diameter data. Results indicated a correlation between CSM-estimated plant height and ground-truthing plant height data at two weeks prior to flowering and at flowering stage, but high predictability at the later growth stage. Log-log analysis on the temporal data confirmed that these relationships are stable, presenting equal slopes for both crop stages evaluated. Concluding, data collected from low-altitude and with a low-cost sensor could be useful in estimating plant height.

  19. Effect of roughness lengths on surface energy and the planetary boundary layer height over high-altitude Ngoring Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Wen, Lijuan; Zhao, Lin; Meng, Xianhong; Ao, Yinhuan

    2017-08-01

    The special climate environment creates a distinctive air-lake interaction characteristic in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) lakes, where the variations of surface roughness lengths also differ somewhat from those of other regions. However, how different categories of roughness lengths affect the lake surface energy exchange and the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) remains unclear in the TP lakes. In this study, we used a tuned Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 to investigate the responses of the freeze-up date, turbulent fluxes, meteorological variables, and PBLH to surface roughness length variations in Ngoring Lake. Of all meteorological variables, the lake surface temperature responded to roughness length variations most sensitively; increasing roughness lengths can put the lake freeze-up date forward. The effect of momentum roughness length on wind speed was significantly affected by the fetch length. The increase in the roughness length for heat can induce the increment of the nightly PBLH in most months, especially for the central lake area in autumn. The primary factors that contribute to sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE) were the roughness lengths for heat and momentum during the ice-free period, respectively. Increasing roughness length for heat can increase the nightly PBLH, and decreasing roughness length for moisture can also promote growth of the PBLH, but there was no obvious correlation between the momentum roughness length and the PBLH.

  20. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  1. An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Desai, Ami; Kasetty, Sowmya; Sudheendra, Us; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2011-01-01

    A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.

  2. A novel common variant in DCST2 is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kooijman, Marjolein N.

    2015-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We...... identified seven independent top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P height (LCORL, PTCH1, GPR126 and HMGA2). The three novel SNPs were followed-up in nine replication studies (Stage 2.......95% of the variance of infant length. Of the 180 known adult height loci, 11 were genome-wide significantly associated with infant length (SF3B4, LCORL, SPAG17, C6orf173, PTCH1, GDF5, ZNFX1, HHIP, ACAN, HLA locus and HMGA2). This study highlights that common variation in DCST2 influences variation in early growth...

  3. Sample size for estimating average trunk diameter and plant height in eucalyptus hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Rafael Beltrame; Dilson Antônio Bisognin; Marília Lazarotto; Clovis Roberto Haselein; Darci Alberto Gatto; Gleison Augusto dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In eucalyptus crops, it is important to determine the number of plants that need to be evaluated for a reliable inference of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the sample size needed to estimate average trunk diameter at breast height and plant height of inter-specific eucalyptus hybrids. In 6,694 plants of twelve inter-specific hybrids it was evaluated trunk diameter at breast height at three (DBH3) and seven years (DBH7) and tree height at seven years (H7) of age. The ...

  4. Assessment of plant biomass and nitrogen nutrition with plant height in early-to mid-season corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinhua; Hayes, Robert M; McClure, M Angela; Savoy, Hubert J

    2012-10-01

    The physiological basis for using non-destructive high-resolution measurements of plant height through plant height sensing to guide variable-rate nitrogen (N) applications on corn (Zea mays L.) during early (six-leaf growth stage, V6) to mid (V12) season is largely unknown. This study was conducted to assess the relationships of plant biomass and leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn under six different N rate treatments. Corn plant biomass was significantly and positively related to plant height under an exponential model when both were measured at V6. This relationship explained 62-78% of the variations in corn biomass production. Leaf N concentration was, in general, significantly and positively related to plant height when both were measured at V6, V8, V10 and V12. This relationship became stronger as the growing season progressed from V6 to V12. The relationship of leaf N with plant height in early- to mid-season corn was affected by initial soil N fertility and abnormal weather conditions. The relationship of leaf N concentration with plant height may provide a physiological basis for using plant height sensing to guide variable-rate N applications on corn. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  6. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past

  7. Effects of cane length and diameter and judgment type on the constant error ratio for estimated height in blindfolded, visually impaired, and sighted participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Leung, Cherng-Yee; Wang, Hsiu-Feng

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of blindfolded, visually impaired, and sighted individuals to estimate object height as a function of cane length, cane diameter, and judgment type. 48 undergraduate students (ages 20 to 23 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Participants were divided into low-vision, severely myopic, and normal-vision groups. Five stimulus heights were explored with three cane lengths, varying cane diameters, and judgment types. The participants were asked to estimate the stimulus height with or without reference to a standard block. Results showed that the constant error ratio for estimated height improved with decreasing cane length and comparative judgment. The findings were unclear regarding the effect of cane length on haptic perception of height. Implications were discussed for designing environments, such as stair heights, chairs, the magnitude of apertures, etc., for visually impaired individuals.

  8. Vertebral height as the measure of lesion length in carcinoma of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the modified tech- nique it was possible to decrease treat- ment length and the number of nor- mal oesophageal mucosa in the treat- ment volume, thereby reducing the chance of treatment-related complica- tions such as strictures and ulceration. Introduction. The majority of patients with car- cinoma of the oesophagus ...

  9. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  10. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  11. Combining ability for maturity and plant height in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Azam, S.M.; Nasim, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 F1 diallel cross hybrids of Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt along with parents were evaluated through combining ability for days to flowering (initiation and completion), days to maturity and plant height. Highly significant differences were recorded for all the traits. Mean squares due to general, specific and reciprocal combining ability were significant for all the traits except plant height for which the latter two components were non-significant. Prevalence of additive (plant height), non-additive (days to flowering completion; days to maturity) and reciprocal effects (days to flowering initiation) were detected. Parental line G-403 was best general combiner for all the traits. The F1 hybrids G-902 * G-265 (days to flowering initiation), G-902 * G-403 (days to flowering completion), G-265 * G-1500 (days to maturity) and G-909 * G-265 (plant height) were superior and may be exploited for future breeding programs. (author)

  12. Intergenerational gains in relative knee height as compared to gains in relative leg length within Taiwanese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, B

    2008-01-01

    Evidence indicates that variation in relative leg length (RLL) is a sensitive indicator of early childhood circumstances, but research presents conflicting evidence of how lower leg growth contributes to variability. This study investigates the extent of intergenerational changes in subischial leg length and knee height relative to stature among father-son, mother-daughter, and midparent-offspring pairs. These changes and differences in the extent of mean change in the two indices within like-sex parent-offspring pairs were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicate that within all categories, mean generational differences in both indices were substantial [Delta RLL z: 0.64-0.73; Delta relative knee height (RKH) z: 0.46-0.64] and statistically significant (P Auckland, though only the midparent-offspring generation by location contrast for RLL was statistically significant (P = 0.037). Father-son and mother-daughter average differences were virtually identical for RLL (0.73 z vs. 0.72 z). When differences within pairs in the extent of change in RLL and RKH were assessed directly, mother-daughter mean differences approached significance at an alpha level of 0.05 (Delta = 0.26 z; F = 3.42, df = 1, 42, P = 0.071). Father-son differences were smaller (Delta = 0.09 z) and statistically insignificant suggesting very similar amounts of change in the two indices. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Relating plant height to demographic rates and extinction vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de Melinda M.J.; Hilbers, Jelle P.; Jongejans, Eelke; Ozinga, Wim A.; Hendriks, A.J.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2018-01-01

    To prioritize conservation efforts, it is important to know which plant species are most vulnerable to extinction. Intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities depend on demographic parameters, but for many species these demographic parameters are lacking. Body size has been successfully used as proxy of

  14. Inheritance of Plant Height in two Ethiopian Castor Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The green revolution in Asia was led by the semi dwarf varieties of wheat and rice during the 1960s. Nowadays ... Castor (Racinnus communis L.) is an industrial non edible oil seed that originated in East. Africa probably Ethiopia ... At the fourth generation single plants from each inbred line were reciprocally crossed to ...

  15. Determination of length, breadth and height of the human cranium via critical use of X-ray craniometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, F.; Guergan, M.; Koc, L.; Varan, G.

    1987-11-01

    X-ray craniometry has gained in importance for scientific and clinical examination. It enables accurate measurement of shape and structure of the human skull, its characterisation and an accurate description of this type and cause of changes of its shape and components. Roentgenological craniometry is closely related to craniometry of anatomists and anthropologists, but in a few essential points it does differ from it - rather fundamentally, in fact. On using the roentgenological method, the general laws of X-ray imaging must be strictly observed and measurements must be effected only if they are conducted from such points which are roentgenologically clearly defined. Measurements must be definite, repeatable at any time and suitable for comparative purposes. The influence exercised by these conditions becomes noticeable already on determining the three principal dimensions of the cranium. Whereas the X-ray determination of the length and breadth of the cranium is easy to perform and does not present any problem, determination of the 'height' of the cranium causes considerable difficulties that are mainly based on the statement of suitable points of measurement. Detailed studies and deliberations have shown that the distance between the vault and the base of the skull can supply a suitable measure for assessing the height of the skull. On lateral X-ray film the distance between the 'endobregma' and the 'bony floor of the hypophyseal cavity' is a suitable criterion, whereas on the sagittal X-ray films of the skull the criterion is the distance between 'bregma' and 'hypophyseal basis'. The 'lateral hypophyseal height of the skull' and the 'sagittal hypophyseal height' are largely equal, clearly defined and always repeatable. They are largely comparable in the same individual and in different persons on the X-ray films. The 'hypophyseal height' as a measure of the dimension of height of

  16. Determination of the Relationship Between Patient Height Versus Vertebral Column Length and the Level of Subarachnoid Sensory Blockade Produced Using 0.75% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bequette, Bonnie

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of the relationship between patient height versus vertebral column length and the level of subarachniod sensory blockade following administration of 15 mg of 0.75...

  17. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  18. Intercomparison of methods for the estimation of displacement height and roughness length from single-level eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; van de Boer, Anneke; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Moene, Arnold; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    The displacement height d and roughness length z0 are parameters of the logarithmic wind profile and as such these are characteristics of the surface, that are required in a multitude of meteorological modeling applications. Classically, both parameters are estimated from multi-level measurements of wind speed over a terrain sufficiently homogeneous to avoid footprint-induced differences between the levels. As a rule-of thumb, d of a dense, uniform crop or forest canopy is 2/3 to 3/4 of the canopy height h, and z0 about 10% of canopy height in absence of any d. However, the uncertainty of this rule-of-thumb becomes larger if the surface of interest is not "dense and uniform", in which case a site-specific determination is required again. By means of the eddy covariance method, alternative possibilities to determine z0 and d have become available. Various authors report robust results if either several levels of sonic anemometer measurements, or one such level combined with a classic wind profile is used to introduce direct knowledge on the friction velocity into the estimation procedure. At the same time, however, the eddy covariance method to measure various fluxes has superseded the profile method, leaving many current stations without a wind speed profile with enough levels sufficiently far above the canopy to enable the classic estimation of z0 and d. From single-level eddy covariance measurements at one point in time, only one parameter can be estimated, usually z0 while d is assumed to be known. Even so, results tend to scatter considerably. However, it has been pointed out, that the use of multiple points in time providing different stability conditions can enable the estimation of both parameters, if they are assumed constant over the time period regarded. These methods either rely on flux-variance similarity (Weaver 1990 and others following), or on the integrated universal function for momentum (Martano 2000 and others following). In both cases

  19. Simple traits among diaspore weight/number, plant height and ability of vegetative propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerá, Božena

    2008-12-01

    Several expected correlations among followed internal plant traits were confirmed using the dataset of 492 herbaceous species from the temporal zone of Central Europe. Average diaspore weight (seed mass), reproductive capacity of population (number of produced diaspores), species height, and ability of lateral spread were the plant traits considered. The evident correlations were confirmed among all investigated traits: (i) The reproductive capacity of population negatively correlated with diaspore weight, plant height, and vegetative propagation. The diaspore weight and their number are closely correlated and co-adapted. (ii) Bigger plant species produce bigger diaspores. These trends are obvious at the inter- and intra-family levels. (iii) Larger plant species showed higher ability to vegetative propagation.

  20. Phenotypic characterization, genetic mapping and candidate gene analysis of a source conferring reduced plant height in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Laura; Altieri, Emiliano; Bulos, Mariano; Sala, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Reduced height germplasm has the potential to increase stem strength, standability, and also yields potential of the sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L. var. macrocarpus Ckll.). In this study, we report on the inheritance, mapping, phenotypic and molecular characterization of a reduced plant height trait in inbred lines derived from the source DDR. This trait is controlled by a semidominant allele, Rht1, which maps on linkage group 12 of the sunflower public consensus map. Phenotypic effects of this allele include shorter height and internode length, insensibility to exogenous gibberellin application, normal skotomorphogenetic response, and reduced seed set under self-pollination conditions. This later effect presumably is related to the reduced pollen viability observed in all DDR-derived lines studied. Rht1 completely cosegregated with a haplotype of the HaDella1 gene sequence. This haplotype consists of a point mutation converting a leucine residue in a proline within the conserved DELLA domain. Taken together, the phenotypic, genetic, and molecular results reported here indicate that Rht1 in sunflower likely encodes an altered DELLA protein. If the DELPA motif of the HaDELLA1 sequence in the Rht1-encoded protein determines by itself the observed reduction in height is a matter that remains to be investigated.

  1. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-10-13

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  2. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  3. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Shang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton.

  4. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  5. A Genetic/Heuristic Approach to Simulating Plant Height in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A challenge for crop simulation modeling is to incorporate existing and rapidly emerging genomic information into models to develop new and improved algorithms. The objective of this effort was to simulate plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) across a range of environments in Nebraska...

  6. Effect of plant height at cutting, source and level of fertiliser on yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was studied using a 5 x 3 factorial experiment arranged in a randomised complete block design with three replications. ... acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, calcium, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy were significantly (P<0.05) affected by plant height at cutting ...

  7. Sample size for estimating average trunk diameter and plant height in eucalyptus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In eucalyptus crops, it is important to determine the number of plants that need to be evaluated for a reliable inference of growth. The aim of this study was to determine the sample size needed to estimate average trunk diameter at breast height and plant height of inter-specific eucalyptus hybrids. In 6,694 plants of twelve inter-specific hybrids it was evaluated trunk diameter at breast height at three (DBH3 and seven years (DBH7 and tree height at seven years (H7 of age. The statistics: minimum, maximum, mean, variance, standard deviation, standard error, and coefficient of variation were calculated. The hypothesis of variance homogeneity was tested. The sample size was determined by re sampling with replacement of 10,000 re samples. There was an increase in the sample size from DBH3 to H7 and DBH7. A sample size of 16, 59 and 31 plants is adequate to estimate DBH3, DBH7 and H7 means, respectively, of inter-specific hybrids of eucalyptus, with amplitude of confidence interval of 95% equal to 20% of the estimated mean.

  8. Use of hereditary for the detection of radioinduced variability in the height of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundora, Z.; Perez Talavera, S.; Auchet, F.; Moya, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is about the study of induced variability in the height of tomato plants from seeds treated with Co-60 gamma-rays. Hereditary coefficients in narrow sense were used trough progenitor-descendant regression of varieties irradiated on the control as indicator of the variability induced by the different doses

  9. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  10. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  11. The inheritance of plant height in winter wheat -Triticum aestivum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four winter wheat varieties (Srbijanka, Partizanka, KG-56 and PKB-111 have been selected for diallel crossing in other to study the mode of inheritance, gene effect and genetic variance components for the plant height in F2 generation. Sixty plants of parents and F2 generation were used for analysis. The mode of inheritance was done on the basis of the significance of components of genetic variance and the regression analysis. The inheritance of plant height in the most crossing combinations was superdominance. The combining ability analysis was found to be highly significant, which means both additive and non-additive type of gene actions. The best general combining ability manifested KG-56 variety, and the best specific combining ability have shown hybrids KG-56 x PKB-111, Srbijanka x PKB-111 and Partizanka x KG-56. The genetic variance components, average degree of dominance and regression line indicated superdominance in the inheritance of plant height. The dominant alleles frequency was higher than recessive alleles frequency, which confirmed the ratio of dominant/recessive alleles.

  12. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  13. The effects of becoming taller: direct and pleiotropic effects of artificial selection on plant height in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Pengjuan; Schiestl, Florian P

    2017-03-01

    Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations, and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits. With the divergent lines obtained through artificial selection, we subsequently conducted pollinator-choice assays and investigated resource limitation of fruit production. We found that plant height variation is strongly genetically controlled (with a realized heritability of 41-59%). Thus, plant height can evolve rapidly under phenotypic selection. In addition, we found remarkable pleiotropic effects in phenology, morphology, floral scent, color, nectar and leaf glucosinolates. Most traits were increased in tall-line plants, but flower size, UV reflection and glucosinolates were decreased, indicating potential trade-offs. Pollinators preferred plants of the tall selection lines over the short selection lines in both greenhouse experiments with bumblebees and field experiment with natural pollinators. We did not detect any differences in resource limitation between plants of the different selection lines. Overall, our study predicts that increased height should evolve under positive pollinator-mediated directional selection with potential trade-offs in floral signals and herbivore defense. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Sludge Compost on EC value of Saline Soil and Plant Height of Medicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chongyang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Xing; Wang, Xiaohui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of sludge composting on the EC value of saline soil and the response to Medicago plant height were studied by planting Medicago with pots for 45 days in different proportions as sludge composting with saline soil. The results showed that the EC value of saline soil did not change obviously with the increase of fertilization ratio,which indicated that the EC value of saline soil was close to that of the original soil. The EC decreased by 31.45% at fertilization ratio of 40%. The height of Medicago reached the highest at 40% fertilization ratio, and that was close to 60% fertilization ratio, and the difference was significant with other treatments. By comprehensive analyse and compare,the optimum application rate of sludge compost was 40% under this test condition.

  15. Height-related scaling of phloem anatomy and the evolution of sieve element end wall types in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Pace, Marcelo R; Xu, Qiyu; Li, Yongqing; Chen, Shaolin

    2017-04-01

    In the sieve elements (SEs) of the phloem, carbohydrates are transported throughout the whole plant from their site of production to sites of consumption or storage. SE structure, especially of the pore-rich end walls, has a direct effect on translocation efficiency. Differences in pore size and other features were interpreted as an evolutionary trend towards reduced hydraulic resistance. However, this has never been confirmed. Anatomical data of 447 species of woody angiosperms and gymnosperms were used for a phylogenetic analysis of end wall types, calculation of hydraulic resistance and correlation analysis with morphological and physiological variables. end wall types were defined according to pore arrangement: either grouped into a single area (simple) or into multiple areas along the end wall (compound). Convergent evolution of end wall types was demonstrated in woody angiosperms. In addition, an optimization of end wall resistance with plant height was discovered, but found to be independent of end wall type. While physiological factors also showed no correlation with end wall types, the number of sieve areas per end wall was found to scale with SE length. The results exclude the minimization of hydraulic resistance as evolutionary driver of different end wall types, contradicting this long-standing assumption. Instead, end wall type might depend on SE length. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Molecular Mapping of Reduced Plant Height Gene Rht24 in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Height is an important trait related to plant architecture and yield potential in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus QPH.caas-6A flanked by simple sequence repeat markers Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 that reduced height by 8.0–10.4%. Here QPH.caas-6A, designated as Rht24, was confirmed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a Jingdong 8/Aikang 58 cross. The target sequences of Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 were used as queries to BLAST against International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium database and hit a super scaffold of approximately 208 Mb. Based on gene annotation of the scaffold, three gene-specific markers were developed to genotype the RILs, and Rht24 was narrowed to a 1.85 cM interval between TaAP2 and TaFAR. In addition, three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers linked to Rht24 were identified from SNP chip-based screening in combination with bulked segregant analysis. The allelic efficacy of Rht24 was validated in 242 elite wheat varieties using TaAP2 and TaFAR markers. These showed a significant association between genotypes and plant height. Rht24 reduced plant height by an average of 6.0–7.9 cm across environments and were significantly associated with an increased TGW of 2.0–3.4 g. The findings indicate that Rht24 is a common dwarfing gene in wheat breeding, and TaAP2 and TaFAR can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  17. CHANG-ES. IX. Radio scale heights and scale lengths of a consistent sample of 13 spiral galaxies seen edge-on and their correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wiegert, Theresa; Miskolczi, Arpad; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Beck, Rainer; Li, Jiang-Tao; Heald, George; Müller, Peter; Stein, Yelena; Rand, Richard J.; Heesen, Volker; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Vargas, Carlos J.; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric J.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. The vertical halo scale height is a crucial parameter to understand the transport of cosmic-ray electrons (CRE) and their energy loss mechanisms in spiral galaxies. Until now, the radio scale height could only be determined for a few edge-on galaxies because of missing sensitivity at high resolution. Methods: We developed a sophisticated method for the scale height determination of edge-on galaxies. With this we determined the scale heights and radial scale lengths for a sample of 13 galaxies from the CHANG-ES radio continuum survey in two frequency bands. Results: The sample average values for the radio scale heights of the halo are 1.1 ± 0.3 kpc in C-band and 1.4 ± 0.7 kpc in L-band. From the frequency dependence analysis of the halo scale heights we found that the wind velocities (estimated using the adiabatic loss time) are above the escape velocity. We found that the halo scale heights increase linearly with the radio diameters. In order to exclude the diameter dependence, we defined a normalized scale height h˜ which is quite similar for all sample galaxies at both frequency bands and does not depend on the star formation rate or the magnetic field strength. However, h˜ shows a tight anticorrelation with the mass surface density. Conclusions: The sample galaxies with smaller scale lengths are more spherical in the radio emission, while those with larger scale lengths are flatter. The radio scale height depends mainly on the radio diameter of the galaxy. The sample galaxies are consistent with an escape-dominated radio halo with convective cosmic ray propagation, indicating that galactic winds are a widespread phenomenon in spiral galaxies. While a higher star formation rate or star formation surface density does not lead to a higher wind velocity, we found for the first time observational evidence of a gravitational deceleration of CRE outflow, e.g. a lowering of the wind velocity from the galactic disk.

  18. The effect of plant growth regulators on height control in potted Arundina graminifolia orchids (Growth regulators in Arundina graminifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina da Silva Wanderley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orchids have become an important portion of the international floriculture market.  Arundina graminifolia is a terrestrial orchid that produces attractive flowers, and, although the species could be a potential candidate for the floriculture market, its considerable height makes it difficult to transport and commercialize.  A number of plant growth regulators have been utilized to control plant height in ornamentals and other species.  Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of growth regulators, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride on the vegetative development of containerized A. graminifolia orchid aiming at height control.  Paclobutrazol (Cultar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L-1, and CCC (Cycocel was applied at 0, 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1. The plants were assessed monthly for the plant height and number of shoots per container. CCC had no effect on the final height of plants at the concentrations applied. In contrast, paclobutrazol was effective in controlling plant height at a concentration of 5 mg L-1, but higher concentrations (10 and 20 mg L-1 proved to be toxic to the plants, causing death to the new shoots. Paclobutrazol at lower concentrations offers a viable means for height control in A. graminifolia.

  19. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Plant Height: Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Ground LiDAR Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Madec

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of LiDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs to provide plant height estimates as a high-throughput plant phenotyping trait was explored. An experiment over wheat genotypes conducted under well watered and water stress modalities was conducted. Frequent LiDAR measurements were performed along the growth cycle using a phénomobile unmanned ground vehicle. UAV equipped with a high resolution RGB camera was flying the experiment several times to retrieve the digital surface model from structure from motion techniques. Both techniques provide a 3D dense point cloud from which the plant height can be estimated. Plant height first defined as the z-value for which 99.5% of the points of the dense cloud are below. This provides good consistency with manual measurements of plant height (RMSE = 3.5 cm while minimizing the variability along each microplot. Results show that LiDAR and structure from motion plant height values are always consistent. However, a slight under-estimation is observed for structure from motion techniques, in relation with the coarser spatial resolution of UAV imagery and the limited penetration capacity of structure from motion as compared to LiDAR. Very high heritability values (H2> 0.90 were found for both techniques when lodging was not present. The dynamics of plant height shows that it carries pertinent information regarding the period and magnitude of the plant stress. Further, the date when the maximum plant height is reached was found to be very heritable (H2> 0.88 and a good proxy of the flowering stage. Finally, the capacity of plant height as a proxy for total above ground biomass and yield is discussed.

  20. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Plant Height: Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Ground LiDAR Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Simon; Baret, Fred; de Solan, Benoît; Thomas, Samuel; Dutartre, Dan; Jezequel, Stéphane; Hemmerlé, Matthieu; Colombeau, Gallian; Comar, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of LiDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide plant height estimates as a high-throughput plant phenotyping trait was explored. An experiment over wheat genotypes conducted under well watered and water stress modalities was conducted. Frequent LiDAR measurements were performed along the growth cycle using a phénomobile unmanned ground vehicle. UAV equipped with a high resolution RGB camera was flying the experiment several times to retrieve the digital surface model from structure from motion techniques. Both techniques provide a 3D dense point cloud from which the plant height can be estimated. Plant height first defined as the z -value for which 99.5% of the points of the dense cloud are below. This provides good consistency with manual measurements of plant height (RMSE = 3.5 cm) while minimizing the variability along each microplot. Results show that LiDAR and structure from motion plant height values are always consistent. However, a slight under-estimation is observed for structure from motion techniques, in relation with the coarser spatial resolution of UAV imagery and the limited penetration capacity of structure from motion as compared to LiDAR. Very high heritability values ( H 2 > 0.90) were found for both techniques when lodging was not present. The dynamics of plant height shows that it carries pertinent information regarding the period and magnitude of the plant stress. Further, the date when the maximum plant height is reached was found to be very heritable ( H 2 > 0.88) and a good proxy of the flowering stage. Finally, the capacity of plant height as a proxy for total above ground biomass and yield is discussed.

  1. Growth references for 0-19 year-old Norwegian children for length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Roelants, Mathieu; Nordal, Eirin; Furevik, Liv; Eide, Geir Egil; Moster, Dag; Hauspie, Roland; Bjerknes, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Previous growth references for Norwegian children were based on measurements from the 1970s and 1980s. New reference data, collected through the Bergen Growth Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, are presented as LMS values. A cross-sectional sample of children aged 0-19 years in stratified randomized design measured in 2003-2006 as a part of the Bergen Growth Study (n = 7291) and birth data of children born in 1999-2003 from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 12 576) was used to estimate the new references by the means of the LMS method. Measurement reliability was assessed by test-rest studies. New references were constructed for length/height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference. Length/height and weight for children aged 0-4 years were similar to previous Norwegian references, but mean height increased up to a maximum of 3.4 cm in boys and 2.5 cm in girls during the pubertal years. Mean height was similar to (or slightly higher) in comparison with other recent European references. Reliability of the measurements compared well with published estimates. Because of the observed secular trends in growth, it is advised to use the new references, which have been endorsed by the Norwegian Department of Health.

  2. Root diversity in alpine plants: root length, tensile strength and plant age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M.; Stroude, R.; Körner, C.; Buttler, A.; Rixen, C.

    2009-04-01

    A high diversity of plant species and functional groups is hypothesised to increase the diversity of root types and their subsequent effects for soil stability. However, even basic data on root characteristics of alpine plants are very scarce. Therefore, we determined important root characteristics of 13 plant species from different functional groups, i.e. grasses, herbs and shrubs. We excavated the whole root systems of 62 plants from a machine-graded ski slope at 2625 m a.s.l. and analysed the rooting depth, the horizontal root extension, root length and diameter. Single roots of plant species were tested for tensile strength. The age of herbs and shrubs was determined by growth-ring analysis. Root characteristics varied considerably between both plant species and functional groups. The rooting depth of different species ranged from 7.2 ± 0.97 cm to 20.5 ± 2.33 cm, but was significantly larger in the herb Geum reptans (70.8 ± 10.75 cm). The woody species Salix breviserrata reached the highest horizontal root extensions (96.8 ± 25.5 cm). Most plants had their longest roots in fine diameter classes (0.5

  3. 75 FR 30065 - Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Heights Assembly Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Chrysler, LLC, Sterling Heights Assembly Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight Facilities Management LLC and Resource Technologies, Sterling Heights, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...

