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Sample records for length markedly influences

  1. Laser glass marking: influence of pulse characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolo, Ana; Coelho, João; Pires, Margarida

    2005-09-01

    Laser glass marking is currently used in several glass materials for different purposes, such as bar codes for product tracking, brand logos or just decoration. Systems with a variety of different laser sources, with inherent power ranges, wavelengths and pulse regimes have been used, namely CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer, Ti-Sapphire lasers. CO2 Lasers systems, although being a reliable tool for materials processing, and very compact in the case of sealed low power lasers, are usually associated with a localized thermal loading on the material, causing brittle materials like glass to crack around the irradiated area. In this experimental study a pulsed CO2 laser was used to direct marking the glass surface. The temporal characteristics of the laser pulse--pulse length, period and duty cycle were varied, and glass materials with different thermal properties were used in order to correlate the marking process--cracking or softening with or without material removal with the laser and material characteristics. Glass materials with major industrial application, such as soda-lima, borosilicate (PYREX) glasses and crystal have been investigated. Laser marked areas have been characterized in terms of surface optical properties, like diffuse and direct reflectance and transmittance for white light, directly related with marked surface quality.

  2. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  3. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P

  4. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... increased with the number of recording days and was minimum 10 % higher for 7 days compared to 4 days. The number of eating occasions per day and the number of reported food items per meal did not differ between 4 and 7 recording days. Conclusion: Reducing the recording period from 7 to 4 consecutive days...... did not change EI/BMR at group level. Still a study effect seemed to occur in the two population samples resulting in lower estimates of EI/BMR day 1-2. The proportion of consumers was higher with a 7-day recording. These results support a reporting period from 4-7 days....

  5. Problems associated with pooling mark-recapture data prior to estimating stopover length for migratory passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara R. Morris; Erica M. Turner; David A. Liebner; Amanda M. Larracuente; H. David Sheets

    2005-01-01

    One measure of the importance of a stopover site is the length of time that migrants spend at an area, however measuring the time birds spend at a stopover site has proven difficult. Most banding studies have presented only minimum length of stopover, based on the difference between initial capture and final recapture of birds that are captured more than once. Cormack-...

  6. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  7. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  8. Factors influencing survival and mark retention in postmetamorphic boreal chorus frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jennifer E; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Funk, W. Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ability to track individual animals is crucial in many field studies and often requires applying marks to captured individuals. Toe clipping has historically been a standard marking method for wild amphibian populations, but more recent marking methods include visual implant elastomer and photo identification. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the influence and effectiveness of marking methods for recently metamorphosed individuals and as a result little is known about this life-history phase for most amphibians. Our focus was to explore survival probabilities, mark retention, and mark migration in postmetamorphic Boreal Chorus Frogs (Psuedacris maculata) in a laboratory setting. One hundred forty-seven individuals were assigned randomly to two treatment groups or a control group. Frogs in the first treatment group were marked with visual implant elastomer, while frogs in the second treatment group were toe clipped. Growth and mortality were recorded for one year and resulting data were analyzed using known-fate models in Program MARK. Model selection results suggested that survival probabilities of frogs varied with time and showed some variation among marking treatments. We found that frogs with multiple toes clipped on the same foot had lower survival probabilities than individuals in other treatments, but individuals can be marked by clipping a single toe on two different feet without any mark loss or negative survival effects. Individuals treated with visual implant elastomer had a mark migration rate of 4% and mark loss rate of 6%, and also showed very little negative survival impacts relative to control individuals.

  9. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K; Greenwood, Sabrina; McKay, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual's health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions toward a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  10. Chromosome length influences replication-induced topological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Andreas; Betts-Lindroos, Hanna; Kanno, Takaharu; Jeppsson, Kristian; Ström, Lena; Katou, Yuki; Itoh, Takehiko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Sjögren, Camilla

    2011-03-17

    During chromosome duplication the parental DNA molecule becomes overwound, or positively supercoiled, in the region ahead of the advancing replication fork. To allow fork progression, this superhelical tension has to be removed by topoisomerases, which operate by introducing transient DNA breaks. Positive supercoiling can also be diminished if the advancing fork rotates along the DNA helix, but then sister chromatid intertwinings form in its wake. Despite these insights it remains largely unknown how replication-induced superhelical stress is dealt with on linear, eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we show that this stress increases with the length of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes. This highlights the possibility that superhelical tension is handled on a chromosome scale and not only within topologically closed chromosomal domains as the current view predicts. We found that inhibition of type I topoisomerases leads to a late replication delay of longer, but not shorter, chromosomes. This phenotype is also displayed by cells expressing mutated versions of the cohesin- and condensin-related Smc5/6 complex. The frequency of chromosomal association sites of the Smc5/6 complex increases in response to chromosome lengthening, chromosome circularization, or inactivation of topoisomerase 2, all having the potential to increase the number of sister chromatid intertwinings. Furthermore, non-functional Smc6 reduces the accumulation of intertwined sister plasmids after one round of replication in the absence of topoisomerase 2 function. Our results demonstrate that the length of a chromosome influences the need of superhelical tension release in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and allow us to propose a model where the Smc5/6 complex facilitates fork rotation by sequestering nascent chromatid intertwinings that form behind the replication machinery.

  11. Cut marks on bone surfaces: influences on variation in the form of traces of ancient behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David R; Pante, Michael; Archer, William

    2016-06-06

    Although we know that our lineage has been producing sharp-edged tools for over 2.6 Myr, our knowledge of what they were doing with these tools is far less complete. Studies of these sharp-edged stone tools show that they were most probably used as cutting implements. However, the only substantial evidence of this is the presence of cut marks on the bones of animals found in association with stone tools in ancient deposits. Numerous studies have aimed to quantify the frequency and placement of these marks. At present there is little consensus on the meaning of these marks and how the frequency relates to specific behaviours in the past. Here we investigate the possibility that mechanical properties associated with edges of stone tools as well as the properties of bones themselves may contribute to the overall morphology of these marks and ultimately their placement in the archaeological record. Standardized tests of rock mechanics (Young's modulus and Vickers hardness) indicate that the hardness of tool edges significantly affects cut-mark morphology. In addition, we show that indentation hardness of bones also impacts the overall morphology of cut marks. Our results show that rock type and bone portions influence the shape and prevalence of cut marks on animal bones.

  12. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  13. Length of internship influences performance on medical residency exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar de Souza; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório

    2009-01-01

    Medical education encompasses globally diverse context and conditions. The Brazilian scenario seemed a natural environment to study the influence of medical education programs and internship duration on the entrance exam for medical residency. This investigation evaluates some methods used during the entrance exam for medical residency as a means to make a distinction between candidates with longer clerkships. Candidates selected for a residency program performed a multiple-choice (MC), an open question (OQ) and OSCE-like tests, an interview and a curriculum analysis for participation in scientific meetings, papers published and voluntary activities. Groups were compared for gender, year of graduation, tests and OSCE scores. Participants were distributed into two groups based on clerkship duration: 2 years or less than 2 years. There was no difference for the MCT score among groups or any of the activities from interview and curriculum analysis. The 2 years clerkship group showed significantly higher OQ (p=0.009) and OSCE-like affective (p=0.025) and knowledge (p=0.002) scores. The OSCE test identified some aspects related to competence acquisition and assessed basic skills and attitudes essential to the supervised practice of medicine during residency. OSCE discriminated aspects not perceived by the sole use of knowledge tests.

  14. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings

    OpenAIRE

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. Methods The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived paren...

  15. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  16. The Influence of Spring Length on the Physical Parameters of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of spring length on the simple harmonic motion of a spring-mass system. In particular, we study the effect of changing the spring length on the elastic constant "[kappa]", the angular frequency "[omega]" and the damping factor "[gamma]" of the oscillations. To characterize the behaviour of these…

  17. The influence of text length and prior knowledge on the testing effect in meaningful learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kester, L. (2012, 14 June). The influence of text length and prior knowledge on the testing effect in meaningful learning. Presentation at plenary meeting Learning and Cognition, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  18. Influence of fiber post cementation length on coronal microleakage values in vitro and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoli, Cásar Dalmolin; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Balducci, Ivan; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; de Araújo, Maria Amália Méximo; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate, the Influence of different fiber posts cementation lengths by finite element analysis (FEA) and coronal microleakage. Fifty anterior bovine teeth were sectioned to obtain roots with 16 mm length. The coronal length of the post was 6 mm for all groups, while the radicular length were varied 6, 8, 10 or 12 mm. The fiber posts surfaces were cleaned with alcohol and silanized. Then the posts were cemented using a two steps total etch-and-rinse adhesive system + conventional resin cement. Forty teeth were submitted to mechanical cycling (45°; 2.000.000 cycles; 90N; 4Hz; 37°C) and ten teeth with radicular length of 12 mm was not submitted, ser ving as c ontrol. So, the experimental design was composed by different ratios of post coronal length/post radicular length and mechanical cycling (MC): Gr1- 1/1 + MC; Gr2- 3/4 + MC; Gr3- 3/5 + MC; Gr4- 1/2 + MC. All groups were immersed in a 1% toluidine blue solution. After 24 hours, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the microleakage scores was given by a blind operator. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.05). The experimental variables were simulated in two-dimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA). The maximum principal stress distributions were compared. No difference was observed in microleakage values between the cycled groups, whilst the control groups showed the lowest values. FEA analysis showed similar maximum principal stress distribution between the groups. Mechanical cycling affected the values of coronal microleakage and different cementation length generated similar values of coronal microleakage and stress distribution. These results showed that from the microleakage point of view, more conservative cementation lengths have the same effect as longer cementation lengths.

  19. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark ...

  20. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

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    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  1. Influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient comfort and stability, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction. Material and Methods A retrospective clinical study was made of patients subjected to rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla with complete maxillary implant-supported fixed prostheses involving a minimum of two zygomatic implants (one on each side) in conjunction with premaxillary implants, and with 12 months of follow-up after implant loading. Subjects used a VAS to score general satisfaction, comfort and stability, speech and functionality, and the results were analyzed in relation to the prosthetic arm length of the zygomatic implants 12 months after prosthetic delivery. Results Twenty-two patients participated in the study, receiving 22 prostheses anchored on 148 implants (44 were zygomatic and 94 were conventional implants). The mean right and left prosthetic arm length was 5.9±2.4 mm and 6.1±2.7 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.576). The mean scores referred to comfort/retention, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction were high - no correlation being found between prosthetic arm length and patient satisfaction (p=0.815). Conclusions No relationship could be identified between prosthetic arm length (palatal position) and patient satisfaction. Key words:Zygomatic implants, patient satisfaction, zygomatic prosthesis, prosthetic arm length. PMID:26946206

  2. Peptide length significantly influences in vitro affinity for MHC class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cathal; Flower, Darren R; Feighery, Conleth

    2008-01-01

    Background Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules have an open-ended binding groove which can accommodate peptides of varying lengths. Several studies have demonstrated that peptide flanking residues (PFRs) which lie outside the core binding groove can influence peptide binding and T cell recognition. By using data from the AntiJen database we were able to characterise systematically the influence of PFRs on peptide affinity for MHC class II molecules. Results By analysing 1279 peptide elongation events covering 19 distinct HLA alleles it was observed that, in general, peptide elongation resulted in increased MHC class II molecule affinity. It was also possible to determine an optimal peptide length for MHC class II affinity of approximately 18–20 amino acids; elongation of peptides beyond this length resulted in a null or negative effect on affinity. Conclusion The observed relationship between peptide length and MHC class II affinity has significant implications for the design of vaccines and the study of the epitopic basis of immunological disease. PMID:19036163

  3. Influences of the shielding cylinder on the length of radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He-Ping; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Department of Engineering Physics Team

    2017-10-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma jets driven by a radio frequency power supply contain abundant species and complex chemical reactions, which have wide applications in the fields of materials processing and modifications, food engineering, bio-medical science, etc. Our previous experiments have shown that the total length of a radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma (RF-CAP) jet can exceed 1 meter with the shielding of a quartz tube. However, the shielding mechanisms of the solid cylinder has not been studied systematically. In this study, a two-dimensional, quasi-steady fluid model is used to investigate the influences of the shielding tube on the length of the RF-CAP jets under different conditions. The simulation results show that the total jet length grows monotonously; while simultaneously, the jet length out of the tube shows a non-monotonic variation trend, with the increase of the tube length, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. The shielding mechanisms of the solid cylinder on the RF-CAP jet is also discussed in detail based on the modeling results. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475103, 21627812), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0102106) and Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Program (20161080108).

  4. Influence of Stretching-Segment Storage Length on Urban Traffic Flow in Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent traffic control is influenced by Stretching-segment design, parameters optimization of traffic control have to consider saturation flow rate in approach. Many intersections with different stretching-segment design forms are selected to study on saturation flow rate at peak rush hour and ordinary time hour, the characteristic of saturation flow rate in green time is analyzed. Based on the real traffic situation, the influence of the length of stretching-segment storage to straight-cross flow rate was explored in this study. The data showed that the duration and stability of saturation flow rate were highly influenced by the length of stretching-segment storage. A probabilistic computing model was proposed, which analyzed the effect of the length of stretching-segment to the flow rate and described the impact of vehicles in the upstream. Finally, the attenuate regulation of the straight-cross flow rate in green phase is developed by the analysis of vehicle's blocking.

  5. Influence of femtosecond laser marking on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette, S. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France)]. E-mail: stephane.valette@ec-lyon.fr; Steyer, P. [INSA de Lyon, LPCI, 20 Av. A. Einstein, F69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Richard, L. [Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, Centre CIS, 158 cours Fauriel, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Forest, B. [Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, Centre CIS, 158 cours Fauriel, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Donnet, C. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Audouard, E. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France)

    2006-04-30

    Marking is of prime importance in the field of biomaterials to allow the identification of surgical tools as well as prostheses. Nowadays, marking is often achieved by means of laser beam, which may modify the characteristics of the treated surfaces. The use of laser devices delivering nanosecond pulses is known to induce dramatic corrosion degradations during sterilization or decontamination processes of the biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to investigate the ability of femtosecond (pulse duration in the 10{sup -15} s range) laser treatments to avoid preferential corrosion processes of the marked areas, in order to extend the durability and the reliability of biomaterials. Experiments have been performed on martensitic Z30C13 and austenitic 316L stainless steels. Electrochemical measurements (cyclic polarization curves) were carried out to determine the passive state of samples before and after engraving, their corrosion rate and their susceptibility to localized corrosion. Further protracted immersion tests were also carried out to evaluate the natural long-term degradation of engraved parts. The electrochemical behavior is then explained on the basis of surface characterizations. Femtosecond laser marking is shown to provide an electrochemical ennoblement. Moreover, the chemical composition is not affected so that the passive character of both stainless steels is maintained, even improved if we consider the susceptibility to localized corrosion.

  6. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; Silva, Juliana da; Rabaioli da Silva, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields is related to shorten telomere length. • The molecular mechanism of pesticide on telomere length is not fully understood. • Pesticides inhibit ubiquitin proteasome system. • Nicotine activates ubiquitin proteasome system. • Pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. - Abstract: Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity.

  7. Influence of double aging on microstructure and yield strength of AEREX Trade-Mark-Sign 350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermajani, Mozhgan, E-mail: m_kermajani@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Age hardening behavior of AEREX Trade-Mark-Sign 350 superalloy was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure is sensitive to the solution and the aging treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of the alloy can be optimized for different applications. - Abstract: Age hardening behavior of selected samples of AEREX Trade-Mark-Sign 350, a nickel-cobalt based superalloy, was investigated in this article. The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties was elucidated using hardness and compression testing methods and optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was found that the microstructure is sensitive to the temperature of the solution and the aging treatments. This approach may be used to optimize the microstructure of the alloy for different applications.

  8. Influence of core diameter and length of polymer optical fiber on Brillouin scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Ishigure, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Brillouin scattering in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PFGI-POFs) is potentially useful in developing high-accuracy distributed temperature sensors with reduced strain sensitivity. In this study, we investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the fiber core diameter and length on the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) in PFGI-POFs. First, we show that smaller core diameter drastically enhances the Stokes power using PFGI-POFs with 62.5-μm and 120-μm core diameters, and discuss the Brillouin threshold power. Then, we demonstrate that the PFGI-POF length has little influence on the BGS when the length is longer than 50 m. We also predict that, at 1.55-μm wavelength, it is difficult to reduce the Brillouin threshold power of PFGI-POFs below that of long silica single-mode fibers even if their core diameter is sufficiently reduced to satisfy the single-mode condition. Finally, making use of the enhanced Stokes signal, we confirm the Brillouin linewidth narrowing effect.

  9. The influence of humidity on accuracy length measurement on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madruga, Daniel González; Alexiou, A.; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental study of the influence of humidity on accurate length measurements on ABS parts. Polymer parts absorb water from the ambient until they reach hygroscopic equilibrium. Water content causes an expansion of the polymer part. The relationship between the water...... content and this expansion has been barely studied, especially from a metrology point of view including its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. The experimental set-up includes a humidity chamber, an invar fixture with 8 inductive probes and a scale. The humidity chamber was used to create...... parts were measured at 5 levels of relative humidity from 50 %RH to 90 %RH, and constant temperature, 20 ±0.2˚C. Water content equilibrium with the ambient was achieved at each level by acclimatization of the parts for 24 hours. An average length variation over the humidity range of 15 μm was found...

  10. Substrate and target sequence length influence RecTE(Psy recombineering efficiency in Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongmeng Bao

    Full Text Available We are developing a new recombineering system to assist experimental manipulation of the Pseudomonas syringae genome. P. syringae is a globally dispersed plant pathogen and an important model species used to study the molecular biology of bacteria-plant interactions. We previously identified orthologs of the lambda Red bet/exo and Rac recET genes in P. syringae and confirmed that they function in recombineering using ssDNA and dsDNA substrates. Here we investigate the properties of dsDNA substrates more closely to determine how they influence recombineering efficiency. We find that the length of flanking homologies and length of the sequences being inserted or deleted have a large effect on RecTE(Psy mediated recombination efficiency. These results provide information about the design elements that should be considered when using recombineering.

  11. Liposomes coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose: Influence of hydrophobic chain length and degree of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Gro; Nyström, Bo; Zhu, Kaizheng; Grønvold, Marthe Karoline; Røv-Johnsen, Anne; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticulate systems with an uncharged hydrophilic surface may have a great potential in mucosal drug delivery. In the present study liposomes were coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HM-HEC) to create a sterically stabilized liposomal system with an uncharged surface. The aim was to clarify the influence of the amount of hydrophobic modification of HEC and the length of the hydrophobic moiety, on the stability of the system and on the release properties. HM-HEC with different degrees of hydrophobic modification (1 and 2mol%) and hydrophobic groups with different chain lengths (C8, C12, C16) were included in the study, as well as fluid phase and gel phase liposomes. Both types of liposomes were successfully coated with HM-HEC containing 1mol% of hydrophobic groups, while 2mol% did not work for the intended pharmaceutical applications. The polymer coated gel phase liposomes were stable (size, zeta potential, leakage) for 24 weeks at 4°C, with no differences between the C8 and C16 HM-HEC coating. For the fluid phase liposomes a size increase was observed after 24 weeks at 4°C for all formulations; the C8 HM-HEC coated liposomes increased the most. No differences in the leakage during storage at 4°C or in the release at 35°C were observed between the fluid phase formulations. To conclude; HM-HEC with a shorter hydrophobic chain length resulted in a less stable product for the fluid phase liposomes, while no influence of the chain length was observed for the gel phase liposomes (1mol% HM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cut marks on bone surfaces: influences on variation in the form of traces of ancient behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, David R.; Pante, Michael; Archer, William

    2016-01-01

    Although we know that our lineage has been producing sharp-edged tools for over 2.6 Myr, our knowledge of what they were doing with these tools is far less complete. Studies of these sharp-edged stone tools show that they were most probably used as cutting implements. However, the only substantial evidence of this is the presence of cut marks on the bones of animals found in association with stone tools in ancient deposits. Numerous studies have aimed to quantify the frequency and placement o...

  13. Influence of the Length of the Lipooligosaccharide α Chain on Its Sialylation in Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chao-Ming; Kao, George; Zhu, Peixuan

    2002-01-01

    The sialylation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in Neisseria meningitidis plays a role in the resistance of the organism to killing by normal human serum. The length of the α chain extending out from the heptose I [Hep (I)] moiety of LOS influenced sialylation of N. meningitidis LOS in vitro and in vivo. The α chain required a terminal Gal and a trisaccharide or longer oligosaccharide to serve as an acceptor for sialylation. The disaccharide lactose (Galβ1-4Glc) in the α chain of immunotype L8 L...

  14. Factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings selected for safety inspections in the city of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Sørensen, Michael W J; Nævestad, Tor-Olav

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings in the city of Oslo, Norway. The sample consists of 159 marked pedestrian crossings where a total of 316 accidents were recorded during a period of five years. The crossings were selected for inspection because of they were, for various reasons, regarded as sub-standard. The sample of crossings is therefore not representative of all pedestrian crossings in Oslo. Factors influencing the number of accidents were studied by means of negative binomial regression. Factors that were studied included the volume of pedestrians and vehicles, the number of traffic lanes at the crossing, the location of the crossing (midblock or junction), the type of traffic control, the share of pedestrians using the crossing and the speed of approaching vehicles. The analysis confirmed the presence of a "safety-in-numbers" effect, meaning that an increase in the number of pedestrians is associated with a lower risk of accident for each pedestrian. Crossings located in four-leg junctions or roundabouts had more accidents than crossings located in three-leg junctions or on sections between junctions. A high share of pedestrians crossing the road outside the marked crossing was associated with a high number of accidents. Increased speed was associated with an increased number of accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermocouples calibration and analysis of the influence of the length of the sensor coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega, M; Ramírez, R; López, R; Vaca, M; Morales, J; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and construction of a lab prototype, with a much lower cost compared to the ones commercially sold, enabling the manufacture of thermocouples which are then calibrated to verify their functionality and acceptance. We also analyze the influence of the external insulation over the wires, to determine whether it influences temperature measurement. The tested lengths ranged from 0.00 m up to 0.030 m. The thermocouple was compared against the behavior of a thermocouple of the same type that was purchased with a commercial supplier. The obtained measurement showed less than 1 °C difference in some points. This makes the built thermocouple reliable, since the standard allows a difference of up to 2.2 °C

  16. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli

    Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  18. The influence of amplicon length on real-time PCR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debode, F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This paper discusses the influence of amplicon length on real-time PCR results. Objectives. The aim of the experiments was to show that amplicon size has an influence on detection. Method. Tests were performed on genomic and plasmid DNA. Double-dye probes and SYBR® Green were used for detection by real-time PCR. Primers were selected in order to produce fragments with increasing sizes. Experiments dealt with two targets: an endogenous target for soybean (part of the lectin gene and a transgenic target (junction P35S-CTP of the MON40-3-2 soybean. Results. The results show that the kinetics of amplification curves evolve as a function of amplicon length, and smaller amplicons yield a higher level of fluorescence for the plateau phase. DNA degradation within the sample as well as the principles of fluorescence acquisition as a function of the chemistry used can also be factors. Conclusions. It was experimentally shown that the observed effect is linked to the suboptimal elongation temperature used in real-time PCR. Detection using SYBR® Green is less impacted as the loss of efficiency is partially compensated by the greater integration of SYBR® Green molecules in the larger fragments.

  19. Quantifying cross-linguistic influence with a computational model : A study of case-marking comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is one of the key phenomena in bilingual and second language learning. We propose a method for quantifying CLI in the use of linguistic constructions with the help of a computational model, which acquires constructions in two languages from bilingual input. We focus

  20. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1 In general, the acceleration of each component of the coupled system decreases with the increase of slab length under the perfectly smooth track condition; (2 Slab length has different influence laws on acceleration of each component of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system under random irregularity of track condition. The lower the dominant frequency distribution of vibration acceleration is, the higher influence slab length has; (3 With the increase of slab length, the force of rail, fastener and steel spring also decreases significantly, which helps to lengthen the service life of these components; (4 With the increase of slab length, the longitudinal bending moment of slab increases sharply at first, then it begins to drop slightly. When slab length exceeds the distance between two bogies of a vehicle, the longitudinal bending moment of slab changes little; (5 Slab length has significant influence on the dynamic force and displacement of the coupled system when train speed is higher.

