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Sample records for length influences age

  1. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to English began on average at age 4;4. Children spoke either a Chinese language or South Asian language as an L1 and were given English standardized tests for NWR and receptive vocabulary. Although the majority of ELLs scored within or above the monolingual normal range (71%), 29% scored below. Mixed logistic regression modeling revealed that a larger English vocabulary, longer English exposure, South Asian L1, and older age all had significant and positive effects on ELLs' NWR accuracy. Error analyses revealed the following L1 effect: onset consonants were produced more accurately than codas overall, but this effect was stronger for the Chinese group whose L1s have a more limited coda inventory compared with English. ELLs' NWR performance is influenced by a number of factors. Consideration of these factors is important in deciding whether monolingual norm referencing is appropriate for ELL children.

  2. The influence of length of relationship, gender and age on the relationship intention of short-term insurance clients: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Steyn

    2011-09-01

    insurance industry completed self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicate that, for a group of high relationship-intention clients of a short-term insurance organisation, no practically significant discrimination exists on any of the relationship-intention constructs for clients’ length of relationship, gender or age.

  3. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    How are the boundaries of disease and health, age, life and death negotiated through technology and active aging? The paper focuses on how disease and age are dealt with by active elderly at activity centres in the Copenhagen area. New health technologies lead to new expectations to the longevity...... of life. A new ethics is emerging, focused on longevity and spreading through healthcare policies and technologies . At activity centres active elderly talk about health in old age, share experiences with health technologies and reflect on longevity, while working out. Chronic diseases are common in old...... age, but this does not mean that you give up or accept decreased quality of life. Ends change as new means emerge . The technological and medical abilities change the reflexive longevity. One expects to live a long and healthy life. Thus, technology can be conceived as a world-changing mediation. What...

  4. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  5. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  6. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29...... died, but were at least 70 years old, were studied. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between tertiles of telomere length and maternal age at last childbirth, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS:: Age at birth of the last child...... in the first tertile. CONCLUSIONS:: These findings show an association between longer leukocyte telomere length and a later maternal age at birth of last child, suggesting that extended maternal age at last childbirth may be a marker for longevity....

  7. Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    -called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...

  8. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  9. The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  10. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  11. Can anchovy age structure be estimated from length distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis provides a new time-series of proportions-at-age 1, together with associated standard errors, for input into assessments of the resource. The results also caution against the danger of scientists reading more information into data than is really there. Keywords: anchovy, effective sample size, length distribution, ...

  12. Does Relative Age Affect Career Length in North American Professional Sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingröver, C; Wattie, N; Baker, J; Schorer, J

    Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball players and National Football League (NFL) football players and to investigate the influence of relative age on career length in all three sports. Using official archives, birthdates and number of games played were collected for players drafted into the NBA ( N  = 407), NFL ( N  = 2380) and NHL ( N  = 1028) from 1980 to 1989. We investigated the possibility that younger players might be able to maximize their career length by operationalizing career length as players' number of games played throughout their careers. There was a clear RAE for the NHL, but effects were not significant for the NBA or NFL. Moreover, there was a significant difference in matches played between birth quartiles in the NHL favouring relatively younger players. There were no significant quartiles by career length effects in the NBA or NFL. The significant relationship between relative age and career length provides further support for relative age as an important constraint on expertise development in ice hockey but not basketball or football. Currently, the reason why relatively younger players have longer careers is not known. However, it may be worth exploring the influence of injury risk or the development of better playing skills.

  13. Influences on emergency department length of stay for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maryann; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Berry, Debra; Cross, Anthony; Considine, Julie

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to examine the influences on emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) for older people and develop a predictive model for an ED LOS more than 4 h. This retrospective cohort study used organizational data linkage at the patient level from a major Australian health service. The study population was aged 65 years or older, attending an ED during the 2013/2014 financial year. We developed and internally validated a clinical prediction rule. Discriminatory performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. An integer-based risk score was developed using multivariate logistic regression. The risk score was evaluated using ROC analysis. There were 33 926 ED attendances: 57.5% (n=19 517) had an ED LOS more than 4 h. The area under ROC for age, usual accommodation, triage category, arrival by ambulance, arrival overnight, imaging, laboratory investigations, overcrowding, time to be seen by doctor, ED visits with admission and access block relating to ED LOS more than 4 h was 0.796, indicating good performance. In the validation set, area under ROC was 0.80, P-value was 0.36 and prediction mean square error was 0.18, indicating good calibration. The risk score value attributed to each risk factor ranged from 2 to 68 points. The clinical prediction rule stratified patients into five levels of risk on the basis of the total risk score. Objective identification of older people at intermediate and high risk of an ED LOS more than 4 h early in ED care enables targeted approaches to streamline the patient journey, decrease ED LOS and optimize emergency care for older people.

  14. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  15. Large-scale parent-child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2010-03-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent-child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent-grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, Pfather-son: r=0.465, Pfather-daughter: r=0.484, Pmothers, the correlations were weaker (mother-child: r=0.148, P=0.098; mother-son: r=0.080, P=0.561; mother-daughter: r=0.297, P=0.013). A positive telomere length correlation was also observed for grandparent-grandchild pairs (r=0.272, P=0.013). Our findings indicate that fathers contribute significantly stronger to the telomere length of the offspring compared with mothers (P=0.012), but we cannot exclude a maternal influence on the daughter's telomeres. Interestingly, the father-child correlations diminished with increasing age (P=0.022), suggesting that nonheritable factors have an impact on telomere length dynamics during life.