  4. Plant Species Richness is Associated with Canopy Height and Topography in a Neotropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassan S. Saatchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most plant species are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water, and nutrients. In tropical forests, these gradients result from biophysical processes related to the structure of the canopy and terrain, but how does species richness in tropical forests vary over such gradients, and can remote sensing capture this variation? Using airborne lidar, we tested the extent to which variation in tree species richness is statistically explained by lidar-measured structural variation in canopy height and terrain in the extensively studied, stem-mapped 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. We detected differences in species richness associated with variation in canopy height and topography across spatial scales ranging from 0.01-ha to 1.0-ha. However, species richness was most strongly associated with structural variation at the 1.0-ha scale. We developed a predictive generalized least squares model of species richness at the 1.0-ha scale (R2 = 0.479, RMSE = 8.3 species using the mean and standard deviation of canopy height, mean elevation, and terrain curvature. The model demonstrates that lidar-derived measures of forest and terrain structure can capture a significant fraction of observed variation in tree species richness in tropical forests on local-scales.

  5. Quantitative trait loci for lodging resistance, plant height and partial resistance to mycosphaerella blight in field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar'an, B; Warkentin, T; Somers, D J; Miranda, D; Vandenberg, A; Blade, S; Woods, S; Bing, D; Xue, A; DeKoeyer, D; Penner, G

    2003-11-01

    With the development of genetic maps and the identification of the most-likely positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on these maps, molecular markers for lodging resistance can be identified. Consequently, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to improve the efficiency of selection for lodging resistance in a breeding program. This study was conducted to identify genetic loci associated with lodging resistance, plant height and reaction to mycosphaerella blight in pea. A population consisting of 88 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross between Carneval and MP1401. The RILs were evaluated in 11 environments across the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada in 1998, 1999 and 2000. One hundred and ninety two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and one sequence tagged site (STS) marker were assigned to ten linkage groups (LGs) that covered 1,274 centi Morgans (cM) of the pea genome. Six of these LGs were aligned with the previous pea map. Two QTLs were identified for lodging resistance that collectively explained 58% of the total phenotypic variation in the mean environment. Three QTLs were identified each for plant height and resistance to mycosphaerella blight, which accounted for 65% and 36% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively, in the mean environment. These QTLs were relatively consistent across environments. The AFLP marker that was associated with the major locus for lodging resistance was converted into the sequence-characterized amplified-region (SCAR) marker. The presence or absence of the SCAR marker corresponded well with the lodging reaction of 50 commercial pea varieties.

  6. Molecular dissection of developmental behavior of tiller number and plant height and their relationship in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guohua; Xing, Yongzhong; Li, Shaoqing; Ding, Jingzhen; Yue, Bing; Deng, Kai; Li, Yangsheng; Zhu, Yingguo

    2006-12-01

    Plant height and tiller number are two important characters related to yield in rice (Oriza sativa L.). Zhenshan97 x Minghui63 recombinant inbred lines were employed to dissect the genetic basis of development of plant height and tiller number using conditional and unconditional composite interval mapping approaches. The traits were normally distributed with transgressive segregation in both directions. Increasingly negative correlations were observed between tiller number and plant height at five consecutive growth stages. A total of 23 and 24 QTL were identified for tiller number and plant height, respectively. More QTL were detected by conditional mapping than by conventional mapping. Different QTL/genes apparently controlled the traits at different developmental stages. Three genomic regions were identified as putative co-located QTL, which showed opposite additive effects on tiller number and plant height. Furthermore, in the period reaching maximum tiller number, the expression of QTL for tiller number was active, whereas that of QTL for plant height was inactive. These facts provided a possible genetic explanation for the negative correlations between the traits. The research demonstrates conditional mapping to be superior to conventional mapping for this type of research. Implications of the results for hybrid rice improvement are discussed.

  7. Full Length Research Paper Plant regeneration of Michelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michelia champaca L. is a woody ornamental tree species which has high commercial value to be used as a basic material for perfume, cosmetic, and medicine. The development of an efficient plant regeneration system for M. champaca is essential for the production of Champaca planting material and precondition for ...

  8. Direct derivation of maize plant and crop height from low-cost time-of-flight camera measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, information about the spatial distribution of crop height is valuable for applications such as biomass and yield estimation, or increasing field work efficiency in terms of fertilizing, applying pesticides, irrigation, etc. Established methods for capturing crop height often comprise restrictions in terms of cost and time efficiency, flexibility, and temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Furthermore, crop height is mostly derived from a measurement of the bare terrain prior to plant growth and measurements of the crop surface when plants are growing, resulting in the need of multiple field campaigns. In our study, we examine a method to derive crop heights directly from data of a plot of full grown maize plants captured in a single field campaign. We assess continuous raster crop height models (CHMs) and individual plant heights derived from data collected with the low-cost 3D camera Microsoft ® Kinect ® for Xbox One™ based on a comprehensive comparison to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) reference data. We examine single measurements captured with the 3D camera and a combination of the single measurements, i.e. a combination of multiple perspectives. The quality of both CHMs, and individual plant heights is improved by combining the measurements. R 2 of CHMs derived from single measurements range from 0.48 to 0.88, combining all measurements leads to an R 2 of 0.89. In case of individual plant heights, an R 2 of 0.98 is achieved for the combined measures (with R 2  = 0.44 for the single measurements). The crop heights derived from the 3D camera measurements comprise an average underestimation of 0.06 m compared to TLS reference values. We recommend the combination of multiple low-cost 3D camera measurements, removal of measurement artefacts, and the inclusion of correction functions to improve the quality of crop height measurements. Operating low-cost 3D cameras under field conditions on agricultural machines or on autonomous

  9. Generation of full-length cDNA libraries: focus on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Motoaki; Kamiya, Asako; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Full-length cDNAs are essential for the correct annotation of transcriptional units and gene products from genomic sequence data and for functional analysis of the genes. Full-length cDNA libraries are very important resources for isolation of the full-length cDNAs. The biotinylated cap trapper method using the trehalose-thermostabilized reverse transcriptase has been developed and has become an efficient method for construction of high-content full-length cDNA libraries. We have constructed full-length cDNA libraries from various plants and animals using this method. The protocol of the method is described in this chapter.

  10. Characterization for plant height and flowering date in the biological species oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of wild oat races in artificial hybridization with cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. has been used as a way of increasing the variability. This work aimed to identify the variability for plant height and flowering date of groups of cultivated oat genotypes, wild introductions of A. fatua L. and segregating populations of natural crosses between A. sativa and A. fatua. Wide genetic variability was observed for both traits in the groups and between them. The wild group of A. fatua L. showed high plants with early maturity, but in the segregating group there was reduced plant height and early maturity. The wild introductions of A. fatua L. studied in this work can be used in oat breeding programs to increase genetic variability by transferring specific characters into the cultivated germ plasm.A utilização de raças silvestres em hibridações com o grupo cultivado em aveia (Avena sativa L. tem sido fonte de incremento da variabilidade genética. Desta forma, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a variabilidade genética dos caracteres morfo-fisiológicos estatura de planta e dias da emergência à floração em grupos de genótipos cultivados de aveia, introduções silvestres de A. fatua L., e em populações segregantes dos cruzamentos naturais de A. sativa x A. fatua. Ampla variabilidade genética foi revelada para os caracteres avaliados tanto dentro como entre os grupos. O grupo silvestre A. fatua demonstrou plantas de elevada estatura e precoces. Foi possível encontrar populações segregantes de A. sativa x A. fatua com reduzida estatura e precocidade. As introduções silvestres de A. fatua avaliadas neste trabalho podem ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento para incrementar a variabilidade genética, pela transferência de caracteres específicos para o germoplasma cultivado.

  11. Genetic study on heading time and plant height of wheat irradiated by 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guixue; Zhu Xiaoda

    1995-01-01

    The 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-rays with 0, 20, 30 and 40 krad were used to irradiate two wheat varieties to study the genetic effects of both irradiation sources on heading time and plant height. It revealed that both irradiation sources had similar impact on heading time and plant height and the effects were significant. It was clear that both irradiation sources were able to induce the generation of early ripening and short-stalked mutants. With regard to the heading time and plant height, the means and genetic parameters, e.g., genetic variance, genetic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and relative genetic advance, varied with varieties, irradiation dosages and generations. Mutants with good characters were obtained by using variety 77-zhong-2882 and an irradiation dose of 30 krad. The genetic effects of irradiation were remarkable in their M 2 and M 3 generations

  12. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Liu

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2 protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice.

  13. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Sorghum Plant Height Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Its Application to Genomic Prediction Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kakeru; Guo, Wei; Arai, Keigo; Takanashi, Hideki; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Yano, Kentaro; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera. We evaluated the potential of remote sensing to provide phenotype training data in a genomic prediction model. UAV remote sensing with the NIR-GB camera and the 50th percentile of digital surface model, which is an indicator of height, performed well. The correlation coefficient between plant height measured by UAV remote sensing (PH UAV ) and plant height measured with a ruler (PH R ) was 0.523. Because PH UAV was overestimated (probably because of the presence of taller plants on adjacent plots), the correlation coefficient between PH UAV and PH R was increased to 0.678 by using one of the two replications (that with the lower PH UAV value). Genomic prediction modeling performed well under the low-fertilization condition, probably because PH UAV overestimation was smaller under this condition due to a lower plant height. The predicted values of PH UAV and PH R were highly correlated with each other ( r = 0.842). This result suggests that the genomic prediction models generated with PH UAV were almost identical and that the performance of UAV remote sensing was similar to that of traditional measurements in genomic prediction modeling. UAV remote sensing has a high potential to increase the throughput of phenotyping and decrease its cost. UAV remote sensing will be an important and indispensable tool for high-throughput genomics-assisted plant breeding.

  14. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  15. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87–17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9) for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU) was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1) were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize. PMID:29466465

  16. Genome-wide association study for flowering time, maturity dates and plant height in early maturing soybean (Glycine max) germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Nelson, Randall L; Wang, Xianzhi; Wu, Jixiang; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) is a photoperiod-sensitive and self-pollinated species. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM), duration of flowering-to-maturity (DFTM) and plant height (PH) are crucial for soybean adaptability and yield. To dissect the genetic architecture of these agronomically important traits, a population consisting of 309 early maturity soybean germplasm accessions was genotyped with the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K BeadChip and phenotyped in multiple environments. ...

  17. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  18. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Lou

    Full Text Available Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  19. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  20. Effects of plant phenology and vertical height on accuracy of radio-telemetry locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Lehman, Chad P.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Robling, Kevin A.; Rupp, Susan P.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of very high frequency (VHF) radio-telemetry remains wide-spread in studies of wildlife ecology and management. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of vegetative obstruction on accuracy in differing habitats with varying transmitter types and heights. Using adult and fawn collars at varying heights above the ground (0, 33, 66 and 100 cm) to simulate activities (bedded, feeding and standing) and ages (neonate, juvenile and adult) of deer Odocoileus spp., we collected 5,767 bearings and estimated 1,424 locations (28-30 for each of 48 subsamples) in three habitat types (pasture, grassland and forest), during two stages of vegetative growth (spring and late summer). Bearing error was approximately twice as large at a distance of 900 m for fawn (9.9°) than for adult deer collars (4.9°). Of 12 models developed to explain the variation in location error, the analysis of covariance model (HT*D + C*D + HT*TBA + C*TBA) containing interactions of height of collar above ground (HT), collar type (C), vertical height of understory vegetation (D) and tree basal area (TBA) was the best model (wi = 0.92) and explained ∼ 71% of the variation in location error. Location error was greater for both collar types at 0 and 33 cm above the ground compared to 66 and 100 cm above the ground; however, location error was less for adult than fawn collars. Vegetation metrics influenced location error, which increased with greater vertical height of understory vegetation and tree basal area. Further, interaction of vegetation metrics and categorical variables indicated significant effects on location error. Our results indicate that researchers need to consider study objectives, life history of the study animal, signal strength of collar (collar type), distance from transmitter to receiver, topographical changes in elevation, habitat composition and season when designing telemetry protocols. Bearing distances in forested habitat should be decreased (approximately 23

  1. A baculovirus-mediated strategy for full-length plant virus coat protein expression and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Rocha, Juliana Ribeiro; da Costa, Márcio Hedil Oliveira; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Dusi, André Nepomuceno; de Oliveira Resende, Renato; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-08-15

    Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors. In this work, we have fused the full-length coat protein (cp) gene from the Garlic Mite-borne Filamentous Virus (GarMbFV) to the 3'-end of the Polyhedrin (polh) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The recombinant baculovirus was amplified in insect cell culture and the virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Thus, the recombinant fused protein was easily purified from insect cadavers using sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by Western Blotting. Interestingly, amorphous crystals were produced in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the chimeric-protein gene but not in cells infected with the wild type and recombinant virus containing the hexa histidine tagged Polh. Moreover, the chimeric protein was used to immunize rats and generate antibodies against the target protein. The antiserum produced was able to detect plants infected with GarMbFV, which had been initially confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression of a plant virus full-length coat protein fused to the baculovirus Polyhedrin in recombinant baculovirus-infected insects was shown to produce high amounts of the recombinant protein which was easily purified and efficiently used to generate specific antibodies. Therefore, this strategy can potentially be used for the development of plant virus diagnostic kits for those viruses that are difficult to purify, are present in low titers or are present in mix infection in

  2. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  3. [Are there Sex Differences Regarding Ski Length to Height Ratio, Ski Length to Weight Ratio, Sidecut Radius and Ski Boot Sole Abrasion among ACL Injured Male and Female Skiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Markus; Ruedl, Gerhard; Tecklenburg, Katja; Helle, Kenneth; Schranz, Alois; Burtscher, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Introduction  Female skiers suffer from knee injuries twice as much as male skiers, and the risk of an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is three times greater among females compared to males. The sex-specific ACL injury risk depends on internal (e. g. age, skiing skills, fitness level) and external (e. g. slope and weather conditions, ski equipment) factors. However, it is not clear whether male and female recreational skiers with an ACL injury differ regarding the sidecut radius and ski boot sole abrasion. Method  This questionnaire-based study was conducted in the winter seasons 2014/15 and 2015/16. During those periods, data of ACL-injured skiers were collected at an Austrian ski clinic. The questionnaire included information about demographics, skiing skills, type of fall, binding release, and injury diagnosis. Furthermore, the ski length and sidecut radius were notated from the ski, and abrasion of ski boot sole was measured at the toe and heel piece of the ski boot using a caliper. Results  In total 164 ACL-injured skiers (67 % females) with a mean age of 41.7 ± 11.5 years were recorded. Males used significantly longer skies compared to females (168.3 ± 6.6 vs. 157.5 ± 5.9 cm, p ski length to height ratio (94.0 ± 3.4 vs. 94.1 ± 3.3 %) showed no significant difference between the two sexes. The ski length to weight ratio was significantly different between females and males (2.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 cm/kg). The sidecut radius (13.5 ± 1.4 vs. 15.6 ± 2.6 m, p ski boot soles, neither at the toe piece (5.4 ± 1.2 vs. 5.5 ± 1.1 mm) nor at the heel piece (6.0 ± 1.7 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mm) between females and males. For both sexes the most common type of fall was the forward fall with body rotation (approximately 59 %). Failure of binding release was significantly more often reported by females compared to males (86 vs. 44 %, p ski length to weight ratio, and the

  4. Enhancing auxin accumulation in maize root tips improves root growth and dwarfs plant height

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Xinrui; Zhao, Yajie; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Guangfeng; Peng, Zhenghua; Zhang, Juren

    2017-01-01

    Summary Maize is a globally important food, feed crop and raw material for the food and energy industry. Plant architecture optimization plays important roles in maize yield improvement. PIN‐FORMED (PIN) proteins are important for regulating auxin spatiotemporal asymmetric distribution in multiple plant developmental processes. In this study, ZmPIN1a overexpression in maize increased the number of lateral roots and inhibited their elongation, forming a developed root system with longer semina...

  5. Mining Applicable Elite Alleles of Growth Duration, Plant Height and Panicle Number per Plant by Conditional QTL Mapping in Japonica Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hua JIANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Unconditional and conditional QTL mapping were conducted for growth duration (GD, plant height (PH and effective panicle number per plant (PN using a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a cross between two japonica rice varieties Xiushui 79 and C Bao. The RIL population consisted of 254 lines was planted in two environments, Nanjing and Sihong, Jiangsu Province, China. Results showed that additive effects were major in all of QTLs for GD, PH and PN detected by the two methods, and the epistatic effects explained a small proportion of phenotypic variation. No interactions were detected between additive QTL and environment, and between epistatic QTL pairs and environment. After growth duration was adjusted to an identical level, RM80-160bp was detected as an applicable elite allele for PN, with an additive effect of 0.71. When effective panicle number per plant was adjusted to an identical level, RM448-240bp was detected as an applicable elite allele for GD, with an additive effect of 4.64. After plant height was adjusted to an identical level, RM80-160bp was detected as an applicable elite allele for PN, with an additive effect of 0.62, and RM448-240bp was detected as an applicable elite allele for GD, with an additive effect of 3.89. These applicable elite alleles could be used to improve target traits without influencing the other two traits.

  6. A tandem segmental duplication (TSD) in green revolution gene Rht-D1b region underlies plant height variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyuan; Xiao, Jianhui; Wu, Jiajie; Duan, Jialei; Liu, Yue; Ye, Xingguo; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Gu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Lichao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2012-10-01

    • Rht-D1c (Rht10) carried by Chinese wheat (Triticum aestivum) line Aibian 1 is an allele at the Rht-D1 locus. Among the Rht-1 alleles, little is known about Rht-D1c although it determines an extreme dwarf phenotype in wheat. • Here, we cloned and functionally characterized Rht-D1c using a combination of Southern blotting, target region sequencing, gene expression analysis and transgenic experiments. • We found that the Rht-D1c allele was generated through a tandem segmental duplication (TSD) of a > 1 Mb region, resulting in two copies of the Rht-D1b. Two copies of Rht-D1b in the TSD were three-fold more effective in reducing plant height than a single copy, and transformation with a segment containing the tandemly duplicated copy of Rht-D1b resulted in the same level of reduction of plant height as the original copy in Aibian 1. • Our results suggest that changes in gene copy number are one of the important sources of genetic diversity and some of these changes could be directly associated with important traits in crops. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Modeling Dominant Height Growth in Planted Pinus pinea Stands in Northwest of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sghaier Tahar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six generalized algebraic difference equations (GADAs derived from the base models of log-logistic, Bertalanffy-Richards, and Lundqvist-Korf were used to develop site index model for Pinus pinea plantations in north-west of Tunisia. To assure the base-age invariance of the model parameter estimates, a dummy variable approach was used. Data from stem analysis, corrected with Carmean's method, were used for modelling. To take into account the inherent autocorrelation of the longitudinal data, a second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used, which allows the models to be applied to irregularly spaced, unbalanced data. Both a qualitative analysis based on the biological realism of the models and numerical and graphical analyses based on the accuracy of the models as well were used to evaluate the performance of candidate models. The relative error in site index predictions was used to select 30 years as the best reference age. Based on the analysis, a generalized algebraic difference equation (GADA derived from the base model of Lundqvist-Korf realized the best compromise between biological and statistical constraints, producing the most adequate site index curves. It is a polymorphic model with site-dependent asymptotes. This model is therefore recommended for height growth prediction and site classification of Pinus pinea plantations in north-west of Tunisia.

  8. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  9. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Visscher

    Full Text Available A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12-13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol.

  10. Effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity at run-of-river hydropower plants in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Christine; Schobesberger, Johannes; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study conducted scaled physical model tests of a run-of-river hydropower plant (RoR). The physical model represented an idealized gravel bed river with a width of 20 m, a slope of 0.005, a mean annual flow of 15 m3 s- 1 and a 1-year flood flow of 80 m3 s- 1. Substrate and bed load had a characteristic grain size dm of 56 mm. The model scale was 1:20. The study was designed to test the effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity and flushing efficiency at low-head RoR plants. Three different weir heights and two reservoir widths were investigated to assess and quantify their influence. As long as equilibrium conditions had not been established in the reservoir the flushing efficiency was low and thus the sediment continuity was not met. The experiments revealed that both parameters had a significant effect regarding the time needed to reach equilibrium conditions. The equilibrium slope that established was independent of weir height. Weir height, however, determined the starting point from where the equilibrium slope was built up. Accordingly, an increase in weir height will increase the reservoir bed levels by the same amount. A large weir height leads to huge sedimentation volumes and thus to a lack of sediments and to river bed erosion downstream of the hydropower plant. It could also considerably increase the flood risk at the head of the reservoir. This calls for regular maintenance work to re-establish flood safety. The experimental results suggest new concepts of low weir heights and cross sectional reservoir widths in the design of low-head RoR plants to facilitate frequent and efficient flushings, to enhance sediment continuity, and to reduce maintenance and operational costs.

  11. The length of the dry season may be associated with leaf scleromorphism in cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C; Franco, Augusto C; Haridasan, Mundayatan; Rossatto, Davi R; de Araújo, Janaína F; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-09-01

    Despite limitations of low fertility and high acidity of the soils, the cerrado flora is the richest amongst savannas. Many cerrado woody species show sclerophyllous leaves, which might be related to the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. To better understand the function and structure of cerrado vegetation within its own variations, we compared two cerrado communities: one in its core region in central Brazil (Brasília, DF) and the other on its southern periphery (Itirapina, SP). We contrasted the length of the dry season, soil fertility rates, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the specific leaf area (SLA) between these communities. The dry season was shorter on the periphery, where the soil was more fertile although more acidic. Plants from the periphery showed higher SLA and higher leaf concentrations of N, P, Ca and Mg. We propose that the higher SLA of plants from the periphery is related to the shorter dry season, which allows better conditions for nutrient uptake.

  12. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Zdunić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of genetic effects on economically important traits is a common procedure in the most breeding programmes at Agricultural Institute Osijek. This paper deals with estimation of adequacy over additive/dominance model of inheritance as well as estimation and comparison of genetic effects on plant height for two specific pairs of inbreds (A672×Va99; A672×Os6-2, and its six basic generations (P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2. Two year investigation was carried out at two locations in eastern Croatia. The trails consisted of 121 entries of different inbreeding level derived by partial diallel mating design followed by selfing and back crossing. Simple lattice experimental design was used in both investigated years. Goodness of fit test results indicated the additive/dominance model failed to explain all differences among generation means. Digenic epistatic model appeared to be adequate in both investigated pairs of inbreds at least in one of the investigated years. Estimations and comparisons of genetic effects for selected pairs of inbreds and basic generations revealed prevailing dominance effects when compared to additive.

  13. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  14. Importance of mountain height and latitude for the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in Scandinavia: are the mountains high enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Odland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper was to study regional differences in the altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants in relation to mountain height and latitudinal position. Altitudinal limits from previously studied areas were compared with the altitudinal distribution limits given by Lid and Lid (2005 as a reference. Based on these comparisons, different trend lines were used to evaluate the effects of mountain height and thereby estimate how high a mountain must be for vascular plants to reach their potential altitudinal limits. Study areas were Hardangervidda and Aurland in southern Norway, Jämtland in central Sweden, Lule Lappmark in northern Sweden, Troms in northern Norway and Graubünden in Switzerland. A regression analysis of the altitudinal limits for 177 vascular plants in Scandinavia compared with the same species in Switzerland gave a highly significant (p 0.422. Comparisons within Scandinavia show that lowland/boreal and high altitudinal species showed different altitudinal distribution patterns. The position of the forest limit increased on average with 72.4 m per degree increase in latitude from Switzerland to northern Scandinavia. The altitudinal span of the alpine zone was approximately 1100 m in Switzerland and in Jotunheimen but considerably lower in the southern Scandinavian study areas. Studies of altitudinal distribution limits of vascular plants may give an indication of to what extent the height of a particular mountain influence plant distribution and thereby its vegetation zonation.

  15. Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores patterns of women’s medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a woman’s age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a woman’s use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. Methods This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. Results The results demonstrate a relationship between a woman’s age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. Conclusions The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be

  16. Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Coral; Slattery Walker, Lisa

    2014-02-24

    This paper explores patterns of women's medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a woman's age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a woman's use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. The results demonstrate a relationship between a woman's age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be measured separately since one may not be an

  17. Navicula height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard

    position and relaxed standing posture. Excessive movement of the navicula is considered a predisposing factor in the development of shin splits. No single direct static measurement of navicula height has yet shown to predict a high degree of mid foot movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate......, it was hypothesized that the single leg standing also would be an indicator of navicula drop, and the minimal height of tuberositas navicula during walking. Another test was suggested by Brody, it was named Navicula Drop Test (NDT) and was defined as the difference of navicula height with subtalar joint in neutral...... the relationship between static measurements, using Navicual Drop Test and One Leg Standing (OLS) and the dynamic measurements of minimal navicula height loaded (NHL) and navicula drop (ΔNH)...

  18. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  19. Responses of plant morphology and seed quality to long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year period 2002 to 2004 between miniaturized L. chinensi and normal L. chinensis on morphological character and asexual reproduction. The result shows that 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, plant height, fiber root length, height ...

  20. Application of a new PCR primer for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the bacterial communities in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masao; Matsuka, Akira; Komura, Taichi; Kanazawa, Shinjiro

    2004-10-01

    Contamination with plastid small subunit (SSU) rDNA is a major drawback when analyzing the bacterial communities of plant roots using culture-independent methods. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer, 783r, was designed and tested to specifically amplify the SSU rDNA of various bacterial species without amplifying the SSU rDNA of plant plastids. To confirm how useful the community analysis of rhizobacteria is using 783r, the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was performed with wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea) root samples. Using the standard T-RFLP method, a large T-RF peak of plant plastid SSU rDNA interfered with the bacterial community analysis. In contrast, the T-RFLP method using the 783r primer was able to detect the bacterial DNA while directly eliminating the influence of the plant-derived DNA extracted from the plant roots. Primer 783r might, therefore, be a useful PCR primer for the culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in plant roots using SSU rDNA.

  1. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Jimenez-Berni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR (r2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association (r2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02 at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI and 3D profile index (3DPI. The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass (r2 = 0.93 and r2 = 0.92 for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  2. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  3. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  4. Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees show considerable variation and flexibility in their size of crowns, height and stem diameter at breast height (dbh). Dbh has been used as predictor variables in diameter and height growth equations. Relationships between dbh, tree height, crown length, crown height and crown ratio of Vitellaria paradoxa were ...

  5. The cytochrome P450 gene CsCYP85A1 is a putative candidate for super compact-1 (scp-1) plant architecture mutation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids(BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length ...