  1. INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF SENTENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF SPEECH DISFLUENCIES IN CHILDREN WHO STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Begić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the length of sentences has influence on the frequency of speech disfluencies for children who stutter. The participants included 30 children who stutter 19 male participants and 13 female participants, whose age ranged between 4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months (56 to 83 months of age. Research was conducted in kindergartens and primary schools in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina2 . The test consisted of 36 sentences. In relation to the length, sentences were divided into three groups: in the first group there were 9 sentences which included 3 to 5 words, in the second group, there were 14 sentences which included 6 to 8 words and in the third group there were 13 sentences which included 9 to 11 words. Testing was conducted so that the examiner was pronouncing one sentence after which the participant repeated the same sentence. Each participant was requested to repeat exactly what he/she had heard. Speech and language pathologist has recorded all speech disfluencies in all sentences. The results showed that the sentences containing 9 to 11 words had most effects on the overall dynamics of speech disfluencies in children who stutter. The results suggest that during the process of assessment and diagnosis of children who stutter, it should be required to assess the child's ability to use complex linguistic statements and to assess the frequency of disfluencies in relation to the complexity of the sentences. Precision diagnostics would provide guidelines for the treatment of stuttering in terms of implementation of approaches and strategies which include language treatment and gradually increasing the length and complexity of statements of children who stutter during speech.

  2. Influence of Screw Length and Bone Thickness on the Stability of Temporary Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jogaib Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the influence of screw length and bone thickness on the stability of temporary implants. A total of 96 self-drilling temporary screws with two different lengths were inserted into polyurethane blocks (n = 66, bovine femurs (n = 18 and rabbit tibia (n = 12 with different cortical thicknesses (1 to 8 mm. Screws insertion in polyurethane blocks was assisted by a universal testing machine, torque peaks were collected by a digital torquemeter and bone thickness was monitored by micro-CT. The results showed that the insertion torque was significantly increased with the thickness of cortical bone from polyurethane (p < 0.0001, bovine (p = 0.0035 and rabbit (p < 0.05 sources. Cancellous bone improved significantly the mechanical implant stability. Insertion torque and insertion strength was successfully moduled by equations, based on the cortical/cancellous bone behavior. Based on the results, insertion torque and bone strength can be estimate in order to prevent failure of the cortical layer during temporary screw placement. The stability provided by a cortical thickness of 2 or 1 mm coupled to cancellous bone was deemed sufficient for temporary implants stability.

  3. Influence of Screw Length and Bone Thickness on the Stability of Temporary Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of screw length and bone thickness on the stability of temporary implants. A total of 96 self-drilling temporary screws with two different lengths were inserted into polyurethane blocks (n = 66), bovine femurs (n = 18) and rabbit tibia (n = 12) with different cortical thicknesses (1 to 8 mm). Screws insertion in polyurethane blocks was assisted by a universal testing machine, torque peaks were collected by a digital torquemeter and bone thickness was monitored by micro-CT. The results showed that the insertion torque was significantly increased with the thickness of cortical bone from polyurethane (p < 0.0001), bovine (p = 0.0035) and rabbit (p < 0.05) sources. Cancellous bone improved significantly the mechanical implant stability. Insertion torque and insertion strength was successfully moduled by equations, based on the cortical/cancellous bone behavior. Based on the results, insertion torque and bone strength can be estimate in order to prevent failure of the cortical layer during temporary screw placement. The stability provided by a cortical thickness of 2 or 1 mm coupled to cancellous bone was deemed sufficient for temporary implants stability. PMID:28793582

  4. The Facilitative Role of L1 Influence in Tense-Aspect Marking: A Comparison of Hispanophone and Anglophone Learners of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Jesus; Collins, Laura

    2008-01-01

    English learners of French whose first language (L1) does not mark the perfective/imperfective distinction have shown verb semantic influence and an overall preference for perfective over imperfective in their use of second language (L2) tense-aspect markers. This study investigated whether learners whose L1 marks the perfective/imperfective…

  5. Polyol Synthesis of Silver Nanowires by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Mechanistic Aspects Influencing its Length and Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Waynie Mark

    Various additives are employed in the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which are typically halide salts such as NaCl. A variety of mechanistic roles have been suggested for these additives. My research showed that the early addition of NaCl in the polyol synthesis of Ag NWs from AgNO3 in ethylene glycol results in the rapid formation of AgCl nanocubes, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic Ag upon their surfaces. Ag NWs subsequently grow from these nucleation sites. The conclusions are supported by studies using ex-situ generated AgCl nanocubes. Additionally, the final mean silver nanowire diameter is found to be independent of the size of the heterogeneous nucleant, showing that the diameter is not significantly influenced by the nucleation event. Kinetics studies determine that nanowire diameter, length, and aspect ratio grow in parallel to one another and with the extent of the Ag+ reduction reaction, demonstrating that growth is reduction-rate limited. The results are interpreted to support nanowire growth by a surface-catalyzed reduction process occurring on all nanowire surfaces, and to exclude nanoparticle aggregation or Ostwald ripening as primary components of the growth mechanism.

  6. Word frequency influences on the list length effect and associative memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Whitney, Cora; Sanghera, Sumeet; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    Many studies show that age deficits in memory are smaller for information supported by pre-experimental experience. Many studies also find dissociations in memory tasks between words that occur with high and low frequencies in language, but the literature is mixed regarding the extent of word frequency effects in normal ageing. We examined whether age deficits in episodic memory could be influenced by manipulations of word frequency. In Experiment 1, young and older adults studied short and long lists of high- and low-frequency words for free recall. The list length effect (the drop in proportion recalled for longer lists) was larger in young compared to older adults and for high- compared to low-frequency words. In Experiment 2, young and older adults completed item and associative recognition memory tests with high- and low-frequency words. Age deficits were greater for associative memory than for item memory, demonstrating an age-related associative deficit. High-frequency words led to better associative memory performance whilst low-frequency words resulted in better item memory performance. In neither experiment was there any evidence for age deficits to be smaller for high- relative to low-frequency words, suggesting that word frequency effects on memory operate independently from effects due to cognitive ageing.

  7. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  8. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  9. Genetic Variants on Chromosome 1q41 Influence Ocular Axial Length and High Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiao; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Meguro, Akira; Nakata, Isao; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Goh, Liang-Kee; Li, Yi-Ju; Lim, Wan'e; Ho, Candice E. H.; Hawthorne, Felicia; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chua, Daniel; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Vithana, Eranga; Seielstad, Mark; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Beuerman, Roger W.; Tai, E.-Shyong; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L.; Wong, Tien-Yin

    2012-01-01

    As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL). Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies on AL conducted in 1,860 Chinese adults, 929 Chinese children, and 2,155 Malay adults. We identified a genetic locus on chromosome 1q41 harboring the zinc-finger 11B pseudogene ZC3H11B showing genome-wide significant association with AL variation (rs4373767, β = −0.16 mm per minor allele, Pmeta = 2.69×10−10). The minor C allele of rs4373767 was also observed to significantly associate with decreased susceptibility to high myopia (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.68–0.84, Pmeta = 4.38×10−7) in 1,118 highly myopic cases and 5,433 controls. ZC3H11B and two neighboring genes SLC30A10 and LYPLAL1 were expressed in the human neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and sclera. In an experimental myopia mouse model, we observed significant alterations to gene and protein expression in the retina and sclera of the unilateral induced myopic eyes for the murine genes ZC3H11A, SLC30A10, and LYPLAL1. This supports the likely role of genetic variants at chromosome 1q41 in influencing AL variation and high myopia. PMID:22685421

  10. Genetic variants on chromosome 1q41 influence ocular axial length and high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Fan

    Full Text Available As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL. Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies on AL conducted in 1,860 Chinese adults, 929 Chinese children, and 2,155 Malay adults. We identified a genetic locus on chromosome 1q41 harboring the zinc-finger 11B pseudogene ZC3H11B showing genome-wide significant association with AL variation (rs4373767, β = -0.16 mm per minor allele, P(meta =2.69 × 10(-10. The minor C allele of rs4373767 was also observed to significantly associate with decreased susceptibility to high myopia (per-allele odds ratio (OR =0.75, 95% CI: 0.68-0.84, P(meta =4.38 × 10(-7 in 1,118 highly myopic cases and 5,433 controls. ZC3H11B and two neighboring genes SLC30A10 and LYPLAL1 were expressed in the human neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and sclera. In an experimental myopia mouse model, we observed significant alterations to gene and protein expression in the retina and sclera of the unilateral induced myopic eyes for the murine genes ZC3H11A, SLC30A10, and LYPLAL1. This supports the likely role of genetic variants at chromosome 1q41 in influencing AL variation and high myopia.

  11. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  12. The Influences of Overlap Length, Bond Line Thickness and Pretreatmant on the Mechanical Properties of Adhesives : Focussing on Bonding Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, J.; Kwakernaak, A.; Poulis, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences of overlap length, bond line thickness and pretreatment on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds. In order to determine the bond strength, lap shear tests were performed. The researched adhesives are a 2 component epoxy and MS polymer. The smallest overlap

  13. The Influence of Different Interstock Lengths of Minneola Tanjelo on Photosynthetic Parameters and Fruit Yield of Star Ruby Grapefruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Minneola Tangelo hybrid, a cross of grapefruit and mandarin (Duncan grapefruit x Dancy mandarin, used as interstock to Star Ruby grapefruit with different lengths. Effects of different interstock lengths on fruit yield and quality, plant development and photosynthetic parameters were investigated. According to the results, different interstock lengths significantly affected fruit yield and size. The highest fruit yield was determined in T-M20-S whereas the lowest was on T-M5-S. The highest fruit size were determined in Star Ruby fruits on T-M5-S and T-M40-S whereas the lowest on T-M20-S and T-S (control. T-M40-S and T-M20-S treatments markedly reduced stem diameter and tree canopy in comparison to other treatments and control. Usage of different interstock lengths did not significantly affected some of fruit quality traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf water usage efficiency and leaf chlorophyll concentration. In regards to seasonal changes, net photosynthetic rate were higher in spring and summer seasons then winter and fall seasons.

  14. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p Eccentric knee extension torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  15. Temperature influences perception of the length of a wielded object via effortful touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Madhur; Wagman, Jeffrey B; Newell, Karl M

    2018-02-01

    Individuals can perceive the properties of an attached or grasped object by wielding it through muscular effort-an ability referred to as dynamic or effortful touch. Sensitivity to the forces required to move such objects and to the resulting global patterns of tissue deformation underlies such perception. Given that perception via dynamic touch is movement-based, we hypothesized that manipulations that affect the ability to produce and control muscular movements might affect perception via dynamic touch. Cooling muscles from 40 to 10 °C impedes the development and transmission of muscular force and diminishes muscle stretch-reflex sensitivity. Accordingly, we anticipated that changes in hand temperature would alter the ability to detect patterns of tissue deformation and thus perception of the properties of wielded objects. In two experiments, participants wielded dowels with different lengths and rotational inertias (Experiment 1) and objects with identical lengths and different rotational inertias (Experiment 2). They reported perceived lengths of these objects, in the absence of vision, in cool (~ 10 °C), neutral (~ 30 °C), and warm temperature conditions (~ 40 °C). Actual length predicted perceived length of the dowels (Experiment 1), and rotational inertia predicted perceived length of the objects (Experiment 2); perceived lengths were longer in the warm condition than in the cool condition. In consideration of known temperature-induced changes in tissue structure and function, our results support the hypothesis that comparable processes underlie the control of movement and perception via dynamic touch.

  16. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  17. "Which mouse kissed the frog?" Effects of age of onset, length of exposure, and knowledge of case marking on the comprehension of wh-questions in German-speaking simultaneous and early sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Anne Dorothee; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining age of onset (AoO) effects in childhood bilingualism have provided mixed results as to whether early sequential bilingual children (eL2) differ from simultaneous bilingual children (2L1) and L2 children on the acquisition of morphosyntax. Differences between the three groups have been attributed to other factors such as length of exposure (LoE), language abilities, and the phenomenon to be acquired. The present study investigates whether four- to five-year-old German-speaking eL2 children differ from 2L1 children on the acquisition of wh-questions, and whether these differences can be explained by AoO, LoE, and/or knowledge of case marking. The 2L1 children outperformed the eL2 children in terms of accuracy; however, both bilingual groups exhibited similar error patterns. This suggests that 2L1 and eL2 bilingual children are sensitive to the same morphosyntactic cues, when comprehending wh-questions. Finally, children's performance on the different types of wh-questions was explained by a combination of knowledge of case marking, LoE, and AoO.

  18. Influence of short coherence length on the superconducting proximity effect of silicon-coupled junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, M.; Nishino, T.; Murai, F.; Kawabe, U.

    1988-08-01

    NbN-Si-NbN and Nb-Si-Nb junctions with coplanar structure were fabricated using electron beam lithography. The critical superconducting current of the NbN-SI-NbN junction decreased exponentially with increasing temperature above 4.2 K. The current also decayed exponentially with increasing spacing between superconducting electrodes for both Nb and NbN junctions. It was found that the coherence length in the semiconductor is determined only by the physical properties of the semiconductor, and it is independent of the condition at the superconductor-semiconductor interface and of the superconducting electrode material with a short coherence length. The coherence length in the semiconductor obtained from the experimental results agreed with the calculated value derived from the model of Seto and Van Duzer (1972).

  19. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  20. Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Radial Basis Function Networks for Factors Influencing Hospital Length of Stay Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderrar, Ahmed; Hazzab, Abdeldjebar

    2017-07-01

    Controlling hospital high length of stay outliers can provide significant benefits to hospital management resources and lead to cost reduction. The strongest predictive factors influencing high length of stay outliers should be identified to build a high-performance prediction model for hospital outliers. We highlight the application of the hierarchical genetic algorithm to provide the main predictive factors and to define the optimal structure of the prediction model fuzzy radial basis function neural network. To establish the prediction model, we used a data set of 26,897 admissions from five different intensive care units with discharges between 2001 and 2012. We selected and analyzed the high length of stay outliers using the trimming method geometric mean plus two standard deviations. A total of 28 predictive factors were extracted from the collected data set and investigated. High length of stay outliers comprised 5.07% of the collected data set. The results indicate that the prediction model can provide effective forecasting. We found 10 common predictive factors within the studied intensive care units. The obtained main predictive factors include patient demographic characteristics, hospital characteristics, medical events, and comorbidities. The main initial predictive factors available at the time of admission are useful in evaluating high length of stay outliers. The proposed approach can provide a practical tool for healthcare providers, and its application can be extended to other hospital predictions, such as readmissions and cost.

  1. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing-yuan; Yan, Bin; Lou, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-lin

    2015-01-01

    A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1) In general, the acceleration of each component of the cou...

  2. The influence of environmental factors on growing season length for garden pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Стригун

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained during observations of the growing season of pea collection varieties in different years in terms of interphase periods are presented. The dependence of the growing season length for varieties of various maturity groups on the duration of certain phases of plant growth (seedling, flowering, ripening,  ambient environment (temperature, humidity, daylight hours, processing (seed preparation, line production maintenance and genetic factors (sequential node of the first inflorescence formation are shown. According to the study   results the varieties-sources of «growing season length» characteristic were specified that have been used as components for breeding in the selection process when creating new domestic varieties.

  3. Influence of the Type of Marking and the Number of Players on Physiological and Physical Demands During Sided Games in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamichana, David; Román-Quintana, Jaime San; Castellano, Julen; Calleja-González, Julio

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of two variables, the type of marking (with or without man-marking) and the number of players per team (3, 6, or 9) on the physical and physiological demands of sided games in soccer. Eighteen amateur players were monitored with GPS and heart rate devices. The following variables were analyzed: a maximum heart rate, a mean heart rate, time spent in each intensity range, total distance covered and distance covered in different speed ranges, a player load, maximum speed reached, and a work:rest ratio. The results showed that the type of marking influenced the physical demands of players, with greater total distance, a player load and a work:rest ratio when man-marking was used in the 3 vs. 3 (737 m, 95 Arbitrary Units (AU) and 3.4 AU, respectively) and 6 vs. 6 (783 m, 95 AU and 5.3 AU, respectively) games (pgames (more than 30%) compared with the 3 vs. 3 format (less than 15%) (pgames influences the physical and physiological demands of players.

  4. Influence of the Type of Marking and the Number of Players on Physiological and Physical Demands During Sided Games in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamichana David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of two variables, the type of marking (with or without man-marking and the number of players per team (3, 6, or 9 on the physical and physiological demands of sided games in soccer. Eighteen amateur players were monitored with GPS and heart rate devices. The following variables were analyzed: a maximum heart rate, a mean heart rate, time spent in each intensity range, total distance covered and distance covered in different speed ranges, a player load, maximum speed reached, and a work:rest ratio. The results showed that the type of marking influenced the physical demands of players, with greater total distance, a player load and a work:rest ratio when man-marking was used in the 3 vs. 3 (737 m, 95 Arbitrary Units (AU and 3.4 AU, respectively and 6 vs. 6 (783 m, 95 AU and 5.3 AU, respectively games (p<0.05. The number of players also had an effect on physiological intensity, with more time being spent at the <80%HRmax during the 9 vs. 9 and 6 vs. 6 games (more than 30% compared with the 3 vs. 3 format (less than 15% (p<0.05. These findings could help coaches to understand how the modification of different variables in sided games influences the physical and physiological demands of players.

  5. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Influence of posture and muscle length on stretch reflex activity in poststroke patients with spasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, J.F.M.; Fleuren, Judith F.; Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective To investigate the influence of different positions on stretch reflex activity of knee flexors and extensors measured by electromyography in poststroke patients with spasticity and its expression in the Ashworth Scale.

  7. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Johannsson, Erlingur; Wright, Elizabeth C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Marinac, Catherine R; Davis, Megan; Koster, Annemarie; Caserotti, Paolo; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Harris, Tamara; Chen, Kong Y

    2016-02-01

    To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 ± 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger population-based longitudinal observational-cohort study in the greater Reykjavik area of Iceland. A subpopulation (n = 72) repeated the 7-day measurement during seasonal periods with greater (13.4 ± 1.4 h) and lesser (7.7 ± 1.8 h) daylight. Cross-sectional analyses using multiple linear regression models revealed that day length was a significant independent predictor of sleep duration, mid-sleep, and rise time (all p sleep patterns of the repeaters were rather subtle between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. Compared to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 ± 80 vs. 487 ± 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 ± 18.3 vs. 40.2 ± 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar between men and women and between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. BMI, age, gender, and overall PA all contributed to the variations in sleep parameters using multiple regression analysis. The sleep and PA characteristics of this unique population revealed some gender differences, but there was limited variation in response to significant daylight changes which may be due to long-term adaptation. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. The influence of the excitation pulse length on ultrafast magnetization dynamics in nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fognini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced demagnetization of a ferromagnet is caused by the temperature of the electron gas as well as the lattice temperature. For long excitation pulses, the two reservoirs are in thermal equilibrium. In contrast to a picosecond laser pulse, a femtosecond pulse causes a non-equilibrium between the electron gas and the lattice. By pump pulse length dependent optical measurements, we find that the magnetodynamics in Ni caused by a picosecond laser pulse can be reconstructed from the response to a femtosecond pulse. The mechanism responsible for demagnetization on the picosecond time scale is therefore contained in the femtosecond demagnetization experiment.

  9. [Influence of root canal working length on the clinical effect evaluated by periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-qin; Xu, Xin-yi

    2014-12-01

    The verification of the best length of root canal instrumentation and obturation is still controversial in endodontics. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of root canal working length on the clinical effect evaluated by periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 503 root canal obturations were evaluated by using periapical radiography and CBCT. Distances from the radiographic apex to the tip of filling material were measured and classified as 1-2 mm, less than 1 mm, beyond apex, and at the apex. Odds ratio, confidence intervals, and Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses with SPSS 13.0 software package. Periapical radiographs showed that root canal obturations were 1-2 mm short of the apex in 88%, 89.3%, and 95% of the anterior teeth, premolars, and molars, respectively. CBCT images showed obturations had the same length in 70%, 73.7%, and 79% of anterior teeth, premolars, and molars, respectively. The frequency of AP was significantly greater in molars than in the other tooth, regardless of diagnostic tools. AP was detected more frequently when CBCT was used. AP is detected at all lengths of root canal obturation. The analysis of diagnostic methods show that AP is detected more frequently using CBCT.

  10. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αinstitutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  11. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves Junior, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αinstitutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  12. The influence of the length of methadone maintenance treatment on quality of life of opioid addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijanović Marin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the chronic and relapsing nature of addiction diseases and the various life domains they affect, the interest for quality of life research in the field of drug abuse has grown rapidly. Aim: Evaluation and comparison of quality of life in opioid addicts who are on methadone maintenance therapy for no longer than 2 years, from 2 to 5 years, or more than 5 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2013. Data were obtained by anonymous survey of 78 patients who were involved in methadone maintenance treatment. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 26 depending on the length of treatment. Quality of life of the patients was assessed by WHOQOLBREF (World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Results: Patients who are treated with methadone for 2 years or less, reported higher scores in almost all aspects of quality of life. Higher scores in the physical, social and environment domains were recorded in patients who had been treated from 2 to 5 years than the patients who had been treated for more than 5 years. However, these differences were not statistically significant. The most common side effects during the therapy were constipation (32.1%, sweating (32.1% and difficulty of falling in and maintaining sleep (30.8%. Conclusion: Patients did not show statistically significant difference of quality of life in relation to the length of methadone maintenance treatment.

  13. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Virginie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  14. The Influence of Fluid Overload on the Length of Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Congenital Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Tatiana Z A L; O'Hearn, Katie; Reddy, Deepti; Menon, Kusum

    2015-12-01

    Fluid overload and prolonged mechanical ventilation lead to worse outcomes in critically ill children. However, the association between these variables in children following congenital heart surgery is unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the association between fluid overload and duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirement and radiologic findings of pulmonary and chest wall edema. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent congenital heart surgery between June 2010 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate associations between maximum cumulative fluid balance and length of mechanical ventilation and OI were tested using the Spearman correlation test and multiple linear regression models, respectively. There were 85 eligible patients. Maximum cumulative fluid balance was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted analysis beta coefficient = 0.53, CI 0.38-0.66, P mechanical ventilation (P = 0.012 and 0.014, respectively). Fluid overload is associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and PICU length of stay after congenital heart surgery. Fluid overload was also associated with physiological markers of respiratory restriction. A randomized controlled trial of a restrictive versus liberal fluid replacement strategy is necessary in this patient population, but in the meantime, accumulating observational evidence suggests that cautious use of fluid in the postoperative care may be warranted.

  15. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  16. PEG spacers of different length influence the biological profile of bombesin-based radiolabeled antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Mazen; Tamma, Maria L.; Gourni, Eleni; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean C.; Maecke, Helmut R.; Mansi, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) was shown to be expressed with high density on several types of cancers. Radiolabeled peptides for imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the potential of statine-based bombesin antagonists, conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) through oligoethyleneglycol spacers, labeled with 177 Lu and we determined the effect of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) spacer length on in vitro and in vivo properties. Methods: The bombesin antagonists were synthesized on solid phase using Fmoc chemistry; the spacers Fmoc-dPEG x -OH (x = 2, 4, 6 and 12) and the DOTA(tBu) 3 were coupled using a standard procedure. The peptides were labeled with 177 Lu and evaluated in vitro (lipophilicity, serum stability, internalization and binding affinity assays). Biodistribution studies were performed in PC-3 tumor-bearing nude mice. Results: The solid-phase synthesis was straightforward with an overall yield ranging from 30% to 35% based on the first Fmoc cleavage. The hydrophilicity increased with spacer length (logD: − 1.95 vs − 2.22 of PEG 2 and PEG 12 analogs, respectively). There is a tendency of increased serum stability by increasing the spacer length (T 1/2 = 246 ± 4 and 584 ± 20 for PEG 2 and PEG 6 analogs, respectively) which seems to reverse with the PEG 12 analog. The IC 50 values are similar with the only significant difference of the PEG 12 analog. The 177 Lu-labeled PEG 4 and PEG 6 conjugates showed similar pharmacokinetic with high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-kidney ratios (7.8 and 9.7 at 4 h for the PEG 4 and PEG 6 derivatives, respectively). The pancreas uptake was relatively high at 1 h but it shows fast washout (0.46% ± 0.02% IA/g and 0.29% ± 0.08% IA/g already at 4 h). Conclusion: Among all the studied analogs the PEG 4 and PEG 6 showed significantly better properties. The very high tumor-to-non-target organ ratios, in

  17. Interaction between two solid surfaces across PDMS : influence of chain length and end group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, G.X.; Stark, R.; Kappl, M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Butt, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Forces between solid surfaces across polymer melts are poorly understood despite their importance for adhesion and composite materials. Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) this force was measured for poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) on silicon oxide. The influence of molecular weight (4.0-40 kDa)

  18. Influence of the course boundary value problem on length scale parmeters for second-gradient continuum theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

    2010-12-20

    All nonlocal continuum descriptions of inelastic material response involve length scale parameters that either directly or implicitly quantify the physical dimensions of a neighborhood of response which influences the behavior at a particular point. The second-gradient continuum theories such as those developed by Germain, Toupin and Mindlin, and Eringen, and giving rise to strain-gradient plasticity, is becoming a common coarse-scale basis for homogenization of material response that respects the non local nature of heterogeneous material response. Ideally, the length scale parameters involved in such homogenization would be intrinsically associated with dominant aspects of the microstructure. However, these parameters, at least in some cases, are inextricably linked to the details of the coarse scale boundary value problem. Accordingly, they cannot be viewed as pure constitutive parameters. An example problem of multiscale homogenization is presented to underscore the dependence of second-gradient length scale parameters on the coarse scale boundary value problem, namely the multiscale response of an idealized porous microstructure. The fine scale (microstructure) comprises elastic perfectly plastic matrix with a periodic array of circular voids. This fine scale description of the problem is identical for two separate classes of coarse scale boundary value problem, viz. an extruded channel subject to compression and eventually developing plastic shear bands and a thin layer of material with larger (coarse scale) elliptical voids subject to shear deformation. Implications of the relationship between length scale parameters and the details of the coarse scale boundary value problem are discussed and ideas to ascertain such length parameters from evolving response fields are presented.