  16. Stress appraisals and cellular aging: A key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E.; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic psychological stressis a risk factor formultiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N= 50; M age = 62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic care giving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (β = −.32, p = .03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (β = −.36, p = .006)and retrospective (β = −.29, p = .03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, care giving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging. PMID:22293459

  17. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  18. Influence of ultraviolet ray irradiation on length of egg hatchability and on length of incubation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)

  19. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, ranging from 0 to 26 years of age. The results suggested a significant correlation between telomere length and age in humpback whales. However, telomere length was highly variable among individuals of similar age, suggesting that telomere length measured by quantitative PCR is an imprecise determinant of age in humpback whales. The observed variation in individual telomere length was found to be a function of both experimental and biological variability, with the latter perhaps reflecting patterns of inheritance, resource allocation trade-offs, and stochasticity of the marine environment.

  20. Telomere length and age in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Bérubé, Martine; Robbins, Jooke; Rew, Mary Beth; Palsboll, Per

    2009-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA sequences situated at the end of chromosomes that play a key role in maintaining chromosome integrity and are crucial for normal cell function. In vertebrates, telomeres tend to shorten with age, ultimately reaching a threshold believed to trigger cellular and organismal

  1. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    current analysis was limited to healthy controls. We also included existing LTL data from a small random sample of women participating in a cognitive sub-study. LTL was measured using the quantitative PCR-based method. Exposure and covariate information are extracted from biennial questionnaires completed by the participants. We found a strong association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)) that remained robust after controlling for indicators of early life SES. Maternal age at birth showed a weak inverse association with participant LTL after adjusting for age at blood collection and paternal age at birth (P = 0.01). We also noted a stronger association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.045). However, this observation may be due to chance as premenopausal women represented only 12.6% (N = 535) of the study population and LTL was not correlated with age at menopause, total or estrogen-only hormone therapy (HT) use suggesting that changes in in vivo estrogen exposure do not influence telomere length regulation. The women in our study are not representative of the general US female population, with an underrepresentation of non-white and low social class groups. Although the interaction was not significant, we noted that the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL appeared weaker among women whose parents did not own their home at the time of the participant's birth. As telomere dynamics may differ among individuals who are most socioeconomically deprived, SES indicators may have more of an influence on the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL in such populations. As of yet, our and prior studies have not identified childhood or adult characteristics that confound the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL, supporting the hypothesis that offspring may inherit the longer telomeres found in sperm of older

  2. Geographical variation in the age/length relationship in Baltic flounder ( Platichthys flesus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drevs, T.; Kadakas, V; Lang, T.

    1999-01-01

    The age/length relationship in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated by sex, based on otolith readings of 2925 individuals sampled from 11 stations along a transect from the Mecklenburg Eight to the Gulf of Finland in autumn 1994. A significant decrease in length at age was observ...

  3. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9...... and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator...... of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11...

  4. Large-scale parent–child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent–child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent–grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, P

  5. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva [Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde and PPGGTA, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Juliana da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.br [Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde and PPGGTA, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rabaioli da Silva, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.silva@unilasalle.edu.br [Master’s Degree in Environmental Impact Evaluation, Centro Universitário La Salle, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields is related to shorten telomere length. • The molecular mechanism of pesticide on telomere length is not fully understood. • Pesticides inhibit ubiquitin proteasome system. • Nicotine activates ubiquitin proteasome system. • Pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. - Abstract: Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity.

  6. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; Silva, Juliana da; Rabaioli da Silva, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields is related to shorten telomere length. • The molecular mechanism of pesticide on telomere length is not fully understood. • Pesticides inhibit ubiquitin proteasome system. • Nicotine activates ubiquitin proteasome system. • Pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. - Abstract: Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity.

  7. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  8. Word frequency influences on the list length effect and associative memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Whitney, Cora; Sanghera, Sumeet; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    Many studies show that age deficits in memory are smaller for information supported by pre-experimental experience. Many studies also find dissociations in memory tasks between words that occur with high and low frequencies in language, but the literature is mixed regarding the extent of word frequency effects in normal ageing. We examined whether age deficits in episodic memory could be influenced by manipulations of word frequency. In Experiment 1, young and older adults studied short and long lists of high- and low-frequency words for free recall. The list length effect (the drop in proportion recalled for longer lists) was larger in young compared to older adults and for high- compared to low-frequency words. In Experiment 2, young and older adults completed item and associative recognition memory tests with high- and low-frequency words. Age deficits were greater for associative memory than for item memory, demonstrating an age-related associative deficit. High-frequency words led to better associative memory performance whilst low-frequency words resulted in better item memory performance. In neither experiment was there any evidence for age deficits to be smaller for high- relative to low-frequency words, suggesting that word frequency effects on memory operate independently from effects due to cognitive ageing.

  9. Estimation of age structure of fish populations from length-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.D.; Adams, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    A probability model is presented to determine the age structure of a fish population from length-frequency data. It is shown that when the age-length key is available, maximum-likelihood estimates of the age structure can be obtained. When the key is not available, approximate estimates of the age structure can be obtained. The model is used for determination of the age structure of populations of channel catfish and white crappie. Practical applications of the model to impact assessment are discussed

  10. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  11. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  12. Utility of telomere length measurements for age determination of humpback whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Morten T.; Robbins, Jooke; Bérubé, Martine; Rew, Mary Beth; Palsboll, Per

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of telomere length measurements by quantitative PCR as a tool for minimally invasive age determination of free-ranging cetaceans. We analysed telomere length in skin samples from 28 North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), ranging from 0 to 26

  13. Age differences in the required coefficient of friction during level walking do not exist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Franck, Christopher T; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confound the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and 10 older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed having a weaker negative effect.