  6. Application of Endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens and a Bacterial Consortium to Brassica napus Can Increase Plant Height and Biomass under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Lally

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant associated bacteria with plant growth promotion (PGP properties have been proposed for use as environmentally friendly biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture; however, analysis of their efficacy in the field is often limited. In this study, greenhouse and field trials were carried out using individual endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, the well characterized rhizospheric P. fluorescens F113 and an endophytic microbial consortium of 10 different strains. These bacteria had been previously characterized with respect to their PGP properties in vitro and had been shown to harbor a range of traits associated with PGP including siderophore production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. In greenhouse experiments individual strains tagged with gfp and Kmr were applied to Brassica napus as a seed coat and were shown to effectively colonize the rhizosphere and root of B. napus and in addition they demonstrated a significant increase in plant biomass compared with the non-inoculated control. In the field experiment, the bacteria (individual and consortium were spray inoculated to winter oilseed rape B. napus var. Compass which was grown under standard North Western European agronomic conditions. Analysis of the data provides evidence that the application of the live bacterial biofertilizers can enhance aspects of crop development in B. napus at field scale. The field data demonstrated statistically significant increases in crop height, stem/leaf, and pod biomass, particularly, in the case of the consortium inoculated treatment. However, although seed and oil yield were increased in the field in response to inoculation, these data were not statistically significant under the experimental conditions tested. Future field trials will investigate the effectiveness of the inoculants under different agronomic conditions.

  7. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  8. Height-age and height-diameter relationships for monocultures and mixtures of eastern cottonwood clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster; Randall J. Rousseau; Warren L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Data from an eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study in Mississippi and Kentucky, USA, were used to test the effects of planting locations and genetics (clonal proportions) on height-age and height-d.b.h. functions. Planting locations, which accounted for 5.6 percent of the variation in observed dominant height growth (p = 0.0001), were more important than clonal...

  9. Combinação da altura de desponte e do espaçamento entre plantas de tomate Combination of planting densities with top lopping heights of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mueller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalhos a campo realizados na Epagri, Estação Experimental de Caçador (SC, durante as safras de 1998/1999, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001, estudou-se a interação entre quatro alturas de desponta (acima do 5º, 7º, 9º e 11º cachos e quatro espaçamentos entre plantas (0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75 m, de plantas de tomate cv. Diva. O espaçamento entre fileiras foi de 1,0 m para todos os tratamentos e anos estudados. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em um fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. As plantas foram tutoradas em 'V' invertido empregando-se varas de bambu (taquaruçú como tutores. Foram avaliados a produtividade e o número de frutos total e comercial, a percentagem e a massa média de frutos comercial, a altura de plantas e o diâmetro da base do caule. O aumento do espaçamento de plantas reduziu a altura das plantas, o número e a produtividade de frutos comercial e total, porém proporcionou aumento do diâmetro do caule e da massa média dos frutos comerciais. Por sua vez, o aumento do número de cachos por planta aumentou a altura das plantas, o número e a produtividade de frutos comercial e total. Entretanto, o diâmetro do caule e a massa média dos frutos comerciais diminuíram com o aumento do número de cachos por planta.Three field experiments were carried out in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during 1998/1999, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 seasons to study four lopping heights of the tops (above the 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th clusters and four-plant spacings between plants (0.30; 0.45; 0.60, and 0.75 m. Plant spacing between rows of tomato cv. Diva was of 1.0 m, in all studied treatments and years of the research. Experiments were designed in randomized blocks, with three replicates in a factorial scheme (4 x 4. Plants were staked as crossed fence, using bamboo sticks as tutors. The yield, number of fruits, percentage and average weight of marketable fruits, plant height and stem base diameter

  10. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  11. SPES-2, the full-height, full-pressure, test facility simulating the AP600 plant: Main results from the experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M.; Martinelli, R.; Tarantini, M.; Conway, L.

    1995-01-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL, ENEA, SIET and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behavior of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with both passive and active non-safety systems, and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behavior

  12. Quantitative analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP microbial community profiles: peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area Análise quantitativa de perfis de T-RFLP de comunidades microbianas: dados de altura de picos mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Caffaro-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP is a culture-independent fingerprinting method for microbial community analysis. Profiles generated by an automated electrophoresis system can be analysed quantitatively using either peak height or peak area data. Statistical testing demontrated that peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area data.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP é um método molecular, independente de cultivo, para análise de comunidades microbianas. Perfis gerados por um sistema automatizado de eletroforese podem ser analisados quantitativamente usando dados de altura ou área dos picos. Os dados de altura mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área.

  13. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  14. Long day plants and the response to global warming: rapid evolutionary change in day length sensitivity is possible in wild beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, H; Hautekèete, N

    2007-01-01

    Day length is a key factor in flowering induction in many plant species in a seasonal environment with flowering induction usually happening at shorter day lengths in lower latitudes. Now, the climate changes systematically at a considerable speed due to global warming. As a consequence, earlier flowering will be selected for in long day plants by favouring a lower threshold for day length sensitivity, on the condition of available genetic variability. Here, we show that there is considerable genetic variation for day length sensitivity in our study species, the seabeet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. In the northernmost natural populations without vernalization requirement, in southwest France, the necessary day length for flowering induction could be reduced by artificial selection in 13 h to Africa and the eastern part of the Mediterranean tested under the same conditions. A quantitative genetic analysis provided evidence of a gradual change without detectable major genes. Additional experiments were carried out to separate the response to photoperiod from age and energy effects. A certain effect of energy availability has been found, whereas age effects could be excluded. These results indicate a considerable potential for evolutionary change in adjusting flowering time in a changing climate.

  15. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  16. Plant traits to complement selection based on yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyama Lauro Akio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plant traits and yield per spike in wheat genotypes. The measured plant traits were: length of flag leaf blade, peduncle extrusion, peduncle, spike and sheath, culm diameter and plant height. Data were analyzed with correlation and path coefficient analysis. Yield per spike correlated positively with spike length and culm diameter. Path coefficient analysis indicated that, under irrigated condition, yield per spike had a positive direct effect and a positive correlation with spike length and culm diameter and, under non-irrigated condition, yield per spike showed a positive direct effect and a positive correlation with culm diameter, spike length and plant height. Culm diameter and spike length, under irrigated condition, and also plant height, under late season water stress condition, were the plant traits most related to higher grain yield per spike in wheat.

  17. A multi-trait test of the leaf-height-seed plant strategy scheme with 133 species from a pine forest flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Laughlin; Jessica J. Leppert; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Plants are multifaceted organisms that have evolved ecological strategies for sustaining populations in resource-limited environments (Grime 1979; Craine 2009). Plant strategies can be quantified by measuring functional traits (Grime et al. 1997; Reich et al. 2003), which are the properties of plants that impact plant fitness (Violle et al. 2008) and ecosystem...

  18. Effect of the height of the greenhouse on the plant - climate relationship as a development parameter in mint (Mentha Spicata crops in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Bustamante Valencia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the height of the greenhouse on climatic conditions generated on a mint crop (Mentha spicata. The tests were conducted in the town of Carmen de Viboral, 40 minutes away from the city of Medellin (6º 05’ 09” N and 75º 20’ 19” W, 2150 m.a.s.l.. Three greenhouses with the same dimensions were used, changing only the gutter height in 2 m, 2,5 m and 3 m respectively. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken every 30 minutes for 3 years, time during which crop production was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed to determine climatic variations caused by the difference in height between the greenhouses, and to determine differences in production levels. The results indicate that, under the study conditions, the greenhouse height directly affects the weather conditions and the mint crop yields.

  19. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  20. Authentication of medicinal plant botanical identity by amplified fragmented length polymorphism dominant DNA marker: inferences from the Plectranthus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passinho-Soares, Helna; Felix, Durvalina; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogério

    2006-08-01

    In Brazil, Plectranthus species are known as "boldo" and have been used in popular medicine for analgesic and dyspeptic purposes. Plectranthus need to be well identified in order to be used as commercially genuine medicinal plants. Here we describe AFLP DNA patterns able to distinguish among different Pectranthus species. The genetic variability of P. grandis Cramer, P. barbatus Andr. and P. ornatus Codd was analyzed with two sets of AFLP primers allowing detection of 241 loci. A total of 22 monomorphic loci were identified in P. barbatus, 15 in P. grandis and 30 in P. ornatus. Among these, 5 loci were informative and species-specific to P. barbatus, 3 to P. grandis and 2 loci were unique to P. ornatus. The AFLP pattern analyzed by different clustering methods assembled individuals according to their species. So far, AFLP represents a genuine and strong method to certify medicinal plant materials.

  1. Replacing orthometric heights with ellipsoidal heights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is one of the most frequently used positioning methods in geodesy. The end products of surveying with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)are geodetic latitude (ϕ), geodetic longitude (λ) and ellipsoidal height (h) which are obtained with reference to the ellipsoid.

  2. Day length unlikely to constrain climate-driven shifts in leaf-out times of northern woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-12-01

    The relative roles of temperature and day length in driving spring leaf unfolding are known for few species, limiting our ability to predict phenology under climate warming. Using experimental data, we assess the importance of photoperiod as a leaf-out regulator in 173 woody species from throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and we also infer the influence of winter duration, temperature seasonality, and inter-annual temperature variability. We combine results from climate- and light-controlled chambers with species’ native climate niches inferred from georeferenced occurrences and range maps. Of the 173 species, only 35% relied on spring photoperiod as a leaf-out signal. Contrary to previous suggestions, these species come from lower latitudes, whereas species from high latitudes with long winters leafed out independent of photoperiod. The strong effect of species’ geographic-climatic history on phenological strategies complicates the prediction of community-wide phenological change.

  3. Studies on longwave length radiation properties of row cover (Plant Blanket), net radiation and leaf temperature under row cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Okada, M.; Aihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The use of nonwoven fabrics or cheesecloth for covering crops has become a common practice to promote crop growth or to protect crops from extreme weather or pests. The term, ''row cover'', is used in the present study to refer to this type of covering. There are several different ways of employing a ''row cover'', e. g. direct covering without any supporting materials (contact type), and the use of simple frame structures for suspension of the cover (floating type). There are many kinds of row covers, each differing in material and/or in porosity. These differences in covering method or row cover type can affect the microclimate under the row cover. In the present study, the longwave length radiation properties of several row covers were determined and their effects on nocturnal radiation and leaf temperature under the row cover were examined.Longwave length radiation properties, i.e., transmissivity, emissivity and reflectivity of the five different commercial row covers (A, B, C, D and E) were measured by the method proposed by Okada (1983). The porosity of the row covers was photographically determined. The results are shown in table 1. The relationship between transmissivity and porosity of the row cover is plotted in Fig. 1. The transmissivity depended linearly on the porosity except for row cover C. Row cover C is made from a highly transmissive material polypropylene, while the rest of the row covers are made from materials with low transmissivity, e.g. polyester (A and B) or polyvinylalcohol (D and E).To express the reduction ratio of nocturnal net radiation flux under the row cover to the outside, a protection index PI, as given by Eq. 1, was used. The PI of each film was measured in field experiments. The PI was clearly related to the transmissivity (Fig. 2) as shown in the empirical Eq. 6 developed from the data.Based on the heat balance of a leaf surface, Eq. 5 was derived to estimate the temperature difference

  4. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  5. Width, Length, and Height Conceptions of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya

    2018-01-01

    Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…

  6. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  7. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  8. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  9. Analysis of genetic variability in endemic medicinal plants of genus Chlorophytum from the Indian subcontinent using amplified fragment length polymorphism marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Chandanshive, Vishal Vinayak; Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Adsul, Avinash Asraji; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The genus Chlorophytum consists of medicinally important species like Chlorophytum borivilianum, C. tuberosum and C. attenuatum. Uncontrolled harvest of this plant from wild habitat due to its high commercial value made the species of this genus be listed in the Red Data Book of Indian plants as an endangered species. In India, approximately nineteen species of Chlorophytum are found; out of these, only C. borivilianum is cultivated commercially. The objective of this study was to measure genetic diversity, population structure and phylogenetic relationship among the species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Fifteen pairs of primer (out of 64 primer pairs screened) were used to analyse the genetic diversity in eighteen species of genus Chlorophytum. Cluster analysis, estimation of the gene flow among the species and of the phylogeographic distribution of this genus were carried out using an AFLP data matrix. A high level of genetic diversity was observed on the basis of the percentage of polymorphic bands (99.91%), Shannon's information index (0.3592) and Nei's gene diversity (0.2085) at species level. Cluster analysis of UPGMA dendrogram, principal component analysis and Bayesian method analysis resolved these species in three different clusters, which was supported by morphological information. The Mantel test (r=0.4432) revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The collected data have an important implication in the identification, authentication, and conservation of the species of the genus Chlorophytum. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria

    2017-07-25

    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect on ...

  12. Estratégias para redução de girassol ornamental para comercialização em vaso Strategies for reducing the height of potted ornamental sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Moura D'Andréa Mateus

    2009-09-01

    humidity in the shelter. Further, the use of the shadenet did not reduced plant height and did not influenced inflorescence diameter, the number of leaves per plant and the interval from transplant to flowering. Nevertheless, paclobutrazol substrate drench decreased plant height, leading to more compact plants that can be grown and commercialized in pots, without any loss to plant quality, since the inflorescence diameter was not affected. The use of the growth retardant delayed the flowering according to the drench concentration, but not exceeding one week.

  13. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  14. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  15. A Hopping Height Control for Hopping Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Eijiro; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In recent years, legged robots are progressed and able to walk just like human beings. Hopping has a possibility of moving faster and avoiding larger obstacles than walking. Thus hopping becomes more significant. In this paper, to take account of torque limits of motors, we propose the method of controlling the hopping height by changing the leg length at bottom. Considering an actual environment, the environment will change as the robot moves around. Therefore we describe the way to estimate an actual thrust force. Using the estimated thrust force, command value of leg length in the landing phase is determined. The effectiveness of proposed method is confirmed by simulative and experimental results.

  16. Ação do Agrostemin sobre a altura e o número de folhas de plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8 Effects of Agrostemmin on number of leaves and height of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.H. Fernandes

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o efeito de um estimulante vegetal, o Agrostemin, sobre a altura e o número de folhas das plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Foram estudados seis tratamentos, correspondentes as seguintes dosagens, épocas e formas de aplicação: testemunha (T1; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes (T2; 0,125g Agrostemin/100g semente e pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T4; pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T5 e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T6. Realizaram-se três coletas de plantas, com intervalo de 14 dias. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se duas análises de variância com desdobramento em efeitos de regressão. Através dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o Agrostemin quando aplicado via semente (T2 ou via foliar à 500 ppm (T6, aumentou a altura e o número de folhas. Ao aplicar o produto via semente mais via foliar à 500 ppm (T4, estas medidas diminuiram.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Agrostemmin (plant stimulant on height and number of leaves of soybean plants (Glycine max L Merril cv. IAC-8. Six treatments were studied: check (T1; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed (T2; 0,125g Agrostemmin/100 seed and foliar spraying 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T4; foliar spraying 333 ppm (T5 and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T6. Three samplings were made at 14 day intervals. The experimental layout was completely randomized, using two variance, testing regression effects. Agrostemmin applied to the seed (T2 or sprayed on the leaves at the rate of 500 ppm (T6 increased height and number of leaves of soybean, whereas the combination of Agrostemmin applied to the seeds and sprayed at 500 ppm (T4 decreased those values.

  17. Uso do método do disco e da altura da planta para estimar a massa de forragem em relvado de Cynodon spp. Rising plate meter and plant height to estimate the herbage mass in Cynodon ssp. Swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A altura das plantas (AP e a altura comprimida da vegetação por disco (AD foram usadas para estimativas da massa de forragem antes e depois do pastejo em uma pastagem mista de capim-coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears e capim-estrela (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis, manejada rotativamente. Foram estabelecidas equações de regressão entre a altura das plantas ou a altura comprimida da vegetação por disco de raio conhecido e o peso seco de forragem. Para a massa de forragem antes do pastejo, os coeficientes de determinação variaram de 0,70 a 0,87 com a AD e de 0,58 a 0,70 com a AP. Para a massa de forragem após o pastejo, observaram-se piores ajustes das equações, tendo em vista os baixos coeficientes de determinação (0,13 a 0,46. A AD apresentou melhores resultados para estimar a massa de forragem antes do pastejo. As técnicas apresentaram baixa confiabilidade para estimativas da massa de forragem após o pastejo.The techniques of plant height (PH and rising plate meter (RPM were used to estimate the herbage mass before and after grazing in Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears and Cynodon nlemfuensis var. nlenfuensis mixture pasture, under rotational system. Regression equations between sward surface heigth or compressed sward heigth by disk and the herbage dry weight were established. To herbage mass before grazing, the coefficients of determination (r² ranged from 0.70 to 0.87 for RPM and from 0.58 to 0.70 for PH. The residual herbage mass was poorly associated with heights of plant or disk (r² values varying from 0.13 to 0.46. The RPM showed better results to estimate the herbage mass before grazing than PH. The techniques could not be recomended to estimated herbage mass after grazing.

  18. Optimization of Truss Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ulitinas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Evaluation of numerical flow and dispersion simulations for street canyons with avenue-like tree planting by comparison with wind tunnel data

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, CB Christof; Buccolieri, R; Sabatino, S Di; Ruck, B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-like tree planting have been studied by means of wind tunnel and CFD investigations. The study comprises tree planting of different crown porosity, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H = 2 and street length to building height ratio L/H = 10 exposed to a perpendicular approaching boundary layer flow. Numerical simulations have been performed with...

  20. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  1. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accurate predictor of height in forensic science, but cannot be directly measured in living patients.32 In a recent study in a public hospital in Brazil, it was indeed found that height prediction equations based on knee height outperformed those based on. Discrepancies of up to 19.8 cm were recorded, which is clinically.

  2. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2017-08-01

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  4. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  5. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  6. Multiple Different Defense Mechanisms Are Activated in the Young Transgenic Tobacco Plants Which Express the Full Length Genome of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, and Are Resistant against this Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J.; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489–1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7–8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV

  7. Multiple different defense mechanisms are activated in the young transgenic tobacco plants which express the full length genome of the Tobacco mosaic virus, and are resistant against this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489-1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7-8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV replication

  8. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  9. Effects of Water and Plant Density on Grain Yield and Morphological Characteristics of New Maize Hybrid (CN. KSC.500 in Karaj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M M.M. Nakhjavani Moghaddam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of water and plant density on yield, yield components, morphological and physiological characteristics of a new corn Hybrid (KSC 500, an experiment was carried out in 2006 in Karaj area. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots were three irrigation levels: 75%, 100% and 125% ET and sub plots were three plants densities: 75000, 85000 and 95000 plant per hectare. Water requirement was calculate based on soil water limitation to the level of field capacity. The results showed that increasing the levels of irrigation from 75% to 125% ET, has a significant effect on yield, plant height, the first ear height above ground, leaf number, leaf width and length, biomass weight, ear length and diameter, number of grain in row, number of row in ear, leaf destruction, 1000 grain weight, 15 ear sample weight, ear wood diameter, grain length, biological yield and harvest index, but its effects on ear wood weight ,tassel length and leaf dry weight was not significant. Effect of different densities on yield, plant height, the first ear height above ground, leaf number, leaf length, ear length and diameter, number of grain row, ear wood weight and diameter was significant. According to the results 125% ET treatment and 85000 plant per hectare had the best yield (12 ton.ha-1 and 100% treatment in 75000 plant per hectare had the best WUE (1.22 kg/m3.

  10. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  11. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  12. Software for computing plant biomass—BIOPAK users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Means; Heather A. Hansen; Greg J. Koerper; Paul B Alaback; Mark W. Klopsch

    1994-01-01

    BIOPAK is a menu-driven package of computer programs for IBM-compatible personal computers that calculates the biomass, area, height, length, or volume of plant components (leaves, branches, stem, crown, and roots). The routines were written in FoxPro, Fortran, and C.BIOPAK was created to facilitate linking of a diverse array of vegetation datasets with the...

  13. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from...... eight countries comprising 30,111 complete twin pairs by using the univariate genetic model of the Mx statistical package. Body height and zygosity were self-reported in seven populations and measured directly in one population. We found that there was substantial variation in mean body height between...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...

  14. Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mesri Gundoshmian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth of population, deficiency of resources, environmental hazards, fast spatial science progress and relevant subjects have resulted in significant effects of enhanced accuracy and modern technologies in agricultural technology and management methods. One of the modern technologies’ utilities in production and nondestructive tests is determination of product characteristics (such as product height, using electronic sensors at different stages of plant growth. In recent years, electric sensors improved widely in farm science. Regarding to wide performance of sensors, from simple sensors such as thermo, light and moisture sensors, to complex ones such as GPS and lidar, also the ability of electronic sensors to exact identification and measurement of special farm properties, makes these sensors to an important part of precision agriculture. The subject of this study is to identify and measure the height of the product using ultrasonic technology to automate control of breeding and harvesting operations. Suitable price and noise and dust resistance of ultrasonic sensor, make it an attractive subject in biosystem industries and farm operations. Materials and Methods Plant height measurement Ultrasonic sensor includes an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver with more than 20 kHz frequency. As other waves, ultrasonic waves diffuse constantly from a source by mechanical distracting in a gas, liquid or solid environment. The distance between sensor and object is a function of the wave passing time from generation point to receive point. Plant height calculated by estimating this distance and minus it from sensor height. The sensor used in this research had a diffuse angle of 40 degrees to center axis of source. The sensor ability to height measurement depends on leaves angle, leaves surface, plant aggregation in area and plant height. Leaves angle is the most important factor in recognization ability of ultrasonic sensor. Electronic

  15. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  16. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  17. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  18. Derivation of Orthometric Heights from GPS Measured Heights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, geometric technique of deriving orthometric height from GPS survey along a profile and the use of EGM 96 geoid model for deriving orthometric height from GPS data (using GNSS solution software) are discussed. The main focus of the research is to critically examine the potentials of these methods with a view ...

  19. Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eSchniepp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Material and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite® on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast, during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/ up/ down; eyes open /closed, and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors height situation and gait condition was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters.Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p<0.01, which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2=0.453, p<0.05. . These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. . Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level.Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI.

  20. Wave Height and Horizon Dip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Werf, Siebren; Shokaryev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A mariner who takes the height of the sun or a star to find his position at sea, must correct his observation for horizon dip. Throughout history, dip values have been tabulated based on the idealized assumption of a perfectly flat sea. Literature on wave height correction for dip is scarce,

  1. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  2. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  3. The inter-relationships between angle of inclination, height and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of number of sprouted teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps on the height above root collar and angle of inclination of planted teak stumps. The studies were aim-ed at developing suitable methods of converting teak seedlings into stumps and planting practices to ...

  4. Altura de planta e componentes do rendimento do feijoeiro em função de população de plantas, adubação e calagem Common bean plant height and primary yield components affected by plant population, fertilization and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbara de Souza

    2003-12-01

    arrangement was 2x4x4 involving two cultivars (Pérola and Carioca, four populations (100, 200, 300 and 400 thousand plants.ha-1 and four levels of fertilization and liming (0, 1/2, 2/2 and 3/2 of the recommended doses. The increase of the plant population reduced the plant height and the pod number per plant. The increasing levels of fertilization and liming raised the plant height, the pod number per plant, the grain number per pod and the one hundred grains weight.

  5. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  6. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  7. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  8. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  9. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  10. Proposed Lucas Heights tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    An 8 million volt tandem accelerator (LHTA - Lucas Heights Tandem Accelerator) is proposed to be installed at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The new facility is expected to cost $6 million and will have applications such as ultrasensitive trace element analysis for management of groundwater resources, salinity in soil, soil erosion and Antarctic research. Applied physics applications include nuclear safeguards, energy sources, study of material surfaces, archaeology, archaeometry and occupational health

  11. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  12. Características do óleo essencial de capim-citronela em função de espaçamento, altura e época de corte Essential oil characteristics from citronella grass depending on planting space, cutting height and harvesting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A Marco

    2007-09-01

    ground and harvesting season (four, six and eight months after planting on productivity and essential oil quality was evaluated. The study. occurred in field, in Pentecoste, Ceará State, Brazil, from September 2002 to September 2003. The treatments were organized in a factorial 3 x 3 x 2 scheme, in randomized block design, with three replicates. Cutting plants four months after planting date resulted in significantly higher essential oil production when cut at 30 cm height. Six months after planting date, higher yield was obtained at 15 cm height. The cutting height did not influence essential oil production when plants were harvested after eight months. Using larger plant spacing (80 x 80 cm resulted in significantly higher essential oil production when plants were cut at 15 cm, divergent to the result observed with minor spacing (50 x 50 cm. The citronellol + citronellal content was significantly higher in plants cultivated at intermediate spacing and cut after six months at a height of 30 cm. The geraniol content, however, was higher in plants harvested after four months, with no influence of spacing or cutting height.

  13. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Woo Gun Shin1,2,3, Seung Jae Hwang1,2, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan1 and Byoung Ryong Jeong1,2*. 1Department of ... in petri dishes and seedling emergence in plug trays declined, suppression of hypocotyl length and seedling height was ..... ciently regulated by uniconazole 100 mgl-1 (1 day soaking) ...

  14. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    -analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta...

  15. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  16. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  17. Responses of plant morphology and seed quality to long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... seeds per inflorescence and sexual shoot ratio decreased significantly, especially after heavy ... The morphological traits of normal L. chinense and miniaturized L. chinense. Item. Species. Plant height. Ear length ... Cleistogenes squarrosa, accompanied by secondary forests, thickets and sandy vegetation ...

  18. Variation of facial features among three African populations: Body height match analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, M G; Adamu, L H; Gudaji, A

    2017-01-01

    Body height is one of the variables that show a correlation with facial craniometry. Here we seek to discriminate the three populations (Nigerians, Ugandans and Kenyans) using facial craniometry based on different categories of body height of adult males. A total of 513 individuals comprising 234 Nigerians, 169 Ugandans and 110 Kenyans with mean age of 25.27, s=5.13 (18-40 years) participated. Paired and unpaired facial features were measured using direct craniometry. Multivariate and stepwise discriminate function analyses were used for differentiation of the three populations. The result showed significant overall facial differences among the three populations in all the body height categories. Skull height, total facial height, outer canthal distance, exophthalmometry, right ear width and nasal length were significantly different among the three different populations irrespective of body height categories. Other variables were sensitive to body height. Stepwise discriminant function analyses included maximum of six variables for better discrimination between the three populations. The single best discriminator of the groups was total facial height, however, for body height >1.70m the single best discriminator was nasal length. Most of the variables were better used with function 1, hence, better discrimination than function 2. In conclusion, adult body height in addition to other factors such as age, sex, and ethnicity should be considered in making decision on facial craniometry. However, not all the facial linear dimensions were sensitive to body height. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition to whole-plant corn silage of various hybrids, maturities, and chop lengths on nitrogen fractions and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition on soluble CP (% of CP), ammonia-N (% of N), and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) from 3 hybrids, 2 maturities, and 2 chop lengths. Samples from 3 nonisogenic hybrids [brown midrib containing the bm3 gene mutation (BM3), dual-purpose (DP), or floury-leafy (LFY)] at 2 harvest maturities [2/3 kernel milk line (early) or 7d later (late)] with 2 theoretical lengths of cut settings (0.64 or 1.95cm) on a forage harvester were collected at harvest, treated with or without exogenous protease, and ensiled in triplicate in vacuum heat-sealed plastic bags for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240d. Thus, the experiment consisted of 120 treatments (3 hybrids × 2 maturities × 2 chop lengths × 2 protease treatments × 5 time points) and 360 mini-silos (3 replications per treatment). Vitreousness, measured by dissection on unfermented kernels on the day of harvest, averaged 66.8, 65.0, and 59.0% for BM3, DP, and LFY, respectively. A protease × maturity interaction was observed with protease increasing ivSD in late but not early maturity. Ensiling time × hybrid interactions were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP concentrations with greater values for FLY than other hybrids only after 120d of ensiling. Ensiling time × hybrid or protease × hybrid interactions were not observed for ivSD. Measurements of ivSD were greatest for FLY and lowest for BM3. Length of the ensiling period did not attenuate negative effects of kernel vitreousness or maturity on ivSD in WPCS. Results suggest that the dosage of exogenous protease addition used in the present study may reduce but not overcome the negative effects of maturity on ivSD in WPCS. No interactions between chop length and ensiling time or exogenous protease addition were observed for ivSD. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  1. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment friendly seed treatment of plant growth retardants. ... Then seeds were washed in tap water and were dried in a 5°C chamber for 1 day. Finally, dried seeds were used in both a germination test in a chamber and a growing test in a greenhouse. Differences ...