  19. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  20. Influence of friction drive lift gears construction on the length of braking distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonkwic, Poul

    2015-03-01

    The friction drive elevators the influence of the braking distance has very high significance to meet certain safety regulations and comfort. During the emergency braking the delay for the system a frame and a cabin should be within the range from 0.2 to 9.81 m/s2. However, there are no specialist literatures regarding the issues connected with emergency braking of elevating devices either. The results of the own empirical research work are presented regarding the influence of design changes on the working parameters of the friction drive elevator gears. ASG100, KB160, PP16, PR2000UD and CHP2000 types of safety progressive gears are analyzed. ASG100, KB160, PP16, PR2000UD type progressive gears are already produced by European manufacturers. CHP2000 type gears are established as the alternative option for the already existing solutions. The unique cam system has been used in the CHP 2000 gears. The cam leverage gives the chance to unblock, in a very easy way, the clamed gears after braking. Thus, it is a key aspect to perform laboratory tests over the braking process of a newly created solution. The proper value of the braking distance has a significant influence on the value of delay in terms of binding standards. The influence of loading on the effective braking distance and the value of the falling elevator cabin speed are analyzed and the results are presented. The results presented are interesting from lift devices operation and a new model of CHP 2000 progressive gear point of view.

  1. Bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Stuart L

    2002-12-01

    A simple and practical method for the evaluation of bite mark evidence has been described. There are many other methods, some quite complicated, using overlays, computer analysis and mathematical formulae. This author prefers to adhere to the "KISS principle: "Keep It Simple, Stupid." A jury is generally more willing to accept the positioning of a study model on a one-to-one life-size photograph rather than be led through a complicated analytical procedure. If the juror can hold the model and photograph in his/her hand and see that the teeth and bite mark match (or do not match), data summation can be much more direct. Numerous publications describe more complex matching procedures should circumstances warrant.

  2. Influence of alkali treatment and fibre length on mechanical properties of short Agave fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylsamy, K.; Rajendran, I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New renewable and biodegradable Agave americana fibre. → The mechanical properties of alkali treated composites increase 10-15% to compare untreated composites. → The influence fibre length is contributing the strength of short fibre composites. → Future scope in light weight materials manufacture. -- Abstract: Composites based on short Agave fibres (untreated and alkali treated) reinforced epoxy resin using three different fibre lengths (3 mm, 7 mm and 10 mm length) are prepared by using hand lay up and compression mould technique. The materials were characterized in terms of tensile, compressive, flexural, impact, water absorption properties and machinability behaviour. All mechanical tests showed that alkali treated fibre composites withstand more fracture strain than untreated fibre composites. As evidenced by the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests, the thermo-mechanical properties of the composite with alkali treated Agave fibre were considerably good as alkali treatment had facilitated more sites of fibre resin interface. The machinability and atomic force microscope (AFM) studies were carried out to analyze the fibre-matrix interaction in untreated and alkali treated Agave fibre-epoxy composites.

  3. Influence of genetic architecture on contemporary local evolution in the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma: artificial selection on beak length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H; Carroll, S P; Famula, T R

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the influence of genetic architecture on local adaptation. We investigated the genetic architecture of the rapid contemporary evolution of mouthparts, the flight polymorphism and life history traits in the soapberry bug Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera) using laboratory selection. The mouthparts of these seed-feeding bugs have adapted in 40-50 years by decreasing in length following novel natural selection induced by a host switch to the seeds of an introduced tree with smaller fruits than those of the native host vine. Laboratory selection on beak length in both an ancestral population feeding on the native host and a derived population feeding on the introduced host reveals genetic variance allowing a rapid response (heritabilities of 0.51-0.87) to selection for either longer or shorter beaks. This selection resulted in reverse evolution by restoring long beaks in the derived population and forward evolution by re-creating short beaks in the ancestral bugs. There were strong genetic correlations (0.68-0.84) in both populations between beak lengths and the frequency of flight morphs, with short beaks associated with short wings. The results reveal a genetically interrelated set of adaptive multivariate traits including both beak length and flight morph. This suite of traits reflects host plant patchiness and seeding phenology. Weaker evidence suggests that egg mass and early egg production may be elements of the same suite. Reversible or forward evolution thus may occur in a broad set of genetically correlated multivariate traits undergoing rapid contemporary adaptation to altered local environments.

  4. Influence of spacer length on heparin coupling efficiency and fibrinogen adsorption of modified titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbureck Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical bonding of the drug onto surfaces by means of spacer molecules is accompanied with a reduction of the biological activity of the drug due to a constricted mobility since normally only short spacer molecule like aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APMS are used for drug coupling. This work aimed to study covalent attachment of heparin to titanium(oxide surfaces by varying the length of the silane coupling agent, which should affect the biological potency of the drug due to a higher mobility with longer spacer chains. Methods Covalent attachment of heparin to titanium metal and TiO2 powder was carried out using the coupling agents 3-(Trimethoxysilyl-propylamine (APMS, N- [3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine (Diamino-APMS and N1- [3-(Trimethoxy-silyl-propyl]diethylenetriamine (Triamino-APMS. The amount of bound coupling agent and heparin was quantified photometrically by the ninhydrin reaction and the tolidine-blue test. The biological potency of heparin was determined photometrically by the chromogenic substrate Chromozym TH and fibrinogen adsorption to the modified surfaces was researched using the QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring technique. Results Zeta-potential measurements confirmed the successful coupling reaction; the potential of the unmodified anatase surface (approx. -26 mV shifted into the positive range (> + 40 mV after silanisation. Binding of heparin results in a strongly negatively charged surface with zeta-potentials of approx. -39 mV. The retaining biological activity of heparin was highest for the spacer molecule Triamino-APMS. QCM-D measurements showed a lower viscosity for adsorbed fibrinogen films on heparinised surfaces by means of Triamino-APMS. Conclusion The remaining activity of heparin was found to be highest for the covalent attachment with Triamino-APMS as coupling agent due to the long chain of this spacer molecule and therefore the highest mobility of the drug

  5. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  8. Keeping you at arm's length: modifying peripersonal space influences interpersonal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesque, F; Ruggiero, G; Mouta, S; Santos, J; Iachini, T; Coello, Y

    2017-07-01

    Peripersonal space represents the area around the body where objects are coded in motor terms for the purpose of voluntary goal-directed actions. Previous studies have suggested that peripersonal space is also a safe space linked with our private area, influencing interpersonal space in social contexts. However, whether these two spaces rely on similar embodied processes remains an open issue. In the present study, participants observed a point-light walker (PLW) approaching them from different directions and passing near them at different distances from their right or left shoulder. While approaching, the PLW disappeared at a distance of 2 m and the task for the participants was to estimate if the interpersonal distance, at the time the PLW would have reached their level, was comfortable or not. Between two sessions of comfort judgments, the participants manipulated a 70 cm tool entailing an extension of peripersonal space, or a 10 cm tool entailing no extension of peripersonal space. The results revealed that the comfortable interpersonal distance was larger when the PLW crossed the mid-sagittal plane of the participants than when it approached them laterally, with a concomitant increase of response time. After participants manipulated the long tool, comfortable interpersonal distance increased, but predominantly when the PLW trajectory implied crossing the participants' mid-sagittal plane. This effect was not observed when participants manipulated the short tool. Two control tasks showed that using the long tool modified the reachability (control 1), but not the time to passage (control 2) estimates of PLW stimuli, suggesting that tool use extended peripersonal space without changing perceived visual distances. Overall, the data show that comfortable interpersonal distance is linked to the representation of peripersonal space. As a consequence, increasing peripersonal space through tool use has the immediate consequence that comfortable interpersonal distance

  9. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the 'optimal length'. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force-length and force-velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg(-1) when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg(-1) when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s(-1) at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s(-1) for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force-length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force-length versus force-velocity effects, showing a transition from force-length limitations to force-velocity limitations as starting length increased.

  10. Composition and diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota along the entire length of the pig gastrointestinal tract; dietary influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer; Daly, Kristian; Moran, Andrew W; Ryan, Sheila; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2017-04-01

    Mucosa-associated microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract are in intimate contact with the outer mucus layer. This proximity offers these populations a higher potential, than lumenal microbiota, in exerting effects on the host. Functional characteristics of the microbiota and influences of host-physiology shape the composition and activity of the mucosa-associated bacterial community. We have shown previously that inclusion of an artificial sweetener, SUCRAM, included in the diet of weaning piglets modulates the composition of lumenal-residing gut microbiota and reduces weaning-related gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, using Illumina sequencing we characterised the mucosa-associated microbiota along the length of the intestine of piglets, and determined the effect of SUCRAM supplementation on mucosa-associated populations. There were clear distinctions in the composition of mucosa-associated microbiota, between small and large intestine, concordant with differences in regional oxygen distribution and nutrient provision by the host. There were significant differences in the composition of mucosa-associated compared with lumenal microbiota in pig caecum. Dietary supplementation with SUCRAM affected mucosa-associated bacterial community structure along the length of the intestinal tract. Most notably, there was a substantial reduction in predominant Campylobacter populations proposing that SUCRAM supplementation of swine diet has potential for reducing meat contamination and promoting food safety. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the ‘optimal length’. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force–length and force–velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg −1 when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg −1 when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s −1 at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s −1 for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force–length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force–length versus force–velocity effects, showing a transition from force–length limitations to force–velocity limitations as starting length increased. (paper)

  12. Influence of Distance and Illumination on Detection of Marks in Augmented Reality applied to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out while developing an Augmented Reality mobile application that represents 3D virtual models of the brain of a patient over the real image of the patient’s head. The main purpose of the application is to guide doctors during a non-invasive medical procedure called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation that uses electromagnetic stimulation to treat neurological problems. The tracking of these markers have proven to be one of the more challenging components of such an application and we observe that lighting conditions and distance to the markers are two of the main factors that can influence their accurate recognition

  13. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  14. Influence of Magnetic Field on the Peristaltic Flow of a Viscous Fluid through a Finite-Length Cylindrical Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical investigation of the peristaltic transport of a viscous fluid under the influence of a magnetic field through a tube of finite length in a dimensionless form. The expressions of pressure gradient, volume flow rate, average volume flow rate and local wall shear stress have been obtained. The effects of the transverse magnetic field and electrical conductivity (i.e. the Hartmann number on the mechanical efficiency of a peristaltic pump have also been studied. The reflux phenomenon is also investigated. It is concluded, on the basis of the pressure distribution along the tubular length and pumping efficiency, that if the transverse magnetic field and the electric conductivity increase, the pumping machinery exerts more pressure for pushing the fluid forward. There is a linear relation between the averaged flow rate and the pressure applied across one wavelength that can restrain the flow due to peristalsis. It is found that there is a particular value of the averaged flow rate corresponding to a particular pressure that does not depend on the Hartmann number. Naming these values ‘critical values’, it is concluded that the pressure required for checking the flow increases with the Hartmann number above the critical value and decreases with it below the critical value. It is also inferred that magneto-hydrodynamic parameters make the fluid more prone to flow reversal. The conclusion applied to oesophageal swallowing reveals that normal water is easier to swallow than saline water. The latter is more prone to flow reversal. A significant difference between the propagation of the integral and non-integral number of waves along the tube is that pressure peaks are identical in the former and different in the latter cases.

  15. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  16. Internal proton transfer and H2 rotations in the H5(+) cluster: a marked influence on its thermal equilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tudela, Ricardo Pérez; Barragán, Patricia; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2011-03-31

    Classical and path integral Monte Carlo (CMC, PIMC) "on the fly" calculations are carried out to investigate anharmonic quantum effects on the thermal equilibrium structure of the H5(+) cluster. The idea to follow in our computations is based on using a combination of the above-mentioned nuclear classical and quantum statistical methods, and first-principles density functional (DFT) electronic structure calculations. The interaction energies are computed within the DFT framework using the B3(H) hybrid functional, specially designed for hydrogen-only systems. The global minimum of the potential is predicted to be a nonplanar configuration of C(2v) symmetry, while the next three low-lying stationary points on the surface correspond to extremely low-energy barriers for the internal proton transfer and to the rotation of the H2 molecules, around the C2 axis of H5(+), connecting the symmetric C(2v) minima in the planar and nonplanar orientations. On the basis of full-dimensional converged PIMC calculations, results on the quantum vibrational zero-point energy (ZPE) and state of H5(+) are reported at a low temperature of 10 K, and the influence of the above-mentioned topological features of the surface on its probability distributions is clearly demonstrated.

  17. Animal experimental studies on the influence of flow restriction on thrombogenicity of the Palmaz stent via 111indium marked thrombocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Siegerstetter, V.; Richter, G.M.; Garcia, O.; Palmaz, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study in dogs is to evaluate the influence of restricted flow on the thrombogenicity of balloon-expandable intravascular stents (Palmaz type). We implanted 24 Palmaz stents in the femoral artery of mongrel dogs. 12 dogs experienced a 75% flow restriction by means of an artificial stenosis distal to the start in the outflow tract. We used 111 In labelled thrombocytes as a marker for thrombus detection within the stent. The results presented demonstrate that there is no considerable risk of thrombus formation if the stent is implanted into vessels with good outflow tracts and therefore high blood flow velocities within the stent. Under conditions of highly impaired flow, a 68% rate of stent occlusion occur if no anticoagulation therapy is performed. After i.v. administration of 100 IU/kg body weight of heparin the occlusion rade drops to zero. It can be concluded that even under low-flow conditions as a result of a restricted outflow tract situation the Palmaz stent can be implanted without any risk of stent occlusion as long a sufficient anticoagulation protocol is maintained. (orig.) [de

  18. Palladium Catalysts for Fatty Acid Deoxygenation: Influence of the Support and Fatty Acid Chain Length on Decarboxylation Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, JP; Immer, JG; Lamb, HH

    2012-03-29

    Supported metal catalysts containing 5 wt% Pd on silica, alumina, and activated carbon were evaluated for liquid-phase deoxygenation of stearic (octadecanoic), lauric (dodecanoic), and capric (decanoic) acids under 5 % H-2 at 300 A degrees C and 15 atm. On-line quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was used to measure CO + CO2 yield, CO2 selectivity, H-2 consumption, and initial decarboxylation rate. Post-reaction analysis of liquid products by gas chromatography was used to determine n-alkane yields. The Pd/C catalyst was highly active and selective for stearic acid (SA) decarboxylation under these conditions. In contrast, SA deoxygenation over Pd/SiO2 occurred primarily via decarbonylation and at a much slower rate. Pd/Al2O3 exhibited high initial SA decarboxylation activity but deactivated under the test conditions. Similar CO2 selectivity patterns among the catalysts were observed for deoxygenation of lauric and capric acids; however, the initial decarboxylation rates tended to be lower for these substrates. The influence of alkyl chain length on deoxygenation kinetics was investigated for a homologous series of C-10-C-18 fatty acids using the Pd/C catalyst. As fatty acid carbon number decreases, reaction time and H-2 consumption increase, and CO2 selectivity and initial decarboxylation rate decrease. The increase in initial decarboxylation rates for longer chain fatty acids is attributed to their greater propensity for adsorption on the activated carbon support.

  19. Influence of the chain length of surfactant in the modification of zeolites and clays. Removal of atrazine from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Jaldin, Helen Paola; Blanco-Flores, Alien; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Martín-Hernández, Osnieski

    2017-08-30

    Removal potentials of a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) and clay (SMC) for atrazine adsorption were evaluated. Materials were modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) and benzyl octadecyl dimethyl ammonium (BODA) chloride considering the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of each one (0.94 and 0.041 meq/L, respectively). The influence of the surfactant was analyzed in detail, particularly the formation of surfactant layers (complete or partial) connected with the length of the surfactant tail (16 and 18 methyl groups or number of carbons in the chain). Raw materials were characterized by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SMZ and SMC were analyzed by FTIR. Results obtained from kinetic adsorption experiments shown that equilibrium time is less for materials modified with HDTMA (8 h) than materials with BODA (10 and 12 h). Materials modified with the largest chain surfactant (BODA) showed more resistance to atrazine masse transference. The chemisorption was presented in the adsorption mechanisms of atrazine and adsorbent materials. Based on the results of adsorption isotherms Langmuir isotherms showed the better correlation coefficients value. The q max is greater for materials modified with BODA (0.9232 and 4.2448 mg/g) than for materials modified with HDTMA (0.6731 and 3.9121 mg/g). Therefore, SMZ and SMC modified with the largest chain surfactant has more affinity for the pesticide. The removal process at high concentration of atrazine depends of the partition process but at lower concentration, it occurs not only by this process but also by absorption process.

  20. Influence of anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, axial length, and lens density on postoperative endothelial cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschel, Anna; Bogatsch, Holger; Oertel, Nicole; Wiedemann, Renate

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), lens density (LD), and axial length (AL) as risk factors on endothelial cell loss 3 months after cataract surgery. We enrolled 47 patients with senile cataract who were operated between July 2012 and March 2013 by the same surgeon using torsional phacoemulsification. Preoperatively, we measured ACD, ACV, and LD using the Oculus Pentacam®. The AL was determined using the IOL Master®. Primary outcomes were central endothelial density (ECD) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) 3 months after surgery We evaluated the effect of ACD, ACV, LD, and AL as possible risk factors of postoperative percentage endothelial cell loss (ECL). The median age was 72 years. The median CDVA before surgery was 0.5 improving to 1.0 postoperatively. The median ECL was 5.2 % (range 1.7 %-7.6 %). These results are comparable to our previous study (median ECL 6.9 % after 3 months) [Reuschel et al. (2010) J Cataract Refract Surg]. The median ACD in our study was 2.56 mm (range 2.26 mm-2.8 mm). Median ACV was 144 mm(3) (range 121 mm(3)-158 mm(3)]. The median LD was 12.4 (range 11.4-13.7). Median AL was 23.1 mm (range 22.7 mm-23.9 mm). Our correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between ACD, ACV, LD, AL, and postoperative ECL. ACD, ACV, AL, and LD were not identified as risk factors of postoperative endothelial cell loss in our analysis.

  1. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  2. "Which Mouse Kissed the Frog?" Effects of Age of Onset, Length of Exposure, and Knowledge of Case Marking on the Comprehension of "Wh"-Questions in German-Speaking Simultaneous and Early Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Anne Dorothee; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining age of onset (AoO) effects in childhood bilingualism have provided mixed results as to whether early sequential bilingual children (eL2) differ from simultaneous bilingual children (2L1) and L2 children on the acquisition of morphosyntax. Differences between the three groups have been attributed to other factors such as length of…

  3. The Influence of Length of School Day on Grade 4 and Grade 5 Language Arts and Mathematics Performance in the State of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevier, Meghan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this relational, non-experimental, explanatory, cross sectional study with quantitative methods was to explain the influence of length of school day, if any, on Grade 4 and Grade 5 student achievement in Language Arts and Mathematics as measured by the high-stakes New Jersey standardized test entitled New Jersey Assessment of Skills…

  4. Influence of fiber length on flexural and impact properties of Zalacca Midrib fiber/HDPE by compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Agil Fitri; Ariawan, Dody; Surojo, Eko; Triyono, Joko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of fiber length on the flexural and impact properties of the composite of Zalacca Midrib Fiber (ZMF)/HDPE. The process of making composite was using compression molding method. The variation of fiber length were 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm and 9 mm, at 30% fiber volume fraction. The flexural and impact test according to ASTM D790 and ASTM D5941, respectively. Observing fracture surface was examained by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the flexural and impact strengths would be increase with the increase of fiber length.

  5. Influence of day-length and isolates of Phytophthora infestans on field resistance to late blight of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilovich, E; Munive, S; Bonierbale, M

    2010-04-01

    Main and interaction effects of day-length and pathogen isolate on the reaction and expression of field resistance to Phytophthora infestans were analyzed in a sample of standard clones for partial resistance to potato late blight, and in the BCT mapping population derived from a backcross of Solanum berthaultii to Solanum tuberosum. Detached leaves from plants grown in field plots exposed to short- and long day-length conditions were independently inoculated with two P. infestans isolates and incubated in chambers under short- and long photoperiods, respectively. Lesion growth rate (LGR) was used for resistance assessment. Analysis of variance revealed a significant contribution of genotype x isolate x day-length interaction to variation in LGR indicating that field resistance of genotypes to foliar late blight under a given day-length depended on the infecting isolate. An allele segregating from S. berthaultii with opposite effects on foliar resistance to late blight under long- and short day-lengths, respectively, was identified at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that mapped on chromosome 1. This allele was associated with positive (decreased resistance) and negative (increased resistance) additive effects on LGR, under short- and long day-length conditions, respectively. Disease progress on whole plants inoculated with the same isolate under field conditions validated the direction of its effect in short day-length regimes. The present study suggests the occurrence of an isolate-specific QTL that displays interaction with isolate behavior under contrasting environments, such as those with different day-lengths. This study highlights the importance of exposing genotypes to a highly variable population of the pathogen under contrasting environments when stability to late blight resistance is to be assessed or marker-assisted selection is attempted for the manipulation of quantitative resistance to late blight.

  6. Influence of Landscape Coverage on Measuring Spatial and Length Properties of Rock Fracture Networks: Insights from Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhuo; Lei, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Natural fractures are ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and often deeply buried in the subsurface. Due to the difficulty in accessing to their three-dimensional structures, the study of fracture network geometry is usually achieved by sampling two-dimensional (2D) exposures at the Earth's surface through outcrop mapping or aerial photograph techniques. However, the measurement results can be considerably affected by the coverage of forests and other plant species over the exposed fracture patterns. We quantitatively study such effects using numerical simulation. We consider the scenario of nominally isotropic natural fracture systems and represent them using 2D discrete fracture network models governed by fractal and length scaling parameters. The groundcover is modelled as random patches superimposing onto the 2D fracture patterns. The effects of localisation and total coverage of landscape patches are further investigated. The fractal dimension and length exponent of the covered fracture networks are measured and compared with those of the original non-covered patterns. The results show that the measured length exponent increases with the reduced localisation and increased coverage of landscape patches, which is more evident for networks dominated by very large fractures (i.e. small underlying length exponent). However, the landscape coverage seems to have a minor impact on the fractal dimension measurement. The research findings of this paper have important implications for field survey and statistical analysis of geological systems.

  7. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório de; Temponi, Eduardo Frois; Paganini, Vinícius Oliveira; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  8. In vivo quantification of photosensitizer concentration using fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy : influence of photosensitizer formulation and tissue location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visscher, Sebastiaan A. H. J.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Kascakova, Slavka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Amelink, Arjen

    In vivo measurement of photosensitizer concentrations may optimize clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Fluorescence differential path-length spectroscopy (FDPS) is a non-invasive optical technique that has been shown to accurately quantify the concentration of Foscan (R) in rat liver. As a next

  9. Measurements on the influence of the length of the daily submergence time on the condition and appearence of mussels (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basal, M.

    1972-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) living at different intertidal levels (viz. about 40, 10 and 0% of time exposed to the air) were compared as to length distribution, meat and shell weight, and linear dimensions. The long-exposed mussels were found to be on average smaller, to contain less meat, to

  10. Influence of Cardiac Risk Factors and Medication on Length of Hospitalization in Patients Undergoing Major Vascular Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Marleen A.; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Boersma, Eric; Bax, Jeroen J.; Feringa, Harm H.H.; Schouten, Olaf; van Sambeek, Marc r.H.M.; Poldermans, Don

    2006-01-01

    Major vascular surgery is associated with a long in-hospital length of stay (LOS). Cardiac risk factors identify patients with an increased risk. Recent studies have associated statin, aspirin, and β-blocker therapies with improved postoperative outcome. However, the effect of all these factors on

  11. Influence of implant number, length, and tilting degree on stress distribution in atrophic maxilla: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümrükçü, Zeynep; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga

    2017-11-09

    This study aims to evaluate the stress values, created in peri-implant region as a consequence of loading on fixed hybrid dentures that was planned with different implant numbers, lengths, or tilting angulations. Thirteen three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis models were generated with four, five, or seven implants (group A, B, and C). Except the distal implants, all implants were modeled at 4.1 mm (diameter) and 11.5 mm (length) in size. Distal implants were configured to be in five different lengths (6, 8, 11.5, 13, and 16 mm) and three different implant inclination degrees (0°, 30°, and 45°). A 150-N load was applied vertically on prosthesis. Released stresses were evaluated comparatively. The lowest von Mises stress values were found in group C, in the 11.5-mm implant model. Tilting the distal implants 30° caused higher stress values. In 45°-tilting implant models, lower stress values were recorded according to the 30°-tilting models. The ideal implant number is seven for an edentulous maxilla. Tilting the implants causes higher stress values. A 45° inclination of implant causes lower stress values according to the 30° models due to a shorter cantilever. The ideal implant length is 11.5 mm.