  14. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli

    Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shorter preschool, leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity at age 9 in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, T W; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Mehta, K M; Christensen, V B; Epel, E; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Wojcicki, J M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in preschoolers was associated with obesity at age 9 (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.94) after adjustment for known risk factors. Telomere length mediated 11% of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity. Shorter leukocyte telomere length may be an indicator of future obesity risk in high-risk populations as it is particularly sensitive to damage from oxidative stress exposure, including those from sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  17. INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF SENTENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF SPEECH DISFLUENCIES IN CHILDREN WHO STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Begić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the length of sentences has influence on the frequency of speech disfluencies for children who stutter. The participants included 30 children who stutter 19 male participants and 13 female participants, whose age ranged between 4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months (56 to 83 months of age. Research was conducted in kindergartens and primary schools in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina2 . The test consisted of 36 sentences. In relation to the length, sentences were divided into three groups: in the first group there were 9 sentences which included 3 to 5 words, in the second group, there were 14 sentences which included 6 to 8 words and in the third group there were 13 sentences which included 9 to 11 words. Testing was conducted so that the examiner was pronouncing one sentence after which the participant repeated the same sentence. Each participant was requested to repeat exactly what he/she had heard. Speech and language pathologist has recorded all speech disfluencies in all sentences. The results showed that the sentences containing 9 to 11 words had most effects on the overall dynamics of speech disfluencies in children who stutter. The results suggest that during the process of assessment and diagnosis of children who stutter, it should be required to assess the child's ability to use complex linguistic statements and to assess the frequency of disfluencies in relation to the complexity of the sentences. Precision diagnostics would provide guidelines for the treatment of stuttering in terms of implementation of approaches and strategies which include language treatment and gradually increasing the length and complexity of statements of children who stutter during speech.

  18. Is telomere length a biomarker for aging: cross-sectional evidence from the west of Scotland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G David; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J; Green, Michael J; McGlynn, Liane; McIntyre, Alan; Robertson, Tony; Shiels, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The search for biomarkers of aging (BoAs) has been largely unsuccessful to-date and there is widespread skepticism about the prospects of finding any that satisfy the criteria developed by the American Federation of Aging Research. This may be because the criteria are too strict or because a composite measure might be more appropriate. Telomere length has attracted a great deal of attention as a candidate BoA. We investigate whether it meets the criteria to be considered as a single biomarker of aging, and whether it makes a useful contribution to a composite measure. Using data from a large population based study, we show that telomere length is associated with age, with several measures of physical and cognitive functioning that are related to normal aging, and with three measures of overall health. In the majority of cases, telomere length adds predictive power to that of age, although it was not nearly as good a predictor overall. We used principal components analysis to form two composites from the measures of functioning, one including telomere length and the other not including it. These composite BoAs were better predictors of the health outcomes than chronological age. There was little difference between the two composites. Telomere length does not satisfy the strict criteria for a BoA, but does add predictive power to that of chronological age. Equivocal results from previous studies might be due to lack of power or the choice of measures examined together with a focus on single biomarkers. Composite biomarkers of aging have the potential to outperform age and should be considered for future research in this area.

  19. Is telomere length a biomarker for aging: cross-sectional evidence from the west of Scotland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Der

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The search for biomarkers of aging (BoAs has been largely unsuccessful to-date and there is widespread skepticism about the prospects of finding any that satisfy the criteria developed by the American Federation of Aging Research. This may be because the criteria are too strict or because a composite measure might be more appropriate. Telomere length has attracted a great deal of attention as a candidate BoA. We investigate whether it meets the criteria to be considered as a single biomarker of aging, and whether it makes a useful contribution to a composite measure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from a large population based study, we show that telomere length is associated with age, with several measures of physical and cognitive functioning that are related to normal aging, and with three measures of overall health. In the majority of cases, telomere length adds predictive power to that of age, although it was not nearly as good a predictor overall. We used principal components analysis to form two composites from the measures of functioning, one including telomere length and the other not including it. These composite BoAs were better predictors of the health outcomes than chronological age. There was little difference between the two composites. CONCLUSIONS: Telomere length does not satisfy the strict criteria for a BoA, but does add predictive power to that of chronological age. Equivocal results from previous studies might be due to lack of power or the choice of measures examined together with a focus on single biomarkers. Composite biomarkers of aging have the potential to outperform age and should be considered for future research in this area.

  20. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi; Hossein Rezaie-Delui

    2013-01-01

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive e...

  1. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  2. Age differences in the prosocial influence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Lucy; Leung, Jovita T; Fuhrmann, Delia; Knoll, Lisa J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2018-04-15

    Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or behaviours are affected by other people. There are significant age effects on susceptibility to social influence, typically a decline from childhood to adulthood. Most research has focused on negative aspects of social influence, such as peer influence on risky behaviour, particularly in adolescence. The current study investigated the impact of social influence on the reporting of prosocial behaviour (any act intended to help another person). In this study, 755 participants aged 8-59 completed a computerized task in which they rated how likely they would be to engage in a prosocial behaviour. Afterwards, they were told the average rating (in fact fictitious) that other participants had given to the same question, and then were asked to rate the same behaviour again. We found that participants' age affected the extent to which they were influenced by other people: children (8-11 years), young adolescents (12-14 years) and mid-adolescents (15-18 years) all significantly changed their ratings, while young adults (19-25 years) and adults (26-59 years) did not. Across the three youngest age groups, children showed the most susceptibility to prosocial influence, changing their reporting of prosocial behaviour the most. The study provides evidence that younger people's increased susceptibility to social influence can have positive outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein

    2013-05-30

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  4. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A true estimation of gestational age (GA plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002. The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  5. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, L.; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    style. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two groups of men with negative (n = 97) and positive (n = 93) change in cognitive performance were selected from a birth cohort of 1985 Danish men born in 1953. Cognitive performance of each individual was assessed at age similar to 20 and 56 years. Leukocyte...... telomere length at age similar to 58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte...... telomere length than men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference beta = -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol (adjusted...