  2. Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...

  3. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brolly

    Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to

  4. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  5. and the CMJ jump height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.

  6. Inheritance and localisation of resistance to ¤Mycosphaerella graminicola¤ causing septoria tritici blotch and plant height in the wheat (¤Triticum aestivum¤ L.) genome with DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L.; Borum, F.; Jahoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    , and to an isolate mixture at the adult plant stage, in field trials. A gene located at or near the Stb6 locus mapping to chromosome 3A provided seedling resistance to IPO323. Two complementary genes, mapping to chromosome 3A, one of which was the IPO323 resistance gene, were needed for resistance to the Danish...... over two trials. Both these QTLs were also detected at the seedling stage with isolate Riso97-86, whereas isolate IPO323 only detected the QTL on 3A. Additionally, two QTLs identified in adult plants on chromosomes 2B and 7B were not detected at the seedling stage. Four QTLs were detected for plant...

  7. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave hei...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  8. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    A total of 28 plant species visited by the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii Latrielle were observed and collected from. September 2006-January 2008 in Zaria, Nigeria using secateur and plant presses to cut and preserve the specimens. A digital camera was used to photograph the honeybees on plants. The plants were ...

  9. Anthropometry as a predictor of vertical jump heights derived from an instrumented platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Daily, Jeremy S; Mason, Melissa L; Shepherd, Catherine M; McLagan, Jessica R; Marshall, Mallory R; Walker, Ron H; West, Jason O

    2012-01-01

    The current study purpose examined the vertical height-anthropometry relationship with jump data obtained from an instrumented platform. Our methods required college-aged (n = 177) subjects to make 3 visits to our laboratory to measure the following anthropometric variables: height, body mass, upper arm length (UAL), lower arm length, upper leg length, and lower leg length. Per jump, maximum height was measured in 3 ways: from the subjects' takeoff, hang times, and as they landed on the platform. Standard multivariate regression assessed how well anthropometry predicted the criterion variance per gender (men, women, pooled) and jump height method (takeoff, hang time, landing) combination. Z-scores indicated that small amounts of the total data were outliers. The results showed that the majority of outliers were from jump heights calculated as women landed on the platform. With the genders pooled, anthropometry predicted a significant (p anthropometry-vertical jump relationship was not significant from heights calculated as subjects landed on the platform, likely due to the female outliers. Yet anthropometric data of men did predict a significant amount of variance from heights calculated when they landed on the platform; univariate correlations of men's data revealed that UAL was the best predictor. It was concluded that the large sample of men's data led to greater data heterogeneity and a higher univariate correlation. Because of our sample size and data heterogeneity, practical applications suggest that coaches may find our results best predict performance for a variety of college-aged athletes and vertical jump enthusiasts.

  10. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  11. Defoliation height and potassium fertilization of Mulato II grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial in greenhouse conditions was carried out to identify at which defoliation height Mulato II grass (Urochloa hibrida cv. Mulato II should be managed and to determine whether potassium fertilization is necessary in soil with high potassium content. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a randomized block design with six treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three defoliation heights (50, 65, and 80 cm and with or without potassium maintenance fertilization. The production characteristics and chemical composition of the forage plant were evaluated. There was no interaction effect between defoliation height and fertilization with or without potassium on any of the analyzed variables, except for mineral content in Mulato II grass. The tillers and leaves number, shoot dry matter, leaf+sheath, root system, and residue were influenced by defoliation heights and potassium fertilization, except for the leaf blades and root dry matter, leaf blade/stem+sheath ratio, and leaves number, which were not influenced by potassium fertilization. Higher shoot dry matter was observed at the heights of 65 and 80 cm; however, comparing these two heights, leaf + sheath dry matter was lower at 65 cm. Regarding the grass’s chemical composition, there was an increase in neutral and acid detergent fiber and indigestible neutral detergent fiber contents as the defoliation height increased, which resulted in lower production of potentially digestible dry matter, which can compromise the potential use of the forage by animals. Among evaluated treatments, Mulato II grass defoliation is recommended for a maximum height of 65 cm. Potassium fertilization increases the yield and the potentially digestible dry matter content of Mulato II grass, even when cultivated in soil with high potassium content.

  12. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points fro...

  13. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  14. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  15. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Deloukas, Panos; Watkins, Hugh; Schunkert, Heribert; Danesh, John; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Assimes, Themistocles; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Lee, Jong-Young; Chambers, John C.; Esko, Tõnu; Folkersen, Lasse; Goel, Anuj; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhang, Weihua; Ziegler, Andreas; Absher, Devin; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Barroso, Inês; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; Doney, Alex S. F.; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Eriksson, Per; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gigante, Bruna; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Illig, Thomas; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Langford, Cordelia; Leander, Karin; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Mihailov, Evelin; Maouche, Seraya; Morris, Andrew D.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Song, Ci; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Basart, Hanneke; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; de Faire, Ulf; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Gauguier, Dominique; Go, Alan S.; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kähönen, Mika; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Klopp, Norman; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laakso, Markku; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Lind, Lars; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Sinisalo, Juha; Stark, Klaus; Stefansson, Kari; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; Clarke, Robert; O'Donnell, Christopher; März, Winfried; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  16. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  17. Soil Properties Related to Coniferous Seedling Height Growth in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Rawinski; James A. Bowles; Nonan V. Noste

    1980-01-01

    Soil properties (organic matter content, pH, texture, and microclimate) were related to early height growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana, Lamb.), red pine (Pinus resinosa, Ait.), white spruce (Picea glauca, (Moench) Voss), and hybrid larch (Larix leptolepis x Larizx decidua) planted in northern Wisconsin. Based on 2-year height growth, jack pine and hybrid larch...

  18. Automatic rice crop height measurement using a field server and digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-07

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required.

  19. Automatic Rice Crop Height Measurement Using a Field Server and Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  20. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Min-su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimat...

  1. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  2. Efeito da altura de corte das plantas na produtividade de matéria seca e em características bromatológicas da forragem de milho Effect of cutting height of plants on dry matter yield and on bromatologic characteristics of corn forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Correia de Vasconcelos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de matéria seca e a composição bromatológica da forragem de cultivares de milho submetidos a duas alturas de corte das plantas (altura 1 - 0,1 m e altura 2 - 0,8 m em três anos de cultivo no município de Lavras, MG. Os experimentos foram instalados em área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA nas safras agrícolas 1998/1999, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001, empregando-se cinco cultivares de milho no primeiro ano e seis nos anos seguintes. Os experimentos foram conduzidos sob o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 e 6 x 2, sendo cinco ou seis cultivares de milho e duas alturas de corte, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se as características produtividade de matéria seca (MS e teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA na MS. Detectou-se efeito significativo das alturas de corte em todas as características estudadas. Os teores de PB aumentaram e os de FDN e FDA diminuíram com a elevação da altura de corte das plantas. Comparando-se as duas alturas de corte, verificou-se que houve uma redução de 3,3 t.ha-1 na produtividade de MS, um aumento de 0,6% no teor de PB, uma redução de 4,4% no teor de FDN e uma redução de 3,9% no teor de FDA com a elevação da altura de corte de 0,1 para 0,8 m. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a elevação da altura de corte, embora tenha contribuído para a diminuição da produção de MS, proporcionou uma melhoria na qualidade da forragem em decorrência da parte mais fibrosa e menos digestível da planta de milho não ter sido colhida.This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating dry matter yield and the chemical nutritive composition of forage of corn cultivars submitted to cutting heights of the plants (height 1 0,1 m, and height 2 0,8 m in three growing years. The experiments were set up in an

  3. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  4. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  5. The Effect of NPP's Stack Height to Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandi, Liliana Yetta; Rohman, Budi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of dose calculation for accidents is to analyze the capability of NPP to maintain the safety of public and workers in case an accident occurs on the Plant in a site. This paper calculates the Loss of Coolant Accident in PWR plant. The calculation results shows that no risks of serious radiation exposure are given to the neighboring public even if such a large accident occurred, and the effect of stack height can be predicted by analysis of the calculation results. The whole dose is calculated for some location (100 m, 300 m, 500 m, 700 m, 900 m, 1500 m, and 2000 m) with three difference stack height i.e. 0 m, 40 m and 100 m. The result of the whole dose calculation is under permitted criteria for whole dose : 0.25 Sv and thyroid dose : 3.0 Sv. The calculation of radiation dose in this paper use EEDCDQ code

  6. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  7. Effects of plant morphology on the incidence of sucking insect pests complex in few genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Khalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find the role of physico-morphic plant factors viz., number of gossypol glands, hair density, length of hair, plant height and thickness of leaf lamina per plant in fluctuating the population of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind., jassid (Amrasca bigutella Dist. and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn. on six genotypes of cotton viz., BT-703, CIM-557, CIM-608, CIM-573, BT-3701 and FH-113. All the genotypes showed significant differences against sucking insect pest population. Whitefly adult population exhibited negative response with gossypol glands on leaf lamina, midrib and vein and also with plant height. Whitefly adult and nymphal population correlated positively with hair density on leaf lamina and vein and length of hair on leaf midrib. The nymphal and adult population of jassid showed positive correlation with gossypol glands on leaf lamina, vein and length of hair on leaf lamina, midrib and vein. Adult and nymph population of jassid revealed negative response with hair density on leaf lamina and midrib and also with plant height and leaf lamina thickness. Thrips population showed negative correlation with gossypol glands on leaf midrib, vein, length of hair on leaf lamina and vein. Thrips population correlated positively with hair density on leaf midrib, thickness of leaf lamina and plant height. The genotypes CIM-608 (3.70/leaf, CIM-608 (5.67 /leaf, BT-703(0.86/leaf, BT-703 (1.14/leaf and FH-113 (0.34/leaf were found to be susceptible, whereas FH-113 (2.85/leaf, CIM-557 (3.46/leaf, CIM-573 (0.40/leaf, CIM-557 (0.48/leaf and BT-703 (0.08/leaf were resistant to whitefly adult, whitefly nymph, jassid adult, jassid nymph and thrips population respectively.

  8. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  9. Wind height distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different height with respect to a measurement height. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with height is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the height of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the height of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern

  10. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  11. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Plant type improvement of indigenous rice cultivars through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihupi, A.

    1997-01-01

    A high yielding, locally adapted cultivar 'Afaa Mwanza 1/159' of rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is tall and late in maturity, was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 170, 210 and 250 Gy to shorten plant height and time of maturity. Twelve mutants were selected, and evaluated for yield performance in field trials from M 6 to M 9 generations. All the mutants were shorter in plant height, and gave higher mean yield than the parent. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the number of productive tillers, number of panicles per square meter and grain filling in the panicle were important characters which influenced yield. On the other hand, panicle length had negative influence on yield. Cv. 'Supa India' and 'Salama' were also irradiated with doses of 170, 210, 240 Gy gamma rays. Analysis of M 2 populations of these cultivars indicated that mutagenesis created a lot of variation in plant height, maturity, spikelet fertility and panicle length. The induced variation shall be useful in selecting desired plant types. (author). 16 refs, 12 tabs

  13. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants using repetitive-sequences PCR analysis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and short-sequence DNA repeats of plasmid pEA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barionovi, D; Giorgi, S; Stoeger, A R; Ruppitsch, W; Scortichini, M

    2006-05-01

    The three main aims of the study were the assessment of the genetic relationship between a deviating Erwinia amylovora strain isolated from Amelanchier sp. (Maloideae) grown in Canada and other strains from Maloideae and Rosoideae, the investigation of the variability of the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the determination of the number of short-sequence DNA repeats (SSR) by DNA sequence analysis in representative strains. Ninety-three strains obtained from 12 plant genera and different geographical locations were examined by repetitive-sequences PCR using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus, BOX and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic primer sets. Upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, a deviating strain from Amelanchier sp. was analysed using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. This strain showed 99% similarity to other E. amylovora strains in the 16S gene and the same banding pattern with ARDRA. The RFLP analysis of pEA29 plasmid using MspI and Sau3A restriction enzymes showed a higher variability than that previously observed and no clear-cut grouping of the strains was possible. The number of SSR units reiterated two to 12 times. The strains obtained from pear orchards showing for the first time symptoms of fire blight had a low number of SSR units. The strains from Maloideae exhibit a wider genetic variability than previously thought. The RFLP analysis of a fragment of the pEA29 plasmid would not seem a reliable method for typing E. amylovora strains. A low number of SSR units was observed with first epidemics of fire blight. The current detection techniques are mainly based on the genetic similarities observed within the strains from the cultivated tree-fruit crops. For a more reliable detection of the fire blight pathogen also in wild and ornamentals Rosaceous plants the genetic

  15. Arch height index normative values of college-aged women using the arch height index measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Wendi H; Shroyer, Justin F

    2013-01-01

    The arch height index measurement system (AHIMS) device has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the arch height index (AHI) of the feet of individuals; however, normative data for the AHI are lacking for various populations. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to establish population normative AHI values for college-aged females and to compare the observed AHI data across right and left feet. Seventy-nine college-aged females served as study participants, and both feet were measured using the AHIMS in the seated and standing positions. The AHI was calculated as the ratio of the dorsum height of the foot at half the total foot length to the length of the foot from the heel to the base of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the seated position were 0.355 ± 0.031 and 0.369 ± 0.034, respectively. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the standing position were 0.338 ± 0.031 and 0.343 ± 0.033, respectively. There were significant differences observed between the left and right feet for the seated (P feet of the participants sampled. Although normative values were obtained, we caution against using these values to classify foot arch types based solely on a sample of the population studied.

  16. Atividade de fosfatases em gramíneas forrageiras em resposta à disponibilidade de fósforo no solo e à altura de corte das plantas Phosphatase activity in forage grasses as influenced by soil phosphorus availability and plant cutting height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flancer Novais Nunes

    2008-10-01

    intenso, independentemente da dose de P, tanto Brachiaria quanto Panicum apresentaram menor EUP. Isso ocorreu associado à maior atividade das enzimas APase e RNase, indicando que outros mecanismos relacionados com a adaptação das plantas a baixas disponibilidades de P podem estar envolvidos.The nutrient use efficiency, expressed by the ratio between the produced biomass and nutrient content, is an important adaptive characteristic of plants, particularly of those cultivated in low-fertility soils. A high P-use efficiency (PUE is conferred by high P remobilization rates, i.e., P transport to regions of greater metabolic demand in the plant. High P remobilization rates have been associated with high acid phosphatase (APase and ribonuclease (RNase enzyme activities. In our study, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in Brachiaria decumbens, with a low, and Panicum maximum cv Tanzânia, with a high P demand, cultivated in soil treated with different P rates and cut at different heights. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using B-horizon samples of a clayey Yellow-Red Latosol. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two grasses, three P rates (100, 200 and 500 mg dm-3 and three cutting heights: no cutting, 15 and 30 cm above the soil surface for Brachiaria, and no cutting, 20 and 40 cm for Panicum. The experimental units consisted of pots with 10 dm³ soil, with 10 plants each. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between biomass production of the two grasses, but the P application resulted in a higher biomass yield and P shoot concentration. The biomass production of plants cut at a lower height was smaller and P concentrations in shoots were higher. A significant effect of P rates on the APase and the RNase activities was observed in both forages. In plants grown at the lowest P rate enzyme activities and PUE were the highest. The activity of both phosphatases decreased with plant aging. In the treatment with the

  17. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  18. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  19. Computational identification of genes modulating stem height-diameter allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Zhu, Sheng; Zhai, Yi; Xu, Meng; Huang, Minren; Wu, Rongling

    2016-12-01

    The developmental variation in stem height with respect to stem diameter is related to a broad range of ecological and evolutionary phenomena in trees, but the underlying genetic basis of this variation remains elusive. We implement a dynamic statistical model, functional mapping, to formulate a general procedure for the computational identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control stem height-diameter allometry during development. Functional mapping integrates the biological principles underlying trait formation and development into the association analysis of DNA genotype and endpoint phenotype, thus providing an incentive for understanding the mechanistic interplay between genes and development. Built on the basic tenet of functional mapping, we explore two core ecological scenarios of how stem height and stem diameter covary in response to environmental stimuli: (i) trees pioneer sunlit space by allocating more growth to stem height than diameter and (ii) trees maintain their competitive advantage through an inverse pattern. The model is equipped to characterize 'pioneering' QTLs (piQTLs) and 'maintaining' QTLs (miQTLs) which modulate these two ecological scenarios, respectively. In a practical application to a mapping population of full-sib hybrids derived from two Populus species, the model has well proven its versatility by identifying several piQTLs that promote height growth at a cost of diameter growth and several miQTLs that benefit radial growth at a cost of height growth. Judicious application of functional mapping may lead to improved strategies for studying the genetic control of the formation mechanisms underlying trade-offs among quantities of assimilates allocated to different growth parts. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of plant growth regulators in heliconia ‘Red Opal’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Ribeiro de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate growth regulators with purpose of reducing the size of heliconia ‘Red Opal’ potted plants. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with five treatments (trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol at rates of 37.5 and 75.0 mg of active ingredient per pot and control without growth regulator and five replicates. The treatments were applied 40 days after planting the rhizomes in pots filled with soil. Thirty and 150 days after the growth regulator application, plant height, number of leaves and shoots, petioles length and leaf area were evaluated. One year after planting the rhizomes in pots the number of inflorescence and leaves (leaves, sheathing leaf bases and inflorescences and rhizomes (rhizomes and roots dry mass were determined. Trinexapac-ethyl had no differences compared to the control in any of the variables evaluated. Paclobutrazol proved effective in reducing plant height, leaf area and petiole length and increase in number of leaves and shoots but the effect was temporary. Also, it did not affect the inflorescences production and leaves and rhizomes dry mass. Paclobutrazol is efficient to promote height reduction and to increase the number of shoots in heliconia ‘Red Opal’ potted plants without affect the inflorescence formation but its effects is temporary.

  1. Determinants of variation in adult body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri

    2003-04-01

    Final body height is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body height that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body height is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body height as well as larger socioeconomic body height differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body height during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body height are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body height is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body height.

  2. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  3. Short Necklace States, Logarithm Transmission Fluctuation and Localization Length

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xunya; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the widely-existing short necklace states in random systems. It is found that their peak width and relative height in lnT spectra keep almost constant when the system length increases, which is explained by the coupled-resonator theory with intrinsic parameters. This property makes them special in contribution of lnT fluctuation. Further, short necklace states can help us to deeply understand the physical meaning of localization length and the delocalized effectin localized reg...

  4. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Out of the 320 male sheep examined, 87(27.2%) were infected, while 9(19.1%) of the 47 females examined were infected (Table 2). Infection varied from one abattoir to another. Age related distribution of P. cervi is shown in Table 3. Out of 356 adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 35. Full Length Research Article. 12 ...

  5. Altura de planta e acúmulo de matéria seca do feijoeiro cvs. BRS MG Talismã e Ouro Negro em plantio direto e convencional Plant height and dry matter acumulation by common bean cvs. BRS MG Talismã and Ouro Negro under no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria Batista Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a curva de crescimento em altura de planta, taxa e acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea ao longo do ciclo cultural do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram conduzidos quatro experimentos de campo, com as cvs. Ouro Negro e BRS MG Talismã, em plantio direto e convencional, sendo um em Lavras (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, inverno primavera 2002 e os demais em Madre de Deus de Minas (Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo ácrico, seca 2005. O delineamento experimental foi feito com blocos casualizados com três repetições e 11 ou 12 tratamentos (épocas de coleta. De 7 em 7 dias foram amostradas 10 ou 20 plantas para determinação da altura, através do comprimento da haste principal, e outras 20 plantas para determinação do peso da matéria seca da parte aérea após secagem em estufa com circulação de ar a 65-70ºC até peso constante. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de variância e regressão, com ajuste de curvas representativas do comportamento das características avaliadas. Em plantio direto, a altura máxima foi alcançada aos 50 DAE, enquanto no plantio convencional o feijoeiro continuou crescendo até os 72-73 DAE, ocorrendo fechamento mais tardio da lavoura. As cvs. Ouro Negro e BRS MG Talismã mostraram padrões de acúmulo de matéria seca muito próximos, com pouco incremento até os 81 DAE, na BRS MG Talismã, e ambas alcançaram maiores acúmulos em plantio direto. Em geral, as maiores taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram verificadas entre 45-48 DAE.The aim of this research was to study the plant growth in height and the dry matter accumulation pattern along the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop cycle. Four field experiments were carried out in Lavras (winter-spring 2002 and other were performed in Madre de Deus de Minas, MG (dry crop season 2005 with common bean, cvs. Ouro Negro and BRS MG Talismã, under no-tillage and conventional crop systems. Every seven days 10 or 20 plants

  6. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  7. Key factors to inoculate Botrytis cinerea in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álefe Vitorino Borges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the biological control of Botrytis cinerea have been unsuccessful because of fails in inoculating tomato plants with the pathogen. With the aim of establishing a methodology for inoculation into stems, experiments were designed to assess: i. the aggressiveness of pathogen isolates; ii. the age at which tomato plants should be inoculated; iii. the susceptibility of tissues at different stem heights; iv. the need for a moist chamber after inoculation; and v. the effectiveness of gelatin regarding inoculum adhesion. Infection with an isolate from tomato plants that was previously inoculated into petioles and then re-isolated was successful. An isolate from strawberry plants was also aggressive, although less than that from tomato plants. Tomato plants close to flowering, at 65 days after sowing, and younger, middle and apical stem portions were more susceptible. There was positive correlation between lesion length and sporulation and between lesion length and broken stems. Lesion length and the percentage of sporulation sites were reduced by using a moist chamber and were not affected by adding gelatin to the inoculum suspension. This methodology has been adopted in studies of B. cinerea in tomato plants showing reproducible results. The obtained results may assist researchers who study the gray mold.

  8. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  9. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be more...

  10. On the length-scale of the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of simultaneous sonic anemometer observations of wind speed and velocity spectra over flat and homogeneous terrain from 10 up to 160 m height performed at the National Test Station for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The mixing length, l, derived from the ...

  11. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Length of excitable knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, Fabian; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots. We also show that there is not a unique attractor within a given knot topology.

  14. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  16. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  17. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The degradability of cereal straw is of importance when it is used for animal feed, biological means of bioenergy production such as bioethanol production and when it is incorporated in soil. We examined wheat straw from 106 different winter wheat cultivars representing the northwest European...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a lack...

  18. Effect of frequency and height of cutting on growth parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To revegetate acacia trees in saline desert sandy soils, field experiments were conducted to study the effect of cutting frequency and height on Acacia saligna productivity during 2014, 2015 and 2016. The tallest plants, thickest stems and highest values for chlorophyll content, fresh and dry foliage yield per plant, fresh and ...

  19. Increased height in diabetes mellitus corresponds to the predicted and the adult height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer-Marinus, PD; Links, TP; Drayer, NM

    This study was conducted to analyse the effect of childhood-onset diabetes mellitus on adult height. The height at time of diagnosis of 35 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was compared with growth reference data. Predictions of the adult height were made at the time of

  20. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  1. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  2. Relationships between otolith size and fish length in some mesopelagic teleosts (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, P; Malara, D; Ammendolia, G; Romeo, T; Andaloro, F

    2015-09-01

    Length-mass relationships and linear regressions are given for otolith size (length and height) and standard length (LS ) of certain mesopelagic fishes (Myctophidae, Paralepididae, Phosichthyidae and Stomiidae) living in the central Mediterranean Sea. The length-mass relationship showed isometric growth in six species, whereas linear regressions of LS and otolith size fit the data well for all species. These equations represent a useful tool for dietary studies on Mediterranean marine predators. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Full Length Research paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... Therefore, the aim of the present work is to show differences between requirements of various species of .... induced the appearance of chilling injuries, characterized by shallow depressions and increased .... when ethylene sensitive flowers suffer stress in advance leading to senescence. In some plants ...

  4. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  8. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  9. Sex Differences in the Impact of Thinness, Overweight, Obesity, and Parental Height on Adolescent Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Shina, Avi; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Yifrach, Dror; Wiser, Itay; Afek, Arnon; Shamis, Ari; Tirosh, Amir; Twig, Gilad

    2017-08-01

    The secular trend of increasing weight may lead to a decline in height gain compared with the genetic height potential. The impact of weight on height in healthy male and female adolescents compared with their genetic height was assessed. Height and weight were measured in Israeli adolescent military recrutees aged 16-19 years between 1967 and 2013. The study population comprised 355,229 recrutees for whom parental height measurements were documented. Subjects were classified into four body mass index percentile groups according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index percentiles for age and sex:obese). Short stature was defined as height ≤ third percentile and tall stature as height ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex. Overweight-obese females had a 73% increased risk for short stature (odds ratio [OR]: 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-1.97, p obese males had a 23% increased risk of being short (OR: 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.37, p obese males and females had an increased risk of being short, and underweight females were significantly taller compared with their genetic height. The significantly increased height among underweight healthy females may reflect a potential loss of height gain in overweight-obese females. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Height as a risk factor for osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Alessandra; Pasini, Andrea; Cicognani, Alessandro; Baronio, Federico; Pellacani, Andrea; Baldini, Nicola; Bacci, Gaetano

    2005-06-01

    Previous investigations have suggested that osteosarcoma may be associated with a taller stature, but the relationship between height and osteosarcoma remains controversial. Height at diagnosis was evaluated in a continuous series of 962 osteosarcoma subjects treated between 1981 and 2001. Patients diagnosed during growth (group 1) were separated from those diagnosed in adulthood (group 2). Height (H) and final height (FH) were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS), calculated by national reference data. Group 1 subjects were above the 50th centile and their mean H-SDS values (0.31 +/- 1.1) were significantly higher than the mean FH-SDS values (P pubertal spurt, in the anatomic sites of greater growth and in taller individuals, suggests that growth factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this bone cancer.

  12. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  13. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  14. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  15. The epigenesis of wariness of heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Audun; Campos, Joseph J; Anderson, David I; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Witherington, David C; Ueno, Mika; Poutrain-Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2013-07-01

    Human infants with little or no crawling experience surprisingly show no wariness of heights, but such wariness becomes exceptionally strong over the life span. Neither depth perception nor falling experiences explain this extraordinary developmental shift; however, something about locomotor experience does. The crucial component of locomotor experience in this emotional change is developments in visual proprioception-the optically based perception of self-movement. Precrawling infants randomly assigned to drive a powered mobility device showed significantly greater visual proprioception, and significantly greater wariness of heights, than did controls. More important, visual proprioception mediated the relation between wariness of heights and locomotor experience. In a separate study, crawling infants' visual proprioception predicted whether they would descend onto the deep side of a visual cliff, a finding that confirms the importance of visual proprioception in the development of wariness of heights.

  16. Relationship between maternal pelvis height and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between maternal pelvis height and other anthropometric measurements in a multisite cohort of Ugandan mothers. Ian Guyton Munabi, Josaphat Byamugisha, Livingstone Luboobi, Samuel Abilemech Luboga, Florence Mirembe ...