  12. Estimating the hemodynamic influence of variable main body-to-iliac limb length ratios in aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Xenakis, Antonios; Georgiadis, George S

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a computational study to assess the hemodynamic impact of variant main body-to-iliac limb length (L1/L2) ratios on certain hemodynamic parameters acting on the endograft (EG) either on the normal bifurcated (Bif) or the cross-limb (Cx) fashion. A customary bifurcated 3D model was computationally created and meshed using the commercially available ANSYS ICEM (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The total length of the EG, was kept constant, while the L1/L2 ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 in the Bif and Cx reconstructed EG models. The compliance of the graft was modeled using a Fluid Structure Interaction method. Important hemodynamic parameters such as pressure drop along EG, wall shear stress (WSS) and helicity were calculated. The greatest pressure decrease across EG was calculated in the peak systolic phase. With increasing L1/L2 it was found that the Pressure Drop was increasing for the Cx configuration, while decreasing for the Bif. The greatest helicity (4.1 m/s2) was seen in peak systole of Cx with ratio of 1.5 whereas its greatest value (2 m/s2) was met in peak systole in the Bif with the shortest L1/L2 ratio (0.3). Similarly, the maximum WSS value was highest (2.74Pa) in the peak systole for the 1.5 L1/L2 of the Cx configuration, while the maximum WSS value equaled 2 Pa for all length ratios of the Bif modification (with the WSS found for L1/L2=0.3 being marginally higher). There was greater discrepancy in the WSS values for all L1/L2 ratios of the Cx bifurcation compared to Bif. Different L1/L2 rations are shown to have an impact on the pressure distribution along the entire EG while the length ratio predisposing to highest helicity or WSS values is also determined by the iliac limbs pattern of the EG. Since current custom-made EG solutions can reproduce variability in main-body/iliac limbs length ratios, further computational as well as clinical research is warranted to delineate and predict the hemodynamic and clinical effect of variable

  13. Influence of channel length and layout on TID for 0.18 μm NMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Xi Shanbin; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa; Li Yudong; Sun Jing; Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Different channel lengths and layouts on 0.18 μm NMOS transistors are designed for investigating the dependence of short channel effects (SCEs) on the width of shallow trench isolation (STI) devices and designing in radiation hardness. Results show that, prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal I-V characteristics, with no significant SCEs. Following irradiation, no noticeable shift of threshold voltage is observed, radiation-induced edge-leakage current, however, exhibits significant sensitivity on TID. Moreover, radiation-enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and channel length modulation (CLM) effects are observed on short-channel NMOS transistors. Comparing to stripe-gate layout, enclosed-gate layout has excellent radiation tolerance. (authors)

  14. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome--multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian; Bojesen, Anders; Hertz, Jens Michael; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David Michael; Wallentin, Mikkel; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2015-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. To describe anthropometry and body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Seventy three KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. KS males were taller (absolute difference: 5.1 cm, P Anthropometry and body composition in KS is specific and dysmorphic and affected by AR CAG repeat length and decreased exposure to testosterone already during fetal life.

  15. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Honório de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. Materials and methods: the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. Results: between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  16. Influence of dry period length on reproductive performance and productivity of Lacaune dairy sheep under an intensive management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira, Laura; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Astiz, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Intensive management is almost the only way to ensure dairy farm profitability. The dry period length (DPL) is a key factor in the productivity and health of dairy cows, but whether the same is true of dairy sheep is unclear. This study investigated the effects of DPL on the performance of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded 8136 lactations from 4220 ewes on one farm for the period 2005-2010, and data from a total of 6762 complete lactations 1-4 were included in the study. The length of the dry period following the current lactation was studied. The larger the total milk yield (MY) and daily milk yield (DMY), the shorter was the DPL before the next lactation. DPL correlated with MY (r=-0·384), DMY (r=-0·277) and the lambing-to-conception interval (LC; r=0·201, PDPL (P-DPL), or the length of the period prior to the start of the next lactation, was studied for 4318 lactations. P-DPL was classified into five intervals: very short (P-DPL-XS), 1-30 d; short (P-DPL-S), 31-60 d; medium (P-DPL-M), 61-90 d; long (P-DPL-L), 91-120 d; and very long (P-DPL-XL), >120 d. P-DPL positively correlated with lambing-to-next conception interval (LNC; r=0·095, PDPL-XL, 161·5±62·9 d; P-DPL-M, 169·0±74·8 d; PDPL-S, 432±187 l; P-DPL-M, 436±191 l; PDPL. Hence, 30-60 d should be the optimal dry period length for Lacaune sheep under intensive conditions.

  17. 33 CFR 401.6 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... both sides at the bow and stern. (b) In addition to the markings required by paragraph (a) of this... markings. (c) Where a vessel's bulbous bow extends forward beyond her stem head, a symbol of a bulbous bow... number indicating the total length in meters by which the bulbous bow projects beyond the stem. (68 Stat...

  18. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces: Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature : Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Willem; Gage, D.

    2004-01-01

    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective

  19. Influence of facial hair length, coarseness, and areal density on seal leakage of a tight-fitting half-face respirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Evan L; Henry, J Blake; Johnson, David L

    2018-04-01

    OSHA regulations state that an employer shall not permit tight-fitting respirators to be worn by employees who have facial hair that comes between the skin and facepiece seal. Studies have shown that facial hair in the face seal zone can increase penetration and decrease the fit factor (FF), although the relationship between the amount and characteristics of facial hair and the increase in penetration is not well quantified. This article examines the influence of facial hair length, areal density, and coarseness on FF for one model of half-face elastomeric negative-pressure air purifying respirator. Quantitative fit tests (QNFT) were performed on 19 subjects with beards initially 0.500-in long and subsequently trimmed to 0.250, 0.125, and 0.063 in, then after a razor shave. Three fit tests were performed at each of the 5 lengths, for 285 total tests. The average diameter and areal density of cheek and chin hair were measured. Penetration was modeled as a function of hair length category, beard areal density, and hair coarseness. FF decreased with beard length, especially beyond 0.125 in. However, passing FF scores were achieved on all tests by all subjects at the smooth shave and 0.063 in conditions, and 98% of tests were passed at 0.125 in; seven subjects passed all tests at all conditions. Chin and cheek areal densities were significantly different and were only weakly correlated. Beard hair diameters were normally distributed across subjects (mean 76 µm, standard deviation 7.4 µm). Beard length and areal density, but not coarseness, were statistically significant predictors of fit using an arcsine transformed penetration model. FF decreased with increasing beard length, especially beyond 0.125 in, although FF with a "stubble" beard did not differ significantly from a smooth shave. FF also decreased with increasing areal beard hair density. Beard length and areal density negatively influence FF. However, tight-fitting half-face negative-pressure respirator

  20. Influence of day length, ambient temperature, and seasonality on daily travel distance in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey at Jinsichang, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoping, Ren; Ming, Li; Yongcheng, Long; Fuwen, Wei

    2009-03-01

    This article examines the effect of ambient temperature, day length, weather conditions, and seasonality on daily path length (DPL) of a free-ranging group of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) using an auto-released GPS collar. Data were collected from December 17, 2003 to October 22, 2004 at Laojunshan in northwestern Yunnan province, China. The average DPL of the monkey group was 909+/-472 m (n=291), with the shortest distance being 180 m and the longest distance 3,626 m. Ambient temperature and day length were found to affect DPL. Both factors were positively correlated with DPL, which means that the monkey group traveled greater distances on longer and warmer days. At the study site, three distinct seasons were identified, and DPL did not vary significantly across these periods. The time of sunrise was not correlated with DPL. Nevertheless, we sometimes observed the group starting its daily trip later on cloudy days than on sunny days. Furthermore, weather conditions (e.g. rainy, cloudy, and sunny) did not influence the average DPL of the study group. Overall we found that the primary factors affecting DPL in R. bieti were day length and ambient temperature, especially daily highest temperature. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Influence of Implant Design (Cylindrical and Conical) in the Load Transfer Surrounding Long (13mm) and Short (7mm) Length Implants: A Photoelastic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; Frugis, Victor Lourenço; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Fernandez, Maria Piedad Ramirez; Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo Maté; Girardo, José Luis Calvo; Taschieri, Silvio; Corbella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of implant design (cylindrical and conical) in the load transfer on bone surrounding 13mm and 7mm length implants under simulated occlusal loading, using photoelastic analysis. Dental implants of 4mm diameter were divided into four groups, which varied in length and design: Group 1- standard (13 mm) cylindrical implant; Group 2 - standard conical implant; Group 3 - short (7 mm) cylindrical implant, and Group 4 - short conical implant. After the inclusion of the implant models in a photoelastic resin, they were subjected to a static load of 100 N. The lengths of the fringes that were generated were measured in three portions since the implants body: crestal, central and apical portion, parallel to the implant long axis. Furthermore, the entire extension area of dissipation of force was measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Lower stress was observed at the crestal bone in groups 2 and 4, while the stress levels in groups 1 and 3 were higher with significant differences compared to the other groups (pimplant length under axial loading condition, but changed in relation to the implant design with respect to the concentration of the fringes, which corresponded to the load distribution, with even more dissipation by conical implants.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS OF EASTERN POLAND ON SWEET CORN YIELDS AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weather components (air temperature, precipitation on the growth, yield and the length of the growing season of sweet corn cultivated in eastern Poland. The results come from a field experiment conducted in 2006–2011. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study significantly modified the yield of ears, weight and number of formatted ears, high of plants and the length of the growing season of sweet corn. Good yielding of sweet corn favoured years with moderate air temperatures in July and uniform distribution of precipitation during the growing season. The highest yield of ears was found in 2011, the lowest in the very difficult in terms of weather 2006. The shortest growing season was characterized corn grown in the years 2006 and 2010 with the high air temperatures in July and August, the longest in the years 2009 and 2011, in which the temperatures in the period June-August were the lowest of all the years of research. Irrespective of the year of study, cv ‘Sheba F1’ was formatted eras with higher weight than cv ‘Sweet Nugget F1’.

  3. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Waltenberger, L.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct in...

  4. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against Serratia marcescens (MICs above 46 μM). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from Staphylococcus aureus and S. marcescens with similar time......BACKGROUND: Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells...... and subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. RESULTS: All six AMP analogues...

  5. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one...... as controls. Paired sample t-testand Pearson´s correlation analysis were used to analyze implant position, dimension of crownand papilla fill.Cohen’s ¿ andSpearman correlation were used to validate the PIS.The implant-supported crown was statistically longer than the contra-lateral tooth......, and there was significant correlation between the oro-facial position of the implant and the crown length difference (r=.607, p=.001). The distalpapilla was significantly shorter than the mesialpapilla at implant-supported crowns (ptooth (p=.415...

  6. Influence of length and dosage of polypropylene fibres on the spalling tendency and the residual properties of self-compacting concrete after heated at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideris K.K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the influence of different length and dosage of polypropylene fibres on the properties of self-compacting concretes at elevated temperatures. A total of five self compacting concretes and one normally vibrated concrete were produced. The poypropylene fibres were of different length (12 mm, 6 mm and 3 mm and were added at dosages of 1.0 Kg/m3 and 0.5 Kg/m3. The properties measured after fire exposure were the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and water capillary absorption. The best overall performance was observed on the fibre reinforced self compacting concrete produced with the 6 mm HPR fibres at a dosage of 0.5 Kg/m3.

  7. Influence of spacer chain lengths and polar terminal groups on the mesomorphic properties of tethered 5-phenylpyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula F. Starkulla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-octylpyrimidine 8, 5-phenylpyrimidine derivatives 3–7, 9 with different spacer chain lengths (C2 up to C6 and different terminal polar groups (Br, Cl, N3, OH, CN were synthesized by etherification and nucleophilic substitution. The mesomorphic behaviour of these compounds was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarizing optical microscopy (POM and X-ray diffraction (WAXS and SAXS and revealed smectic A mesophases for bromides, chlorides and azides 3, 4 and 6. For these compounds a maximum phase width was observed for the C5 spacer regardless of the terminal group, whereas the hydroxy- and cyano-substituted derivatives 5 and 7, respectively, were non mesomorphic and showed only melting transitions.

  8. Influence of Growth Rate on Microstructural Length Scales in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Hypo-Eutectic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfei; Ma, Xuewei; Ren, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Jin, Zili; Li, Zhenliang; Shen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Ni-46.1Al-7.8Mo (at.%) alloy was directionally solidified at different growth rates ranging from 15 μm/s to 1000 μm/s under a constant temperature gradient (334 K/cm). The dependence of microstructural length scales on the growth rate was investigated. The results show that, with the growth rate increasing, the primary dendritic arm spacings (PDAS) and secondary dendritic arm spacings (SDAS) decreased. There exists a large distribution range in PDAS under directional solidification conditions at a constant temperature gradient. The average PDAS and SDAS as a function of growth rate can be given as λ1 = 848.8967 V-0.4509 and λ2 = 64.2196 V-0.4140, respectively. In addition, a comparison of our results with the current theoretical models and previous experimental results has also been made.

  9. Comparative influence of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation on cycle and mitosis lengths in EMT6 mouse tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hooghe, M.C.; Hemon, D.; Malaise, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    With exponentially growing EMT6 mouse tumour cells in vitro, we have compared the effects of a dose of γ-radiation and different temperature-time combinations on the lengths of the cell cycle and of mitosis using time-lapse cinematography on individual cells. The radiation dose and various temperature-time combinations all produced 50 per cent lethality. The hyperthermia treatments between 42 and 45 0 C all caused a mitosis delay (MD) which was greater than that induced by ionizing radiation. The MD was greater with increasing temperature. In contrast, hyperthermia also induced a mitosis lengthening (ML) but this was only of the same order of magnitude as radioinduced ML. The results argue in favour of different mechanisms underlying thermoinduced MD and ML. (author)

  10. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  11. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  12. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  13. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    implanted in the body cavity of the fish. The fish were double-tagged to simulate field studies on Final Report 2.2 the Snake and Columbia rivers...Hasler, KC Hanson, and SJ Cooke. 2009. Long-term effects of surgically implanted telemetry tags on the nutritional physiology and condition of wild...Zabel, RJ Graves, CV Ross, WP Connor, and BD Arnsberg. 2003. Influence of river conditions on survival and travel time of Snake River subyearling fall

  14. Retraction notice to: influence of post fit and post length on fracture resistance: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(3):496-500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    It has been notified to the Editorial Board, The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice (JCDP), that considerable script of the aforementioned article has been plagiarized from the article: Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of Post Fit and Post Length on Fracture Resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42(1):47-53. The same was confirmed after thorough evaluation and interpretation. In accordance to observe serious view in case of plagiarism, the Editorial Board, JCDP decided to take appropriate action against the act. Thus, it is herewith decided by the Editorial Board, JCDP to retract the title as addressed from the assigned issue.

  15. Probing the Influence of Linker Length and Flexibility in the Design and Synthesis of New Trehalase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero D’Adamio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to synthesize new trehalase inhibitors selective towards the insect trehalase versus the porcine trehalase, in view of their application as potentially non-toxic insecticides and fungicides. The synthesis of a new pseudodisaccharide mimetic 8, by means of a stereoselective α-glucosylation of the key pyrrolizidine intermediate 13, was accomplished. The activity of compound 8 as trehalase inhibitor towards C. riparius trehalase was evaluated and the results showed that 8 was active in the μM range and showed a good selectivity towards the insect trehalase. To reduce the overall number of synthetic steps, simpler and more flexible disaccharide mimetics 9–11 bearing a pyrrolidine nucleus instead of the pyrrolizidine core were synthesized. The biological data showed the key role of the linker chain’s length in inducing inhibitory properties, since only compounds 9 (α,β-mixture, bearing a two-carbon atom linker chain, maintained activity as trehalase inhibitors. A proper change in the glucosyl donor-protecting groups allowed the stereoselective synthesis of the β-glucoside 9β, which was active in the low micromolar range (IC50 = 0.78 μM and 12-fold more potent (and more selective than 9α towards the insect trehalase.

  16. Valiti maailma ilusaim mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Mai algul Nürnbergis toimunud filateelia maailmanäitusel valiti 1997. a. maailma kõige ilusam postmark. Konkursi võitis Ahvenamaa mark "75 aastat Ahvenamaa iseseisvust, II koht ئ Soome mark "Postmargipäev: Aino lugulaul", III ئ Saksamaal Heinrich von Stephani 100. surma-aastapäeva puhul välja antud mark.

  17. Displacement due to radial forces on test samples of district heating pipes. A computerized calculation on influence of thickness and length of test samples on displacements in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adl-Zarrabi, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology

    1993-12-31

    Deformation due to thermal expansion reduces the thickness of the insulation material and thus the thermal resistance of the pipe in district heating systems. The work presented in this report concentrates on the influence of the length and thickness of test samples in laboratory experiments on polyurethane insulated district heating pipes exposed to forces applied radially. Calculations of deformation have been carried out by I-deas software which is based on the finite element method. The calculations show that the length of the test sample shall be at least 80 mm, below this level the deformation depends on the length of the test sample. A validity check of the computerized analysis has been made. A simple model has been tested and deformation have been measured and compared with the results of the computerized analysis. This comparison has shown that the results of the computerized analysis are 14% lower than the measured. This difference is probably due to the density variation of the polyurethane material over the cross section of the pipe

  18. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czop, V.; Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  20. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  1. Influence of length of interval between pulses in PDR brachytherapy (PDRBT on value of Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED in healthy tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piotrowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different PDR treatment schemas are used in clinical practice, however optimal length of interval between pulses still remains unclear. The aim of this work was to compare value of BED doses measured in surrounded healthy tissues according to different intervals between pulses in PDRBT. Influence of doses optimization on BED values was analyzed.Material and methods: Fifty-one patients treated in Greater Poland Cancer Centre were qualified for calculations.Calculations of doses were made in 51 patients with head and neck cancer, brain tumor, breast cancer, sarcoma, penis cancer and rectal cancer. Doses were calculated with the use of PLATO planning system in chosen critical points in surrounded healthy tissues. For all treatment plans the doses were compared using Biologically Equivalent Dose formula.Three interval lengths (1, 2 and 4 hours between pulses were chosen for calculations. For statistical analysis Friedman ANOVA test and Kendall ratio were used.Results: The median value of BED in chosen critical points in healthy tissues was statistically related to the length of interval between PDR pulses and decreased exponentially with 1 hour interval to 4 hours (Kendall = from 0.48 to 1.0; p = from 0.002 to 0.00001.Conclusions: Prolongation of intervals between pulses in PDR brachytherapy was connected with lower values of BED doses in healthy tissues. It seems that longer intervals between pulses reduced the risk of late complications, but also decreased the tumour control. Furthermore, optimization influenced the increase of doses in healthy tissues.

  2. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  3. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  4. Marks, Prof. Tobin J

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2011 Honorary. Marks, Prof. Tobin J. Date of birth: 25 November 1944. Address: Prof. of Materials Sci. & Engg., Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145, Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Contact: Office: (+1-847) 491 5658. Email: t-marks@northwestern.edu. YouTube; Twitter ...

  5. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  6. The influence of implant diameter and length on stress distribution of osseointegrated implants related to crestal bone geometry: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggi, Luigi; Cappelloni, Ilaria; Di Girolamo, Michele; Maceri, Franco; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    Load transfer mechanisms and possible failure of osseointegrated implants are affected by implant shape, geometrical and mechanical properties of the site of placement, as well as crestal bone resorption. Suitable estimation of such effects allows for correct design of implant features. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of implant diameter and length on stress distribution and to analyze overload risk of clinically evidenced crestal bone loss at the implant neck in mandibular and maxillary molar periimplant regions. Stress-based performances of 5 commercially available implants (2 ITI, 2 Nobel Biocare, and 1 Ankylos implant; diameters of 3.3 mm to 4.5 mm, bone-implant interface lengths of 7.5 mm to 12 mm) were analyzed by linearly elastic 3-dimensional finite element simulations, under a static load (lateral component: 100 N; vertical intrusive component: 250 N). Numerical models of maxillary and mandibular molar bone segments were generated from computed tomography images, and local stress measures were introduced to allow for the assessment of bone overload risk. Different crestal bone geometries were also modelled. Type II bone quality was approximated, and complete osseous integration was assumed. Maximum stress areas were numerically located at the implant neck, and possible overloading could occur in compression in compact bone (due to lateral components of the occlusal load) and in tension at the interface between cortical and trabecular bone (due to vertical intrusive loading components). Stress values and concentration areas decreased for cortical bone when implant diameter increased, whereas more effective stress distributions for cancellous bone were experienced with increasing implant length. For implants with comparable diameter and length, compressive stress values at cortical bone were reduced when low crestal bone loss was considered. Finally, dissimilar stress-based performances were exhibited for mandibular and maxillary

  7. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  8. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  9. The Influenced of Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Addition and The Length Time of Fermentation Process on The Activity of Seaweed Antioxidant Ulva lactuca from Krakal Beach, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, N. D.; Rushanti, I. R. P. A.; Setyaji, A.; Ningsih, T. R.; Nurhana, N.; Subekhi, I.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed contains phenol compound functioning as antioxidant. Lactobacillus plantarum starter addition in a fermentation process was expected will increase the activity of antioxidant. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of L. plantarum addition and the length of fermentation on the activity of antioxidant in U. lactuca. The experiment was conducted with factorial design. The first treatment consisted 2 different factors namely without L. plantarum addition and L. plantarum addition. While the second treatment were the different length fermentation time: 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Each treatment were done in thriplicate. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and BNJ test was applied if there any differences betweenthe treatments. The results showed that the fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation had TPC BAL 9,83 CFU/ml, pH 4,26, phenol 231 ppm and antioxidant activity IC501375,12 ppm. Dried U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition that was fermentized for 36 hours had TPC BAL 9,10 CFU/ml, pH 4,75, phenol 166,24 ppm and antioxidant activity IC504070,32 ppm. The fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation was the best treatment since the antioxidant activity is IC501375,12 ppm. Although the antioxidant activity was categorized as weak but it was still showed an increase compared to the result of antioxidant activity with maceration method using n-hexana dissolver which was 11213,76 ppm, ethyl acetate 9770,285 ppm, and ethanol extact 4921,79 ppm.

  10. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  11. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  12. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  13. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  14. Does the Polymorphism in the Length of the Polyalanine Tract of FOXE1 Gene Influence the Risk of Thyroid Dysgenesis Occurrence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clebson Pantoja Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent data have suggested that polymorphisms in the length of the polyalanine tract (polyA of FOXE1 gene may act as a susceptibility factor for thyroid dysgenesis. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of polyA of FOXE1 gene on the risk of thyroid dysgenesis. Method. A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 90 Brazilian patients with thyroid dysgenesis and 131 controls without family history of thyroid disease. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and the genotype of each individual was determined by automated sequencing. Results. More than 90% of genotypes found in the group of patients with thyroid dysgenesis and in controls subjects were represented by sizes 14 and 16 polymorphisms in the following combinations: 14/14, 14/16, and 16/16. Genotypes 14/16 and 16/16 were more frequent in the control group, while genotype 14/14 was more frequent in the group of patients with thyroid dysgenesis. There was no difference between agenesis group and control group. Genotype 14/14 when compared to genotypes 14/16 and 16/16A showed an association with thyroid dysgenesis. Conclusion. PolyA of FOXE1 gene alters the risk of thyroid dysgenesis, which may explain in part the etiology of this disease.

  15. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to English began on average at age 4;4. Children spoke either a Chinese language or South Asian language as an L1 and were given English standardized tests for NWR and receptive vocabulary. Although the majority of ELLs scored within or above the monolingual normal range (71%), 29% scored below. Mixed logistic regression modeling revealed that a larger English vocabulary, longer English exposure, South Asian L1, and older age all had significant and positive effects on ELLs' NWR accuracy. Error analyses revealed the following L1 effect: onset consonants were produced more accurately than codas overall, but this effect was stronger for the Chinese group whose L1s have a more limited coda inventory compared with English. ELLs' NWR performance is influenced by a number of factors. Consideration of these factors is important in deciding whether monolingual norm referencing is appropriate for ELL children.