  6. The influence of age and aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Rabøl, R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Mitochondrial function has previously been studied in ageing, but never in humans matched for maximal oxygen uptake ((V)·O2max). Furthermore, the influence of ageing on mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is not known. METHODS: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochond...

  7. The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, L F; Aviv, A; Valdes, A M; Hunkin, J L; Gardner, J P; Surdulescu, G L; Kimura, M; Spector, T D

    2006-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) is associated with a shortened life expectancy, but its effect on aging is unknown. The rate of white-blood-cell (WBC) telomere attrition may be a biological indicator of human aging. We tested the hypothesis that SES is associated with telomere attrition independent of known risk factors influencing the aging process. We studied 1552 female twins. A venous blood sample was taken from each twin and isolated WBCs used for extraction of DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) was measured. Questionnaire data were collected on occupation, education, income, smoking, exercise, height and weight. Standard multiple linear regression and multivariate analyses of variance tested for associations between SES and TRFL, adjusting for covariates. A discordant twin analysis was conducted on a subset to verify findings. WBC telomere length was highly variable but significantly shorter in lower SES groups. The mean difference in TRFL between nonmanual and manual SES groups was 163.2 base pairs (bp) of which 22.9 bp (approximately 14%) was accounted for by body mass index, smoking and exercise. Comparison of TRFL in the 17 most discordant SES twin pairs confirmed this difference. Low SES, in addition to the harmful effects of smoking, obesity and lack of exercise, appears to have an impact on telomere length.

  8. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gestational age of 31,7±2,7 weeks and a birth-weight of 1561.0±379.3 g were included in the study. Axial length measurements were done at a mean postconceptional age of 35.8 ±2.6 (31-40 and 39.8±2.7 (35-44 weeks, consecutively. The mean axial length at first and second visits were 16.43±0.42 mm (15.28-17.13 and 16.69±0.41 mm (15.60-17.70, consecutively (p

  9. Anthropometric measurements of foot length and shape in children 2 to 7 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Vrdoljak, Ozren; Kujundžić Tiljak, Mirjana; Čimić, Mislav

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: A child’s foot changes shape and proportions during growth so that it adapts to function. The purpose of this article is to determine foot length in children aged 2-7 years as a fundamental unit for measuring the growth of the foot, with which it will be able to compare other anthropometric measures of the foot. Determination of the shape of the foot and interpretation of the growth curve of the foot in length are important for standardization of the foot.Materials and...

  10. Offspring's Leukocyte Telomere Length, Paternal Age, and Telomere Elongation in Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S

    2008-01-01

    ), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years) donors. Paternal age...... had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice......Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different...

  11. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Oliveira Batista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls.METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05 were used.RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups.CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  12. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  13. Three-dimensional anatomy of equine incisors: tooth length, enamel cover and age related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Equine incisors are subjected to continuous occlusal wear causing multiple, age related changes of the extragingival crown. It is assumed that the occlusal wear is compensated by continued tooth elongation at the apical ends of the teeth. In this study, μCT-datasets offered the opportunity to analyze the three-dimensional appearance of the extra- and intraalveolar parts of the enamel containing dental crown as well as of the enamel-free dental root. Multiple morphometric measurements elucidated age related, morphological changes within the intraalveolar part of the incisors. Results Equine incisors possess a unique enamel cover displaying large indentations on the mesial and distal sides. After eruption tooth elongation at the apical end outbalances occlusal wear for two to four years resulting in increasing incisor length in this period of time. Remarkably, this maximum length is maintained for about ten years, up to a tooth age of 13 to 15 years post eruption. Variances in the total length of individual teeth are related to different Triadan positions (central-, middle- and corner incisors) as well as to the upper and lower arcades. Conclusion Equine incisors are able to fully compensate occlusal wear for a limited period of time. However, after this ability ceases, it is expected that a diminished intraalveolar tooth length will cause massive changes in periodontal biomechanics. The time point of these morphodynamic and biomechanical changes (13 to 15 years post eruption) occurs in coincidence with the onset of a recently described destructive disease of equine incisor (equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis) in aged horses. However, further biomechanical, cell biological and microbiological investigations are needed to elucidate a correlation between age related changes of incisor morphology and this disease. PMID:24321365

  14. Active aging as a way of keeping diseases at arm’s length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Active ageing has increasingly become the ideal of how to live later life. Concepts of activity, participation and independence are central to how elderly see themselves and practice aging (Katz 2000). The elderly are encouraged and expected to stay active and independent. This is believed...... to be good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self......-care, by paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body...