  17. Birth parameters and parental height predict growth outcome in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Doris; Alakan, Hülya; Pavičić, Leo; Gellermann, Jutta; Müller, Dominik; Querfeld, Uwe; Haffner, Dieter; Živičnjak, Miroslav

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed the impact of birth parameters and parental height on long-term growth outcome in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3-5. Linear growth was prospectively investigated in 509 children, with a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. Growth outcome was categorized in (i) poor growth (PG): height standard deviation score (SDS) during follow-up growth hormone (GH) treatment, and (ii) good growth (GG): height SDS ≥ -2.0 and no need for GH. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was constructed for predictors of PG outcome. PG was observed in 55 % of patients. The rate of pre-term and small for gestational age birth was significantly higher in children with PG compared to GG (43.2 vs. 25.6 % and 36.8 vs. 18.9 %; p Children with PG had significantly lower average values for gestational age, birth weight, length, and head circumference, umbilical cord pH, Apgar scores, and parental height than children with GG. Birth length, umbilical cord pH, and parental height were significant independent predictors of PG outcome (sensitivity 72.8 %, specificity 69.3 %). Birth parameters and parental height are independent predictors of growth outcome in children with CKD.

  18. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  19. Height and calories in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Height, aging and cognitive abilities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that as a marker of childhood circumstances, height is correlated with cognitive functioning at older ages. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and about 17,000 respondents from 11 countries, we find that height is positively and significantly associated with cognitive functioning in later life despite controlling for a myriad of possible confounding factors. A 10 cm increase in height is associated with a 0.04 standard deviation increase in a summary cognitive score (mean 0.02, std. dev. 0.77). We find that being born in a country where the infant mortality rate at the time of birth is high has a negative and significant influence on cognitive functioning in later life. A 10% increase in the infant mortality rate is associated with a 0.1 standard deviation decrease in the summary cognitive score. We also find some evidence that height serves as a protective factor against age related deterioration in cognitive functioning. For persons of average stature, age related decreases in cognition scores are 3-5 percentage points smaller if they move up a quartile in the height distribution. Our results also suggest that there is a significant positive association between height and cognitive abilities across countries for this pre-1950 birth cohort of respondents, with correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Height variation of the solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J.; Wunnenberg, M.; Kneer, F.; Koschinsky, M.; Ritter, C.

    1999-03-01

    We analyze spectral scans of narrow-band images across the Na D_2 line. They were obtained from disc centre of the Sun with our Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) in the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide. The FPI was set to a bandwidth of 200 mAngstroms FWHM and the spectral stepwidth was 100 mAngstroms. Our aim is to study the variation of the granulation pattern with height in the atmosphere. To achieve high spatial resolution the simultaneously taken broad-band images are restored with speckle methods. With the knowledge of these reconstructed images we were also able to restore the narrow-band images. The formation heights are found from temperature response functions RF_T. In the wings of NaD_2, the response functions for different wavelengths exhibit a substantial overlap in atmospheric heights. Therefore we use linear combinations which allow a better height discrimination. Applying the same combinations to the D_2 images we can visualize the height variation of the granular pattern. The granular intensity fluctuations are a matter of the deep photosphere alone. They disappear at heights of about 100 km (above tau_ {5000}=1).

  2. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systematic fashion. Here, we present a synthetic review of the literature on human height from an explicit evolutionary perspective, addressing its phylogenetic history, development, and environmental and genetic influences on growth and stature. In addition to presenting evidence to suggest the past action of natural selection on human height, we also assess the evidence that natural and sexual selection continues to act on height in contemporary populations. Although there is clear evidence to suggest that selection acts on height, mainly through life-history processes but perhaps also directly, it is also apparent that methodological factors reduce the confidence with which such inferences can be drawn, and there remain surprising gaps in our knowledge. The inability to draw firm conclusions about the adaptiveness of such a highly visible and easily measured trait suggests we should show an appropriate degree of caution when dealing with other human traits in evolutionary perspective. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Burst pressure of phaseguide structures of different heights in all-polymer microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, Francesca; Kistrup, Kasper; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the burst/overflow pressure of water and a representative surfactant-containing buffer in microfluidic channels with phaseguide structures oriented at an angle of 90° to the channel length as a function of their height, . The all-polymer chips were fabr...

  4. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  5. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  6. A novel length back-calculation approach accounting for ontogenetic changes in the fish length - otolith size relationship during the early life of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenther, Claudia C.; Temming, Axel; Baumann, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based length back-calculation method was developed for juvenile Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus), accounting for ontogenetic changes in the relationship between fish length and otolith length. In sprat, metamorphosis from larvae to juveniles is characterized by the coincidence of low...... length growth, strong growth in body height, and maximal otolith growth. Consequently, the method identifies a point of metamorphosis for an individual as the otolith radius at maximum increment widths. By incorporating this information in our back-calculation method, estimated length growth...

  7. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (pplants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water.

  8. Using TanDEM data for forest height estimation and change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Antje; Dubois, Clémence; Boldt, Markus; Hinz, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Mapping of forest coverage and forest changes became an increasing issue due to deforestation and forest degradation. Moreover, the estimation of related indicators such as carbon reduction, biomass and wood capacity is of large interest for industry and politics. As forest height is an important contributing parameter for these indicators, the region-wide estimation of forest heights is an essential step. This article investigates the accuracy potential of forest height estimation that can be reached by the current configuration of the two SAR satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X. Depending on the chosen acquisition mode and flight geometry, products of different quality can be achieved. Eight InSAR data sets showing different characteristics in geometric resolution, length of baseline, and mapping time, are processed and analyzed. To enable a thorough evaluation of the estimated heights, first-pulse LIDAR point clouds and aerial ortho-images are used as reference data.

  9. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  10. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  11. Height growth of triplets from birth to 12 years of age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sugimoto, Masako; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in height of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' length and height growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, and maternal height were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school which children receive health check-ups. The height deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 2% and 5% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of height between the general population and triplets were approximately -3.6 cm for male and -4.4 cm for female. Maternal height showed the strongest contribution to height of triplets from 6 to 12 years of age. In conclusion, triplets remain shorter than singletons until 12 years of age.

  12. Smoke injection heights from fires in North America: analysis of 5 years of satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Val Martin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze an extensive record of aerosol smoke plume heights derived from observations over North America for the fire seasons of 2002 and 2004–2007 made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR instrument on board the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite. We characterize the magnitude and variability of smoke plume heights for various biomes, and assess the contribution of local atmospheric and fire conditions to this variability. Plume heights are highly variable, ranging from a few hundred meters up to 5000 m above the terrain at the Terra overpass time (11:00–14:00 local time. The largest plumes are found over the boreal region (median values of ~850 m height, 24 km length and 940 m thickness, whereas the smallest plumes are found over cropland and grassland fires in the contiguous US (median values of ~530 m height, 12 km length and 550–640 m thickness. The analysis of plume heights in combination with assimilated meteorological observations from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System indicates that a significant fraction (4–12% of plumes from fires are injected above the boundary layer (BL, consistent with earlier results for Alaska and the Yukon Territories during summer 2004. Most of the plumes located above the BL (>83% are trapped within stable atmospheric layers. We find a correlation between plume height and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS fire radiative power (FRP thermal anomalies associated with each plume. Smoke plumes located in the free troposphere (FT exhibit larger FRP values (1620–1640 MW than those remaining within the BL (174–465 MW. Plumes located in the FT without a stable layer reach higher altitudes and are more spread-out vertically than those associated with distinct stable layers (2490 m height and 2790 m thickness versus 1880 m height and 1800 m thickness. The MISR plume climatology exhibits a well-defined seasonal cycle of plume heights in boreal and

  13. SOME ASPECTS IN HEIGHT MEASUREMENT BY UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matsuoka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of the deformation measurement of a large-scale solar power plant on reclaimed land by UAV photogrammetry. Two teams engaged in the experiment at first. One, which is called Team-A, carried out orientation of images following the procedure of conventional aerial photogrammetry. The other, which is called Team-C, executed that in the manner of close range photogrammetry. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-A was 121.5 mm, while that by Team-C was 8.7 mm. This paper reports an analysis conducted in order to investigate the cause of the large difference in height measurement accuracy between Team-A and Team-C. In the analysis the third team, which is called Team-S, conducts supplementary orientation by using the images utilized by Team-A in the same manner as Team-C did. The RMSE in height measurement by Team-S is 19.1 mm. Our investigation focuses on the difference of the arrangement of points utilized in the orientation. Team-A selected pass points and tie points on image automatically by Intergraph’s ImageStation Automatic Triangulation (ISAT software, while Team-C and Team-S selected points to be utilized in orientation manually so that selected points are distributed uniformly in the experiment area. From the results of the analysis we conclude that the sets of tie points along a straight line on a plane that were selected automatically by the ISAT would bring the low accuracy in height measurement by Team-A.

  14. The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    1990-10-01

    Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.

  15. Body height estimation from post-mortem CT femoral F1 measurements in a contemporary Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Näf, Maya; Siegmund, Frank; Jackowski, Christian; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at the comparison of body height estimations from cadaver length with body height estimations according to Trotter and Gleser (1952) and Penning and Riepert (2003) on the basis of femoral F1 section measurements in post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) images. In a post-mortem study in a contemporary Swiss population (226 corpses: 143 males (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) and 83 females (mean age: 61 ± 20 years)) femoral F1 measurements (403 femora: 199 right and 204 left; 177 pairs) were conducted in PMCT images and F1 was used for body height estimation using the equations after Trotter and Gleser (1952, "American Whites"), and Penning and Riepert (2003). The mean observed cadaver length was 176.6 cm in males and 163.6 cm in females. Mean measured femoral length F1 was 47.5 cm (males) and 44.1cm (females) respectively. Comparison of body height estimated from PMCT F1 measurements with body height calculated from cadaver length showed a close congruence (mean difference less than 0.95 cm in males and less than 1.99 cm in females) for equations both applied after Penning and Riepert and Trotter and Gleser. Femoral F1 measurements in PMCT images are very accurate, reproducible and feasible for body height estimation of a contemporary Swiss population when using the equations after Penning and Riepert (2003) or Trotter and Gleser (1952). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.

  17. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  18. Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  20. Altura de planta, diâmetro caulinar e produção do pinhão-manso irrigado sob diferentes níveis de salinidade Plant height, stem diameter and production of jatropha irrigated under different salinity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo P. Veras

    2011-06-01

    plot constituted by one plant grown in each lysimeter. The study started on the 210 day up to 360 days after transplanting; at the end of the period, plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by salinity of irrigation treatments. On the other hand, the seed production was significantly affected, with the largest quantity produced by plants that received irrigation water with the electrical conductivity of 2.28 dS m-1.

  1. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2018-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  3. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  4. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  5. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  7. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos, Igor Štirn, Paulino Padial, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Blanca De la Fuente, Vojko Strojnik, Belén Feriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax and final propulsive phase (FPV bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2. Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384 was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504 was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307, while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071. These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine.

  8. Study of the Inception Length of Flow over Stepped Spillway Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the inception (development) length increases as the unit discharge increases and it decreases with an increase in both stepped roughness height and chute angle. The ratio of the development length, in this study, to that of Bauer's was found to be 4:5. Finally, SMM-5 produced the least velocity of ...

  9. Adaptive Layer Height During DLP Materials Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue; Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This research aim to show how manufacturing speeds during vat polymerisation can be vastly increased through an adaptive layer height strategy that takes the geometry into account through analysis of the relationship between layer height, cross-section variability and surface structure. This allows...... for considerable process speedup during the Additive Manufacture of components that contain areas of low cross-section variability, at no loss of surface quality. The adaptive slicing strategy was tested with a purpose built vat polymerisation system and numerical engine designed and constructed to serve as a Next...

  10. The influence of chair seat height on the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-second chair stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang

    2013-06-01

    Although chair seat height affects the performance of sit-to-stand movement, no previous study has examined the influence of chair seat height on the 30-second chair stand test (CST). Fifty-five community-dwelling older adults (age 70.0 ± 6.3 years) performed the test from the standard height of 43 cm and then from five randomly ordered seat heights from 80 to 120 % of each participant's lower leg length. Chair seat height significantly influences the performance of community-dwelling older adults' 30-s CST (F = 57.50, p  0.95) and between the standard and 90 % conditions (p = 0.353). When comparing the scores between the randomly ordered chair seat heights, all comparisons were significantly different (p Chair seat height's relation to the lower leg length should be considered when interpreting 30-s CST scores. Additionally, it is necessary to optimize the chair seat height when using the 30-s CST as an outcome measure for exercise intervention or to screen for people with weaker lower extremities.

  11. Pediatric emergencies: preparing at triage using height and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brandy; Arnone, Chantel; Cannon-Davis, Janine; Foley, Andi

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining an actual weight is critical to accurate medication dosing. Knowledge of length/height is critical to equipment sizing. Rapid and accurate measurement of both upon arrival at the emergency department increases patient safety and staff comfort in the case of a decompensating child requiring resuscitation. Having a process in place that works with the layout, medical record, and budget of the department increases safety for the patient and may improve outcomes, and if the process is led by staff champions, acceptance of the process may be faster. Regardless of the actual method, patient safety and staff satisfaction can be improved with a simple process that prepares for an emergency in pediatric care.

  12. Serious complications in experiments in which UV doses are effected by using different lamp heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stephan D; Ryel, Ronald J; Hudelson, Timothy J; Caldwell, Martyn M

    2009-10-06

    Many experiments examining plant responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315nm) simply compare an enhanced UV-B treatment with ambient UV-B (or no UV-B radiation in most greenhouse and controlled-environment studies). Some more detailed experiments utilize multiple levels of UV-B radiation. A number of different techniques have been used to adjust the UV dose. One common technique is to place racks of fluorescent UV-emitting lamps at different heights above the plant canopy. However, the lamps and associated support structure cast shadows on the plant bed below. We calculated one example of the sequence of shade intervals for two common heights of lamp racks and show the patterns and duration of shade which the plants receive is distributed differently over the course of the day for different heights of the lamp racks. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment with plants (canola, sunflower and maize) grown under unenergized lamp racks suspended at the same two heights above the canopy. Growth characteristics differed in unpredictable ways between plants grown under the two heights of lamp racks. These differences could enhance or obscure potential UV-B effects. Also, differences in leaf mass per unit foliage area, which were observed in this experiment, could contribute to differences in plant UV-B sensitivity. We recommend the use of other techniques for achieving multiple doses of UV-B radiation. These range from simple and inexpensive approaches (e.g., wrapping individual fluorescent tubes in layers of a neutral-density filter such as cheese cloth) to more technical and expensive alternatives (e.g., electronically modulated lamp control systems). These choices should be determined according to the goals of the particular experiment.

  13. Use of knee height as a surrogate measure of height in older South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine whether knee height would be a more appropriate surrogate measurement than armspan in determining height and body mass index (BMI) in a group of South African older people ( 60 years). A random sample of adults (older than 18 years) who attended selected clinics or who lived in ...

  14. Plant morphology and allometric relationships in competing and non-competing plants of Tagetes patula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborga Jarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric relationships (defined as correlation coefficients between plant mass - stem diameter, plant mass - stem height and stem diameter - stem height in plants of Tagetes patula L. (Brassicaceae var. "Tangerine" were analyzed. Competing and non-competing plants were compared in a glasshouse experiment. Competing plants were grown in broad range of densities, from 200 to 6000 individuals • m-2. For non-competing plants no allometric relationships were observed, while for competing plants they were strong, irrespective of density treatment used. Gradual changes of plant morphology (plant mass, stem diameter, stem height and height/mass ratio with the increase of competition intensity were also analyzed.The present study clearly showed, that the intraspecific competition influenced allometric relationships between height, mass and stem diameter of Tagetes patula.

  15. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Georgevsky, Dana; Carrasco, Johanna; Valenzuela, Michael; Duffy, Deborah L; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape

  16. Weight Gain and Height Growth during Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonisamy, Belavendra; Vasan, Senthil K; Geethanjali, Finney S; Gowri, Mahasampath; Hepsy, Y S; Richard, Joseph; Raghupathy, P; Karpe, Fredrik; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate independent relationships of childhood linear growth (height gain) and relative weight gain to adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk traits in Asian Indians. Data from 2218 adults from the Vellore Birth Cohort were examined for associations of cross-sectional height and body mass index (BMI) and longitudinal growth (independent conditional measures of height and weight gain) in infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood with adult waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), and plasma glucose and lipid concentrations. Higher BMI/greater conditional relative weight gain at all ages was associated with higher adult WC, after 3 months with higher adult BP, HOMA-IR, and lipids, and after 15 years with higher glucose concentrations. Taller adult height was associated with higher WC (men β = 2.32 cm per SD, women β = 1.63, both P HOMA-IR (men β = 0.08 log units per SD, women β = 0.12, both P ≤ .05) but lower glucose concentrations (women β = -0.03 log mmol/L per SD P = .003). Greater height or height gain at all earlier ages were associated with higher adult CVD risk traits. These positive associations were attenuated when adjusted for adult BMI and height. Shorter length and lower BMI at birth were associated with higher glucose concentration in women. Greater height or weight gain relative to height during childhood or adolescence was associated with a more adverse adult CVD risk marker profile, and this was mostly attributable to larger adult size. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  18. Does treatment of asthmatic children with inhaled corticosteroids affect their adult height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, H P; Desager, K N; Lijssens, N; Weyler, J J; Du Caju, M V

    1999-06-01

    In this retrospective study, adult height was assessed in young adult asthmatics who were treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) during childhood (n = 42; 26 boys) and compared to those obtained in asthmatic patients who were never treated with ICs during childhood (n = 43; 23 boys). Standing height of all subjects and their parents was measured. Height data were analyzed using actual length and target height in centimeters, standard deviation scores (SDS), and difference between adult height of the patients and their target height (adult height minus target height). Mean adult height was the same in subjects who took ICs during childhood as compared to those who had never received ICs (boys: 179.3cm+/-6.8 vs. 180.4 cm+/-5.6; girls: 165.8 cm+/-7.5 vs. 167.7 cm+/-7.2). SDS of adult height was also not different between the two groups: in subjects who did not take ICs it was 0.89+/-1.00, while in those who took ICs it was 0.66+/-1.10 (P = 0.31). SDS of target height was also not different between the two groups: in subjects not taking ICs it was 0.95+/-0.86, while in those who took ICs it was 0.28+/-0.76 (P = 0.30). However, subjects who took ICs during childhood showed a statistically significant lower value of adult height minus target height than those who never took ICs (whole group: -0.003+/-5.9 vs. 2.54 +/-4.8, P = 0.03 ; boys: 0.004+/-5.8 vs. 3.09+/-4.5, P = 0.04 ; girls: -0.075+/-6.3 vs. 1.91+/-5.2, P = 0.31). Patients on ICs during childhood who had ever been hospitalized for asthma showed a lower value for adult height minus target height than those who took ICs but were never hospitalized (-3.08+/-7.8 vs. 1.06+/-4.8, P = 0.046). A logistic regression analysis predicting growth impairment showed that the best-fitting model was one that used only ICs as a dependent variable (crude odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4). Patients who were treated with ICs in combination with intranasal corticosteroids (treatment for rhinitis) tended to have a lower value of

  19. Symphysis Fundus Height Measurements during Labour: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the correlation between symphysis fundus height (SFH) measurements and infant weight. It was also to examine whether descent of the fetus or rupture of the membranes affects the relationship and to calculate a simple formula for estimation of fetal weight. A descriptive prospective ...

  20. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BUKOLA

    The importance of calibrating models on height-diameter relationship can never be over emphasized in predicting mean ... parameters that variously important in forest growth modeling and many sustainable forest management options(e.g., Van ..... Natural forest Ecosystem, southwest Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry ...

  1. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  2. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  3. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  4. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  5. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  6. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashraful Islam

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52% and internode lengths (31-49% were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA content appeared lower (11-31% reduction in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  7. Overexpression of the AtSHI gene in poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, results in compact plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Ashraful; Lütken, Henrik; Haugslien, Sissel; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; Torre, Sissel; Rolcik, Jakub; Rasmussen, Søren K; Olsen, Jorunn E; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia, is a non-food and non-feed vegetatively propagated ornamental plant. Appropriate plant height is one of the most important traits in poinsettia production and is commonly achieved by application of chemical growth retardants. To produce compact poinsettia plants with desirable height and reduce the utilization of growth retardants, the Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODE (AtSHI) gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into poinsettia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Three independent transgenic lines were produced and stable integration of transgene was verified by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Reduced plant height (21-52%) and internode lengths (31-49%) were obtained in the transgenic lines compared to control plants. This correlates positively with the AtSHI transcript levels, with the highest levels in the most dwarfed transgenic line (TL1). The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content appeared lower (11-31% reduction) in the transgenic lines compared to the wild type (WT) controls, with the lowest level (31% reduction) in TL1. Total internode numbers, bract numbers and bract area were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines in comparison with the WT controls. Only TL1 showed significantly lower plant diameter, total leaf area and total dry weight, whereas none of the AtSHI expressing lines showed altered timing of flower initiation, cyathia abscission or bract necrosis. This study demonstrated that introduction of the AtSHI gene into poinsettia by genetic engineering can be an effective approach in controlling plant height without negatively affecting flowering time. This can help to reduce or avoid the use of toxic growth retardants of environmental and human health concern. This is the first report that AtSHI gene was overexpressed in poinsettia and transgenic poinsettia plants with compact growth were produced.

  8. Evaluation of methods for calculating maximum allowable standing height in amputees competing in Paralympic athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, M J; Beckman, E; Ibusuki, T; Malone, L; Tweedy, S M

    2016-11-01

    The International Paralympic Committee has a maximum allowable standing height (MASH) rule that limits stature to a pre-trauma estimation. The MASH rule reduces the probability that bilateral lower limb amputees use disproportionately long prostheses in competition. Although there are several methods for estimating stature, the validity of these methods has not been compared. To identify the most appropriate method for the MASH rule, this study aimed to compare the criterion validity of estimations resulting from the current method, the Contini method, and four Canda methods (Canda-1, Canda-2, Canda-3, and Canda-4). Stature, ulna length, demispan, sitting height, thigh length, upper arm length, and forearm length measurements in 31 males and 30 females were used to calculate the respective estimation for each method. Results showed that Canda-1 (based on four anthropometric variables) produced the smallest error and best fitted the data in males and females. The current method was associated with the largest error of those tests because it increasingly overestimated height in people with smaller stature. The results suggest that the set of Canda equations provide a more valid MASH estimation in people with a range of upper limb and bilateral lower limb amputations compared with the current method. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Morphogenic and structural traits of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under different nitrogen levels and residues heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Clarete Junqueira de Sales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of leaf appearance, leaf elongation rate, number of green leaves, length of blade and stem of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under different nitrogen levels and two residue heights. A randomized block design was used in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, four doses of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 kg N ha-1 year-1 and two residue heights (5 and 15 cm. There was significant interaction between residue height and nitrogen levels for leaf appearance rate (P> 0.05 of signal grass, which was influenced negatively and linearly (P 0.05 between the levels of nitrogen x residue height on the number of green leaves. The dosage that provided the highest stalk in the residue height of 5 cm was of 271.5 kg N ha -1. An increase of 0.0745 cm tiller -1 day-1 for 1 kg of N ha -1 applied to height of 15 cm of residue was observed. Nitrogen fertilization contributes positively to growth and development of rates of appearance and leaf extension. The management of pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 5 cm of residue and fertilization with 100 kg N ha -1 provided better answer morphogenic traits.

  10. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  11. Nitric Acid and Benomyl Stimulate Rapid Height Growth of Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Kais; R.C. Hare; J.P. Barnett

    1984-01-01

    Rapid height growth of longleaf pine seedlings, important to production of uniform, even-aged stands, can be promoted by controlling brown-spot needle blight and weed competition, and by increasing soil fertility. Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted...

  12. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  13. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs....... This is particularly relevant with offshore facilities, which represent a significant portion of new wind farms being constructed. Furthermore, a novel aspect to this study is the presentation of a verification methodology that takes into account wind at different heights where turbines operate. The increasing number...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...

  14. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  15. Height prediction equations for even-aged upland oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Forest growth models that use predicted tree diameters or diameter distributions require a reliable height-prediction model to obtain volume estimates because future height-diameter relationships will not necessarily be the same as the present height-diameter relationship. A total tree height prediction equation for even-aged upland oak stands is presented. Predicted...

  16. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-11

    Dec 11, 2012 ... the treatment options, in the treatment of malocclusion in. Nigerians hence the need for this study. In an earlier study on facial heights in Nigeria, Isiekwe[5] determined anterior and posterior facial height, but did not evaluate the ratio of lower anterior facial height to total anterior facial height. The.

  17. Nest height of the red bishop (Eupiectes orix)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest site selection has been studied in a variety of birds since. Preston's ... of eggs, while an 'unsuccessful' nest produced no flying young from the ... Table 1 Seasonal changes in nest and reed height at a red bishop colony in Zimbabwe. Nest. Reed. Nest heightl. Sample height height reed height 070. Date size. (x; S.E.).

  18. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  19. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  20. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  1. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical practice, especially in implantology and pre-prosthetic surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects, who were categorized according to age, sex, and state of dentulousness, were subjected to vertical measurements of mandibular basal bone in panoramic radiographs. Two measurements were made, D 1 and D 2 . The distance measured between the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 1 . The distance between the lowest point of mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 2 . These measurements were compared between males/females and dentulous/edentulous, which were further subjected to statistical analysis with Student′s t-test. Results: Males had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to females and edentulous groups had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to dentulous subjects. Conclusions: Men have higher values of mandibular basal bone height compared to females and also that there exists some potential for mandibular basal bone to increase in height as the age progresses.

  2. Effects of planting method on agronomic characteristics, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faridi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of planting pattern on morphological, Phonological, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. Planting pattern in 3 levels included one row in ridge, two row in ridge and furrow planting, as a main plot and varieties in 4 levels sweet corn with 2 types (KSc 403 su, Merit and super sweet with two types (Basin, obsession as sub plots. The results showed that planting pattern had significant differences on plant height, ear height, leaf length, leaf width, number of kernel per row, number of rows per ear and 1000-kernel weight. but had no significant effects on the length of tassel, number of leaf/plant, number of leaf per plant above ear, stem diameter, time of anthesis, time of silking, anthesis silking interval ASI, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Different varieties had significant effects on the total characteristics studied except number of leaf above ear and stem diameter. Most of the conservable grain yield and harvest index was in Obsession variety (10 kg and 39%, respectively and the least was seen in Basin (4 kg and 20%, respectively. The result showed that use of furrow planting pattern for sweet and super sweet corn in saline conditions can effects result in higher yield.

  3. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  4. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  5. Verification of Geometric Model-Based Plant Phenotyping Methods for Studies of Xerophytic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapikowski, Paweł; Kazimierczak-Grygiel, Ewa; Korecki, Dominik; Wiland-Szymańska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of verification of certain non-contact measurement methods of plant scanning to estimate morphological parameters such as length, width, area, volume of leaves and/or stems on the basis of computer models. The best results in reproducing the shape of scanned objects up to 50 cm in height were obtained with the structured-light DAVID Laserscanner. The optimal triangle mesh resolution for scanned surfaces was determined with the measurement error taken into account. The research suggests that measuring morphological parameters from computer models can supplement or even replace phenotyping with classic methods. Calculating precise values of area and volume makes determination of the S/V (surface/volume) ratio for cacti and other succulents possible, whereas for classic methods the result is an approximation only. In addition, the possibility of scanning and measuring plant species which differ in morphology was investigated. PMID:27355949

  6. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  7. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  8. A 3-point derivation of dominant tree height equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for deriving height-diameter (H-D) equations from limited information and a few assumptions about tree height. Only three data points are required to fit this model, which can be based on virtually any nonlinear function. These points are the height of a tree at diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), the predicted height of a 10-inch d....