  16. Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Segment Length on CO2 Permeation and Stability of PolyActive Membranes and Their Nanocomposites with PEG POSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mushfequr; Filiz, Volkan; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Abetz, Clarissa; Georgopanos, Prokopios; Khan, Muntazim Munir; Neumann, Silvio; Abetz, Volker

    2015-06-17

    Three grades of PolyActive block copolymers are investigated for CO2 separation from light gases. The polymers are composed of 23 wt % poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and 77 wt % poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PEGT) having the poly(ethylene glycol) segments of 1500, 3000, and 4000 g/mol, respectively. A commercial PEG POSS (poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized polyoctahedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes) is used as a nanofiller for these polymers to prepare nanocomposites via a solvent casting method. Single gas permeabilities of N2, H2, CH4, and CO2 are measured via the time-lag method in the temperature range from 30 to 70 °C. The thermal transitions of the prepared membranes are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that the length of PEG segment has a pronounced influence on the thermal transition of the polymers that regulates the gas separation performance of the membranes. The stability of the nanocomposites is also correlated with the thermal transition of the polyether blocks of the polymer matrices.

  17. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification markings for gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

  19. Mark, Prof. Herman Francis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1949 Honorary. Mark, Prof. Herman Francis. Date of birth: 3 May 1895. Date of death: 6 April 1992. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the ...

  20. Teaching with Mark Dion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  1. Tapasin facilitation of natural HLA-A and -B allomorphs is strongly influenced by peptide length, depends on stability, and separates closely related allomorphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geironson, Linda; Thuring, Camilla; Harndahl, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Despite an abundance of peptides inside a cell, only a small fraction is ultimately presented by HLA-I on the cell surface. The presented peptides have HLA-I allomorph-specific motifs and are restricted in length. So far, detailed length studies have been limited to few allomorphs. Peptide-HLA-I ...

  2. On the frequency distributions per unit area of the projected and etchable lengths of surface-intersecting fission tracks: influences of track revelation, observation and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jonckheere, R

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the statistical bounds discussed, thermal history analysis based on the projected and etchable length distributions of surface intersecting fission tracks is limited by systematic factors related to track revelation, observation and measurement. The effects of track revelation, in particular, distort these distributions in the length intervals of interest. An observation threshold poses a problem if it is described by a critical angle theta sub c , but not if it is described by other criteria proposed in the literature. Measurement imprecisions, predictably, blur the thermal history information contained in these distributions. Measurements of semi-confined tracks, added as a result of surface etching, are a more promising alternative to confined track length measurements for accessing the thermal history record in the fission track length distribution. On the other hand, measurements of the projected lengths of surface intersecting tracks offer the theoretical possibility of determining the tr...

  3. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  4. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.).

  5. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA))

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies.

  6. The Influence of the Length of the School Day on the Percentage of Proficient and Advanced Proficient Scores on the New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge for Grade 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikon'a, Lydia Kaji

    2017-01-01

    This nonexperimental, cross-sectional, explanatory, quantitative study sought to analyze the influence of length of school day on student performance on the third-grade New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge Language Arts Literacy and Mathematics total percentage of Proficient and Advanced Proficient scores. The data were obtained from the…

  7. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Robert S; McClintock, Brett T; Lyren, Lisa M; Boydston, Erin E; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be

  8. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  9. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  10. Possible influence of the Kuramoto length in a photo-catalytic water splitting reaction revealed by Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations involving ionization in a weak electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohichi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We studied ion concentration profiles and the charge density gradient caused by electrode reactions in weak electrolytes by using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations without assuming charge neutrality. In weak electrolytes, only a small fraction of molecules is ionized in bulk. Ion concentration profiles depend on not only ion transport but also the ionization of molecules. We considered the ionization of molecules and ion association in weak electrolytes and obtained analytical expressions for ion densities, electrostatic potential profiles, and ion currents. We found the case that the total ion density gradient was given by the Kuramoto length which characterized the distance over which an ion diffuses before association. The charge density gradient is characterized by the Debye length for 1:1 weak electrolytes. We discuss the role of these length scales for efficient water splitting reactions using photo-electrocatalytic electrodes.

  11. Mark Meigs. Mencken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ollivier Mellios

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce volume fait partie de la collection ‘Clefs Concours’, une série d’ouvrages qui offre aux étudiants des repères sur les sujets de civilisation du CAPES et de l’agrégation, des synthèses, « des outils de révision », bref les clés nécessaires pour mieux cerner le programme de civilisation américaine, en l’occurrence la Chrestomathy de H.L. Mencken. L’ouvrage de Mark Meigs se compose d’une introduction et d’un chapitre liminaire sur l’historiographie existante, d’une première partie posant les...

  12. The influence of the distal resection margin length on local recurrence and long- term survival in patients with rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy and sphincter- preserving rectal resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosek Jan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low recurrence rates and long term survival are the main therapeutic goals of rectal cancer surgery. Complete, margin- negative resection confers the greatest chance for a cure. The aim of our study was to determine whether the length of the distal resection margin was associated with local recurrence rate and long- term survival.

  13. The influence of length of relationship, gender and age on the relationship intention of short-term insurance clients: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Steyn

    2011-09-01

    insurance industry completed self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicate that, for a group of high relationship-intention clients of a short-term insurance organisation, no practically significant discrimination exists on any of the relationship-intention constructs for clients’ length of relationship, gender or age.

  14. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  15. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bukvić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00 and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05 was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the highest average values for germination energy and seed germination, and the lowest for hypocotyls length. Cultivar Vuka had the lowest germination energy (but with the same germination as Stela and the longest hypocotyls. Seed germination as well as root and hypocotyl length significantly depended (p=0.01 on pH of water solution. The higher average values of all traits were found at pH 4.00, except for germination energy. Temperature also significantly affected on all investigated traits (p=0.01, whilst the higher values were attained at higher temperature. Interactions cultivar x pH and cultivar x temperature were significant (p=0.01 for all traits, while pH x temperature interaction was not significant only for seed germination.

  16. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on the lack of consistent literature publications that analyse the effects of laser marking for traceability on various materials, the present paper proposes a study of the influence of such radiation processing on an aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty impact, ...

  17. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on the lack of consistent literature publications that analyse the effects of laser marking for trace- ability on various materials, the present paper proposes a study of the influence of such radiation processing on an aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty ...

  18. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4N, 4S and 4O derivatives vs. μ-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs. dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs. CQR malaria. PMID:18512900

  19. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-grafted microfibrillated cellulose for use in novel bionanocomposites--influence of the graft length on the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnberg, Hanna; Larsson, Karolina; Lindström, Tom; Hult, Anders; Malmström, Eva

    2011-05-01

    In the present work, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) made from bleached sulfite softwood dissolving pulp was utilized to reinforce a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) biopolymer matrix. To improve the dispersibility of the hydrophilic MFC in the nonpolar matrix and the interfacial adhesion in the composite material, we covalently grafted the MFC with PCL via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). To be able to investigate the effect of the PCL graft length on the mechanical properties of the composite material, we performed ROP to different molecular weights of the grafts. Bionanocomposites containing 0, 3, and 10 wt % MFC were prepared via hot pressing using both unmodified and PCL grafted MFC (MFC-g-PCL) as reinforcement. PCL grafting resulted in improved dispersion of the MFC in a nonpolar solvent and in the PCL matrix. The mechanical testing of the biocomposites showed an improvement in the mechanical properties for the PCL grafted MFC in comparison to ungrafted MFC. It was also shown that there was an impact on the mechanical properties with respect to the PCL graft lengths, and the strongest biocomposites were obtained after reinforcement with MFC grafted with the longest PCL graft length.

  20. Auxological evaluation in patients with a 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome: normal prevalence of obesity and neonatal length and gender influence on body mass index evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, R; Derain-Court, J; Braunstein, D; Veyrat, M; Gaudart, J; Giuliano, F; Philip, N

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate auxological parameters in children and adults with a 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and to compare prevalence of obesity to that in the French general population. 102 patients with 22q11.2 DS (49 males, 53 females) were recruited from birth to adulthood through a reference center in southern France. Mean BMI Z score and mean height were normal (0.07 ± 1.49 SD, -0.87 ± 1.36 SDS, respectively). 16.1% of patients were overweight (including obese), 57% out of them being born small for gestational age for length versus 25% of non-overweight patients. During infancy, BMI increased in girls (+0.89 SD Z score). Childhood: 14.7% were overweight, prevalence similar to that of the in French children population. Adulthood: 19.2% were overweight. BMI Z scores were inversely correlated with neonatal length (p = 0.026) and female sex (p = 0.032) but positively associated with neonatal weight (p = 0.036). From analysis of neonatal data, 22q11.2 DS newborns were significantly shorter with regard to their weight (p 22q11.2 DS to that in the French population. The BMI Z score was inversely correlated with neonatal length and female gender but positively associated with neonatal weight. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation of alignment marks using ASML ATHENA alignment system in 90nm BEOL process

    CERN Document Server

    Tan Chin Boon; Koh Hui Peng; Koo Chee, Kiong; Siew Yong Kong; Yeo Swee Hock

    2003-01-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) in integrated circuit (IC) device reduces, the total overlay budget needs to be more stringent. Typically, the allowable overlay error is 1/3 of the CD in the IC device. In this case, robustness of alignment mark is critical, as accurate signal is required by the scanner's alignment system to precisely align a layer of pattern to the previous layer. Alignment issue is more severe in back-end process partly due to the influenced of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), which contribute to the asymmetric or total destruction of the alignment marks. Alignment marks on the wafer can be placed along the scribe-line of the IC pattern. ASML scanner allows such type of wafer alignment using phase grating mark, known as Scribe-line Primary Mark (SPM) which can be fit into a standard 80um scribe-line. In this paper, we have studied the feasibility of introducing Narrow SPM (NSPM) to enable a smaller scribe-line. The width of NSPM has been shrunk down to 70% of the SPM and the length remain...

  2. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  3. Influence of time to diagnosis of severe influenza on antibiotic use, length of stay, isolation precautions, and mortality: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Isabel E; Weber, Rainer; Sax, Hugo; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Kuster, Stefan P

    2017-07-01

    Timely diagnosis of influenza infection in patients might help reduce antibiotic use during influenza seasons and, consequently, antibiotic selection pressure. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate whether time to influenza diagnosis in patients with severe influenza is associated with the duration of antibiotic therapy. We retrospectively included all hospitalized patients >16 years who tested positive for influenza A or B by polymerase chain reaction during influenza seasons 2013/2014 or 2014/2015 at the University Hospital Zurich. The primary aim was to assess the association between timing of laboratory-confirmed influenza diagnosis and duration of antibiotic therapy. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, duration of isolation precautions, and mortality. Early diagnosis was defined as laboratory confirmation on the day of or the day after hospital admission or symptom onset. A total of 126 patients were included (median age 57 years). Timing of influenza diagnosis was not associated with the duration of antibiotic treatment, the duration of isolation precautions, or mortality. Early influenza was associated with reduced length of hospital stay (median 7 vs 9 days [P=.014]) in patients with community-acquired influenza. Although the duration of antibiotic therapy and mortality were found unaffected by early influenza diagnosis, our data indicate that it is linked with a reduction in the length of hospitalization in patients with community-acquired influenza. This highlights a need to also fully understand the effect of time to diagnosis of bacterial pathogens on antibiotic prescribing patterns in order to exploit the potential of early influenza diagnosis in patient care. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid Crystal Phases: Influence of the Chain Length from C8E4 to C14E4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Techert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.

  5. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2015-01-01

    and immunopotentiating properties of the clinically tested liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and analogues of trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). TDB analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate...... incorporated, whereas both the initial size and the charge of the liposomes were unaffected. The long-term colloidal stability was only decreased when including TDL in DDA liposomes. The fatty acid length of TDX affected the phase transition of the liposomes, and for the DDA/TDP and DDA/TDS liposomes...

  6. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  7. Evaporation of sessile droplets of dilute aqueous solutions containing sodium n-alkylates from polymer surfaces: influences of alkyl length and concentration of solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sung Il; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Soo; Cho, Kilwon; Jung, Jin Chul; Chang, Taihyun; Ree, Moonhor; Zin, Wang-Cheol

    2008-10-21

    The evaporation of sessile droplets placed on polymer surfaces was studied by microscopic observation of the changes in shape of aqueous solution droplets in which the alkyl lengths and the initial concentrations of sodium n-alkylates were varied. Although the initial contact angles of the droplets were not significantly different, the evaporation process varied significantly with the alkyl length of the sodium n-alkylate employed. For the sodium dodecanoate (C 12), showing the highest surface activity, the concentration was found to have a significant effect on the evaporation process of the droplets. In the evaporation of water droplets, variations in the three distinct stages were caused by the different concentration of solutes distributed near or at the air/water interface. It is revealed that the concentration of droplet solute near the air/water interface requires not only solvent evaporation but also some affinity of the solute for the interface. The initial C 12 concentration-dependence of the evaporation of C 12 solution droplets is discussed with particular emphasis on the sudden spreading or sudden contraction of the contact area near the end of evaporation. It is suggested that the cluster formation by C 12 molecules at the air/liquid interface during the evaporation causes Marangoni instability in an evaporating droplet, and the clusters are expected to move dynamically, depending on the droplet concentration of C 12, from the droplet center to the contact line and vice versa, showing Marangoni flow along the air/water interface.

  8. Non-stationary recruitment dynamics of rainbow smelt: the influence of environmental variables and variation in size structure and length-at-maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Zachary S.; Bunnell, David B.; Hook, Tomas O.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Warner, David M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2015-01-01

    Fish stock-recruitment dynamics may be difficult to elucidate because of nonstationary relationships resulting from shifting environmental conditions and fluctuations in important vital rates such as individual growth or maturation. The Great Lakes have experienced environmental stressors that may have changed population demographics and stock-recruitment relationships while causing the declines of several prey fish species, including rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). We investigated changes in the size and maturation of rainbow smelt in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron and recruitment dynamics of the Lake Michigan stock over the past four decades. Mean lengths and length-at-maturation of rainbow smelt generally declined over time in both lakes. To evaluate recruitment, we used both a Ricker model and a Kalman filter-random walk (KF-RW) model which incorporated nonstationarity in stock productivity by allowing the productivity term to vary over time. The KF-RW model explained nearly four times more variation in recruitment than the Ricker model, indicating the productivity of the Lake Michigan stock has increased. By accounting for this nonstationarity, we were able identify significant variations in stock productivity, evaluate its importance to rainbow smelt recruitment, and speculate on potential environmental causes for the shift. Our results suggest that investigating mechanisms driving nonstationary shifts in stock-recruit relationships can provide valuable insights into temporal variation in fish population dynamics.

  9. Immunonutrition – the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz, Kai J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. Patients and methods: A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet.Results: In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week.Summary: We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit and general ward stays.

  10. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  11. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  12. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical investigation on the kinetics and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical-induced transformation of parabens and its consequences for toxicity: Influence of alkyl-chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanpeng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2016-03-15

    As emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), the ubiquitous presence of preservative parabens in water causes a serious environmental concern. Hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is a strong oxidant that can degrade EOCs through photochemistry in surface water environments as well as in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). To better understand the degradation mechanisms, kinetics, and products toxicity of the preservative parabens in aquatic environments and AOPs, the (•)OH-initiated degradation reactions of the four parabens were investigated systematically using a computational approach. The four studied parabens with increase of alkyl-chain length were methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propylparaben (PPB), and dibutylparaben (BPB). Results showed that the four parabens can be initially attacked by (•)OH through (•)OH-addition and H-abstraction routes. The (•)OH-addition route was more important for the degradation of shorter alkyl-chain parabens like MPB and EPB, while the H-abstraction route was predominant for the degradation of parabens with longer alkyl-chain for example PPB and BPB. In assessing the aquatic toxicity of parabens and their degradation products using the model calculations, the products of the (•)OH-addition route were found to be more toxic to green algae than original parabens. Although all degradation products were less toxic to daphnia and fish than corresponding parental parabens, they could be still harmful to these aquatic organisms. Furthermore, as alkyl-chain length increased, the ecotoxicity of parabens and their degradation products was found to be also increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser marking as environment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotova, Lydia; Badida, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    The contribution deals with the laser marking as one of the progressive and environment friendly technologies with utilisation in many branches of industry. Engraving and other types of laser marking of different types of materials are very actual technologies these days. Laser marking decreases the waste creation in comparison with the other classical marking technologies, which use paintings or created chips. In this experimental investigation the laser marking surface texturing of material AL99,7 according to STN 42 4003:1993-08 (STN EN 573) has been conducted. The laser marking machine TruMark 6020 and software TruTops Mark were used. Laser surface texturing after laser marking has been realised under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of engraving or annealing surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The evaluation of roughness of engraved surfaces has been realized according to STN EN ISO 4287 by using Surftest SJ 301. The aim of the contribution was to show how different laser parameters affect the surface texture and colour change of metallic materials while creating minimal waste.

  15. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  16. Influence of alkyl chain length and anion species on ionic liquid structure at the graphite interface as a function of applied potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Wood, Ross J; Atkin, Rob; Endres, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements elucidate the effect of cation alkyl chain length and the anion species on ionic liquid (IL) interfacial structure at highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces as a function of potential. Three ILs are examined: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM] FAP), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([EMIM] FAP), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM] TFSA). The step-wise force-distance profiles indicate the ILs adopt a multilayered morphology near the surface. When the surface is biased positively or negatively versus Pt quasireference electrode, both the number of steps, and the force required to rupture each step increase, indicating stronger interfacial structure. At all potentials, push-through forces for [HMIM] FAP are the highest, because the long alkyl chain results in strong cohesive interactions between cations, leading to well-formed layers that resist the AFM tip. The most layers are observed for [EMIM] FAP, because the C 2 chains are relatively rigid and the dimensions of the cation and anion are similar, facilitating neat packing. [EMIM] TFSA has the smallest push-through forces and fewest layers, and thus the weakest interfacial structure. Surface-tip attractive forces are measured for all ILs. At the same potential, the attractions are the strongest for [EMIM] TFSA and the weakest for [HMIM] FAP because the interfacial layers are better formed for the longer alkyl chain cation. This means interfacial forces are stronger, which masks the weak attractive forces. (paper)

  17. The Length of N-Glycans of Recombinant H5N1 Hemagglutinin Influences the Oligomerization and Immunogenicity of Vaccine Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kopera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA is a principle influenza vaccine antigen. Recombinant HA-based vaccines become a potential alternative for traditional approach. Complexity and variation of HA N-glycosylation are considered as the important factors for the vaccine design. The number and location of glycan moieties in the HA molecule are also crucial. Therefore, we decided to study the effect of N-glycosylation pattern on the H5 antigen structure and its ability to induce immunological response. We also decided to change neither the number nor the position of the HA glycosylation sites but only the glycan length. Two variants of the H5 antigen with high mannose glycosylation (H5hm and with low-mannose glycosylation (H5Man5 were prepared utilizing different Pichia strains. Our structural studies demonstrated that only the highly glycosylated H5 antigen formed high molecular weight oligomers similar to viral particles. Further, the H5hm was much more immunogenic for mice than H5Man5. In summary, our results suggest that high mannose glycosylation of vaccine antigen is superior to the low glycosylation pattern. Our findings have strong implications for the recombinant HA-based influenza vaccine design.

  18. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  19. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  20. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  1. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  2. PMMA-g-OEtOx Graft Copolymers: Influence of Grafting Degree and Side Chain Length on the Conformation in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Muljajew

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the degree of grafting (DG and the side chain degree of polymerization (DP, graft copolymers may feature properties similar to statistical copolymers or to block copolymers. This issue is approached by studying aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx graft copolymers comprising a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA backbone and hydrophilic oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (OEtOx side chains. The graft copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA and OEtOx-methacrylate macromonomers of varying DP. All aqueous solutions of PMMA-g-OEtOx (9% ≤ DG ≤ 34%; 5 ≤ side chain DP ≤ 24 revealed lower critical solution temperature behavior. The graft copolymer architecture significantly influenced the aggregation behavior, the conformation in aqueous solution and the coil to globule transition, as verified by means of turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The aggregation behavior of graft copolymers with a side chain DP of 5 was significantly affected by small variations of the DG, occasionally forming mesoglobules above the cloud point temperature (Tcp, which was around human body temperature. On the other hand, PMMA-g-OEtOx with elongated side chains assembled into well-defined structures below the Tcp (apparent aggregation number (Nagg = 10 that were able to solubilize Disperse Orange 3. The thermoresponsive behavior of aqueous solutions thus resembled that of micelles comprising a poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (PEtOx shell (Tcp > 60 °C.

  3. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  4. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  5. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  6. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  7. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  8. Influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo Influence of length of hospitalization on neuromotor development in premature newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Giachetta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo prospectivo com 67 RNPT de idade gestacional 34 dias. Na análise estatística considerou-se o nível de significância pThe purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the length of hospital stay on the neuromotor development of preterm newborns (PTNB. This prospective study was carried out with 67 PTNB (gestational age 34 days. In statistical analysis significance level was set at p<0.05. Median AIMS scores (possible range 0-21 were 7 in group A, 5 in group B; weak, significant correlations were found at both groups (r=0.32; r=0.34 between AIMS scores and HP. Results show that PTNB who stayed in hospital for more than 34 days showed developmental delay, suggesting that, without excluding other factors, the longer PTNB length of stay, the greater the motor impairment.

  9. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  10. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and durably... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine...

  12. Striatal and extrastriatal atrophy in Huntington's disease and its relationship with length of the CAG repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Ruocco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects the striatum most severely. However, except for juvenile forms, relative preservation of the cerebellum has been reported. The objective of the present study was to perform MRI measurements of caudate, putamen, cerebral, and cerebellar volumes and correlate these findings with the length of the CAG repeat and clinical parameters. We evaluated 50 consecutive patients with HD using MRI volumetric measurements and compared them to normal controls. Age at onset of the disease ranged from 4 to 73 years (mean: 43.1 years. The length of the CAG repeat ranged from 40 to 69 (mean: 47.2 CAG. HD patients presented marked atrophy of the caudate and putamen, as well as reduced cerebellar and cerebral volumes. There was a significant correlation between age at onset of HD and length of the CAG repeat, as well as clinical disability and age at onset. The degree of basal ganglia atrophy correlated with the length of the CAG repeat. There was no correlation between cerebellar or cerebral volume and length of the CAG repeat. However, there was a tendency to a positive correlation between duration of disease and cerebellar atrophy. While there was a negative correlation of length of the CAG repeat with age at disease onset and with striatal degeneration, its influence on extrastriatal atrophy, including the cerebellum, was not clear. Extrastriatal atrophy occurs later in HD and may be related to disease duration.

  13. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  14. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  15. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  16. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  17. Influence of different methods of cervical flaring on establishment of working length Influência de diferentes métodos de ampliação cervical na determinação do comprimento de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieison Nardi Lazzaretti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the influence of three different rotary systems for cervical flaring on establishment of the real working length. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty mandibular first molars were submitted to conventional endodontic access and initial working length measurement, followed by irrigation/suction of the pulp chamber with 5% sodium hypochlorite. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and cervical flaring of the mesiobuccal canals were performed using one of the following instrument systems: Group 1 - Gates-Glidden burs; Group 2 - Orifice Openers; Group 3 - La Axxess system. Two subsequent numbers of instruments of each rotary system were used and the final working length was recorded. A digital calyper was used to record the working length, in millimeters, to investigate a possible discrepancy between initial and final measurements. RESULTS: Analysis of variance (Anova na Tukey test revealed statistical difference between Group 1 and Groups 2 and 3 (p£ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: all groups presented shorter working length after cervical flaring; groups prepared with instruments La Axxes and Orifice Opener presented the best results among the systems studied.OBJETIVO: determinar a influência de três sistemas distintos de instrumentos rotatórios para alargamento cervical na determinação do comprimento real de trabalho. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Trinta primeiros molares inferiores foram submetidos ao acesso endodôntico convencional e odontometria inicial pelo método visual, utilizando-se para irrigação/aspiração da câmara pulpar o hipoclorito de sódio a 5%. Procedeu-se a ampliação cervical dos canais mésio-vestibulares empregando-se diferentes alargadores cervicais. De acordo com o sistema de ampliação cervical empregado, as 30 amostras foram divididas aleatoriamente em 3 grupos de 10 dentes cada. No Grupo 1 as brocas de Gates-Glidden foram utilizadas para a ampliação cervical; no Grupo 2, Orifice Openers foram

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of 6.5-mm-Long Implants to Support Two-Implant Fixed Prostheses in Premolar-Molar Region: The Influence of Immediate Loading and the Length of Splinting Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Javier; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan

    2018-01-28

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to assess the influence of immediate loading and lengths of splinted implants on the clinical effectiveness of 6.5-mm-long implants supporting two-implant fixed prostheses in the premolar-molar regions. A clinical database was reviewed in a private dental center to select those patients who had 6.5-mm-long implants placed to support two-implant fixed partial prostheses in the premolar-molar regions of the maxilla and the mandible. All implants were immediately loaded. The study groups were defined according to the lengths of the implants. Two groups were identified: the short-short splinted group, when both implants had 6.5 mm lengths, and the short-long splinted group, when one implant was longer than 6.5 mm. A total of 48 dental implants were placed in 16 patients to support 24 two-implant fixed prostheses. The mean follow-up time was 14 ± 5 months. The short-short splinted group included 8 patients with 16 implants; the short-long splinted group included 16 patients with 32 implants. The main variable was implant survival, and secondary outcomes were marginal bone stability and prosthesis survival. The statistical analyses indicated an absence of significant differences between the two groups in terms of implant and prosthesis survival (100% for both groups and both variables); however, distal bone loss around the splinted implants was significantly higher in the short-long splinted group. Bone loss was 0.37 ± 0.55 mm in the short-short splinted group and 0.94 ± 0.66 mm in the short-long splinted group. Immediate loading of short (6.5-mm-long) implants in the premolar-molar regions did not jeopardize their survival. Two-implant supported prostheses had the same clinical effectiveness, whether extra-short implants were splinted to another extra-short implant or to a longer one. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  20. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  1. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  2. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  3. Preoperative stoma site marking in the general surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.