  15. Influence of Aging on Plasma Renin Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Influence of aging on plasma renin activity was evaluated in healthy normotensive subjects(age range 21-63 years, 413 males) devoid of cardiorenal or endocrinological problems. The age-related decrease of plasma renin activity in the subjects between 21-28 years group and 36-42 years group was slight, but over the 43 years groups was significantly different. The age-related suppression of plasma renin activity was much more smooth and continuous all over the age ranges evaluated. The sexual difference in plasma renin activity was noticed between the subjects of 22 years old group (34 males) and 19 years group (34 females) (p<0.003). The data suggest that the age-related suppression of plasma renin activity appeared in healthy normotensive subjects should be considered in the case of evaluation of low renin essential hypertension.

  16. Estimating age from recapture data: integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated

  17. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  18. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  19. Influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Emily G; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing trend to delay childbearing to advanced parental age. Increased risks of advanced maternal age and assisted reproductive technologies are widely accepted. There are limited data regarding advanced paternal age. To adequately counsel patients on risk, more research regarding advanced paternal age is necessary. We sought to determine the influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes, and to assess whether this influence differs between pregnancies achieved spontaneously and those achieved with assisted reproductive technology. A population-based retrospective cohort study of all live births in Ohio from 2006 through 2012 was completed. Data were evaluated to determine if advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancies. The analysis was stratified by status of utilization of assisted reproductive technology. Generalized linear regression models assessed the association of paternal age on pregnancy complications in assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived pregnancies, after adjusting for maternal age, race, multifetal gestation, and Medicaid status, using Stata software (Stata, Release 12; StataCorp, College Station, TX). Paternal age was documented in 82.2% of 1,034,552 live births in Ohio during the 7-year study period. Paternal age ranged from 12-87 years, with a median of 30 (interquartile range, 26-35) years. Maternal age ranged from 11-62 years, with a median of 27 (interquartile range, 22-31) years. The use of assisted reproductive technology in live births increased as paternal age increased: 0.1% 60 years, P risk factors, increased paternal age was not associated with a significant increase in the rate of preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, congenital anomaly, genetic disorder, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. The influence of paternal age on pregnancy outcomes was similar in pregnancies achieved with and without assisted reproductive

  20. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  1. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p care (β = 0.195, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  2. The influence of humidity on accuracy length measurement on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madruga, Daniel González; Alexiou, A.; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental study of the influence of humidity on accurate length measurements on ABS parts. Polymer parts absorb water from the ambient until they reach hygroscopic equilibrium. Water content causes an expansion of the polymer part. The relationship between the water cont...

  3. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αrisk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  4. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  5. Influence of crack length on crack depth measurement by an alternating current potential drop technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Manoj K; Mahadevan, S; Rao, B P C; Behera, S P; Jayakumar, T; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    An alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique is used for sizing depth of surface cracks in metallic components. Crack depth estimations are prone to large deviations when ACPD measurements are made on very shallow and finite length cracks, especially in low conducting materials such as austenitic stainless steel (SS). Detailed studies have been carried out to investigate the influence of crack length and aspect ratio (length to depth) on depth estimation by performing measurements on electric discharge machined notches with the aspect ratio in the range of 1 to 40 in SS plates. In notches with finite length, an additional path for current to flow through the surface along the length is available causing the notch depths to be underestimated. The experimentally observed deviation in notch depth estimates is explained from a simple mathematical approach using the equivalent resistive circuit model based on the additional path available for the current to flow. A scheme is proposed to accurately measure the depth of cracks with finite lengths in SS components

  6. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves Junior, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αstudy's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  8. The influence of finite-length flaw effects on PTS analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney-Walker, J.; Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Current licensing issues within the nuclear industry dictate a need to investigate the effects of cladding on the extension of small finite-length cracks near the inside surface of a vessel. Because flaws having depths of the order of the combined clad and heat affected zone thickness dominate the frequency distribution of flaws, their initiation probabilities can govern calculated vessel failure probabilities. Current pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) analysis computer programs recognize the influence of the inner-surface cladding layer in the heat transfer and stress analysis models, but assume the cladding fracture toughness is the same as that for the base material. The programs do not recognize the influence cladding may have in inhibiting crack initiation and propagation of shallow finite-length surface flaws. Limited experimental data and analyses indicate the cladding can inhibit the propagation of certain shallow flaws. This paper describes an analytical study which was carried out to determine (1) the minimum flaw depth for crack initiation under PTS loading for semicircular surface flaws in a clad reactor pressure vessel and (2) the impact, in terms of the conditional probability of vessel failure, of using a semicircular surface flaw as the initial flaw and assuming that the flaw cannot propagate in the cladding. The analytical results indicate that for initiation a much deeper critical crack depth is required for the finite-length flaw than for the infinite-length flaw, except for the least severe transient. The minimum flaw depths required for crack initiation from the finite-length flaw analyses were incorporated into a modified version of the OCA-P code. The modified code was applied to the analysis of selected PTS transients, and the results produced a substantial decrease in the conditional probability of failure. This initial study indicates a significant effect on probabilistic fracture analyses by incorporating finite-length flaw results

  9. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  10. Influences of the shielding cylinder on the length of radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He-Ping; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Department of Engineering Physics Team

    2017-10-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma jets driven by a radio frequency power supply contain abundant species and complex chemical reactions, which have wide applications in the fields of materials processing and modifications, food engineering, bio-medical science, etc. Our previous experiments have shown that the total length of a radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma (RF-CAP) jet can exceed 1 meter with the shielding of a quartz tube. However, the shielding mechanisms of the solid cylinder has not been studied systematically. In this study, a two-dimensional, quasi-steady fluid model is used to investigate the influences of the shielding tube on the length of the RF-CAP jets under different conditions. The simulation results show that the total jet length grows monotonously; while simultaneously, the jet length out of the tube shows a non-monotonic variation trend, with the increase of the tube length, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. The shielding mechanisms of the solid cylinder on the RF-CAP jet is also discussed in detail based on the modeling results. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475103, 21627812), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0102106) and Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Program (20161080108).