  9. Extreme Value Predictions using Monte Carlo Simulations with Artificially Increased Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2010-01-01

    accurate result can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, but the necessary length of the time domain simulations for very low out-crossing rates might be prohibitively long. The present paper investigates whether the FORM property regarding the dependency of the reliability index on the significant wave...... height can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to increase the out-crossing rates and thus reduce the necessary length of the time domain simulations by applying a larger significant wave height than actually required for design. The mean out-crossing rate thus obtained can then afterwards be scaled down......-linear processes the reliability index depends non-linearly on the response level r, and a good estimate can be found using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The reliability index from the FORM analysis is still strictly inversely proportional to the severity of the sea state, i.e. ß=c(r)/Hs. A more...

  10. The Applications to Increase Drought Tolerance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal drought is a major threat that adversely affects crop growth and metabolism, and limits the yield. Water stress causes many morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. Plant height, root length, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass are reduced under drought stress. Besides, water stress causes the reduction of relative water content, the closure of stomata and decrease in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, ascorbat peroxidase (ASC, glutatiton (GSH, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, the indicator of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA and proline levels also changes in drought conditions. Nutrient uptake by plants is prevented or restricted before grain development stage during drought conditions. Therefore the application of plant nutrients followed by micronutrient remobilization within plant is great importance. Osmoprotectants (cytokinin, mannitol, abscisic acid, proline, glycine betaine, polyamine etc. detoxify adverse effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS and alleviate drought stress. Exogenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application encourage plant growth by colonizing the plant root and increase plants’ resistance to water stress. Besides, the farmers can use conservation tillage system in dry periods.

  11. Occurrence of Density-Dependent Height Repression within Jack Pine and Black Spruce Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of density-dependent height relationships in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. populations. After assessing and ruling out the presence of consequential spatial correlation effects, the analysis consisted of analyzing the relationship between mean dominant height and initial planting density within 28 Nelder plots located in the central portion of the Canadian Boreal Forest Region. Employing remeasurement data obtained at periodic intervals (16, 20 and 40–41 years post-establishment across a stand density gradient ranging from a minimum of 1425 stems/ha to a maximum of 28,621 stems/ha, graphical and simple linear regression analyses were used to quantify the stand height–density relationship by species, plot and measurement year. The results indicated the presence of density-dependent effects on height development for both species: 65% of the 83 jack pine relationships and 89% of the 27 black spruce relationships had significant (p ≤ 0.05 and negative slope values. In regards to jack pine for which the data permitted, the occurrence and magnitude of the observed height repression effect increased over time. The asymptotic height repression effect for jack pine was 24% greater than that for black spruce. The results are discussed within the context of the applicability of the density-independent height growth assumption and potential implications for site quality estimation and thinning response modeling.

  12. A 256-channel pulse-height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berset, J.C.; Delavallade, G.; Lindsay, J.

    1975-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a small, low-cost 256-channel pulse-height analyser is briefly discussed. The analyser, intended for use in the setting up of experiments in high-energy physics, is fully compatible with the CERN/NIM nucleonic instrumentation. It has a digital display of channel and content as well as outputs for printing, plotting, and binary transfer. The logic circuitry is made with TTL integrated circuits and has a static random-access MOS memory. Logic and timing diagrams are given. Detailed specifications are also included. (Author)

  13. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  14. Physical inventory taking at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quealy, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Physical inventory planning and implementation at the Lucas Heights research reactor as the model facility are described. The description includes the computer-based records system used and the steps to ensure its accuracy, the labelling of separate items of nuclear material, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safe items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (material unaccounted for). 2 figs

  15. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  16. Boys with a simple delayed puberty reach their target height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, B L M; Rooman, R; Op De Beeck, L; Du Caju, M V L

    2008-01-01

    Final height in boys with delayed puberty is thought to be below target height. This conclusion, however, is based on studies that included patients with genetic short stature. We therefore studied final height in a group of 33 untreated boys with delayed puberty with a target height >-1.5 SDS. Standing height, sitting height, weight and arm span width were measured in each patient. Final height was predicted by the method of Greulich and Pyle using the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for retarded boys at their bone age (PAH1) and the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for average boys plus six months (PAH2). Mean final height (175.8 +/- 6.5 cm) was appropriate for the mean target height (174.7 +/- 4.5 cm). The prediction method of Bailey and Pinneau overestimated the final height by 1.4 cm and the modified prediction method slightly underestimated the final height (-0.15 cm). Boys with untreated delayed puberty reach a final height appropriate for their target height. Final height was best predicted by the method of Bailey and Pinneau using the tables for average boys at their bone age plus six months. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  18. X-chromosome gene dosage as a determinant of impaired pre and postnatal growth and adult height in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Elodie; Zenaty, Delphine; Boizeau, Priscilla; Haigneré, Jeremy; Dos Santos, Sophie; Léger, Juliane

    2016-03-01

    Short stature is a key aspect of the phenotype of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). SHOX haploinsufficiency is responsible for about two-thirds of the height deficit. The aim was to investigate the effect of X-chromosome gene dosage on anthropometric parameters at birth, spontaneous height, and adult height (AH) after growth hormone (GH) treatment. We conducted a national observational multicenter study. Birth parameter SDS for gestational age, height, and AH before and after GH treatment respectively, and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) were classified by karyotype subgroup in a cohort of 1501 patients with TS: 45,X (36%), isoXq (19%), 45,X/46,XX (15%), XrX (7%), presence of Y (6%), or other karyotypes (17%). Birth weight, length (P<0.0001), and head circumference (P<0.001), height and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) before GH treatment, at a median age of 8.8 (5.3-11.8) years and after adjustment for age and correction for multiple testing (P<0.0001), and AH deficit with respect to target height at a median age of 19.3 (18.0-21.8) years and with additional adjustment for dose and duration of GH treatment (P=0.006), were significantly associated with karyotype subgroup. Growth retardation tended to be more severe in patients with XrX, isoXq, and, to a lesser extent, 45,X karyotypes than in patients with 45,X/46,XX karyotypes or a Y chromosome. These data suggest that haploinsufficiency for an unknown Xp gene increases the risk of fetal and postnatal growth deficit and short AH with respect to target height after GH therapy. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

  20. Reinvestigation on mixing length in an open channel turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Snehasis; Kumbhakar, Manotosh; Ghoshal, Koeli

    2018-02-01

    The present study proposes a model on vertical distribution of streamwise velocity in an open channel turbulent flow through a newly proposed mixing length, which is derived for both clear water and sediment-laden turbulent flows. The analysis is based on a theoretical consideration which explores the effect of density stratification on the streamwise velocity profile. The derivation of mixing length makes use of the diffusion equation where both the sediment diffusivity and momentum diffusivity are taken as a function of height from the channel bed. The damping factor present in the mixing length of sediment-fluid mixture contains velocity and concentration gradients. This factor is capable of describing the dip-phenomenon of velocity distribution. From the existing experimental data of velocity, the mixing length data are calculated. The pattern shows that mixing length increases from bed to the dip-position, having a larger value at dip-position and then decreases up to the water surface with a zero value thereat. The present model agrees well with these data sets and this behavior cannot be described by any other existing model. Finally, the proposed mixing length model is applied to find the velocity distribution in wide and narrow open channels. The derived velocity distribution is compared with laboratory channel data of velocity, and the comparison shows good agreement.

  1. Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo

    2017-09-01

    To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P  = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.

  2. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  3. [Morphological features of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the Dahlia mosaic virus promoter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Cheremis, A V; Vakhitov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the 35S promoter and the promoter of dahlia mosaic virus were obtained. The transgenic plants were characterized by increase in the length of the leaves, flower sizes, stem height, and weight of seeds; at the same time, the degree of increase was greater in the case of use of the dahlia mosaic virus promoter as a regulator of transcription. Ectopic expression of the AINTEGUMENTA gene promoted prolongation of leaf growth, while sizes of epidermal cells of the leaves remained unchanged.

  4. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  5. Measurement of maxillary sinus volume and available alveolar bone height using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hak; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To aid in determining the volume of graft bone required before a maxillary sinus lift procedure and compare the alveolar bone height measurements taken by panoramic radiographs to those by CT images. Data obtained by both panoramic radiographs and CT examination of 25 patients were used in this study. Maxillary sinus volumes from the antral floor to heights of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm , were calculated. Alveolar bone height was measured on the panoramic images at each maxillary tooth site and corrected by magnification rate (PBH). Available bone height (ABH) and full bone height (FBH) was measured on reconstructed CT images. PBH was compared with ABH and FBH at the maxillary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Volumes of the inferior portion of the sinuses were 0.55 {+-} 0.41 cm{sup 3} for 5 mm lifts, 2.11 {+-} 0.68 cm{sup 3} for 10 mm, 4.26 {+-} 1.32 cm{sup 3} for 15 mm, 6.95 {+-} 2.01 cm{sup 3} for 20 mm. For the alveolar bone measurement, measurements by panoramic images were longer than available bone heights determined by CT images at the incisor and canine areas, and shorter than full bone heights on CT images at incisor, premolar, and molar areas (p<0.001). In bone grafting of the maxillary sinus floor, 0,96 cm{sup 3} or more is required for a 5 mm - lift, 2.79 cm{sup 3} or more for a 10 mm - lift, 5.58 cm{sup 3} or more for a 15 mm - lift, and 8.96 cm{sup 3} or more for a 20 mm - lift. Maxillary implant length determined using panoramic radiograph alone could result in underestimation or overestimation, according to the site involved.

  6. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  7. Ash plume top height estimation using AATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Virtanen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.

  8. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  9. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  10. Monitoring the Madden-Julian oscillation with geopotential height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Qian, Weihong

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the three-dimensional geopotential height structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and proposes that the MJO convection signals can be well reflected by upper-tropospheric zonal anomalous height gradient (ZAHG, \

  11. What's the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... the Right Weight for My Height? KidsHealth / For Teens / What's the Right Weight for My Height? What's ...

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sample with a correlation coefficient of weight and  height obtained  9 people, taking in consecutive sampling and analyzed  with Pearson’s correlation. The mean body weight was 23.6 (SD 7.70 kg;  mean child height was 108.4 (SD 5.3 cm, and 47.1% were obese. The mean length of the penis was 4.7(SD1.30 cm. The correlation between weight and penis lenght was strong negative (r = -0.876; P = 0.000 and between penis length and height was r = -0.597; P = 0,011.There was a strong negative correlation between body weight and penis length and also negative correlation between penis length and height in kindergarten children. (MEDICINA 2012;43:19-22.

  13. Effects of sowing date and plant density on morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var SC. 403 an experiment was conducted at the Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center, Mashhad, Iran during 2008. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July and plant densities (66600, 83300 and 111000 plants.ha-1 were arranged in main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed significant differences between different sowing dates for plant height, ear height, and no. of leaves/plant, no. of leaves above ear, stem diameter, dehusked ear yield, can grains yield, no. of grain rows/ear, ear length, ear diameter, kernel depth, no. of ear.plant-1, 1000 kernel weight, ear harvest index and plant harvest index. The highest and the lowest can grains yield with 18.27 and 0.930 ton ha-1 was belonged to 14th June and 24th July sowing date, respectively. Although, delay in sowing date, led to decrease of growth period and also decrease of temperature can lead to improper transfer of photosynthetic materials and cause to grains yield decrease. The plant density had significant effects on husked ear yield, dehusked ear yield and forage yield. The highest can grains yield was harvested from the highest plant density (8.862 t.ha-1 and the lowest can grains yield derived from the lowest plant density (66600 plants.ha-1 with 7.692 t.ha-1. Finally, the interaction of sowing date and plant density was significant only for harvest index. Therefore, the sowing date 14th June and the highest plant density (111000 plants.ha-1, is recommended for summer sowing date of sweet corn in Mashhad with maximum and better can grains production.

  14. Forest Canopy Height Estimation from Calipso Lidar Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Canopy penetration depths at two wavelengths indicate moderately strong relationships for estimating the canopy height. Results show that the CALIOP-derived canopy heights were highly correlated with the ICESat/GLAS-derived values with a mean RMSE of 3.4 m and correlation coefficient (R of 0.89. Our findings present a relationship between the penetration difference and canopy height, which can be used as another metrics for canopy height estimation, except the full waveforms.

  15. Measurements of the ionization heights of sporadic radio-meteors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggaley, W.J.; Webb, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The echo heights and echo point ionization densities of 4587 sporadic radio-meteors have been determined using a calibrated interferometric height-finding system. Over the height interval 92 to 96 km no association was found between height and ionization but, for radio-meteors ablating above and below this region, significant and opposite trends exist in the data. It is suggested that this could be evidence for the influx of two distinct meteoroid populations. (author)

  16. [Effects of planting density and spraying PP333 on winter wheat lodging-resistance and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Zhen-Lin; Peng, Dian-Liang; Li, Yong; Cai, Tie; Wang, Ping; Chen, Er-Ying

    2011-06-01

    Taking two winter wheat varieties Gaocheng 8901 and Yannong 21 with different end-use qualities as test objects, a field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Shandong Agricultural University from 2008 to 2010, aimed to study the effects of different planting density and spraying PP333 on the basal stem morphological characteristics, snapping-resistance, lodging-resistant index, and grain yield. Gaocheng 8901 had higher lodging-resistance but lower grain yield than Yannong 21. Comparing with low planting density (180 x 10(4) basic seedlings per hm2), high planting density (240 x 10(4) basic seedlings per hm2) decreased the culm snapping-resistance and lodging-resistant index of the two varieties, especially Yannong 21. Spraying PP333 decreased the plant height and the basal internodes length, increased the snapping-resistance and lodging-resistant index, strengthened the lodging-resistance, and improved the spike number and grain yield. Correlation analysis showed that the second internode length, percentage of basal internodes (1 + 2) length to total internode length, and apparent lodging ratio were significantly negatively correlated with culm lodging resistant index. Therefore, to adopt an appropriate planting density combined with spraying PP333 could improve the lodging-resistance of winter wheat and its grain yield, being an important high-yielding cultivation technique for wheat production in sub-humid zone.

  17. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  18. Crop quality control system: a tool to control the visual quality of pot plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: quality, growth, model, leaf unfolding rate, internode, plant height, plant width, leaf area, temperature, plant spacing, season, light, development, image processing, grading, neural network, pot plant, Ficus benjamina

  19. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  20. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  1. Effect of fence height on joint angles of agility dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Emily; Leśniak, Kirsty

    2013-12-01

    The Kennel Club (KC) and United Kingdom Agility (UKA) govern major dog agility competitions in the UK. Dogs are categorised into different jump heights depending on their height at the withers, with fence heights ranging from 300 to 650 mm for both organisations. Dogs fall into one of three height categories when competing under KC rules and one of four height categories under UKA rules. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an additional height category for agility dogs measuring over 430 mm at the withers. Jump heights were selected that related to the percentage of body height that dogs of 430 mm (7% lower) and 431 mm (51% higher) height at the withers would be encouraged to jump under UKA regulations without the addition of their fourth ('standard height') category. Joint angles were determined from anatomical markers placed on the forelimb and hind limb joints, and at six points along the vertebral column. As fence height increased, flexion of the scapulohumeral joint increased significantly for both the take-off and bascule (arc) phases of the jump. The increase in flexion as a consequence of the increase in fence height is likely to result in intensified stretching of the biceps brachii and supraspinatus muscles. In addition, increasing fence high resulted in an increase in the sacroiliac joint angle during take-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under the...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe landing...

  4. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  5. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  6. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  7. Predicting Individual Tree Heights In Gmelina arborea (Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and an estimated bias of 0.9% indicate that the selected tree height model can be adequately used for predicting tree height in G. arborea plantations of Ukpon River Forest Reserve. Keywords: Tree height model, Timber production, Ukpon River Forest Reserve. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol.

  8. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the radiating...

  9. Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sibo; Roussel, Nicolas; Boniface, Karen; Ha, Minh Cuong; Frappart, Frédéric; Darrozes, José; Baup, Frédéric; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    biomass of the wheat from stem elongation to ripening. It is found that the vegetation height retrievals are sensitive to changes in plant height of at least one wavelength. A simple smoothing of the retrieved plant height allows an excellent matching to in situ observations, and to modeled above-ground dry biomass.

  10. Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    .2 cm. The latter correlates with modeled above-ground dry biomass of the wheat from stem elongation to ripening. It is found that the vegetation height retrievals are sensitive to changes in plant height of at least one wavelength. A simple smoothing of the retrieved plant height allows an excellent matching to in situ observations, and to modeled above-ground dry biomass.

  11. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  12. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  13. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  14. Study of phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes in fall planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samane najib niya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes, a field trial carried out on 2004-2005 at the experimental field of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study 152 cold tolerant accessions with 4 checks (Karaj12-60-31, ILC482, ILC3279 and FLIP84-48C were evaluated in the Augmented preliminarily design in fall planting (9 October. There were considerable variations among genotypes with each other and with checks about phonological stages (days from sowing to emergence, emergence to flowering and flowering to ripening and morphological characteristics (plant height, number of branches and their length per plant. The differences in all cases were significant (p≤0.05. Vegetative growth period was more than 165 days in 84% of accessions and reproductive growth period was more than 29 days in 87% of them. The height of plant in 86% of accessions was more than 30cm, and total branch length per plant was more than 300cm in 82% of accessions. According to the results and regarding to the remarkable yield of some accessions, there is a suitable possibility for selecting genotypes with suitable agronomical characteristics in order to continue cold tolerance trials in replicated experiments.

  15. The MADS-box gene SlMBP11 regulates plant architecture and affects reproductive development in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhu; Chen, Guoping; Naeem, Muhammad; Yu, Xiaohu; Tang, Boyan; Li, Anzhou; Hu, Zongli

    2017-05-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves. Moreover, overexpression lines also exhibited reproductive phenotypes, such as those having a shorter style and split ovary, leading to polycarpous fruits, while the wild type showed normal floral organization. In addition, delayed perianth senescence was observed in transgenic tomatoes. These phenotypes were further confirmed by analyzing the morphological, anatomical and molecular features of lines exhibiting overexpression. These results suggest that SlMBP11 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture and reproductive development in tomato plants. These findings add a new class of transcription factors to the group of genes controlling axillary bud growth and illuminate a previously uncharacterized function of MADS-box genes in tomato plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  17. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  18. Does plant height determine the freezing resistance in the páramo plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenář, P.; Kučerová, Andrea; Macek, Petr; Macková, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 8 (2010), s. 929-934 ISSN 1442-9985 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110702; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Avoidance * extracellular ice * supercooling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2010

  19. Melhoramento do trigo: XXVII. Estimativas de variância, herdabilidade e correlações em populações híbridas para produção de grãos, tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio e altura das plantas Wheat breeding: XXVII. Variance, heritability and correlations in hybrid populations for grain yield, tolerance to aluminum toxicity and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1992-01-01

    éticas.Crosses were made involving the cultivars: BH-1146, tall and aluminum tolerant, IAC-24, semidwarf and aluminum tolerant and Anahuac, semidwarf and aluminum sensitive. Parents, F1's, F2's and reciprocal backcrosses were tested for their seedling reaction to 6mg/l of Al3+ in nutrient solution, in laboratory condition, and evaluated for grain yield and plant height at maturity in an experiment using pots, under a screen house in 1988 conditions at Experimental Center of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Narrow sense heritabilities estimates were moderate to high for plant height (0.432-0.799 and for aluminum tolerance (0.425-0.922 and low for grain yield (0.037-0.195. Phenotypic correlations between grain yield and plant height were positive and significant for all populations under study. Phenotypic correlations between grain yield and aluminum tolerance were non significant (except for the population BH-1146 x IAC-24. The phenotypic correlation between plant height and aluminum tolerance was only positive and significant for the population BH-1146 x IAC-24. Results suggest it would be possible to select semidwarf plants, with aluminum tolerance and with high yield potential if large segregating populations were used to identify desired genotypes originated from eventual recombinations.

  20. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L. plants in depending on cultivation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sałata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated from transplants produced flowers earlier than those obtained from crowns. Plants grown from seeds sown in the ground did not produce flowering shoots. They remained as leaves through the whole vegetation period. Definitely more anthodiums produced plants those cultivated from crowns in comparison with obtained from transplants and seeds. Anthodiums which developed on shoots of plants cultivated from transplants and cuttings characterized bigger average height and diameter than anthodiums of plants cultivated from crowns. Artichoke plants differed in the number of leaves. More leaves of smaller length produced plants cultivated from transplants than plants obtained from cuttings and crowns.

  1. Modeling complex flow structures and drag around a submerged plant of varied posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Richard J.; Hardy, Richard J.; Warburton, Jeff; Marjoribanks, Timothy I.

    2017-04-01

    Although vegetation is present in many rivers, the bulk of past work concerned with modeling the influence of vegetation on flow has considered vegetation to be morphologically simple and has generally neglected the complexity of natural plants. Here we report on a combined flume and numerical model experiment which incorporates time-averaged plant posture, collected through terrestrial laser scanning, into a computational fluid dynamics model to predict flow around a submerged riparian plant. For three depth-limited flow conditions (Reynolds number = 65,000-110,000), plant dynamics were recorded through high-definition video imagery, and the numerical model was validated against flow velocities collected with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The plant morphology shows an 18% reduction in plant height and a 14% increase in plant length, compressing and reducing the volumetric canopy morphology as the Reynolds number increases. Plant shear layer turbulence is dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz type vortices generated through shear instability, the frequency of which is estimated to be between 0.20 and 0.30 Hz, increasing with Reynolds number. These results demonstrate the significant effect that the complex morphology of natural plants has on in-stream drag, and allow a physically determined, species-dependent drag coefficient to be calculated. Given the importance of vegetation in river corridor management, the approach developed here demonstrates the necessity to account for plant motion when calculating vegetative resistance.

  2. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaşa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted ... that increase in plant density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. .... nitrogen doses, plant density and their interaction on yield and yield ...

  3. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the Plants’ Height and Inulin Content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Wawrzyniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is herbaceous perennial plant rich in inulin and useful source of biomass. Due to its low agricultural requirements and high adaptability, it can provide very high biomass yields even on low quality sites. The plant is used in food industry, bio-fuel production, forage, pharmacy and nutrition. Its tubers accumulate approx. 10-20% of inulin in fresh weight. Currently, the use of the Helianthius tuberosus L. as a potential dietary strategy in patients affected by type 2 Diabetes is challenge. Moreover, deep understanding of the relationship between diet and composition of gut microbiota can bring the new insight in the treatment of inflammatory dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine an effect of plant growth retardant Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the plants’ height of H. tuberosus and inulin content in the tubers. We examined in the field a procedure for its shoots reduction. Material for the experiment were bought in a Polish commercial company and 528 tubers were planted in field in the middle of April 2014. Then, half of them were sprayed with 0.75% retardant of CCC . Furthermore, every week for 12 following weeks, the plants’ heights were measured. After the vegetation was over, 6 tubers for each treatment were dug out and chemically analyzed for inulin content using High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography. After first week of CCC use, 16% decrease of the heights plants was observed. Height of plants sprayed with CCC were significantly different comparing to Control. Weekly growth was significantly  slower in plants sprayed with CCC on first three weeks after applying retardant. Differences in plants height sustain to the end of measurements. Used retardant and its concentration did not affect the inulin content of the tubers.

  4. Dominant Height Model for Site Classification of Eucalyptus grandis Incorporating Climatic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Soares Scolforo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of inserting climatic variables in Eucalyptus grandis as covariables of a dominant height model, which for site index classification is usually related to age alone. Dominant height values ranging from 1 to 12 years of age located in the Southeast region of Brazil were used, as well as data from 19 automatic meteorological stations from the area. The Chapman-Richards model was chosen to represent dominant height as a function of age. To include the environmental variables a modifier was included in the asymptote of the model. The asymptote was chosen since this parameter is responsible for the maximum value which the dominant height can reach. Of the four environmental variables most responsible for database variation, the two with the highest correlation to the mean annual increment in dominant height (mean monthly precipitation and temperature were selected to compose the asymptote modifier. Model validation showed a gain in precision of 33% (reduction of the standard error of estimate when climatic variables were inserted in the model. Possible applications of the method include the estimation of site capacity in regions lacking any planting history, as well as updating forest inventory data based on past climate regimes.

  5. The effect of stimulus height on visual discrimination in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, CA; Cassaday, HJ; Derrington, AM

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus height on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two heights: at ground level or at a height of 70cm from the ground. The height at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same height. The criterion for learning was ...

  6. Components of adult height and height loss. Secular trend and effects of aging in women in the DOM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leer, E M; van Noord, P.A.H.; Seidell, J C

    Between 1984 and 1987, adult height, sitting height, arm span, and iliac crest height were measured in 13,386 women of the DOM project. Combined effects of secular trends between cohorts born in 1911 to 1945 and aging between ages 40 to 74 years showed a decrease in stature of 4.9 +/- 0.3 cm (mean

  7. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  8. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301 of various common breeds (n = 49 collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ. Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14, bodyweight alone (n = 5, CI alone (n = 3, bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2, height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3 or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6. For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001 with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001 but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020. The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape

  9. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  10. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  11. Physical localization of NORs and ITS length variants in old ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The variation at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA has been correlated with the number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in some plant species. Besides, the number of NORs might influence the rate of homogenization of the rDNA repeats. In recent studies, ITS length variants ...

  12. Fragment Length Distributions and Collision Probabilities for AFLP Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2006-01-01

    AFLP is a DNA fingerprinting technique frequently used in plant and animal sciences. A drawback of the technique is the occurrence of multiple DNA fragments of the same length in a single AFLP lane, which we name a collision. In this article we quantify the problem. The well-known birthday problem

  13. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  14. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  16. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  17. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  18. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  19. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  20. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  1. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  2. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  3. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  4. Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range. PMID:25715717

  5. Afocal Optical Flow Sensor for Reducing Vertical Height Sensitivity in Indoor Robot Localization and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Yi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel afocal optical flow sensor (OFS system for odometry estimation in indoor robotic navigation. The OFS used in computer optical mouse has been adopted for mobile robots because it is not affected by wheel slippage. Vertical height variance is thought to be a dominant factor in systematic error when estimating moving distances in mobile robots driving on uneven surfaces. We propose an approach to mitigate this error by using an afocal (infinite effective focal length system. We conducted experiments in a linear guide on carpet and three other materials with varying sensor heights from 30 to 50 mm and a moving distance of 80 cm. The same experiments were repeated 10 times. For the proposed afocal OFS module, a 1 mm change in sensor height induces a 0.1% systematic error; for comparison, the error for a conventional fixed-focal-length OFS module is 14.7%. Finally, the proposed afocal OFS module was installed on a mobile robot and tested 10 times on a carpet for distances of 1 m. The average distance estimation error and standard deviation are 0.02% and 17.6%, respectively, whereas those for a conventional OFS module are 4.09% and 25.7%, respectively.

  6. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA and foliar fertilizer concentration on the growth of ornamental plants Anthurium ‘wave of love’ (Anthurium plowmanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARNITA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Warnita, Herawati N. 2017. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA and foliar fertilizer concentration on the growth of ornamental plants Anthurium ‘wave of love’ (Anthurium plowmanii. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 50-55. One species of ornamental plants which much in demand because of the shape of its leaves that beautiful and attractive is Anthurium ‘wave of love’. Anthurium wave of love (Anthurium plowmanii has unique characteristics with the wavy leaf edge. To enhance the growth of this plant can be done with NAA and foliar fertilizer. The purpose of this study was to obtain the best concentration of NAA and foliar fertilizer for growing the ornamental plant of Anthurium wave of love. The study started from March to July 2015 in the Housing Unand, Ulu Gadut, Padang. The materials used in the form of seedlings of the ornamental plant of Anthurium wave of love, the growing media consisted of soil, sand and manure in the ratio of 1:1:1 (v/v. The experiment was a factorial with two factors which in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replications. The first factor was NAA concentration consisted of 0 and 20 ppm, while the second factor was the concentration of foliar fertilizer consisted of 0, 1, 2, and 3 g/L. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by HSD test at a test level of 5%. The parameters observed included plant height, leaf number, the length of the longest leaf, the width of the widest leaf, the number of roots and the length of the longest root. The results showed NAA treatment with a concentration of 20 ppm and foliar fertilizer 1 g/L is the best for the growth of plant height, the length of the longest leaf, the width of the widest leaf, and the length of the longest root.