  4. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs

  5. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama S Alothmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected by the location of the apical foramen, tooth type, canal curvature and superimposition of surrounding structures. Variations among observers by virtue of training and experience may also influence the accuracy of the procedure. The interpretation of radiographs could be affected by film speed and viewing conditions, with the superiority of digital imaging over conventional radiography for working length determination remaining debatable. The combination of several methods is recommended for acquiring the most accurate working length.

  7. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  8. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  9. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  10. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  11. Tourism and fashion: factors affecting trip length

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón García, María Haydeé; G. Gallarza, Martina; Fayos Gardó, Teresa; O'Sullivan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism and shopping are closely related, and the influence of fashion shopping on a tourist's decision to travel is especially significant. The concept of cognitive and hedonic involvement enables us to relate the importance given to shopping by consumers of fashion products and of tourism services. This research analyses whether tourist involvement in fashion shopping has an impact on the length of their stay in a destination. In addition, it examines whether trip length is conditioned by t...

  12. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Out of the 320 male sheep examined, 87(27.2%) were infected, while 9(19.1%) of the 47 females examined were infected (Table 2). Infection varied from one abattoir to another. Age related distribution of P. cervi is shown in Table 3. Out of 356 adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 35. Full Length Research Article. 12 ...

  13. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Length of excitable knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, Fabian; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots. We also show that there is not a unique attractor within a given knot topology.

  15. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-01-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  18. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  19. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handling of numerous processing variables to control defects is a mammoth task that costs time, effort and money. This paper presents a simple and efficient way to study the influence of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach. Using the Taguchi approach, optimal parameter settings and the ...

  20. 46 CFR 160.026-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) (b) Other marking. In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box in which emergency drinking water containers are placed prior to shipment, each carton or box shall be...

  1. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  2. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  3. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  4. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  6. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  7. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  8. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  9. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking requirements. 761.40 Section 761.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... PROHIBITIONS Marking of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.40 Marking requirements. (a) Each of the following items in...

  10. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  11. 46 CFR 160.013-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.013-5 Section 160.013-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... marked in a legible manner on the side of the head with the manufacturer's name or with a trade mark of...

  12. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.031-6 Section 160.031-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... name or mark of the company. (b) Projectile. Projectiles shall be permanently and legibly marked with...

  13. 27 CFR 19.1008 - Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol. The proprietor shall conspicuously and permanently mark or securely label each container of fuel... FUEL ALCOHOL MAY BE HARMFUL OR FATAL IF SWALLOWED The mark or label shall be placed on the head or side... fuel plant; and (5) The words “Spirits-For Alcohol Fuel Use Only”. Proprietors may place other marks or...

  14. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating... color schemes apply to IALA Region B. Marks located in the IALA Region A exhibit reversed color... hand marks will be green. The meaning of daymark and buoy shapes is identical in both regions. (e...

  15. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  16. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the vessel. (2) The type of vessel. (3) Specific purpose or limitation approved by the Coast Guard...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-23 Marking. (a) General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be marked with the information required by this section. Each marking must be...

  17. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal for...

  18. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  19. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  20. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requalification markings. 180.213 Section 180.213... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification, Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.213 Requalification markings... specification, marking on the cylinder sidewall is prohibited. (1) Requalification and required specification...

  1. Studies on CO 2 laser marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Saitoh, Yoshikazu; Hachisuka, Hideki; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki; Gokoh, Yukihiro; Mantani, Hiroshi

    The nature of CO 2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO 2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO 2 laser marking is cheaper and faster, and in addition there is no danger of injury from irradiating laser light.

  2. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  3. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A Tiril M; Lampe, Helene M; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  4. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Lifjeld

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  5. No Evidence for Pre-Copulatory Sexual Selection on Sperm Length in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T.; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A. Tiril M.; Lampe, Helene M.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:22384277

  6. Identification of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus by the use of natural tail marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G.J. Swanepoel

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The tail marks of 190 Nile crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus were documented and processed into codes. The size of the crocodiles varied from 45 cm to 4.6 m in total length. Wherever possible, both sides of the tails were observed and the marks documented. In all remaining instances only one side could be identified. A total of 267 sides were identified. The natural marks on nine segments of a specific portion of the tail was recorded and compared as codes. For this comparison two methods were employed. Differences of 95.1 and 100 was found with the respective methods. This is an indication that every crocodile has a unique pattern of natural marks on its tail. The marks can therefore be used to allocate a code to an individual crocodile that partially eliminates the necessity of artificial marking methods.

  7. Effect of intensive exercise in early adult life on telomere length in later life in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Merja K; Eriksson, Johan G; Kujala, Urho M; Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli M; Peltonen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-06-01

    A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392) and their age-matched controls (n = 207). Relative telomere length was determined from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was self-reported and expressed in metabolic equivalent hours. No significant difference in mean age-adjusted LTL in late life (p = 0.845) was observed when comparing former male elite athletes and their age-matched controls. Current volume of LTPA had no marked influence on mean age-adjusted LTL (p for trend 0.788). LTL was inversely associated with age (p = 0.004).Our study findings suggest that a former elite athlete career is not associated with LTL later in life. Key pointsA career as an elite-class athlete is associated with improved metabolic health in late life and is associated with longer life expectancy.A career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood was not associated with leukocyte telomere length in later life.Current volume of leisure-time physical activity did not influence telomere length in later life.

  8. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  9. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  10. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  11. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  12. Studies on CO2 Laser Marking

    OpenAIRE

    UEDA, Masahiro; SAITOH, Yoshikazu; HACHISUKA, Hideki; ISHIGAKI, Hiroyuki; GOKOH, Yukihiro; MANTANI, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The nature of CO2 laser marking was studied with a view to putting these lasers to practical use in the semiconductor industry. The marking is found to be due to surface spattering rather than burning, which is the main factor in YAG laser marking. The visibility greatly increases by the application of a surface treatment such as marker ink, varnish or poster color. The CO2 laser may therefore be used in place of the YAG laser, now widely used for marking, with some merits: CO2 laser marki...

  13. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  14. Mark and recapture studies of two reef sparids in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Buxton

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available A mark and recapture study of two reef sparids, Chrysoblephus laticeps and C. cristiceps, was done in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Fish were marked with plastic anchor tags and an intraperitoneal injection of oxytetracycline. All recaptures were taken within two kilometres of the tagging locality, suggesting that both species are resident in the area. Growth in length during the period at liberty was very variable and sometimes negative, but was comparable with published growth rates.

  15. Radioactive marking of proteins in cultured mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to build an in vitro test system, with which on the one hand postimplantation embryos of the mouse could be cultured without morphological of physiological damage and on the other hand their protein could be as highly marked as possible. With this radioactively marked proteins were to be won, which are optimally suited for a high separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis. In addition incubation and preparation methods were found for the ages of day 10, 11 and 12 of the embryonic development. With the use of 3 H-marked amino acids in the culture medium it was determined that embryos without embryonic membranes, so-called N-embryos, built in more radioactivity into their proteins than the embryos with embryonic membranes, the so-called DAO-embryos or the DO-embryos. On the contrary, the embryos with intact blood circulation (DO-embryos) showed an even distribution of radioactive marker in their bodies. Since an even distribution of the marker in the embryo is a necessary prerequisite for a representative presentation of the proteins by 2DE, the DO-preparation was considered the best suited method. In order to increase the amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins of the DO-embryos, the concentration of the used isotope or the incubation length could be increased. A combination of both proved to be the best method. A 14 C-marked amino acid mixture of 20 μCi/corresponds to 20 μl instead of the usual 150 μCi 3 H-marked amino acids in a culture medium proved to be equally suitable. Notable changes which would have indicated a damaging affect of the used radioactivity or the in vitro culturing were not observed. The achieved methodical conditions were used for the presentation of the embryo proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  17. 7 CFR 352.8 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements. 352.8 Section 352.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.8 Marking requirements. Prohibited and...

  18. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  19. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic liquid). Marked rated holding marking for additional cryogenic liquids may be displayed on or adjacent to the...

  20. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every...

  1. Do employers prefer Mark over Mohammed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Eline Nievers; Laila Faulk; Jaco Dagevos

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Liever Mark dan Mohammed? Does Mohammed have less chance of succeeding on the Dutch labour market than Mark, even though they both have the same qualifications and work experience? And are employers less friendly towards Sonaya than Paula? This study investigates the

  2. 46 CFR 160.022-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box containing floating orange smoke distress signals, such cartons or boxes shall be plainly and indelibly marked to show the service life expiration date, the month and year of manufacture, and the lot number. (3) The largest carton or box in...

  3. 46 CFR 161.012-15 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 161.012-15 Section 161.012-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... manufacturer's name or trade mark that clearly identifies the model designation; (2) The Coast Guard approval...

  4. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of the cylinder enclosure housing liquefied petroleum gas cylinders, valves and regulators shall be marked as... and permanently legible instruction sign covering safe operation and maintenance of the gas-consuming...

  5. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  6. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of the...

  7. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions except...

  8. Marking behavior of the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Mammalia: Myrmecophagidae in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Braga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents novel data on tree marking by the giant anteater, a large Neotropical mammal threatened in the state of Paraná and other areas of Brazil, and nearly threatened worldwide. Field work was carried out in the municipality of Jaguariaíva, Paraná (Southern Brazil with the goal of evaluating the pine marking behavior of the giant anteater and ascertaining whether wildfires interfere with it. Anteater marks were searched for on the trunks of pine trees in stands as well as pine trees dispersed throughout the landscape. For each pine tree, the following features were recorded: height, diameter breast height (DBH, height of first branch, presence/absence of scratch marks, geographical location, substrate, and matrix. The total number of scratches, scratch directions, scratch length, and height of top mark were also recorded. The scratches were defined as horizontal or vertical. Tree scratching was directly observed in three instances. Ninety-one trees were measured in the study area. The differences between marked and non-marked pines were significant for DBH and height of first branch. All scratches were found on pines dispersed throughout the landscape. Trees with horizontal and vertical marks were significantly different in terms of DBH, first branch height, and top mark height. After a wildfire that affected part of the study area, 54% of the previously marked trees were marked anew. We suggest that the marking behavior is used for communication between conspecifics with overlapping home ranges, possibly during the mating season. Additionally, we advance the hypothesis that pine marking behavior becomes more frequent with increased population stress due to anthropic interference.

  9. Influence of the ratio of gate length to drain-to-source distance on the electron mobility in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanjie; Lin, Zhaojun; Meng, Lingguo; Luan, Chongbiao; Cao, Zhifang; Yu, Yingxia; Feng, Zhihong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2012-08-03

    Using measured capacitance-voltage curves with different gate lengths and current-voltage characteristics at low drain-to-source voltage for the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) of different drain-to-source distances, we found that the dominant scattering mechanism in AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs is determined by the ratio of gate length to drain-to-source distance. For devices with small ratio (here, less than 1/2), polarization Coulomb field scattering dominates electron mobility. However, for devices with large ratio (here, more than 1/2), longitudinal optical (LO) phonon scattering and interface roughness scattering are dominant. The reason is closely related to polarization Coulomb field scattering.

  10. Learning to mark: a qualitative study of the experiences and concerns of medical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannings-John Rebecca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is published research on the methods markers use in marking various types of assessment, there is relatively little information on the processes markers use in approaching a marking exercise. This qualitative paper describes the preparation and experiences of general practice (GP teachers who undertake marking a written assessment in an undergraduate medical course. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven of the 16 GP tutors on an undergraduate course. The purposive sample comprised two new markers, two who had marked for a couple of years and three experienced markers. Each respondent was interviewed twice, once following a formative assessment of a written case study, and again after a summative assessment. All interviews were audio-taped and analysed for emerging themes. A respondent validation exercise was conducted with all 16 GP tutors. Results Markers had internal concerns about their ability to mark fairly and made considerable efforts to calibrate their marking. They needed guidance and coaching when marking for the first time and adopted a variety of marking styles, reaching a decision through a number of routes. Dealing with pass/fail borderline scripts and the consequences of the mark on the student were particular concerns. Even experienced markers felt the need to calibrate their marks both internally and externally Conclusion Previous experience of marking appears to improve markers' confidence and is a factor in determining the role which markers adopt. Confidence can be improved by giving clear instructions, along with examples of marking. The authors propose that one method of providing this support and coaching could be by a process of peer review of a selection of papers prior to the main marking. New markers in particular would benefit from further guidance, however they are influenced by others early on in their marking career and course organisers should be mindful of

  11. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  12. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  13. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  14. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...... more can be added to our comprehension of the way the panel makers worked in Antwerp. In the following paper I shall give a brief summary of the present state of research, as well as outline the complicated task of interpreting these marks and their use as a dating tool. The ready-made supports...

  15. Experimental investigations on fiber laser color marking of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, E.H.; Haïd, F.; Noukaz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. • We have used a home-made marking device composed of a pulsed fiber laser and galvanometric mirrors. • Both commercial and elaborated in laboratory steels have been used as samples. • The experiments have been performed for different laser beam operating parameters, under normal atmospheric conditions. • The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. - Abstract: We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. A home-made marking device using a pulsed fiber laser has been used to treat steel samples under different laser beam operating parameters, for different compositions of the processed steel, and at normal atmospheric conditions. The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. The results show the influence of the operating parameters on the obtained colors

  16. Experimental investigations on fiber laser color marking of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amara, E.H., E-mail: amara@cdta.dz; Haïd, F.; Noukaz, A.

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. • We have used a home-made marking device composed of a pulsed fiber laser and galvanometric mirrors. • Both commercial and elaborated in laboratory steels have been used as samples. • The experiments have been performed for different laser beam operating parameters, under normal atmospheric conditions. • The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. - Abstract: We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. A home-made marking device using a pulsed fiber laser has been used to treat steel samples under different laser beam operating parameters, for different compositions of the processed steel, and at normal atmospheric conditions. The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. The results show the influence of the operating parameters on the obtained colors.

  17. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  18. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to revision and negotiation with the Agreement Officer upon submission of the Marking Plan. The... ballots, and voter information literature; political party support or public policy advocacy or reform...

  19. 46 CFR 160.036-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... place on the smallest packing carton or box containing signals, each carton or box shall be plainly and... largest carton or box in which the manufacturer ships signals must be marked with the following or...

  20. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carton or box containing cartridges, each carton or box shall be plainly and permanently marked to show the service life expiration date, the date of manufacture, and the lot number. (4) The largest carton...

  1. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  2. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “To Close, Press Together Full Length”. The marking may be applied to the container by the silk screen process, using a suitable ink or paint, or may be applied by other means shown to be acceptable. (b...

  3. 30 CFR 7.105 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.105 Approval marking. Each...

  4. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  5. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  6. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  7. Influence of chain length of pyrene fatty acids on their uptake and metabolism by Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy and from control subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Radom, J; Salvayre, R; Levade, T; Douste-Blazy, L

    1990-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular metabolism of 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid (P4), 10-(1-pyrene)decanoic acid (P10) and 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P12) were investigated in cultured lymphoid cell lines from normal individuals and from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy (MLSM). The cellular uptake was shown to be dependent on the fatty-acid chain length, but no significant difference in the uptake of pyrene fatty acids was observed between MLSM and control lymphoid cells. After inc...

  8. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  9. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  10. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  11. [Telomere length, telomerase activity, stress and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, I M; Mikhelson, V M; Spivak, D L

    The review is dedicated to analysis of data available at present time concerning possible influence of stress upon telomere lengths and telomerase activity, as well as various ways of counteracting it. Present-day telomerase theory of aging gains a new impetus, shedding light upon the influence of psychological state of humans and their ability to counteract stress, upon the process of aging. It also tends to regard telomere shortening and the decrease in the activity of telomerase as a marker of level of the ability to adapt to both inner and outer influences. Both aging and age-dependent diseases are proved to be substantially retarded not only by the administration of drugs, but also by psychological means, which forms a good way towards healthy longevity. With complete understanding of the impossibility to prevent or even to slow down natural senescence itself, these methods allow to remove causes, which accelerate senescence, and to increase the average human longevity.

  12. Influence of chain length of pyrene fatty acids on their uptake and metabolism by Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy and from control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radom, J; Salvayre, R; Levade, T; Douste-Blazy, L

    1990-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular metabolism of 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid (P4), 10-(1-pyrene)decanoic acid (P10) and 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P12) were investigated in cultured lymphoid cell lines from normal individuals and from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy (MLSM). The cellular uptake was shown to be dependent on the fatty-acid chain length, but no significant difference in the uptake of pyrene fatty acids was observed between MLSM and control lymphoid cells. After incubation for 1 h the distribution of fluorescent fatty acids taken up by the lymphoid cell lines also differed with the chain length, most of the fluorescence being associated with phospholipid and triacylglycerols. In contrast with P10 and P12, P4 was not incorporated into neutral lipids. When the cells were incubated for 24 h with the pyrene fatty acids, the amount of fluorescent lipids synthesized by the cells was proportional to the fatty acid concentration in the culture medium. After a 24 h incubation in the presence of P10 or P12, at any concentration, the fluorescent triacylglycerol content of MLSM cells was 2-5-fold higher than that of control cells. Concentrations of pyrene fatty acids higher than 40 microM seemed to be more toxic for mutant cells than for control cells. This cytotoxicity was dependent on the fluorescent-fatty-acid chain length (P12 greater than P10 greater than P4). Pulse-chase experiments permitted one to demonstrate the defect in the degradation of endogenously biosynthesized triacylglycerols in MLSM cells (residual activity was around 10-25% of controls on the basis of half-lives and initial rates of P10- or P12-labelled-triacylglycerol catabolism); MLSM lymphoid cells exhibited a mild phenotypic expression of the lipid storage (less severe than that observed in fibroblasts). P4 was not utilized in the synthesis of triacylglycerols, and thus did not accumulate in MLSM cells: this suggests that natural short-chain fatty acids might induce a lesser

  13. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  15. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-11-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  16. Mounting the cutting mark on the microfiche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Kunio; Habara, Tadashi; Narui, Shigeko

    1979-01-01

    The Japanese National Center of INIS has been submitting MF to the INIS Headquarters since 1971. In 1977, the center was requested to mount a cutting mark on the master MF on the basis of the NMA-MS-5 Standard which had never been adopted in Japan. Its new method was investigated in the collaboration with the microfilming companies. Consequently the best way was found by exposing the light on a spot of the film at photographing. But it took much time to make them in use, therefore, its tentative way was taken by painting the black ink manually on the master fiche. While the microfilming companies made an effort to adapt the camera to put marks other than former one. After bringing to completion, the cutting marks satisfied with the standard came to be automatically mounted on the master fiches. (author)

  17. Mark-resight abundance estimation under incomplete identification of marked individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Brett T.; Hill, Jason M.; Fritz, Lowell; Chumbley, Kathryn; Luxa, Katie; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    Often less expensive and less invasive than conventional mark–recapture, so-called 'mark-resight' methods are popular in the estimation of population abundance. These methods are most often applied when a subset of the population of interest is marked (naturally or artificially), and non-invasive sighting data can be simultaneously collected for both marked and unmarked individuals. However, it can often be difficult to identify marked individuals with certainty during resighting surveys, and incomplete identification of marked individuals is potentially a major source of bias in mark-resight abundance estimators. Previously proposed solutions are ad hoc and will tend to underperform unless marked individual identification rates are relatively high (>90%) or individual sighting heterogeneity is negligible.Based on a complete data likelihood, we present an approach that properly accounts for uncertainty in marked individual detection histories when incomplete identifications occur. The models allow for individual heterogeneity in detection, sampling with (e.g. Poisson) or without (e.g. Bernoulli) replacement, and an unknown number of marked individuals. Using a custom Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to facilitate Bayesian inference, we demonstrate these models using two example data sets and investigate their properties via simulation experiments.We estimate abundance for grassland sparrow populations in Pennsylvania, USA when sampling was conducted with replacement and the number of marked individuals was either known or unknown. To increase marked individual identification probabilities, extensive territory mapping was used to assign incomplete identifications to individuals based on location. Despite marked individual identification probabilities as low as 67% in the absence of this territorial mapping procedure, we generally found little return (or need) for this time-consuming investment when using our proposed approach. We also estimate rookery abundance

  18. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO 2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  19. Non-destructive testing of full-length bonded rock bolts based on HHT signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. M.; Liu, L.; Peng, M.; Liu, C. C.; Tao, F. J.; Liu, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Full-length bonded rock bolts are commonly used in mining, tunneling and slope engineering because of their simple design and resistance to corrosion. However, the length of a rock bolt and grouting quality do not often meet the required design standards in practice because of the concealment and complexity of bolt construction. Non-destructive testing is preferred when testing a rock bolt's quality because of the convenience, low cost and wide detection range. In this paper, a signal analysis method for the non-destructive sound wave testing of full-length bonded rock bolts is presented, which is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, we introduce the HHT analysis method to calculate the bolt length and identify defect locations based on sound wave reflection test signals, which includes decomposing the test signal via empirical mode decomposition (EMD), selecting the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) using the Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and calculating the instantaneous phase and frequency via the Hilbert transform (HT). Second, six model tests are conducted using different grouting defects and bolt protruding lengths to verify the effectiveness of the HHT analysis method. Lastly, the influence of the bolt protruding length on the test signal, identification of multiple reflections from defects, bolt end and protruding end, and mode mixing from EMD are discussed. The HHT analysis method can identify the bolt length and grouting defect locations from signals that contain noise at multiple reflected interfaces. The reflection from the long protruding end creates an irregular test signal with many frequency peaks on the spectrum. The reflections from defects barely change the original signal because they are low energy, which cannot be adequately resolved using existing methods. The HHT analysis method can identify reflections from the long protruding end of the bolt and multiple reflections from grouting defects based on mutations in the instantaneous

  20. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2017-08-01

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Eesti oma idamaa kunstnik / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    8. apr.-st Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis veebruaris Soulis idamaise maalikunsti alal magistrikraadi kaitsnud Kati Kalda (sünd. 1971) maalinäitus "Elu korea moodi", Kalev Mark Kostabi maalide väljapanek ning loodusfoto konkursi parimate tööde näitus.

  2. 48 CFR 552.211-73 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with the following standards: (1) Deliveries to civilian activities. Supplies shall be marked in... with contract requirements, the Government has the right, without prior notice to the Contractor, to... specified elsewhere in this contract. This right is not exclusive, and is in addition to other rights or...

  3. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear

  4. Cross-linguistic variation in object marking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P.J.F. de

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation shows how languages differ in their morphosyntactic sensitivity to variations in the semantics of direct objects. Whereas some languages reflect semantic changes of the direct object in its marking others do not. As a result, we observe mismatches between semantic and

  5. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  6. Death of Dolly marks cloning milestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nigel

    2003-03-18

    Dolly the cloned sheep marked both an icon of scientific possibility and a potential ethical nightmare. Researchers in related fields of stem cell research need to learn the lessons and the right vocabulary if they are to make progress in their fields.

  7. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  8. NASA 3D Models: Mark III Spacesuit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both the JSC Mark III and the ARC AX-5 suit have been designed to operate at a pressure of 8.3 psi. Current space shuttle spacesuits operate at 4.3 psi and require a...