  11. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Lene; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference β = −0.09, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.02, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol (adjusted difference β = −0.09, 95......% CI −0.17 to −0.01, p = 0.02) but was non-significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, BMI, cholesterol, current cognitive function, depression and education (adjusted difference β = −0.07, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.01, p = 0.08). Conclusion and Relevance: Preclinical......Importance: Cognitive skills are known to decline through the lifespan with large individual differences. The molecular mechanisms for this decline are incompletely understood. Although leukocyte telomere length provides an index of cellular age that predicts the incidence of age-related diseases...

  12. Independent influence of gait speed and step length on stability and fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, D D; Yang, F; Bhatt, T; Pai, Y-C

    2010-07-01

    With aging, individuals' gaits become slower and their steps shorter; both are thought to improve stability against balance threats. Recent studies have shown that shorter step lengths, which bring the center of mass (COM) closer to the leading foot, improve stability against slip-related falls. However, a slower gait, hence lower COM velocity, does the opposite. Due to the inherent coupling of step length and speed in spontaneous gait, the extent to which the benefit of shorter steps can offset the slower speed is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate, through decoupling, the independent effects of gait speed and step length on gait stability and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Fifty-seven young adults walked at one of three target gait patterns, two of equal speed and two of equal step length; at a later trial, they encountered an unannounced slip. The results supported our hypotheses that faster gait as well as shorter steps each ameliorates fall risk when a slip is encountered. This appeared to be attributable to the maintenance of stability from slip initiation to liftoff of the recovery foot during the slip. Successful decoupling of gait speed from step length reveals for the first time that, although slow gait in itself leads to instability and falls (a one-standard-deviation decrease in gait speed increases the odds of fall by 4-fold), this effect is offset by the related decrease in step length (the same one-standard-deviation decrease in step length lowers fall risk by 6 times). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Word frequency influences on the list length effect and associative memory in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, SP; Whitney, C; Sanghera, S; Maylor, EA

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that age deficits in memory are smaller for information supported by pre-experimental experience. Many studies also find dissociations in memory tasks between words that occur with high and low frequencies in language, but the literature is mixed regarding the extent of word frequency effects in normal ageing. We examined whether age deficits in episodic memory could be influenced by manipulations of word frequency. In Experiment 1, young and older adults studied short and l...

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  15. The influence of spring length on the physical parameters of simple harmonic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, C A; Fajardo, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of spring length on the simple harmonic motion of a spring-mass system. In particular, we study the effect of changing the spring length on the elastic constant k, the angular frequency ω and the damping factor γ of the oscillations. To characterize the behaviour of these variables we worked with a series of springs of seven different lengths, in which the elastic constant was found by means of the spring-elongation measurement and ω was obtained from the measurement of the oscillation period T of a suspended mass. The oscillatory movement was recorded using a force sensor and the γ value was determined by the fit of the envelope oscillations. Graphical analysis of the results shows that k, ω and γ decrease when the natural spring length increases. This experiment can be performed with equipment normally found in undergraduate physics laboratories. In addition, through graphical analysis students can deduce some relationships between variables that determine the simple harmonic motion behaviour. (paper)

  16. Influence of solder joint length to the mechanical aspect during the thermal stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Khor, C. Y.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Rosli, M. U.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Zakaria, M. S.; Nawi, M. A. M.; Aziz, M. S. Abdul; Ani, F. Che

    2017-09-01

    Solder joint is an important interconnector in surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The real time stress, strain and displacement of the solder joint is difficult to observe and assess the experiment. To tackle these problems, simulation analysis was employed to study the von Mises stress, strain and displacement in the thermal stress analysis by using Finite element based software. In this study, a model of leadless electronic package was considered. The thermal stress analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the solder length to those mechanical aspects. The simulation results revealed that solder length gives significant effect to the maximum von Mises stress to the solder joint. Besides, changes in solder length also influence the displacement of the solder joint in the thermal environment. The increment of the solder length significantly reduces the von Mises stress and strain on the solder joint. Thus, the understanding of the physical parameter for solder joint is important for engineer prior to designing the solder joint of the electronic component.

  17. Characterization of amylose nanoparticles prepared via nanoprecipitation: Influence of chain length distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yang, Jingde; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-08-15

    The influence of chain length distribution of amylose on size and structure of the amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through nanoprecipitation was investigated. Amylose with different chain length distributions was obtained by β-amylase treating amylose paste for different times and measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). ANPs prepared via precipitation were characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the β-amylase treatments led to decrease in chain length of amylose, and it was the most important factor affecting size of ANPs. When hydrolysis degree of amylose was 52.8%, mean size of ANPs decreased from 206.4 nm to 102.7 nm. All the ANPs displayed a V-type crystalline structure and the effect of amylose chain length on crystallinity of the precipitated ANPs was negligible in the investigated range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of core diameter and length of polymer optical fiber on Brillouin scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Ishigure, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Brillouin scattering in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PFGI-POFs) is potentially useful in developing high-accuracy distributed temperature sensors with reduced strain sensitivity. In this study, we investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the fiber core diameter and length on the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) in PFGI-POFs. First, we show that smaller core diameter drastically enhances the Stokes power using PFGI-POFs with 62.5-μm and 120-μm core diameters, and discuss the Brillouin threshold power. Then, we demonstrate that the PFGI-POF length has little influence on the BGS when the length is longer than 50 m. We also predict that, at 1.55-μm wavelength, it is difficult to reduce the Brillouin threshold power of PFGI-POFs below that of long silica single-mode fibers even if their core diameter is sufficiently reduced to satisfy the single-mode condition. Finally, making use of the enhanced Stokes signal, we confirm the Brillouin linewidth narrowing effect.