  7. Effects of hand weeding strip and nitrogen fertilizer on corn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Renato Vaz; Martins, Dagoberto; Cardoso, Leonildo A; Carbonari, Caio Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate effects of different strip weed control associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn applied after planting. The experiment was set and conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the hybrid planted was Dekalb 333-B. A completely randomized block design with four replications was used. Experimental plots were disposed as a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 4, constituted by two types of weeding on row (with or without manual hoeing), two types of weeding on inter-row (with or without manual hoeing), and four nitrogen levels applied after planting (00, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha(-1)). Plots were composed by six rows with 5 m length. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at 35 days after emergence (d.a.e). For weed community it was evaluated: weed density, dominancy, frequency, and relative importance. The main weed species were: Brachiaria plantiginea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Cyperus rotunds, Brachiaria decumbens, Euphorbia heterofila, Oxalis latifolia, Acanthospermum hispidum, Commelina benghalensis. It was evaluated corn height at 40 and 100 d.a.e., first ear insertion height at 100 d.a.e., and final grain yield at harvesting. Plants and first ear insertion height were affected when nitrogen fertilizer was not applied. Treatments without weed control showed that weed interfered negatively with plants height. There were no correlation between weeds and nitrogen fertilizer for all parameters evaluated. Parcels without weed showed the highest ear weights and final grain production. Treatments that received nitrogen fertilizer, independently of studied arrangement, provided higher yields.

  8. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  9. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  10. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  11. Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity of 6 stages of cervical vertebral maturation (Cvs1 through Cvs6) as a biologic indicator for skeletal maturity in 24 subjects (15 females, 9 males). The method was able to detect the greatest increment in mandibular and craniofacial growth during the interval from vertebral stage 3 to vertebral stage 4 (Cvs3 to Cvs4), when the peak in statural height also occurred. The prevalence rate of examined subjects who presented with the peak in body height at this interval was 100% for boys and 87% for girls. Statural height and total mandibular length (Co-Gn) showed significant increments during the growth interval Cvs3 to Cvs4 when compared with the growth interval Cvs2 to Cvs3, and significant growth deceleration occurred during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Ramus height (Co-Goi) and S-Gn also showed significant deceleration of growth during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Cervical vertebral maturation appears to be an appropriate method for the appraisal of mandibular skeletal maturity in individual patients on the basis of a single cephalometric observation and without additional x-ray exposure. The accuracy of the cervical vertebral method in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in mandibular growth provides helpful indications concerning treatment timing of mandibular deficiencies.

  12. Interaction between sapwood and foliage area in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) trees of different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; McMurtrie, Ross E; Atwell, Brian J; Keith, Heather

    2003-10-01

    In native stands of Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Baker, sapwood area (As) to foliage area (Af) ratios (As:Af) decreased as tree height increased, contradicting the common interpretation of the Pipe Model Theory as well as the generally observed trend of increasing As:Af ratios with tree height. To clarify this relationship, we estimated sapwood hydraulic conductivity theoretically based on measurements of sapwood vessel diameters and Poiseuille's law for fluid flow through pipes. Despite the observed decrease in As:Af ratios with tree height, leaf specific conductivity increased with total tree height, largely as a result of an increase in the specific conductivity of sapwood. This observation supports the proposition that the stem's ability to supply foliage with water must increase as trees grow taller, to compensate for the increased hydraulic path length. The results presented here highlight the importance of measuring sapwood hydraulic conductivity in analyses of sapwood-foliage interactions, and suggest that measurements of sapwood hydraulic conductivity may help to resolve conflicting observations of how As:Af ratios change as trees grow taller.

  13. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  14. Novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design in an ultra-supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Xu, Cheng; Yang, Yongping; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Luyao; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The two-pass type and tower-type boilers were compared. • A novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design was proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses were quantitatively conducted. • The application of the partial-subsidence boiler to a 700 °C stage unit was further analyzed. - Abstract: An increasing number of tower-type boilers have been applied to ultra-supercritical power plants because of the simple design of the membrane walls and the smooth increase in temperature of such boilers. Nevertheless, the significant height and long steam pipelines of this boiler type will expand the power plant investment cost and increase steam-side pressure losses, especially for higher parameters units requiring high costs of nickel-based alloy materials. Thus, a novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design was proposed. In this boiler type, nearly 1/2–2/3 of the boiler height was embedded underground to reduce the height of the boiler and the length of the steam pipelines significantly. Thermodynamic and economic analyses were conducted on a state-of-the-art 1000 MW ultra-supercritical power plant and a prospective 700 °C-stage double reheat power plant. Results showed that the proposed tower-type boiler design could result in a 0.1% point increase in net efficiency and a $0.56/MW h reduction in the cost of electricity in a 1000 MW power plant. This economic benefit was enhanced for power plants with higher steam parameters and larger capacity. The concept of the proposed boiler design may provide a promising method for tower-type boiler applications, especially in new-generation double reheat plants with higher parameters

  15. Charnock's Roughness Length Model and Non-dimensional Wind Profiles Over the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2008-01-01

    An analysis tool for the study of wind speed profiles over the water has been developed. The profiles are analysed using a modified dimensionless wind speed and dimensionless height, assuming that the sea surface roughness can be predicted by Charnock's roughness length model. In this form, the r...

  16. Focused CT using a height-adjusted metric and the umbilicus as a landmark for children undergoing evaluation for appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (United States); Nixon, Abigail F.; Meltzer, James A. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Blumfield, Einat [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Confirmation of appendicitis in children often requires CT. A focused CT scan that is limited to the lower abdomen/pelvis might help to reduce radiation exposure. To determine the position of the appendix relative to the umbilicus and derive a height-adjusted threshold for a focused CT that would identify most appendices. We conducted a retrospective study of children younger than 18 years who underwent a CT scan for suspected appendicitis. A pediatric radiologist determined the distance from the most cephalad portion of the appendix to the center of the umbilicus. This distance was divided by the child's height to create a ratio for each child. We then assessed the largest of these distance/height ratios (''height constants'') as potential height-adjusted thresholds that, when multiplied by any patient's height, would yield the superior threshold for the focused CT scan. Radiation reduction was calculated as percentage decrease in scan length compared to a complete abdominopelvic CT. Of 270 patients whose entire appendix was identified on CT, all were identified within 10.5 cm above the umbilicus. A focused CT using a height constant of 0.07 identified 100% of the appendices visualized on the complete CT scan and resulted in an estimated mean percentage radiation reduction of 27% (standard deviation [SD] +/-4.7). If a height constant of 0.03 was used, 97% of appendices were identified and the estimated radiation reduction was 43% (SD +/-4.3). A height-adjusted focused abdominopelvic CT scan might reduce radiation exposure without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the complete CT scan. (orig.)

  17. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  18. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving......Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...

  19. Association between noncow milk beverage consumption and childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Marie-Elssa; Birken, Catherine S; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L'Abbé, Mary; Lee, Grace J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-08-01

    Background: Cow milk consumption in childhood has been associated with increased height, which is an important measure of children's growth and development. Many parents are choosing noncow milk beverages such as soy and almond milk because of perceived health benefits. However, noncow milk contains less protein and fat than cow milk and may not have the same effect on height. Objective: We sought to determine whether there is an association between noncow milk consumption and lower height in childhood and assess whether cow milk consumption mediates the relation between noncow milk consumption and height. Design: This was a cross-sectional study of 5034 healthy Canadian children aged 24-72 mo enrolled in the Applied Research Group for Kids cohort. The primary exposure was the volume of noncow milk consumption (number of 250-mL cups per day). The primary outcome was height, which was measured as height-for-age z score. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between noncow milk consumption and height. A mediation analysis was conducted to explore whether cow milk consumption mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and height. Results: There was a dose-dependent association between higher noncow milk consumption and lower height ( P milk consumed, children were 0.4 cm (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 cm) shorter . In the mediation analysis, lower cow milk consumption only partially mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and lower height. The height difference for a child aged 3 y consuming 3 cups noncow milk/d relative to 3 cups cow milk/d was 1.5 cm (95% CI: 0.8, 2.0 cm). Conclusions: Noncow milk consumption was associated with lower childhood height. Future research is needed to understand the causal relations between noncow milk consumption and height. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Biofortification of iron in chickpea by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major nutritional disorder being responsible to affect millions of people around the globe. Its malnutrition may be reduced through biofortification: a process to produce micronutrient enriched staple food. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can fortify iron content within edible plant tissues by enhancing its availability through various mechanisms. In a pot study, five bacterial isolates (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were tested for improving plant growth and bioavailable iron (Fe) content in chickpea where Fe was applied in the form of iron sulphate solution. Results showed that inoculation with PGPR significantly enhanced the plant height, root length, root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights and Fe content compared to un-inoculated control plants. Application of FeSO/sub 4/ significantly improved the Fe content upto 100 and 173% in grain and shoot respectively, as compared to control. Application of PGPR along with iron showed 81 and 75% increase in grain and shoot iron contents, respectively, over control. These results suggested that PGPR can help plants to uptake extra Fe from soil, if soil is supplemented with additional Fe. These findings advocate that microbial assisted biofortification in grain can alleviate micronutrient deficiency in humans especially in resource limited countries. (author)

  1. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  2. Eficiência de índices fenotípicos de comprimento de raiz seminal na avaliação de plantas individuais de milho quanto à tolerância ao alumínio Efficiency of root length phenotypic index in the evaluation of individual maize plants for aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Martins

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do comprimento relativo de raiz seminal (CRRS e do comprimento líquido de raiz seminal (CLRS como indicadores fenotípicos quanto à tolerância ao alumínio na avaliação de plantas individuais de milho. Plântulas de genótipos tolerantes e suscetíveis ao Al foram submetidas a solução nutritiva contendo nível tóxico deste elemento, por um período de sete dias, após o qual, determinaram-se os valores de CRRS e CLRS. Os resultados obtidos quando se utilizaram valores médios para CRRS e CLRS mostraram que ambos os índices foram capazes de discriminar com eficiência os materiais tolerantes dos suscetíveis. Entretanto, quando foram utilizados os valores de CRRS e CLRS obtidos a partir de plantas individuais, observou-se a existência de plantas tolerantes com valores típicos de plantas suscetíveis, o que indica que a avaliação fenotípica de plantas individuais pelos dois índices está sujeita a erros significativos, principalmente na caracterização de plantas suscetíveis. Portanto, em estudos para mapeamento de "quantitative trait loci" (QTLs ligados à tolerância ao Al, nos quais utilizam-se estes índices fenotípicos, o mais apropriado é avaliar famílias F3, onde é possível obter valores médios para CRRS e CLRS e utilizar estas médias para representar os valores fenotípicos das respectivas plantas F2.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of the relative seminal root length (RSRL and net seminal root length (NSRL as phenotypic indexes for aluminum tolerance in individual maize plants. Seedlings of Al tolerant and susceptible genotypes were grown in nutrient solution containing toxic level of Al for a period of seven days, after which the values of RSRL and NSRL were determined. The results obtained when mean values of RSRL and NSRL were utilized showed that both indexes were able to discriminate tolerant from susceptible maize genotypes. However

  3. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  4. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  5. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  6. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  7. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  8. Preliminary study : Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) effects on the growth of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Norsuhaila Wan Aziz; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdulah

    2010-01-01

    A research has been done to study the effects of magnetic fields on the growth of plants.Two samples of maize seedlings and green beans have been studied. Helmholtz coil systems were used as magnetic field source at frequency 50 Hz with 440 mGauss field strength. Sample characteristics such height, leaf, colour and length of roots were observed. The results show that the magnetic field influenced the growth of the sample. The sample that were exposed to the magnetic field show faster growth compared to the controlled sample. (author)

  9. Full Length Research Paper Seed germination and in vitro plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parkia biglobosa is an important leguminous forest species which is being threatened of going into extinction in Senegal. To preserve this genetic resource of great economic value, studies on germination were carried out and in vitro conservation option through tissue culture technique was adopted. 100% of germination ...

  10. Estimation of river and lake heights using cryosat-2 altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple threshold retracker on SAR and LRM data from CryoSat-2 it is seen that the SIRAL radar altimeter shows great potential for height estimation over land and inland waters. Differences between heights from the SRTM DEM and the retracked heights were less than 1m for Lake Vättern in Sw...... of waveforms over land and inland waters is challenging. Therefore, using a well resolved river and lake mask and focusing on small test regions is recommended until radar altimetry over land and inland waters is fully understood.......Using a simple threshold retracker on SAR and LRM data from CryoSat-2 it is seen that the SIRAL radar altimeter shows great potential for height estimation over land and inland waters. Differences between heights from the SRTM DEM and the retracked heights were less than 1m for Lake Vättern...

  11. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Mendelian randomization study of height and risk of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Aaron P; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Esko, Tonu; Wood, Andrew R; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gustafsson, Stefan; Pers, Tune H; Baron, John A; Bezieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Ogino, Shuji; Berndt, Sonja I; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Du, Mengmeng; Harrison, Tabitha A; Thornquist, Mark; Duggan, David J; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Lindor, Noralane M; Seminara, Daniela; Song, Mingyang; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; White, Emily; Hsu, Li; Campbell, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Background: For men and women, taller height is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of height by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between height and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting height (using 696 genetic variants associated with height) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height, genetically predicted height and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased height (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02–1.15). In sex-specific analyses, height was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92–1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) height-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01–1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96–1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between height and CRC for women. The CRC-height association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies. PMID:25997436

  13. Functional traits of the understory plant community of a pyrogenic longleaf pine forest across environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gregory M; Anderson, Steven M; Ungberg, Eric A; Wright, Justin P

    2017-08-01

    Understanding and predicting the response of plant communities to environmental changes and disturbances such as fire requires an understanding of the functional traits present in the system, including within and across species variability, and their dynamics over time. These data are difficult to obtain as few studies provide comprehensive information for more than a few traits or species, rarely cover more than a single growing season, and usually present only summary statistics of trait values. As part of a larger study seeking to understand the dynamics of plant communities in response to different prescribed fire regimes, we measured the functional traits of the understory plant communities located in over 140 permanent plots spanning strong gradients in soil moisture in a pyrogenic longleaf pine forest in North Carolina, USA, over a four-year period from 2011 and 2014. We present over 120,000 individual trait measurements from over 130 plant species representing 91 genera from 47 families. We include data on the following 18 traits: specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf area, leaf length, leaf width, leaf perimeter, plant height, leaf nitrogen, leaf carbon, leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, water use efficiency, time to ignition, maximum flame height, maximum burn temperature, mass-specific burn time, mass-specific smolder time, branching architecture, and the ratio of leaf matter consumed by fire. We also include information on locations, soil moisture, relative elevation, soil bulk density, and fire histories for each site. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Effect of inspiration/expiration on height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacer, Martina; Zhang, Guangxiang; Lane, Andrew H; Chen, John J; Wilson, Thomas A

    2008-08-01

    Growth parameters are a powerful screening tool in pediatric care. Accuracy assumes differing importance in different clinical settings. A small error is not clinically significant when height is obtained as a screening tool during annual well child visits. However, when assessing annual growth velocity using shorter interval visits, an error of equal magnitude might influence further management decisions. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: To explore the effect of inspiration or expiration on height measurement. Our hypothesis was that height measurements obtained in inspiration would be greater than those obtained in expiration or without specific instructions as to status of respiration (unspecified). Heights of 99 individuals 8 years and older were measured in inspiration, expiration and unspecified respiratory status by two pediatric endocrinologists. Patients were measured three times in each mode. The p values were adjusted by Tukey procedure for multiple comparisons among three modes. Height measurement performed in inspiration, expiration or without specific instruction as to breathing (unspecified) did affect height measurement. Mean difference +/- SEM (95% CI) between height obtained in inspiration and expiration was 0.22 +/- 0.03 cm (95% CI: 0.15, 0.29); between inspiration and unspecified 0.31 +/- 0.04 cm (95% CI: 0.22, 0.40); and between expiration and unspecified 0.092 +/- 0.03 cm (95% CI: 0.03, 0.16). Based on these results, we recommend multiple height measurements using uniform technique including inspiratory/expiratory status, especially when calculating 'annualized' height velocity over short intervals.

  15. Height increment of understorey Norway spruces under different tree canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Laiho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Stands having advance regeneration of spruce are logical places to start continuous cover forestry (CCF in fertile and mesic boreal forests. However, the development of advance regeneration is poorly known. Methods This study used regression analysis to model the height increment of spruce understorey as a function of seedling height, site characteristics and canopy structure. Results An admixture of pine and birch in the main canopy improves the height increment of understorey. When the stand basal area is 20 m2ha-1 height increment is twice as fast under pine and birch canopies, as compared to spruce. Height increment of understorey spruce increases with increasing seedling height. Between-stand and within-stand residual variation in the height increment of understorey spruces is high. The increment of 1/6 fastest-growing seedlings is at least 50% greater than the average. Conclusions The results of this study help forest managers to regulate the density and species composition of the stand, so as to obtain a sufficient height development of the understorey. In pure and almost pure spruce stands, the stand basal area should be low for a good height increment of the understorey.

  16. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm −1 . At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq 4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q −3.15 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  17. Implant-retained mandibular bar-supported overlay dentures: a finite element stress analysis of four different bar heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Dakhilalian, Mansour; Bajoghli, Farshad; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2012-04-01

    Proper stress distribution on dental implants is necessary in bar-retained implant overlay dentures. We aimed to comparatively assess this stress distribution according to different bar heights using finite element models. A three-dimensional (3D) computer model of mandible with 2 implants (ITI, 4.1 mm diameter and 12 mm length) in canine areas and an overlying implant-supported bar-retained overlay denture were simulated with 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm bar heights using ABAQUS software. A vertical force was applied to the left first molar and gradually increased from 0 to 50 N. The resultant stress distribution was evaluated. Bars of 1 and 2 mm in height transferred the least stress to the implants (3.882 and 3.896 MPa, respectively). The 0-mm height of the bar connection transferred the highest stress value (4.277 MPa). The amount of stress transferred by 3-mm heights of the bar connection was greater than that of 1- and 2-mm bar connections and smaller than that of 0-mm bar connection (4.165 kgN). This 3D finite element analysis study suggested that the use of Dolder bar attachment with 1- and 2-mm heights could be associated with appropriate stress distribution for implant-retained overlay dentures.

  18. [Variation of pollutants along the height of two media BAF during advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Fan, Ju-Hong; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lü-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A pilot-scale process with the capacity of 15 t x d(-1) was applied for treatment of the secondary biological effluent from a dyeing industrial park wastewater treatment plant. We studied the variation of pollutants along the height of two media biological aerated filter (BAF), investigated the feasibility of the cheaper and lighter suspended media to substitute activated carbon. The results showed that while the influent average COD and color were 50.2 mg x L(-1) and 58 times, the effluent average COD and color of activated carbon and suspended media BAF were 35.0 mg x L(-1), 18 times and 44.3 mg x L(-1), 26 times, and both of the effluent met the first level A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002), while it met the first level A criteria at the height of 2 400 mm in suspended media BAF, higher than the height of 1 800 mm in activated carbon BAF. The removal variation of color, TN and ammonia along the height of suspended media BAF is similar to the activated carbon BAF, but with a low removal efficiency of COD, mainly related to its less biomass. Therefore, suspended media to substitute activated carbon is feasible to the wastewater treatment plant, but the size and material of the media still need to be optimized, and to enhance the biomass, the hybrid process of suspended media with activated carbon BAF may be used to reduce the cost if it is necessary.

  19. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  20. Measurement and restoration of equality in length of the lower limbs in total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoikka, V.; Paavilainen, T.; Lindholm, T.S.; Turula, K.B.; Ylikoski, M.

    1987-08-01

    Alteration of the length of the lower limb was measured in 39 patients undergoing total hip replacement. Radiographs were taken in the erect posture prior to operation and 6 months postoperatively. The inequality of limb length was measured by the difference between the height of the vertices of the fermoral heads and by the difference between the lowest points of the ischial tuberosities. The change of the length was measured intraoperatively as the difference observed between two reference points: One above the acetabulum and the other on the proximal femur. Good correlation was obtained between the change of the limb length made intraoperatively and the change in the limb length using the ischial tuberosities as reference points; no correlation was observed when the vertices of the femoral heads were the reference points. Inequality of limb length can be radiologically determined before and after total hip arthroplasty. Femoral and prosthetic heads are not good reference points for measurement. The difference in the height of ischial tuberosities demonstrates inequality of limb functional length as it reflects the tilting of the pelvis.

  1. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  2. Cephalometric study of the upper airways and dentoalveolar height in open bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Filipe; Pinho, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Open bite is related to various etiological factors and, in many cases, is difficult to diagnose. The present study is aimed at evaluating, through cephalometric analysis, the dimensions of the upper airways and dentoalveolar heights in open bite (OB) patients versus normal overbite patients. The relationship between the width of the upper airways and the lack of overbite is also studied, in order to differentiate between dental open bite (DOB) and skeletal open bite (SOB). Eighty X-rays were selected from files of orthodontic patients to form the control sample (n=40) and open bite sample (n=40). Dimensions of the upper airways and dentoalveolar heights were measured in both samples, using 16 linear measurements, two angle values and one ratio. In OB patients, anteroposterior narrowing of the upper airways, mainly in the nasopharynx and oropharynx, was observed, together with forward displacement of the hyoid bone and increased maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar heights, and anterior facial height. In SOB, the overbite was more negative and facial growth was more clockwise-oriented than in DOB. Greater narrowing of the airways in the anteroposterior orientation was also noted. In DOB, there was evidence of muscular adaptation, as shown by increased values of the hyoid bone displacement to a more anterior and lower position, and increased values of the vertical dimensions of the airways. An increase in posterior facial height was also observed allowing anterior rotation of the mandible. The results suggest that the airway's dimensions reflect a tendency to open bite. The variable vertical airway length (Val) and the position of the hyoid bone allow the adaptive potential of these individuals to be determined and make the treatment of open bites more predictable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of mixing heights derived from the operational NWP models at the German weather service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, B.; Schrodin, R.; Jacobsen, I. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorol. Observ. Lindenberg (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    NWP models incorporate an ever-increasing number of observations via four-dimensional data assimilation and are capable of providing comprehensive information about the atmosphere both in space and time. They describe not only near surface parameters but also the vertical structure of the atmosphere. They operate daily, are well verified and successfully used as meteorological pre-processors in large-scale dispersion modelling. Applications like ozone forecasts, emission or power plant control calculations require highly resolved, reliable, and routine values of the temporal evolution of the mixing height (MH) which is a critical parameter in determining the mixing and transformation of substances and the resulting pollution levels near the ground. The purpose of development at the German Weather Service is a straightforward mixing height scheme that uses only parameters derived from NWP model variables and thus automatically provides spatial and temporal fields of mixing heights on an operational basis. An universal parameter to describe stability is the Richardson number Ri. Compared to the usual diagnostic or rate equations, the Ri number concept of determining mixing heights has the advantage of using not only surface layer parameters but also regarding the vertical structure of the boundary layer resolved in the NWP models. (au)

  4. An attempt to link the Brazilian Height System to a World Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the geopotential approach to investigate the present Brazilian Height System (BHS. Geopotential numbers are derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite surveying and disturbing potential on selected benchmarks. A model for the disturbing potential can be obtained by an existing set of spherical harmonic coefficients such as the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08. The approach provides absolute evaluation of local normal geopotential numbers (aka spheropotential numbers related to a so-called World Height System (WHS. To test the validity of the proposed methodology, a numerical experiment was carried out related to a test region in Southern Brazil. The accuracy of the derived geopotential numbers was tested versus local normal geopotential numbers based on 262 GPS/leveling points. The root mean square error (RMSE value for metric offset of BHS derived from geopotential numbers and the disturbing potential modeling in the test area was estimated to be near 0.224 meters in the absolute view. Therefore, since these spheropotential numbers are referred to a local datum, these results of comparisons may be an indicator of the mean bias of local network due to the effect of local Sea Surface Topography (SSTop and possible offset between the unknown reference for the BHS and the quasigeoid model in the region.

  5. Diagnostic reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation method and standing height in the identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Castaldo, Attilio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the capability of both cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 3 and 4 (CS3-4 interval) and the peak in standing height to identify the mandibular growth spurt throughout diagnostic reliability analysis. A previous longitudinal data set derived from 24 untreated growing subjects (15 females and nine males,) detailed elsewhere were reanalyzed. Mandibular growth was defined as annual increments in Condylion (Co)-Gnathion (Gn) (total mandibular length) and Co-Gonion Intersection (Goi) (ramus height) and their arithmetic mean (mean mandibular growth [mMG]). Subsequently, individual annual increments in standing height, Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG were arranged according to annual age intervals, with the first and last intervals defined as 7-8 years and 15-16 years, respectively. An analysis was performed to establish the diagnostic reliability of the CS3-4 interval or the peak in standing height in the identification of the maximum individual increments of each Co-Gn, Co-Goi, and mMG measurement at each annual age interval. CS3-4 and standing height peak show similar but variable accuracy across annual age intervals, registering values between 0.61 (standing height peak, Co-Gn) and 0.95 (standing height peak and CS3-4, mMG). Generally, satisfactory diagnostic reliability was seen when the mandibular growth spurt was identified on the basis of the Co-Goi and mMG increments. Both CVM interval CS3-4 and peak in standing height may be used in routine clinical practice to enhance efficiency of treatments requiring identification of the mandibular growth spurt.

  6. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  7. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  8. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  9. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Using permanent sample plot data, selected tree height and diameter functions were evaluated for their predictive abilities for Populus tremula stands in Turkey. Two sets of models were evaluated. The first set included five models for estimating height as a function of individual tree diameter; the second set.

  10. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  11. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-02-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (pollution episodes and the height of the mixed layer. The growth rate of the convective mixed-layer height has a seasonal behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  12. Height velocity and skeletal maturation in elite female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Theodoropoulou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Benardot, D; Leglise, M; Dimopoulos, J C; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts performing under conditions of high intensity are exposed to particularly high levels of psychological stress and intense physical training, factors that can contribute to the observed delay in skeletal maturation and pubertal development, and alter optimal growth. The study was conducted in the field, during the International, European, and World Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics Championships of the years 1997-2000, and included 104 elite female rhythmic gymnasts, aged 12-23 yr. The study included height and weight measurements, estimation of body fat and skeletal maturation, and registration of parental height. Height, weight, target height, and predicted adult height were expressed as the SD score of the mean height and weight for age, according to Tanner's standards. Gymnasts were taller and thinner than average for age, with height velocity SD score for each age group above the 50th percentile for all age groups (n = 140, mean = 1.9 +/- 2.5). Interestingly, although height velocity in normal girls comes to an end by the age of 15, in our examined rhythmic gymnasts it continues up to the age of 18. There was a delay of skeletal maturation of 1.8 yr (n = 72, r = 0.730, P rhythmic gymnasts compensate for their loss of pubertal growth spurt by a late acceleration of linear growth. Despite the delay in skeletal maturation, genetic predisposition of growth is not only preserved, but even exceeded.