  9. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  10. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  11. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  12. Typehusbranchens organisation, produktion og marked og innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Forman, Marianne

    Denne dokumentationsrapport beskriver resultaterne af et survey af typehusbranchens organisering, produktion, marked og innovation. På trods af eller måske netop på grund af den aktuelle finanskrise vil en fortsat udvikling af typehusbyggeriet og det industrialiserede byggeri generelt kræve en øget...

  13. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Femtosecond laser marking may bring con- sistent improvement in the visual and processing quality of the writing (Reif 2010), allowing micromachining with a ..... This paper was realized with the support of EURODOC. “Doctoral Scholarships for research performance at Euro- pean level” Project, financed by European ...

  14. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  15. Mark the Evangelist: His African memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark is the author of the oldest gospel in the Christian Bible. Not much is known about him or his family except for a few references in the Bible. The general assumption, originating in the West, is that Mark was born and bred in Palestine. One of the main proponents of the Western view is Walter Bauer, a German theologian of the first half of the 20th century. His views rely heavily on the argument from silence, as Africa had – and to a great extent still has – an oral culture. Contrary to the Western view, Thomas Oden, an American theologian, did research on the oral culture and investigated the African memory of Mark. This article presents a critical discussion and a review of the book written by Oden in 2011 titled The African memory of Mark. Oden seems to be very subjective in his remarks in favour of Africa, as is also clear from his book titled How Africa shaped the Christian mind, written in 2007, and the question is if he really has enough grounds for his postulations.

  16. Case Marking Uniformity in Developmental Pronoun Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Colleen E.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hadley, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if children acquire grammatical case as a unified system or in a piecemeal fashion. In English language acquisition, many children make developmental errors in marking case on subject position pronouns (e.g., "Me" do it, "Him" like it). It is unknown whether children who produce…

  17. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  18. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... identity formation and instruction; and, (3) that in history/writing events acquire narrative form. This contribution explores the potential value of a postcolonial approach for teaching Mark's gospel. Investigating a number of texts from the gospel, it asks to what extent a postcolonial optic implies a different ...

  19. Acceptance and stress effects of aircraft obstruction markings of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Johannes; Hübner, Gundula; Mohs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    A dominant resistance factor against wind power projects seems to be their visual impact on the landscape. In addition stress effects from aircraft obstruction markings are an emerging topic related to acceptance. As the height of wind turbines increases, so does the number of mandatory obstruction markings. Recently, obstruction markings have caused a growing number of complaints from residents. Whether obstruction markings indeed cause stress or even substantial annoyance remains an open question. To analyse the stress impact of obstruction markings, we used environmental and stress psychology methodologies. Residents (N=420) with direct sight of turbines at 13 wind farms participated in a questionnaire survey. Evidence of substantial annoyance caused by obstruction markings was not found. However, residents exposed to xenon lights reported more intense and multifaceted stress responses than exposed to LED or colour markings on blades. Moreover, xenon lights negatively affected the general acceptance of wind energy. Additionally, synchronised navigation lights were found to be less annoying than non-synchronised lights under certain weather conditions. Markings with light intensity adjustment proved to be advantageous. To reduce stress and increase social acceptance of wind power, xenon lights should be abandoned, navigation lights synchronised, and light intensity adjustment applied. - Research highlights: ► Wind turbine obstruction markings influence the social acceptance of wind energy. ► Residents exposed to xenon lights reported more intense stress responses than exposed to LED or colour markings. ► Synchronised lights were found to be less annoying under certain weather conditions. ► Markings with light intensity adjustment proved to be advantageous. ► Evidence of substantial annoyance caused by obstruction markings was not found.

  20. Distinguishing butchery cut marks from crocodile bite marks through machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Baquedano, Enrique

    2018-04-10

    All models of evolution of human behaviour depend on the correct identification and interpretation of bone surface modifications (BSM) on archaeofaunal assemblages. Crucial evolutionary features, such as the origin of stone tool use, meat-eating, food-sharing, cooperation and sociality can only be addressed through confident identification and interpretation of BSM, and more specifically, cut marks. Recently, it has been argued that linear marks with the same properties as cut marks can be created by crocodiles, thereby questioning whether secure cut mark identifications can be made in the Early Pleistocene fossil record. Powerful classification methods based on multivariate statistics and machine learning (ML) algorithms have previously successfully discriminated cut marks from most other potentially confounding BSM. However, crocodile-made marks were marginal to or played no role in these comparative analyses. Here, for the first time, we apply state-of-the-art ML methods on crocodile linear BSM and experimental butchery cut marks, showing that the combination of multivariate taphonomy and ML methods provides accurate identification of BSM, including cut and crocodile bite marks. This enables empirically-supported hominin behavioural modelling, provided that these methods are applied to fossil assemblages.

  1. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  2. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  3. Natural markings of Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that Cuvier's beaked whales were extensively marked (96% of population; mean = 48 marks per individual, range 0–169), with up to 10 different mark types. However, only five mark types should be considered reliable: notch, large scar, back indentation, medium scrape and large stripe. Marks caused by ...

  4. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  5. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  6. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  7. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  8. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  9. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  10. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  11. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  12. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  13. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  14. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  15. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  16. Lecture attendance marking using students' smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Siliūnas, Marijus

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of close communication technologies which ensures physical student participation in universities workshops. Existing tools are cumbersome and takes a lot of workshop's time. Using students' smart phones is proposed as a solution. Most of the phones have built-in Bluetooth technology and to adapt this technology for marking attendance does not require a lot of changes in the classroom. Decided to create a system that identifies students using Bluet...

  17. Transcript of Interview: Mark K. Craig

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a transcript of an interview given by Howard E. McCurdy to Mark K. Craig. Craig gives details on his background including information on his family, education, and career path, his reaction to the news that America was planning to put a man on the Moon, why he thinks we should go to Mars, and the political speeches made at the time of early human space exploration planning.

  18. 27 CFR 25.242 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Cereal Beverage § 25.242 Markings. (a) Designation. When bottled or packaged, cereal beverage may be designated “Cereal Beverage,” “Malt Beverage,” “Near Beer,” or other distinctive name. If designated “Near Beer,” those words will be printed identically in the same size or style of...

  19. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mucocele and pyocele with marked intracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro

    1984-08-01

    Two cases are presented with frontal sinus pyocele and fronto-ethmoid sinus mucocele in which marked intracranial extension is shown. Their intracranial part appeared as a large biconvex mass, which showed iso or slightly low density homogeneously and had gross calcification in the posterior rim. The findings of the paranasal sinuses and the orbit in tomograms and CT scans are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma.

  1. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density; Influencia de la cubierta vegetal arbustiva y la longitud de la ladera sobre la densidad aparente del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  3. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  4. An Investigation of the Influence of Chain Length on the Interfacial Ordering of L-Lysine and L-Proline and Their Homopeptides at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interfaces Studied by Sum Frequency Generation and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, R.L.; Holinga, G.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-23

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) are employed to study the interfacial structure and adsorbed amount of the amino acids l-lysine and l-proline and their corresponding homopeptides, poly-l-lysine and poly-l-proline, at two liquid-solid interfaces. SFG and QCM-D experiments of these molecules are carried out at the interface between phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 (PBS) and the hydrophobic deuterated polystyrene (d{sub 8}-PS) surface as well as the interface between PBS and hydrophilic fused silica (SiO{sub 2}). The SFG spectra of the amino acids studied here are qualitatively similar to their corresponding homopeptides; however, the SFG signal from amino acids at the solid/PBS interface is smaller in magnitude relative to their more massive homopeptides at the concentrations studied here. Substantial differences are observed in SFG spectra for each species between the hydrophobic d{sub 8}-PS and the hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} liquid-solid interfaces, suggesting surface-dependent interfacial ordering of the biomolecules. Over the range of concentrations used in this study, QCM-D measurements also indicate that on both surfaces poly-l-lysine adsorbs to a greater extent than its constituent amino acid l-lysine. The opposite trend is demonstrated by poly-l-proline which sticks to both surfaces less extensively than its corresponding amino acid, l-proline. Lastly, we find that the adsorption of the molecules studied here can have a strong influence on interfacial water structure as detected in the SFG spectra.

  5. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  6. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  7. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving......Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...

  8. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  9. Impedance analysis of PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells with different ZnO nanowire lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Akihiro; Wang, Haibin; Takahira, Kazuya; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been markedly improved by optimizing the surface passivation and device structure, and details of device physics are now under investigation. In this study, we investigated the resistance and capacitance components at the ZnO/PbS-QD interface and inside a PbS-QD layer by measuring the impedance spectrum while the interface area was controlled by changing the ZnO nanowire length. By evaluating the dependence of optical intensity and DC bias voltage on the ZnO nanowire length, only the capacitance was observed to be influenced by the interface area, and this indicates that photoinduced carriers are generated at the surface of PbS-QD. In addition, since the capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the QD, the interface area can be evaluated from the capacitance. Finally, photovoltaic performance was observed to increase with increasing ZnO nanowire length owing to the large interface area, and this result is in good agreement with the capacitance measurement.

  10. [Effects of fertilization on fine root diameter, root length and specific root length in Larix kaempferi plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-zhong; Ding, Guo-quan; Shi, Jian-wei; Yu, Shui-qiang; Zhu, Jiao-jun; Zhao, Lian-fu

    2007-05-01

    With 16 years old Larix kaempfersoil plantation in the mountainous area of eastern Liaoning Province as test object, this paper studied the effects of fertilization on the fine root diameter, root length, and specific root length (SRL) of the first to fifth order roots. The results showed that with ascending root orders, the mean fine root diameter and root length increased, while the SRL decreased significantly. Among the five order roots, the first order roots were the thinnest in diameter, the shortest in length, and the highest in SRL, but the fifth order roots were in reverse. The variance coefficients for the fine root diameter, root length, and SRL increased from the first to the fifth order roots. Except for the first order roots, soil depth had no significant influence on the fine root diameter, root length and SRL. Fertilization affected the fine root diameter, root length, and SRL of the first and the second order roots significantly, hut had little effects on other order roots. N fertilization decreased the mean diameter of the first and the second order roots significantly, and N or N + P fertilization decreased the mean length of the first order roots in surface soil (0-10 cm) significantly. The SRL of the first order roots in surface soil increased significantly under N fertilization.

  11. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  12. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, W.H.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Leenen, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  13. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  14. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, H.; Daryoko, M.; Goeritno, A.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  15. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block... marked on the stern of the vessel to meet the requirements of subpart 67.123 of this chapter. (2) The number of persons for which the boast is equipped must be clearly marked, preferably on the bow, in...

  16. 14 CFR 45.29 - Size of marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., may display those marks until the aircraft is repainted or the marks are repainted, restored, or..., 1983, may display those marks until the aircraft is repainted or the marks are repainted, restored, or... high. (d) Thickness. Characters must be formed by solid lines one-sixth as thick as the character is...

  17. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  18. Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Duncan

    2000-12-01

    "If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time."--American Scientist "No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium."--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years. Acclaimed author Duncan Steel explores each major step in creating the current calendar along with the many different systems for defining the number of days in a week, the length of a month, and the number of days in a year. From the definition of the lunar month by Meton of Athens in 432 b.c. to the roles played by Julius Caesar, William the Conqueror, and Isaac Newton to present-day proposals to reform our calendar, this entertaining read also presents "timely" tidbits that will take you across the full span of recorded history. Find out how and why comets have been used as clocks, why there is no year zero between 1 b.c. and a.d. 1, and why for centuries Britain and its colonies rang in the New Year on March 25th. Marking Time will leave you with a sense of awe at the haphazard nature of our calendar's development. Once you've read this eye-opening book, you'll never look at the calendar the same way again.

  19. A note on a perfect simulation algorithm for marked Hawkes processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2004-01-01

    The usual straightforward simulation algorithm for (marked or unmarked) Hawkes processes suffers from edge effect. In this note we describe a perfect simulation algorithm which is partly derived as in Brix and Kendall (2002) and partly using upper and lower processes as in the Propp-Wilson algori......The usual straightforward simulation algorithm for (marked or unmarked) Hawkes processes suffers from edge effect. In this note we describe a perfect simulation algorithm which is partly derived as in Brix and Kendall (2002) and partly using upper and lower processes as in the Propp......-Wilson algorithm (1996), or rather as in the dominated CFTP algorithm by Kendall and Moller (2000). Various monotonicity properties and approximations of the cumulative distribution function for the length of a so-called cluster in a marked Hawkes process play an important role....

  20. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  1. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  2. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K.

    2017-01-01

    The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity) are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations. PMID:28736537

  3. Marking activity of the Kamchatka brown bear (Ursus arctos piscator)

    OpenAIRE

    Seryodkin, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    The marking activity of brown bears was studied in the Kronotsky Reserve (eastern shore of the Kamchatka Peninsula) between 2002 and 2005. The goal of this investigation was to document communication mechanisms within the species. We recorded descriptions of bears rubbing and marking trees, as well as individual marking behaviour of bears in the Valley of the Geysers. We recorded 203 marked trees in an area of 2.5 km2 . Bears marked mostly stone birches (Betula ermanii ) with a mean diameter ...

  4. Association between Snoring and Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Dae Wui; Baik, Inkyung

    2016-04-01

    Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire. A cross-sectional PSG study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2010-2013. During the same period, questionnaire-based interviews, blood collection, and relative LTL assays were conducted. A total of 887 Korean men and women aged 50-79 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) snoring during sleep (% time spent snoring) assessed by PSG was inversely associated with LTL even after adjusting for potential risk factors and AHI. In the linear regression association between tertiles of percentage of time spent snoring and log-transformed LTL, coefficient estimates (P value) were -0.076 (snoring status determined using PSG and questionnaire information, both primary snorers and those with mild sleep apnea (5 ≤ AHI snoring may influence telomere attrition independent of sleep apnea. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  6. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets

  7. Concept of formation length in radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The features of electromagnetic processes are considered which connected with finite size of space region in which final particles (photon, electron-positron pair) are formed. The longitudinal dimension of the region is known as the formation length. If some external agent is acting on an electron while traveling this distance the emission process can be disrupted. There are different agents: multiple scattering of projectile, polarization of a medium, action of external fields, etc. The theory of radiation under influence of the multiple scattering, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect, is presented. The probability of radiation is calculated with an accuracy up to 'next to leading logarithm' and with the Coulomb corrections taken into account. The integral characteristics of bremsstrahlung are given, it is shown that the effective radiation length increases due to the LPM effect at high energy. The LPM effect for pair creation is also presented. The multiple scattering influences also on radiative corrections in a medium (and an external field too) including the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron and the polarization tensor as well as coherent scattering of a photon in a Coulomb field. The polarization of a medium alters the radiation probability in soft part of spectrum. Specific features of radiation from a target of finite thickness include: the boundary photon emission, interference effects for thin target, multi-photon radiation. The theory predictions are compared with experimental data obtained at SLAC and CERN SPS. For electron-positron colliding beams following items are discussed: the separation of coherent and incoherent mechanisms of radiation, the beam-size effect in bremsstrahlung, coherent radiation and mechanisms of electron-positron creation

  8. Validation of a novel ultrasound measurement of achilles tendon length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Riecke, Anja Falk; Boesen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: A clinically applicable and accurate method for measuring Achilles tendon length is needed to investigate the influence of elongation of the Achilles tendon after acute rupture. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultrasonographic (US) length measurement...... of the Achilles tendon-aponeurosis complex. METHODS: Both legs of 19 non-injured subjects were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US. The length from calcaneus to the medial head of m. Gastrocnemius was measured by three independent US examiners. Repeated US measurements were performed and compared...... to be further assessed in the setting of acute Achilles tendon rupture. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This new ultrasound measurement might allow for length measurement of ruptured Achilles tendons in the acute and chronic state after rupture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  9. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  10. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  11. Measurement of neutron diffusion length in heavy concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, D.

    2007-04-01

    Using an aluminium sampler filled with heavy concrete the neutron diffusion length was determined, measuring thermal and fast neutrons over the whole beam hole with various threshold detectors using gold samples. These calculations should describe the neutron distribution in the whole concrete shield of the reactor and contribute to the investigation of the activation of the concrete shield using reactor parameters like operating time, power and neutron flux. Instrumentation, activation and positioning of the samples in the beam hole of the TRIGA Mark II reactor are described. (nevyjel)

  12. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  13. The impact of length of unemployment and perceived organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of length of unemployment and perceived organisational support on employee's socio-emotional needs. Two hundred participating employees for this study were from Petroleum servicing companies in South Western Nigeria. One hundred and fourteen (57%) of the subjects were males ...

  14. Physical localization of NORs and ITS length variants in old ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The variation at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA has been correlated with the number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in some plant species. Besides, the number of NORs might influence the rate of homogenization of the rDNA repeats. In recent studies, ITS length variants ...

  15. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  16. On transition in plasma turbulence with multiple scale lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I.; Kawasaki, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    A statistical theory of plasma turbulence which is composed of multiple-scale fluctuations is examined. Influences of statistical noise and variance of rapidly-changing variable in an adiabatic approximation are investigated. It is confirmed that the contributions of noise and variance remain higher order corrections. Transition rate of the turbulence with multiple scale lengths is obtained under the refined adiabatic approximation. (author)

  17. HIV-1 envelope subregion length variation during disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Curlin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein is the primary determinant of viral coreceptor usage, whereas the V1V2 loop region is thought to influence coreceptor binding and participate in shielding of neutralization-sensitive regions of the Env glycoprotein gp120 from antibody responses. The functional properties and antigenicity of V1V2 are influenced by changes in amino acid sequence, sequence length and patterns of N-linked glycosylation. However, how these polymorphisms relate to HIV pathogenesis is not fully understood. We examined 5185 HIV-1 gp120 nucleotide sequence fragments and clinical data from 154 individuals (152 were infected with HIV-1 Subtype B. Sequences were aligned, translated, manually edited and separated into V1V2, C2, V3, C3, V4, C4 and V5 subregions. V1-V5 and subregion lengths were calculated, and potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNLGS counted. Loop lengths and PNLGS were examined as a function of time since infection, CD4 count, viral load, and calendar year in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. V1V2 length and PNLGS increased significantly through chronic infection before declining in late-stage infection. In cross-sectional analyses, V1V2 length also increased by calendar year between 1984 and 2004 in subjects with early and mid-stage illness. Our observations suggest that there is little selection for loop length at the time of transmission; following infection, HIV-1 adapts to host immune responses through increased V1V2 length and/or addition of carbohydrate moieties at N-linked glycosylation sites. V1V2 shortening during early and late-stage infection may reflect ineffective host immunity. Transmission from donors with chronic illness may have caused the modest increase in V1V2 length observed during the course of the pandemic.

  18. Patient length of stay and mortality prediction: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increased interest in data mining and machine learning methods to improve hospital performance, in particular hospitals want to improve their intensive care unit statistics by reducing the number of patients dying inside the intensive care unit. Research has focused on prediction of measurable outcomes, including risk of complications, mortality and length of hospital stay. The length of stay is an important metric both for healthcare providers and patients, influenced by numerous factors. In particular, the length of stay in critical care is of great significance, both to patient experience and the cost of care, and is influenced by factors specific to the highly complex environment of the intensive care unit. The length of stay is often used as a surrogate for other outcomes, where those outcomes cannot be measured; for example as a surrogate for hospital or intensive care unit mortality. The length of stay is also a parameter, which has been used to identify the severity of illnesses and healthcare resource utilisation. This paper examines a range of length of stay and mortality prediction applications in acute medicine and the critical care unit. It also focuses on the methods of analysing length of stay and mortality prediction. Moreover, the paper provides a classification and evaluation for the analytical methods of the length of stay and mortality prediction associated with a grouping of relevant research papers published in the years 1984 to 2016 related to the domain of survival analysis. In addition, the paper highlights some of the gaps and challenges of the domain.

  19. Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Azzam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet.

  20. The JSI TRIGA Mark II Reactor, Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodiš, B.; Snoj, L.

    2016-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) in Ljubljana Slovenia has been playing an important role in developing nuclear technology and safety culture in Slovenia. In the 1970s-1980s the reactor was extensively used for production of radioactive isotopes. Since then the reactor has been extensively used for various applications, such as: irradiation of various samples, training and education, verification and validation of nuclear data and computer codes, testing and development of experimental equipment used for core physics tests at a nuclear power plant. The paper describes the aforementioned activities proving that even such small reactors are still indispensable in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  1. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  2. Influência da granulometria, do diâmetro e do comprimento de amostras de grãos triturados de soja na determinação de coeficientes simultâneos de transferência Influence of soybean grain sizing and sample diameter and length on the determination of simultaneous transfer rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Jin Park

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo verificar a influência da granulometria de grãos de soja triturados, assim como do diâmetro e do comprimento do corpo-de-prova na determinação de coeficientes simultâneos de transferência de calor e massa. Utilizando-se equipamentos de coluna fechada e de coluna aberta, foram testadas três granulometrias, dois comprimentos e três diâmetros diferentes para as amostras, totalizando dezoito condições experimentais. Nos experimentos com o equipamento de coluna fechada, a maior influência na avaliação da condutividade térmica foi devida aos valores de fluxo de calor obtidos. Tanto nos experimentos de coluna fechada quanto de coluna aberta, a contribuição dos fenômenos simultâneos deve ser considerada. O comprimento e a granulometria têm influência na determinação da condutividade térmica e na difusividade mássica, ao passo que o diâmetro só interfere na obtenção do valor da difusividade mássica.The main goal of this work was to verify the influence of triturated soybean grain sizing, their sample diameters and lengths, on the determination of simultaneous heat and mass transfer rates. Using equipment with open and closed columns, three different grain sizings were tested, totalling eighteen different test conditions. For experiments with the closed column, the greater influence on the evaluation of the thermal conductivity was due to the heat flow rates. On experiments with the closed column as well as on those with the open column, the contribution of the simultaneous phenomena must be acknowledged. The sample length and the grain sizing can influence both heat conductivity and mass diffusivity, while the sample diameter interferes only with mass diffusivity rates.

  3. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele küsimustele (J. Aarma küsimused vahelt ära võetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab südant" Soosaare muredest ja võitlustest seoses Pärnu linnaga

  4. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  5. Close correlation between restriction fragment length polymorphism of the L-MYC gene and metastasis of human lung cancer to the lymph nodes and other organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Kazuko; Shikama, Hiroshi; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Susumu; Naruke, Tsuguo; Okabayashi, Kenzo

    1988-01-01

    Restriction length fragment polymorphism of the L-MYC gene was examined in DNAs from lung cancer tissues and normal tissues of 51 Japanese patients with lung cancer. In individual patients, no difference was seen between the restriction length fragments of the two alleles of L-MYC [6-kilobase (kb)] and 10-kb fragments in EcoRI digests in lung cancer tissues and normal tissues. But a striking correlation was found between the restriction length fragment polymorphism pattern of L-MYC and the extent of metastasis, particularly to the lymph nodes at the time of surgery: Patients with only the L band (10 kb) had few lymph node metastatic lesions, whereas patients with either the S band (6 kb) or the S and L bands almost always had lymph node metastatic lesion. A similar correlation was found between the presence of the S band and metastases to other organs. This correlation was particularly marked in cases of adenocarcinoma. These results indicate a clear genetic influence on metastases and a consequent poor prognosis for certain patients of lung cancer; L-MYC restriction length fragment polymorphism is thus shown to be a useful marker for predicting the metastatic potential of human lung cancer

  6. An evaluation of the accuracy of semi-permanent skin marks for breast cancer irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, H.; Dodwell, D.; Gray, J.C.; Holmes, M.

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was designed to investigate the accuracy of semi-permanent ink marks versus permanent tattoos for early stage breast cancer irradiation. No significant difference in random and systematic errors was identified between the two groups. On multivariate analysis no specific patient characteristic had a major influence on the systematic errors identified

  7. An evaluation of the accuracy of semi-permanent skin marks for breast cancer irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, H. [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Crescent Campus, Sheffield S10 2BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.probst@shu.ac.uk; Dodwell, D. [Cookridge Hospital Leeds (United Kingdom); Gray, J.C. [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom); Holmes, M. [Leeds Metropolitan University (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    A randomised trial was designed to investigate the accuracy of semi-permanent ink marks versus permanent tattoos for early stage breast cancer irradiation. No significant difference in random and systematic errors was identified between the two groups. On multivariate analysis no specific patient characteristic had a major influence on the systematic errors identified.