  20. Muscle structure, sarcomere length and influences on meat quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertbjerg, Per; Puolanne, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The basic contractile unit of muscle, the sarcomere, will contract as the muscle goes into rigor post-mortem. Depending on the conditions, such as the rate of pH decline, the cooling rate and the mechanical restraints on the muscles, this longitudinal shortening will result in various post-mortem sarcomere lengths as well as lateral differences in the distances between the myosin and actin filaments. This shortening is underlying the phenomena described as rigor contraction, thaw rigor, cold shortening and heat shortening. The shortening in combination with the molecular architecture of the sarcomere as defined by the myosin filaments and their S-1 and S-2 units, the interaction with the actin filaments, and the boundaries formed by the Z-disks will subsequently influence basic meat quality traits including tenderness and water-holding capacity. Biochemical reactions from proteolysis and glycogen metabolism interrelate with the sarcomere length in a complex manner. The sarcomere length is also influencing the eating quality of cooked meat and the water-holding in meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of 131I fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G.; Bardy, A.

    1983-01-01

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with 131 I in ω position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism [fr

  2. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of /sup 131/I fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G. (Universite de Grenoble, 38 (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with /sup 131/I in ..omega.. position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism.

  3. Liposomes coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose: Influence of hydrophobic chain length and degree of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Gro; Nyström, Bo; Zhu, Kaizheng; Grønvold, Marthe Karoline; Røv-Johnsen, Anne; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticulate systems with an uncharged hydrophilic surface may have a great potential in mucosal drug delivery. In the present study liposomes were coated with hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HM-HEC) to create a sterically stabilized liposomal system with an uncharged surface. The aim was to clarify the influence of the amount of hydrophobic modification of HEC and the length of the hydrophobic moiety, on the stability of the system and on the release properties. HM-HEC with different degrees of hydrophobic modification (1 and 2mol%) and hydrophobic groups with different chain lengths (C8, C12, C16) were included in the study, as well as fluid phase and gel phase liposomes. Both types of liposomes were successfully coated with HM-HEC containing 1mol% of hydrophobic groups, while 2mol% did not work for the intended pharmaceutical applications. The polymer coated gel phase liposomes were stable (size, zeta potential, leakage) for 24 weeks at 4°C, with no differences between the C8 and C16 HM-HEC coating. For the fluid phase liposomes a size increase was observed after 24 weeks at 4°C for all formulations; the C8 HM-HEC coated liposomes increased the most. No differences in the leakage during storage at 4°C or in the release at 35°C were observed between the fluid phase formulations. To conclude; HM-HEC with a shorter hydrophobic chain length resulted in a less stable product for the fluid phase liposomes, while no influence of the chain length was observed for the gel phase liposomes (1mol% HM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-dependent associations between telomere length and environmental conditions in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Rachael V; Froy, Hannah; McManus, Marie-Christina; Cheynel, Louise; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Regis, Corinne; Rey, Benjamin; Pellerin, Maryline; Lemaître, Jean-François; Nussey, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Telomere length (TL) represents a promising biomarker of overall physiological state and of past environmental experiences, which could help us understand the drivers of life-history variation in natural populations. A growing number of studies in birds suggest that environmental stress or poor environmental conditions are associated with shortened TL, but studies of such relationships in wild mammals are lacking. Here, we compare leucocyte TL from cross-sectional samples collected from two French populations of roe deer which experience different environmental conditions. We found that, as predicted, TL was shorter in the population experiencing poor environmental conditions but that this difference was only significant in older individuals and was independent of sex and body mass. Unexpectedly, the difference was underpinned by a significant increase in TL with age in the population experiencing good environmental conditions, while there was no detectable relationship with age in poor conditions. These results demonstrate both the environmental sensitivity and complexity of telomere dynamics in natural mammal populations, and highlight the importance of longitudinal data to disentangle the within- and among-individual processes that generate them. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: Underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Mellon, Synthia H; Penninx, Brenda W; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Reus, Victor I; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Hough, Christina M; Rosser, Rebecca; Bersani, F Saverio; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2015-08-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a telomere-lengthening enzyme. Critically short telomeres can cause cells to undergo senescence, apoptosis or genomic instability, and shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality. Emerging data suggest that LTL may be reduced in certain psychiatric illnesses, perhaps in proportion to exposure to the psychiatric illnesses, although conflicting data exist. Telomerase has been less well characterized in psychiatric illnesses, but a role in depression and in antidepressant and neurotrophic effects has been suggested by preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, studies on LTL and telomerase activity in psychiatric illnesses are critically reviewed, potential mediators are discussed, and future directions are suggested. A deeper understanding of cellular aging in psychiatric illnesses could lead to re-conceptualizing them as systemic illnesses with manifestations inside and outside the brain and could identify new treatment targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermocouples calibration and analysis of the influence of the length of the sensor coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega, M; Ramírez, R; López, R; Vaca, M; Morales, J; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and construction of a lab prototype, with a much lower cost compared to the ones commercially sold, enabling the manufacture of thermocouples which are then calibrated to verify their functionality and acceptance. We also analyze the influence of the external insulation over the wires, to determine whether it influences temperature measurement. The tested lengths ranged from 0.00 m up to 0.030 m. The thermocouple was compared against the behavior of a thermocouple of the same type that was purchased with a commercial supplier. The obtained measurement showed less than 1 °C difference in some points. This makes the built thermocouple reliable, since the standard allows a difference of up to 2.2 °C

  7. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in Zambia. ... The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Beirne

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells', stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles. Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations.