  13. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  14. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange between the surface states and the semiconductor leading to a change in the height of the potential barrier for electrons passing from aluminium into the a-Se films. The empirically determined values of barrier height of Al/a-Se diodes with thin and ...

  15. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  16. High and mighty : Height increases authority in professional refereeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, larger males are more likely to attain social dominance. Several lines of evidence suggest that this relationship extends to humans, as height is positively related to dominance, status and authority. We hypothesized that height is also a determinant of authority in

  17. 17 Years of Cloud Heights from Terra, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.

    2017-12-01

    The effective cloud height, H, is the integral of observed cloud-top heights, weighted by their frequency of occurrence. Here we look at changes in the effective cloud height, H', as measured by the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) on the first Earth Observing System platform, Terra. Terra was launched in December 1999, and now has over 17 years of consistently measured climate records. Globally, HG' has an important influence on Earth's climate, whereas regionally, HR' is a useful measure of low frequency changes in circulation patterns. MISR has a sampling error in the annual mean HG' of ≈11 m, allowing fairly small interannual variations to be detected. This paper extends the previous 15-year summary that showed significant differences in the long term mean hemispheric cloud height changes. Also of interest are the correlations in tropical cloud height changes and related teleconnections. The largest ephemeral values in the annual HR' [over 1.5 km] are noted over the Central Pacific and the Maritime Continent. These changes are strongly anticorrelated with each other, being directly related to changes in ENSO. They are also correlated with the largest ephemeral changes in HG'. Around the equator, we find at least four distinct centres of similar fluctuations in cloud height. This paper examines the relative time dependence of these regional height changes, separately for La Niña and El Niño events, and stresses the value of extending the time series of uniformly measured cloud heights from space beyond EOS-Terra.

  18. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  19. Research Note: Precision and accuracy of sward height distributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Research Note: Precision and accuracy of sward height distributions. CD Morris, PJK Zacharias ... The effect of sample size on the precision and accuracy of parameters of sward height distributions was examined by drawing sub-samples (n = 10) of increasing sample size ...

  20. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...

  1. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  2. Height-Diameter Predictive Equations for Rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the resulting models and curves agreed with silvicultural expectation of sigmoidal growth functions; and can provide dependable cum flexible options of predicting heights, given dbh for many plantation species in Nigeria. Keywords: height-diameter equations, allometric models, predictive equations, sigmoidal ...

  3. Genetically-Predicted Adult Height and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Traylor, Matthew; Burgess, Stephen; Markus, Hugh S

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have linked increased adult height with better cognitive performance and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear whether the associations are due to shared biological processes that influence height and AD or due to confounding by early life exposures or environmental factors. To use a genetic approach to investigate the association between adult height and AD. We selected 682 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height at genome-wide significance (p statistics for each of these SNPs on AD were obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 controls. The estimate of the association between genetically predicted height and AD was calculated using the inverse-variance weighted method. The odds ratio of AD was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.95; p = 9.8×10-5) per one standard deviation increase (about 6.5 cm) in genetically predicted height based on 682 SNPs, which were clustered in 419 loci. In an analysis restricted to one SNP from each height-associated locus (n = 419 SNPs), the corresponding OR was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97; p = 4.8×10-3). This finding suggests that biological processes that influence adult height may have a role in the etiology of AD.

  4. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Avdicová, Mária; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, José R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Mauro V.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batista, Rosangela L.; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Benet, Mikhail; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bi, HongSheng; Bi, Yufang; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boddy, Lynne M.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boeing, Heiner; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bongard, Vanina; Bovet, Pascal; Braeckman, Lutgart; Bragt, Marjolijn Ce; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Hb As; Bugge, Anna; Burns, Con; León, Antonio Cabrera de; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Cama, Tilema; Cameron, Christine; Camolas, José; Can, Günay; Cândido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Christensen, Kaare; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dankner, Rachel; Dauchet, Luc; Backer, Guy De; Bacquer, Dirk De; Gaetano, Giovanni de; Henauw, Stefaan De; Smedt, Delphine De; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Héléne; Delpeuch, Francis; Deschamps, Valérie; Dhana, Klodian; Castelnuovo, Augusto F. Di; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Ha Tp; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Döring, Angela; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Dzerve, Vilnis; Egbagbe, E.; Eggertsen, Robert; Ekelund, Ulf; Ati, Jalila El; Elliott, Paul; Engle-Stone, Reina; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Peña, Jorge Escobedo-de la; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Flores, Eric Monterubio; Föger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gafencu, Mihai; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Gonçalves, Helen; Gross, Marcela Gonzalez; Rivas, Juan P. González; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dušan; Grajda, Aneta; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grøntved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Xiuhua; Guo, Yin; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Halkjær, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Cadena, Leticia Hernandez; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Hu, Yonghua; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamil, Kazi M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Joffres, Michel; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Jureša, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kapantais, Efthymios; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kemper, Han Cg; Kengne, Andre P.; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khaw, Kay-Tee H.; Khouw, Ilse Msl; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Klimont, Jeannette; Klumbiene, Jurate; Koirala, Bhawesh; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Koziel, Slawomir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kujala, Urho M.; Kula, Krzysztof; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen; Le, Tuyen D.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Liu, Jing; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, José Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George Ll; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Ano, Dianna J.; Maire, Bernard; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Markey, Oonagh; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Martorell, Reynaldo; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mazur, Artur; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McKee, Martin; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McNulty, Breige A.; Yusof, Safiah Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Mensink, Gert Bm; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Mi, Jie; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Molbo, Drude; Møller, Niels C.; Molnár, Dénes; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio, Eric A.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Mu, Thet Thet; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Musil, Vera; Nagel, Gabriele; Nakamura, Harunobu; Jana, Námešná; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nankap, Martin; Narake, Sameer; Navarrete Muñoz, Eva Maria; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Neovius, Martin; Nervi, Flavio; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto Martínez, Ramfis E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Norat, Teresa; Noto, Davide; Nsour, Mohannad Al; O'Reilly, Dermot; Oh, Kyungwon; Olayan, Iman H.; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Oltarzewski, Maciej; Omar, Mohd A.; Onat, Altan; Ordunez, Pedro; Ortiz, Ana P.; Osler, Merete; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palloni, Alberto; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Peykari, Niloofar; Pham, Son Thai; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pistelli, Francesco; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Poh, Bee Koon; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen Lp; Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puiu, Maria; Tartu, Margus Punab; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bao, Tran Quoc; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahmudur; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramke, Jacqueline; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Sanjay; Rasmussen, Finn; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Rigo, Fernando; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, María del Cristo; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Romaguera, Dora; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Rosengren, Annika; Rouse, Ian; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rühli, Frank J.; Rui, Ornelas; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Horimoto, Andrea Rv Russo; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Salanave, Benoit; Martinez, Eduardo Salazar; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Sandjaja, N. N.; Sans, Susana; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, Osvaldo; Santos, Renata Nunes Dos; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Scazufca, Marcia; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Schneider, Ione J.; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Silva, Antonio M.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugéne; Söderberg, Stefan; Soekatri, Moesijanti Ye; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Soric, Maroje; Jérome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Staub, Kaspar; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stöckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stratton, Gareth; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sundström, Johan; Sung, Yn-Tz; Sunyer, Jordi; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Sy, Rody G.; Szponar, Lucjan; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tang, Line; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarp, Jakob; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne; Tchibindat, Félicité; Theobald, Holger; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topór-Madry, Roman; Torrent, Maties; Toselli, Stefania; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trinh, Oanh Th; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ukoli, Flora Am; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu Mt; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Vale, Susana; Valvi, Damaskini; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Herck, Koen Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Rossem, Lenie van; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Victora, Cesar G.; Viegi, Giovanni; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Sari; Vrdoljak, Ana; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, JianFeng; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yardim, Nazan; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, Qi Sheng; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad F.; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zambon, Sabina; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Dan; Zimmermann, Esther; Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  5. Variation of boundary-layer wind spectra with height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Petersen, Erik L.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2018-01-01

    This study revisits the height dependence of the wind speed power spectrum from the synoptic scale to the spectral gap. Measurements from cup anemometers and sonics at heights of 15 m to 244 m are used. The measurements are from one land site, one coastal land‐based site and three offshore sites ...

  6. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  7. Validity of self-reported height and weight among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Melkevik, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach for investigating bias in self-reported data on height and weight among adolescents by studying the relevance of participants' self-reported response capability. The objectives were 1) to estimate the prevalence of students with high and low self-reported response...... adolescents' response capability is of importance for the accuracy and precision of self-reported height and weight. Also, the study investigated the impact of students' response capability on estimating prevalence rates of overweight....... capability for weight and height in a self-administrated questionnaire survey among 11--15 year old Danish adolescents, 2) to estimate the proportion of missing values on self-reported height and weight in relation to capability for reporting height and weight, and 3) to investigate the extent to which...

  8. Association between height and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Skytthe, Axel

    2006-01-01

    An inverse association between height and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well demonstrated, but it is not known whether this association is because of genetic factors, socioeconomic background, or other environmental factors. Four population-based twin cohorts with register-based follow.......99 million person-years of follow-up. Cox and conditional logistic regression models were used. Per 1-standard deviation decrease in height, height was inversely associated with CHD mortality in men (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.12) and in women (hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% CI: 1...... = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.28). The inverse association between height and CHD mortality found within monozygotic discordant twin pairs suggests that this association is because of environmental factors that directly affect height and CHD risk....

  9. The value of male height in the marriage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007, this paper estimates the value of relative height (relative to the spouse's height) in the marriage market of a developing country. The results indicate that the value of a 1cm reduction in the husband's height relative to his wife's height is about 3% of his earnings. 3% of the mean of yearly earnings amounts to Rp. 492,000 or US$54 in 2007. That value is reduced to 1% when earnings-generating attributes are controlled for. This difference of 2% points can be considered the value that women attach to their husbands' earnings-generating attributes; meanwhile, the remaining 1% suggests that there are still other attributes that women look for in male height. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plantar fascia coronal length: a new parameter for plantar fascia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ahmet Sinan; Demircay, Emre; Cakmak, Gokhan; Sahin, M Sukru; Tuncay, I Cengiz; Altun, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and various anthropometric variables were previously reported as significant predictors of plantar fascia thickness. Although a strong correlation between either the body weight or body mass index (BMI) and plantar fascia thickness were not demonstrated, a moderate relation was stated. We retrospectively investigated the role of gender, height, weight, and body mass index on plantar fascia thickness at the calcaneal origin (PFCO) and 1 cm distal from the calcaneal origin (PF1cm) and the coronal length of the plantar fascia at the calcaneal origin (CLPF) in healthy subjects. The PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF were retrospectively measured from magnetic resonance images of 100 healthy subjects. The gender, height, weight, and body mass index of the participants were also noted. Gender was a predictive factor for the length of the CLPF. The subjects with a BMI >25 kg/m(2) had a significantly greater PFCO, PF1cm, and CLPF. Height was mildly and BMI and weight were moderately related to the PFCO. However the CLPF showed a better correlation with height, BMI, and weight than that of plantar fascia thickness. CLPF better reflected the role of weight, BMI, and height than its thickness. It is a new parameter that could be valuable in the evaluation of plantar fascia disorders. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  12. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National

  13. Standardizing Scale Height Computation of Maven Ngims Neutral Data and Variations Between Exobase and Homeopause Scale Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, M. K.; Slipski, M.; Curry, S.; Williamson, H. N.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The MAVEN NGIMS team produces a level 3 product which includes the computation of Ar scale height an atmospheric temperatures at 200 km. In the latest version (v05_r01) this has been revised to include scale height fits for CO2, N2 O and CO. Members of the MAVEN team have used various methods to compute scale heights leading to significant variations in scale height values depending on fits and techniques within a few orbits even, occasionally, the same pass. Additionally fitting scale heights in a very stable atmosphere like the day side vs night side can have different results based on boundary conditions. Currently, most methods only compute Ar scale heights as it is most stable and reacts least with the instrument. The NGIMS team has chosen to expand these fitting techniques to include fitted scale heights for CO2, N2, CO, and O. Having compared multiple techniques, the method found to be most reliable for most conditions was determined to be a simple fit method. We have focused this to a fitting method that determines the exobase altidude of the CO2 atmosphere as a maximum altitude for the highest point for fitting, and uses the periapsis as the lowest point and then fits the altitude versus log(density). The slope of altitude vs log(density) is -1/H where H is the scale height of the atmosphere for each species. Since this is between the homeopause and the exobase, each species will have a different scale height by this point. This is being released as a new standardization for the level 3 product, with the understanding that scientists and team members will continue to compute more precise scale heights and temperatures as needed based on science and model demands. This is being released in the PDS NGIMS level 3 v05 files for August 2017. Additionally, we are examining these scale heights for variations seasonally, diurnally, and above and below the exobase. The atmosphere is significantly more stable on the dayside than on the nightside. We have also found

  14. Accuracy of vertical height measurements on direct digital panoramic radiographs using posterior mandibular implants and metal balls as reference objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, L; Nizamaldin, Y; Combescure, C; Nedir, R; Bischof, M; Dohan Ehrenfest, DM; Carrel, J-P; Belser, UC

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Conventional panoramic radiography, a widely used radiographic examination tool in implant treatment planning, allows evaluation of the available bone height before inserting posterior mandibular implants. Image distortion and vertical magnification due to projection geometry is well described for rotational panoramic radiographs. To assess the accuracy of vertical height measurements on direct digital panoramic radiographs, implants and metal balls positioned in the posterior mandible were used as radio-opaque reference objects. The reproducibility of the measuring method was assessed by the inter- and intraobserver agreements. Methods: Direct digital panoramic radiographs, performed using a Kodak 8000C (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY), of 17 partially edentulous patients (10 females, 7 males, mean age 65 years) were selected from an X-ray database gathered during routine clinical evaluation of implant sites. Proprietary software and a mouse-driven calliper were used to measure the radiological length of 25 implants and 18 metal reference balls, positioned in mandibular posterior segments. The distortion ratio (DR) was calculated by dividing the radiological implant length by the implant's real length and the radiological ball height by the ball's real height. Results: Mean vertical DR was 0.99 for implants and 0.97 for balls, and was unrelated to mandibular sites, side, age, gender or observer. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were acceptable for both reference objects. Conclusions: Vertical measurements had acceptable accuracy and reproducibility when a software-based calibrated measurement tool was used, confirming that digital panoramic radiography can be reliably utilized to determine the pre-operative implant length in premolar and molar mandibular segments. PMID:23360688

  15. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand straddles the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, two of Earth's major crustal plates. The two plates generally converge in subduction zones, but in a scissor-like pattern, with the Indo-Austalian plate overriding the Pacific plate to the north and the Pacific plate overriding the Indo-Australian plate to the south. New Zealand is 'what happens' in between at and near the cross point of this scissor pattern. Here the convergence has built two major islands that together exhibit very active volcanoes and fault systems, and these geologic features are very evident in the topographic pattern. The North Island lies at the southern end of the west-over-east (Indo-Australian over Pacific) plate convergence. The Pacific plate dives under the North Island and this subduction process leads to melting of rocks at depth, the rise of magma to the surface, and the formation of volcanoes and other geothermal features. Most notable are Mount Taranaki on the west coast, and Mounts Ruapehu, Ngauruhoe, and Tongariro just south of the island's centerpoint, all of which are shown with white peaks in this display. The Rotorua geothermal field occurs further northeast and is evident here as a scattering of comparatively small bumps created by smaller volcanic eruptions. The South Island straddles the cross point of the subduction scissor pattern and prominently features a fault system that connects the two subduction zones. (The east-over-west (Pacific over Indo-Australian) plate convergence generally occurs south of the South Island.) The Alpine fault is the major strand of this fault system along most of the length of the island, near and generally paralleling the west coast. Its impact upon the topography is unmistakable, forming an extremely sharp and straight northwest boundary to New Zealand's tallest mountains, the Southern Alps. Although offsets on the Alpine fault are generally right-lateral (35-40 millimeters per year) and thus consistent

  17. An analysis of the relationship between bodily injury severity and fall height in victims of fatal falls from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Teresiński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.

  18. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Robust Analysis of Network-Based Real-Time Kinematic for GNSS-Derived Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Suk Bae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New guidelines and procedures for real-time (RT network-based solutions are required in order to support Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS derived heights. Two kinds of experiments were carried out to analyze the performance of the network-based real-time kinematic (RTK solutions. New test marks were installed in different surrounding environments, and the existing GPS benchmarks were used for analyzing the effect of different factors, such as baseline lengths, antenna types, on the final accuracy and reliability of the height estimation. The RT solutions are categorized into three groups: single-base RTK, multiple-epoch network RTK (mRTN, and single-epoch network RTK (sRTN. The RTK solution can be biased up to 9 mm depending on the surrounding environment, but there was no notable bias for a longer reference base station (about 30 km In addition, the occupation time for the network RTK was investigated in various cases. There is no explicit bias in the solution for different durations, but smoother results were obtained for longer durations. Further investigation is needed into the effect of changing the occupation time between solutions and into the possibility of using single-epoch solutions in precise determination of heights by GNSS.

  20. Spectral decomposition of internal gravity wave sea surface height in global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Anna C.; Arbic, Brian K.; Alford, Matthew H.; Ansong, Joseph K.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Menemenlis, Dimitris; O'Rourke, Amanda K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Voet, Gunnar; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Two global ocean models ranging in horizontal resolution from 1/12° to 1/48° are used to study the space and time scales of sea surface height (SSH) signals associated with internal gravity waves (IGWs). Frequency-horizontal wavenumber SSH spectral densities are computed over seven regions of the world ocean from two simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and three simulations of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). High wavenumber, high-frequency SSH variance follows the predicted IGW linear dispersion curves. The realism of high-frequency motions (>0.87 cpd) in the models is tested through comparison of the frequency spectral density of dynamic height variance computed from the highest-resolution runs of each model (1/25° HYCOM and 1/48° MITgcm) with dynamic height variance frequency spectral density computed from nine in situ profiling instruments. These high-frequency motions are of particular interest because of their contributions to the small-scale SSH variability that will be observed on a global scale in the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite altimetry mission. The variance at supertidal frequencies can be comparable to the tidal and low-frequency variance for high wavenumbers (length scales smaller than ˜50 km), especially in the higher-resolution simulations. In the highest-resolution simulations, the high-frequency variance can be greater than the low-frequency variance at these scales.

  1. Robust Analysis of Network-Based Real-Time Kinematic for GNSS-Derived Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae-Suk; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; Mader, Gerald; Dennis, Michael

    2015-10-26

    New guidelines and procedures for real-time (RT) network-based solutions are required in order to support Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived heights. Two kinds of experiments were carried out to analyze the performance of the network-based real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions. New test marks were installed in different surrounding environments, and the existing GPS benchmarks were used for analyzing the effect of different factors, such as baseline lengths, antenna types, on the final accuracy and reliability of the height estimation. The RT solutions are categorized into three groups: single-base RTK, multiple-epoch network RTK (mRTN), and single-epoch network RTK (sRTN). The RTK solution can be biased up to 9 mm depending on the surrounding environment, but there was no notable bias for a longer reference base station (about 30 km) In addition, the occupation time for the network RTK was investigated in various cases. There is no explicit bias in the solution for different durations, but smoother results were obtained for longer durations. Further investigation is needed into the effect of changing the occupation time between solutions and into the possibility of using single-epoch solutions in precise determination of heights by GNSS.

  2. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  3. Nutrient enrichment shifts mangrove height distribution: Implications for coastal woody encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Carolyn A; Armitage, Anna R

    2018-01-01

    Global changes, such as increased temperatures and elevated CO2, are driving shifts in plant species distribution and dominance, like woody plant encroachment into grasslands. Local factors within these ecotones can influence the rate of regime shifts. Woody encroachment is occurring worldwide, though there has been limited research within coastal systems, where mangrove (woody shrub/tree) stands are expanding into salt marsh areas. Because coastal systems are exposed to various degrees of nutrient input, we investigated how nutrient enrichment may locally impact mangrove stand expansion and salt marsh displacement over time. We fertilized naturally co-occurring Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) stands in Port Aransas, TX, an area experiencing mangrove encroachment within the Northern Gulf of Mexico mangrove-marsh ecotone. After four growing seasons (2010-2013) of continuous fertilization, Avicennia was more positively influenced by nutrient enrichment than Spartina. Most notably, fertilized plots had a higher density of taller (> 0.5 m) mangroves and mangrove maximum height was 46% taller than in control plots. Fertilization may promote an increase in mangrove stand expansion within the mangrove-marsh ecotone by shifting Avicennia height distribution. Avicennia individuals, which reach certain species-specific height thresholds, have reduced negative neighbor effects and have higher resilience to freezing temperatures, which may increase mangrove competitive advantage over marsh grass. Therefore, we propose that nutrient enrichment, which augments mangrove height, could act locally as a positive feedback to mangrove encroachment, by reducing mangrove growth suppression factors, thereby accelerating the rates of increased mangrove coverage and subsequent marsh displacement. Areas within the mangrove-marsh ecotone with high anthropogenic nutrient input may be at increased risk of a regime shift from grass to woody

  4. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  5. Should children with overweight or obesity be excluded from height references?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Brannsether, Bente; Kristiansen, Hege; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Bjerknes, Robert; Roelants, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Growth reference charts are usually based on measurements of children free from a medical condition that affects growth. However, samples collected during the past decades often contain a large proportion of overweight or obese children. Because obesity increases linear growth, the question arises to what extent the percentiles curves for length/height are affected by the presence of children with overweight or obesity. Data from two cross-sectional samples of 2-year-old to 18-year-old children were analysed: 12,252 Belgian children, measured in 2002-2004, and 6159 Norwegian children, measured in 2003-2006. The LMS method was used to estimate height-for-age curves with and without children considered overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Task Force thresholds. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity was 13.0% and 2.8% in the Belgian and 13.8% and 2.3% in the Norwegian sample. Children were taller when overweight (+0.49 and 0.43 SD, in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively) or obese (+0.73 and 0.72 SD in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively). Effect sizes were smaller in younger and older children, which points to an advanced age of maturation as a possible cause. Excluding overweight and obese children had only a minor impact on the growth curves with largest difference in mean height SD scores -0.09 in the Belgian and -0.12 in the Norwegian sample with a corresponding increase of up to 0.5% and 1.2% in number of children >+2 SD. Current Belgian and Norwegian growth references for length/height were found to be largely unaffected by the current proportion of overweight and obese children. There is, therefore, no need for revised height charts that exclude overweight or obese children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  7. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  8. Optimization of fall height setting for drop weight tested polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylova Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with polypropylene (PP which was subjected the drop-weight test. PP is a semicrystalline thermoplastic polymer which is commonly used in many indoor applications and also in the automotive industry in the car interiors. The injection moulded PP samples were subjected the penetration test at different fall heights and the results were subsequently evaluated and discussed. It was found out that the fall heights from 100 to 230 J are suitable for PP penetration, but the optimal one is 100 J. Higher heights are not needed because of increasing power consumption of the test device.

  9. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of almost 25000 observation of the wave height from ships in the North Atlantic shows that the encountered wave height distribution is significantly lower than the distribution provided by the classification societies for structural assessment. The joint probability distribution...... for the significant wave height, the relative speed and the ship heading relative to the wave direction is given. This distribution shows that for higher waves the crews avoid sailing in following sea and as expected the speed is decreased in higher waves. There is, however, still a relatively high probability...

  10. Single-cell telomere-length quantification couples telomere length to meristem activity and stem cell development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Mary-Paz; Pavelescu, Irina; Canela, Andrés; Sevillano, Xavier; Leehy, Katherine A; Nelson, Andrew D L; Ibañes, Marta; Shippen, Dorothy E; Blasco, Maria A; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2015-05-12

    Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein caps that protect chromosome ends assuring cell division. Single-cell telomere quantification in animals established a critical role for telomerase in stem cells, yet, in plants, telomere-length quantification has been reported only at the organ level. Here, a quantitative analysis of telomere length of single cells in Arabidopsis root apex uncovered a heterogeneous telomere-length distribution of different cell lineages showing the longest telomeres at the stem cells. The defects in meristem and stem cell renewal observed in tert mutants demonstrate that telomere lengthening by TERT sets a replicative limit in the root meristem. Conversely, the long telomeres of the columella cells and the premature stem cell differentiation plt1,2 mutants suggest that differentiation can prevent telomere erosion. Overall, our results indicate that telomere dynamics are coupled to meristem activity and continuous growth, disclosing a critical association between telomere length, stem cell function, and the extended lifespan of plants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cutting intervals and heights in forage productivity of Moringa oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Trejo O.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Moringa oleifera as fodder is due to its good nutritional characteristics and high yield of fresh biomass. Eastern Yucatan, Mexico has favorable soil and climatic conditions for its establishment. The aim of this work was to estimate forage productivity of Moringa oleifera in two cutting intervals and three different heights. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Site of Tizimín fron the National Institute of Forest, Agricultural and lLvestock Researches (INIFAP. The experimental units were placed in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement and four replications. Forage yield was quantified and foliage samples were taken for DM content. Significant differences (p0.05 were found. In conclusion, during the evaluation of Moringa oleifera, it was found that the best performance in this work is obtained when the cuts on the soles are made every 60 days at a height of 40 cm (1.9119 t ha-1 cut-1; however, more agronomic studies of this plant are recommended in the eastern Yucatan, such as: planting density, arrangement, partnerships with other shrub species in the region, rain and dry periods, in order to have a viable and profitable option forage productivity of this plant.

  12. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  13. Burst pressure of phaseguide structures of different heights in all-polymer microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Francesca; Kistrup, Kasper; Rizzi, Giovanni; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-12-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the burst/overflow pressure of water and a representative surfactant-containing buffer in microfluidic channels with phaseguide structures oriented at an angle of 90° to the channel length as a function of their height, h . The all-polymer chips were fabricated by injection moulding and sealed by ultrasonic welding. Channels with a height of 200 μ m and widths of 1 mm or 3 mm were investigated for five values of h between 8 μ m and 82 μ m. Phaseguide structures without branches and with branches at angles α   =  45°, 60° and 75° were studied. All phaseguide structures were found able to pin both liquids and the burst pressure was found to increase approximately linearly with the height of the phaseguide from about 100-350 Pa for water and from about 25-200 Pa for the buffer. The burst pressure was found not to depend on the channel width and it was only weakly influenced by the presence of a branch on the phaseguide. For phaseguides with a branch, the liquid was always found to burst at the branch location. The measured burst pressures were compared to those estimated using a simple theory. The knowledge obtained in this study enables simple tuning of liquid spreading and overflow in microfluidic channels by use of phaseguide structures with different heights and it also provides a set of systematic experimental data to be compared with simulations/theory.

  14. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  16. OW AVISO Sea-Surface Height & Niiler Climatology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface height measurements collected by means of the TOPEX/Poseidon/ERS, JASON-1/Envisat, and Jason-2/Envisat satellite...

  17. Sodar detection of mixing height in flat and mountainous terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennemuth, B [Consulting Meteorologist, Hamburg (Germany); Kirtzel, H-Juergen [METEK GmbH, Elmshorn (Germany)], E-mail: barbara.hennemuth@zmaw.de

    2008-05-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer plays an important role in air pollution and dispersion problems because the transport processes are managed within this layer and its top limits the vertical exchange of pollutants. A method for the derivation of the mixing height from measurements of sodar, RASS and sonic anemometer-thermometer is presented for flat terrain. It does not only use vertical profiles of measured parameters but also bulk information like histograms and time evolution. Results from a two-years period are verified by radiosonde-derived mixing height values and show the potential of the combination of the three systems to monitor the mixing height. Difficulties arise at locations in mountainous terrain where thermal wind regimes dominate which are highly non-local. An additional problem is a strong local heat source at an industrial site where even the definition of the mix