  8. Consciousness, Social Heredity, and Development: The Evolutionary Thought of James Mark Baldwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    James Mark Baldwin is one of the most important and least known early American scientific psychologists. Drawing inspiration from Charles Darwin and other evolutionists of the period, Baldwin developed a biosocial theory of psychological development that influenced both Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky; and he proposed a mechanism relating learned…

  9. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  10. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  11. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  12. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  13. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  14. A Motor-Driven Mechanism for Cell-Length Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rishal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Size homeostasis is fundamental in cell biology, but it is not clear how large cells such as neurons can assess their own size or length. We examined a role for molecular motors in intracellular length sensing. Computational simulations suggest that spatial information can be encoded by the frequency of an oscillating retrograde signal arising from a composite negative feedback loop between bidirectional motor-dependent signals. The model predicts that decreasing either or both anterograde or retrograde signals should increase cell length, and this prediction was confirmed upon application of siRNAs for specific kinesin and/or dynein heavy chains in adult sensory neurons. Heterozygous dynein heavy chain 1 mutant sensory neurons also exhibited increased lengths both in vitro and during embryonic development. Moreover, similar length increases were observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon partial downregulation of dynein heavy chain 1. Thus, molecular motors critically influence cell-length sensing and growth control.

  15. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  16. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  17. 9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging...) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.418 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval... has on file evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official...

  18. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a... domestic commerce is moved from an official establishment, the outside container shall bear an official...

  19. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  20. 25 CFR 304.3 - Classifying and marking of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classifying and marking of silver. 304.3 Section 304.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.3 Classifying and marking of silver. For the present the Indian Arts and Crafts Board...

  1. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original...

  2. 19 CFR 181.116 - Petition regarding adverse marking decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Marking Decisions § 181.116 Petition regarding adverse marking decision. (a) Right to petition. If the... adverse marking decision has expired (see § 174.12(e) of this chapter for the time limits for filing... this section with respect to any issue which is pending before the United States Court of International...

  3. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  4. 47 CFR 74.30 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 74.30... Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.30 Antenna structure, marking and lighting. The provisions of part 17 of the FCC rules (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures) require certain...

  5. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  6. The effects of day length, hibernation, and ambient temperature on incisor dentin in the Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batavia, Mariska; Nguyen, George; Zucker, Irving

    2013-05-01

    Dentin is deposited on a circadian basis, and daily layers manifest as bands on the medial surfaces of rodent incisors. Hibernation alters dentin deposition, and a distinct hibernation mark has been described on incisor surfaces of several rodent species; the factors that influence the morphology of this mark are poorly understood. We tested the effects of day length, torpor expression, and ambient temperature on incisor surface morphology in Turkish hamsters housed in one of four conditions: long days (LDs) at 22 °C, short days (SDs) at 22 °C, SDs at 5 °C, and SDs at 13 °C. Body temperature was monitored continuously with implanted radio transmitters, and teeth examined postmortem. Teeth of SD hamsters had narrower, less distinct circadian increments than those of LD hamsters, but the width of ultradian increments was similar in both photoperiods. Hibernation at both 5 and 13 °C was associated in most specimens with very narrow, sharply defined dentin increments and increased tooth heterogeneity. Hamsters in SDs at 5 °C that did not hibernate lacked characteristic hibernation increments. At 5 °C, but not 13 °C, the number and cumulative width of hibernation increments were related to number and cumulative duration of periodic arousals. Our results suggest that incremental deposition of dentin in rodent incisors may be a useful trait for characterizing hibernation behavior in both evolutionary and historical contexts.

  7. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  8. Invisible Ink Marking in ECL Membrane Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T

    2015-01-01

    Invisible ink and writing secret messages have been part of man's fantasy, having proven useful in clandestine and high sensitivity areas. Security inks, made up of invisible materials that give printed, anti-photocopy images capable of being read only under special environments, have become important. An ink formulation based on silicon(IV) 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) as colorant, invisible to the naked eye but infrared readable, has been described earlier. Biometric DNA ink has also been developed for security authentication. In lighter vein, many budding scientists and others have often experimented with writing secret messages on paper, either for purposes of fun or actually sending secret messages to friends. It involved the use of lemon juice, milk, or other solutions that could be used with a dip pen, brush, or a fountain pen to write invisible messages on a blank white paper. Words turn up as magic when the paper is exposed to heat in one form or the other. Here, we attempt to end this book on a slightly humorous note by showing that invisible messages can be written on nitrocellulose membranes (but not on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes) using an appropriately diluted horse radish peroxidase/alkaline phosphatase anti-IgG conjugate (rabbit, mouse, or human anti-IgG). The message is written on the membrane, preferably with a fountain pen, and the membrane is allowed to dry. Regular detection with enhanced chemiluminescence plus or nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate systems is used to unravel the secret message. In addition, this method could be used to mark nitrocellulose membranes for orientation purposes using ECL detection system and thus can eliminate the use of autoradiography pens.

  9. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  10. Analysis of Loss of Flow accidents for the SNR-300 Mark-Ia core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, R.; Royl, P.; Schmuck, P.; Duesing, R.; Senglaub, M.

    1975-09-01

    This report summarizes the important results from the LOF HCDA simulations without scram for the fresh Mark-Ia core of SNR-300, which were carried out with the CAPRI-2/KADIS code systems for given pump coast down characteristics. The code systems and important parameters of the Mark-Ia core are first briefly described. The main part discusses the simulated accident sequence for the defined base case and the influence of important model parameters. Also the results for the limiting mild and energetic LOF cases are presented, which were defined by a combined variation of model parameters

  11. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  12. [Evaluation of the lifetime of nail markings during polio vaccinations in Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Cuong, Huong; Schlumberger, Martin; Garba Tchang, Salomon; Ould Cheikh, Dah; Savès, Marianne; Mallah, Barah; Demtilo Attilo, Jacques; Ngangro Mosurel, Ndeikoundam; Gamatié, Youssouf

    2010-01-01

    SID (Supplemental Immunization Days) is a special strategy intended to accelerate eradication of poliomyelitis in countries where it is still endemic (India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan in Asia, and Nigeria in Africa). This strategy is also applied in Nigeria's neighbours (Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Benin). Since the poliomyelitis virus was imported from Nigeria in 2001, Chad has reported cases of poliomyelitis every year. After 30 SIDs in Chad and the inaccurate or false attribution of side-effects to polio vaccines, some groups persistently refuse polio vaccination. To ascertain the true coverage of SID, the Ministry of Health and several partners (WHO, UNICEF and Rotary) conduct external coverage evaluations, to identify the under-vaccinated areas where population may be refusing immunization. The nails of the children receiving vaccinations are marked with indelible ink and those markings are the best indicator of the area's actual SID coverage. When coverage investigators arrive and propose vaccination to all children not immunized during SID, mothers who wish to refuse vaccination may claim that the children's markings disappeared after a few days, due to bathing. WHO experts have found that markings applied to their own nails with the WHO-recommended markers persist a few weeks, but others suggested that the markings may disappear much faster among children living in a traditional tropical environment. Until now, the lifetime of these markings has not been tested among children in Africa. To determine the lifetime of the fingernail markings after SID and factors that influence this lifetime in children young than 5 years old in Chad. This prospective cohort study of 200 children (aged 0 to 59 months) took place from March to May 2009 in Milezi, a health zone north of Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, in central Africa. These children received nail markings on their left little finger with an indelible marker pen provided by WHO. The finger was monitored for 35

  13. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  14. Do cell phones affect establishing electronic working length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstel, Justine; Guivarc'h, Maud; Pommel, Ludovic; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cohen, Stephen; Bukiet, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    affected the measurements (not significant). The electronic working length measurements gave the same results as the visual examination, and this length was not influenced by direct contact with a cell phone (not significant). It was also possible to determine the electronic working length under all the experimental conditions. Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that patients can keep their cell phones on during root canal therapy without any adverse effect on electronic working length determination. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  16. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  17. Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...

  18. Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Study of long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement the more intensive sampling methods involving molecular cytogenetics, proteomics, and genomics. We have developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity and in vivo pollen-tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties as unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while the unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. Our method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

  19. Leniency and halo effects in marking undergraduate short research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Robert A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervisors are often involved in the assessment of projects they have supervised themselves. Previous research suggests that detailed marking sheets may alleviate leniency and halo effects. We set out to determine if, despite using such a marking schedule, leniency and halo effects were evident in the supervisors' marking of undergraduate short research projects (special study modules (SSM. Methods Review of grades awarded by supervisors, second markers and control markers to the written reports of 4th year medical students who had participated in an SSM during two full academic years (n = 399. Paired t-tests were used to compare mean marks, Pearson correlation to look at agreement between marks and multiple linear regression to test the prediction of one mark from several others adjusted for one another. Results There was a highly significant difference of approximately half a grade between supervisors and second markers with supervisors marking higher. (t = 3.12, p Conclusions This study shows that with the use of structured marking sheet for assessment of undergraduate medical students, supervisors marks are not associated with a halo effect, but leniency does occur. As supervisor assessment is becoming more common in both under graduate and postgraduate teaching new ways to improve objectivity in marking and to address the leniency of supervisors should be sought.

  20. Mass marking of juvenile Schizothorax wangchiachii (Fang) with alizarin red S and evaluation of stock enhancement in the Jinping area of the Yalong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiaoshuai; Gan, Weixiong; Deng, Longjun; Tang, Yezhong; Song, Zhaobin

    2017-01-01

    Schizothorax wangchiachii is a key fish species in the stock enhancement program of the Yalong River hydropower project, China. Alizarin red S (ARS) was used to mark large numbers of juvenile S. wangchiachii in the Jinping Hatchery and later used to evaluate stock enhancement in the Jinping area of the Yalong River. In a small-scale pilot study, 7,000 juveniles of the 2014 cohort were successfully marked by immersion in ARS solution, and no mortality was recorded during the marking process. The ARS mark in the fish otoliths remained visible 20 months later. In the large-scale marking study, approximately 600,000 juveniles of the 2015 cohort were successfully marked. Mortalities of both marked and unmarked juveniles were very low and did not differ significantly. Total length, wet mass and condition factor did not differ significantly between unmarked and marked individuals after three months. On 24 July 2015, about 840,000 Jinping Hatchery-produced young S. wangchiachii , including 400,000 marked individuals, were released at two sites in the Jinping area. Recapture surveys showed that (1) marked and unmarked S. wangchiachii did not differ significantly in total length, wet mass and condition factor; (2) stocked individuals became an important part of recruitment of the 2015 cohort; (3) instantaneous growth rate of marked individuals tended to slightly increase; and (4) most stocked individuals were distributed along a 10-15 km stretch near the release sites. These results suggest that the ARS method is a cost-efficient way to mass mark juvenile S. wangchiachii and that releasing juveniles is an effective means of stock recruitment.

  1. Vowel length perception in Japanese by Filipino learners

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego, Nina Arteliz R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of pitch accent on vowel length perception in Japanese by Filipino learners. An auditory experiment was carried out to novice learners to examine the effect of pitch type and syllable position in identifying long and short vowels in Japanese. Results showed that it is easy for learners to identify long vowels that are located in syllables with the accent nucleus. This suggests that learners utilize pitch movement in perceiving long vowels. However, when l...

  2. The examination and identification of bite marks in foods using 3D scanning and 3D comparison methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naether, Silvio; Buck, Ursula; Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Thali, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Bite mark analysis offers the opportunity to identify the biter based on the individual characteristics of the dentitions. Normally, the main focus is on analysing bite mark injuries on human bodies, but also, bite marks in food may play an important role in the forensic investigation of a crime. This study presents a comparison of simulated bite marks in different kinds of food with the dentitions of the presumed biter. Bite marks were produced by six adults in slices of buttered bread, apples, different kinds of Swiss chocolate and Swiss cheese. The time-lapse influence of the bite mark in food, under room temperature conditions, was also examined. For the documentation of the bite marks and the dentitions of the biters, 3D optical surface scanning technology was used. The comparison was performed using two different software packages: the ATOS modelling and analysing software and the 3D studio max animation software. The ATOS software enables an automatic computation of the deviation between the two meshes. In the present study, the bite marks and the dentitions were compared, as well as the meshes of each bite mark which were recorded in the different stages of time lapse. In the 3D studio max software, the act of biting was animated to compare the dentitions with the bite mark. The examined food recorded the individual characteristics of the dentitions very well. In all cases, the biter could be identified, and the dentitions of the other presumed biters could be excluded. The influence of the time lapse on the food depends on the kind of food and is shown on the diagrams. However, the identification of the biter could still be performed after a period of time, based on the recorded individual characteristics of the dentitions.

  3. Neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark II research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseebur Rehman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents clean core criticality calculations and control rod worth calculations for TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production-General Atomics Mark II research reactor benchmark cores using Winfrith Improved Multi-group Scheme-D/4 (WIMS-D/4 and Program for Reactor In-core Analysis using Diffusion Equation (PRIDE codes. Cores 133 and 134 were analyzed in 2-D (r, θ and 3-D (r, θ, z, using WIMS-D/4 and PRIDE codes. Moreover, the influence of cross-section data was also studied using various libraries based on Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VI.8 and VII.0, Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File (JEFF-3.1, Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-3.2, and Joint Evaluated File (JEF-2.2 nuclear data. The simulation results showed that the multiplication factor calculated for all these data libraries is within 1% of the experimental results. The reactivity worth of the control rods of core 134 was also calculated with different homogenization approaches. A comparison was made with experimental and reported Monte Carlo results, and it was found that, using proper homogenization of absorber regions and surrounding fuel regions, the results obtained with PRIDE code are significantly improved.

  4. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  5. Modernization design of neutron radiography of ITU TRIGA Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.; Bilge, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    ITU TRIGA MARK-II Research and Training Reactor has a power of 250 KW and has three beam tubes. One of them is tangential beam tube used for neutron radiography. In this study, the neutron radiography set in the tangential beam tube is described with its problems for ITU TRIGA Reactor. After that modernization of the system is designed and the applicability of the direct and indirect methods is evaluated. Improving the ratio of length to diameter for the beam tube, elimination the fogging on the film and constructive design for practice and secure application of the technique is developed. (author)

  6. Effect of First-Stage Blade Design on Performance of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schum, Harold J.; Hoyt, Jack W.

    1948-01-01

    The effect of rotor-blade length, inlet angle, and shrouding was investigated with four different nozzles in a single-stage modification of the Mark 25 aerial-torpedo power plant. The results obtained with the five special rotor configurations are compared with those of the standard first-stage rotor with each nozzle. Each nozzle-rotor combination was operated at nominal pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20 over a range of speeds from 6000 rpm to the design speed of 18,000 rpm. Inlet temperature and pressure conditions of 1OOOo F and 95 pounds per square inch gage, respectively, were maintained constant for all runs.

  7. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  8. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  9. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  10. Laser-induced colour marking-Sensitivity scaling for a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kocoń, Dariusz; Nowak, Maciej; Kozioł, Paweł; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements and analysis of the influence of laser marking process parameters on the colour obtained. The study was conducted for AISI 304 multipurpose stainless steel using a commercially available industrial fibre laser. It was determined how various process parameters, such as laser power, pulse repetition rate, scan speed of the material, spacing between successive lines, thickness and temperature of the material, location of the sample relative to the focal plane, size of marked fields and position in the workpiece, affect the repeatability of the colours obtained. For objective assessment of colour changes, an optical spectrometer and the CIE colour difference parameter ΔEab* were used. Additionally, in order to determine the susceptibility of laser colour marking to the ageing process, two types of tests - UV radiation and a salt spray test - were performed. Based on this analysis, necessary modifications to the laser systems commonly used for monochrome marking are proposed in order to achieve greater repeatability in colour marking.

  11. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    OpenAIRE

    Osama S Alothmani; Lara T Friedlander; Nicholas P Chandler

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected ...

  12. Feature extraction of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chia-Te; Kao, Chen-Ting; Wang, Chau-Shing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an image processing approach to extract six features of the probe mark on semiconductor wafer pads. The electrical characteristics of the chip pad must be tested using a probing needle before wire-bonding to the wafer. However, this test leaves probe marks on the pad. A large probe mark area results in poor adhesion forces at the bond ball of the pad, thus leading to undesirable products. In this paper, we present a method to extract six features of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging for further digital image processing.

  13. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  14. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when......This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...

  15. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Usefulness of telomere length in DNA from human teeth for age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Ana Belén; González-Herrera, Lucas; Valenzuela, Aurora

    2018-03-01

    Age estimation is widely used to identify individuals in forensic medicine. However, the accuracy of the most commonly used procedures is markedly reduced in adulthood, and these methods cannot be applied in practice when morphological information is limited. Molecular methods for age estimation have been extensively developed in the last few years. The fact that telomeres shorten at each round of cell division has led to the hypothesis that telomere length can be used as a tool to predict age. The present study thus aimed to assess the correlation between telomere length measured in dental DNA and age, and the effect of sex and tooth type on telomere length; a further aim was to propose a statistical regression model to estimate the biological age based on telomere length. DNA was extracted from 91 tooth samples belonging to 77 individuals of both sexes and 15 to 85 years old and was used to determine telomere length by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggested that telomere length was not affected by sex and was greater in molar teeth. We found a significant correlation between age and telomere length measured in DNA from teeth. However, the equation proposed to predict age was not accurate enough for forensic age estimation on its own. Age estimation based on telomere length in DNA from tooth samples may be useful as a complementary method which provides an approximate estimate of age, especially when human skeletal remains are the only forensic sample available.

  17. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A.; Delaloye, B.

    1961-01-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [fr

  18. Determination of normal values for navicular drop during walking: a new model correcting for foot length and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus G; Rathleff, Michael S; Simonsen, Ole H

    2009-01-01

    participants. Normal values have not yet been established as foot length, age, gender, and Body Mass Index (BMI) may influence the navicular drop. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of foot length, age, gender, and BMI on the navicular drop during walking. METHODS: Navicular drop...... increased by 0.40 mm for males and 0.31 mm for females. Linear models were created to calculate the navicular drop relative to foot length. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that the dynamic navicular drop is influenced by foot length and gender. Lack of adjustment for these factors may explain, at least...

  19. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  20. [Myopia: frequency of lattice degeneration and axial length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, M D; Roldán Pallarés, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lattice retinal degeneration and axial length of the eye in different grades of myopia. A sample of 200 eyes from 124 myopic patients was collected by chance. The average age was 34.8 years (20-50 years) and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 diopters (D). The eyes were grouped according to the degree of refraction defect, the mean axial length of each group (Scan A) and the frequency of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship between these variables was studied. The possible influence of age on our results was also considered. For the statistical analysis, the SAS 6.07 program with the variance analysis for quantitative variables, and chi(2) test for qualitative variables with a 5% significance were used. A multivariable linear regression model was also adjusted. The highest frequency of lattice retinal degeneration occurred in those myopia patients having more than 15 D, and also in the group of myopia patients between 3 and 6 D, but this did not show statistical significance when compared with the other myopic groups. If the axial length is assessed, a greater frequency of lattice retinal degeneration is also found when the axial length is 25-27 mm and 29-30 mm, which correspond, respectively, to myopias between 3-10 D and more than 15 D. When the multivariable linear regression model was adjusted, the axial length showed the existence of lattice retinal degeneration (beta 0.41 mm; p=0.08) adjusted by the number of diopters (beta 0.38 mm; plattice retinal degeneration was found for myopias with axial eye length between 29-30 mm (more than 15 D), and 25-27 mm (between 3-10 D).

  1. 7 CFR 29.3037 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.3037 Section 29.3037 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... Length, as an element of quality, does not apply to tobacco in strip form. (See Elements of quality.) [24...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6024 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.6024 Section 29.6024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6024 Length. The linear measurement of cured tobacco leaves from the...

  3. Local gauge invariant QED with fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevsky, V.G.; Mateev, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A local gauge theory of electromagnetic interactions with the fundamental length l as a new universal scale is worked out. The Lagrangian contains new extra terms in which the coupling constant is proportional to the fundamental length. The theory has an elegant geometrical basis: in momentum representation one faces de Sitter momentum space with curvature radius 1/l [ru

  4. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  5. On the homology length spectrum of surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel; Parlier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    On a surface with a Finsler metric, we investigate the asymptotic growth of the number of closed geodesics of length less than L which minimize length among all geodesic multicurves in the same homology class. An important class of surfaces which are of interest to us are hyperbolic surfaces.

  6. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  7. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All...

  8. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  9. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  10. 30 CFR 35.10 - Approval labels or markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... letters and numbers shall be at least 1/2 inch in height and of a color which contrasts with that of the... marking. The label or marking shall clearly indicate the exact amount of water or other vehicle to make...

  11. Mark's story as oral traditional literature: Rethinking the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interpretation of Mark's gospel is inextricably linked to a conception of the gospel's genesis. By basing his argument on an aspect of the 'oral formulaic theory' the author of this paper argues that Mark's gospel can be seen as an example of oral traditional composition. The primary asset of this perspective is that it ...

  12. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  13. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article for...

  14. The scent marking behaviour of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour associated with pasting is described, as is the related func- tional anatomy of the scent pouch. The dispersion pattern of pastings within a group territory and the rate of marking in dif- .... with a layer of red sand, blown by the wind into a series ..... for scent marking in the red fox (Vulpes \\lulpes) has been.

  15. 46 CFR 160.037-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 1954. (2) In addition to any other marking place on the smallest packing carton or box containing hand orange smoke distress signals such cartons or boxes shall be plainly and permanently marked to show the service life expiration date, date of manufacture, and lot number. (3) The largest carton or box in which...

  16. 46 CFR 160.021-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 1954. (2) In addition to any other marking placed on the smallest packing carton or box containing hand red flare distress signals, such cartons or boxes shall be plainly and permanently marked to show the service life expiration date, date of manufacture, and lot number. (3) The largest carton or box in which...

  17. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...

  18. Conflict and Social Marking in the Acquisition of Operational Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Willem; Hanselmann, Claude

    1991-01-01

    To illustrate the joint intervention of sociocognitive conflict and social marking in cognitive processes, 160 children (87 males and 73 females) in Geneva (Switzerland), with an average age of 6.5 years completed conservation of number and conservation of liquids tasks. Conflict and social marking are important in the acquisition of operational…

  19. 9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging... § 592.340 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval. Inspection program... evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official identification has...

  20. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  1. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  2. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  3. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  4. 49 CFR 221.13 - Marking device display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... functioning photoelectric cell activation mechanism shall illuminate or flash the device continuously when... flash a marking device prescribed in this subpart. (b) Unless equipped with a functioning photoelectric cell activation mechanism complying with paragraph (c) of this section, the marking devices prescribed...

  5. Object marking in Swahili: Definiteness, specificity, or both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the role of object marking in relation to definiteness and specificity in Swahili. Object marking in general has attracted the attention of many scholars in the field of Bantu linguistics due to the complex nature of object markers (OMs) and varying functions they fulfil in Bantu. Opinions differ on the role of ...

  6. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  7. 32 CFR 2400.16 - Derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification markings. 2400.16... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.16 Derivative classification markings. (a) Documents..., as described in § 2400.12 of this part, the information may not be used as a basis for derivative...

  8. 46 CFR 160.077-31 - PFD Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) General. Each hybrid PFD must be marked with the applicable information required by this... text of special purpose or limitation and vessel(s) or vessel type(s), noted on approval certificate... and be presented in the exact order shown: Type [II, III, or V, as applicable] PFD [See paragraph (k...

  9. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  10. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear on...

  11. 47 CFR 78.63 - Antenna structure marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure marking and lighting. 78.63... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.63 Antenna structure marking and lighting. The owner of each antenna structure is responsible for ensuring that the structure, if required...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.11 - Marking the impact test line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.11 Marking the impact test line. Prior to testing, the impact test line shall be determined for each helmet in the following manner. (a) Position... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking the impact test line. 1203.11...

  13. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  14. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  15. [Reproductive effort, fattening index and yield of Arca zebra (Filibranchia: Arcidae) by length and its association with environmental variables, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, María; Velásquez, Carlos; Prieto, Antulio; Longart, Yelipza

    2016-06-01

    Arca zebra is a mollusk of commercial value and a major socioeconomic fishery in Northeastern Venezuela. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effort (RE), fattening index (FI) and yield (Y) in different size groups of A. zebra from the morro Chacopata, Venezuela. For this, monthly samplings from June 2008 and June 2009, were undertaken, and the bivalves obtained were distributed in three length groups: I (30.1 to 50.0 mm), II (50.1 to 70.0 mm) and III (> 70.0 mm). Monthly RE, FI and Y were determined based on bivalve changes in volume of fresh meat (VFM), intervalvar volume (IV), dry gonad biomass (DW), dry biomass of the organism without gonad (DWs), fresh biomass of meat (FBM) and total biomass including shell (TBIS). Besides, environmental variables such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total organic and inorganic seston and chlorophyll a were measured monthly. There was great variation in the DW between length groups (relevant for II and III): increased from June until late September 2008, was followed by a marked decrease in October 2008, recovered in the following months, and decreased in January 2009, with a slight increase until May 2009; these changes were associated with variations in sea temperature. The weight of the gonad (DW) influenced the RE, FI and Y, as these reached their peaks in the months where there was higher gonadal production, indicating the influence of temperature on A. zebra reproduction.

  16. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  17. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  18. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  19. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.

  20. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.