  9. The effects of age and step length on joint kinematics and kinetics of large out-and-back steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-06-01

    Maximum step length (MSL) is a clinical test that has been shown to correlate with age, various measures of fall risk, and knee and hip joint extension speed, strength, and power capacities, but little is known about the kinematics and kinetics of the large out-and-back step utilized. Body motions and ground reaction forces were recorded for 11 unimpaired younger and 10 older women while attaining maximum step length. Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The effects of age group and step length on the biomechanics of these large out-and-back steps were determined. Maximum step length was 40% greater in the younger than in the older women (P<0.0001). Peak knee and hip, but not ankle, angle, velocity, moment, and power were generally greater for younger women and longer steps. After controlling for age group, step length generally explained significant additional variance in hip and torso kinematics and kinetics (incremental R2=0.09-0.37). The young reached their peak knee extension moment immediately after landing of the step out, while the old reached their peak knee extension moment just before the return step liftoff (P=0.03). Maximum step length is strongly associated with hip kinematics and kinetics. Delays in peak knee extension moment that appear to be unrelated to step length, may indicate a reduced ability of older women to rapidly apply force to the ground with the stepping leg and thus arrest the momentum of a fall.

  10. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Length of hospital stay (LOS is a key indicator for hospital management. Reducing hospital stay is a priority for all health systems. We aimed to determine the length of hospital stay following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG based on its clinical and non-clinical factors. A cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Shariati university hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Data was analyzed by using non-parametric univariate tests and multiple linier regression models. Thirty seven independent variables including pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative variables were analyzed. Finally, an appropriate model was constructed based on the associated factors. The results showed that 70.3% of the patients were male, and the mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The Mean (±SD and median of the LOS were 11.7 ± 7.1 and 9 days, respectively. Of 37 investigated variables, 24 qualitative and quantitative variables were significantly associated with length of stay (p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that independent variables including age, medical insurance type, body mass index, and prior myocardial infarction; admission day, admission season, Cross-clamp time, pump usage, admission type, the number of laboratory tests and the number of specialty consultation had more effect on the hospital stay. We concluded that some significant factors influencing hospital stay after CABG were predictable and modifiable by hospital managers and decision makers to manage hospital beds.

  11. LENMODEL: A forward model for calculating length distributions and fission-track ages in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Kevin D.

    1993-05-01

    The program LENMODEL is a forward model for annealing of fission tracks in apatite. It provides estimates of the track-length distribution, fission-track age, and areal track density for any user-supplied thermal history. The program approximates the thermal history, in which temperature is represented as a continuous function of time, by a series of isothermal steps of various durations. Equations describing the production of tracks as a function of time and annealing of tracks as a function of time and temperature are solved for each step. The step calculations are summed to obtain estimates for the entire thermal history. Computational efficiency is maximized by performing the step calculations backwards in model time. The program incorporates an intuitive and easy-to-use graphical interface. Thermal history is input to the program using a mouse. Model options are specified by selecting context-sensitive commands from a bar menu. The program allows for considerable selection of equations and parameters used in the calculations. The program was written for PC-compatible computers running DOS TM 3.0 and above (and Windows TM 3.0 or above) with VGA or SVGA graphics and a Microsoft TM-compatible mouse. Single copies of a runtime version of the program are available from the author by written request as explained in the last section of this paper.

  12. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1 In general, the acceleration of each component of the coupled system decreases with the increase of slab length under the perfectly smooth track condition; (2 Slab length has different influence laws on acceleration of each component of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system under random irregularity of track condition. The lower the dominant frequency distribution of vibration acceleration is, the higher influence slab length has; (3 With the increase of slab length, the force of rail, fastener and steel spring also decreases significantly, which helps to lengthen the service life of these components; (4 With the increase of slab length, the longitudinal bending moment of slab increases sharply at first, then it begins to drop slightly. When slab length exceeds the distance between two bogies of a vehicle, the longitudinal bending moment of slab changes little; (5 Slab length has significant influence on the dynamic force and displacement of the coupled system when train speed is higher.

  13. Influence of Screw Length and Bone Thickness on the Stability of Temporary Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jogaib Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the influence of screw length and bone thickness on the stability of temporary implants. A total of 96 self-drilling temporary screws with two different lengths were inserted into polyurethane blocks (n = 66, bovine femurs (n = 18 and rabbit tibia (n = 12 with different cortical thicknesses (1 to 8 mm. Screws insertion in polyurethane blocks was assisted by a universal testing machine, torque peaks were collected by a digital torquemeter and bone thickness was monitored by micro-CT. The results showed that the insertion torque was significantly increased with the thickness of cortical bone from polyurethane (p < 0.0001, bovine (p = 0.0035 and rabbit (p < 0.05 sources. Cancellous bone improved significantly the mechanical implant stability. Insertion torque and insertion strength was successfully moduled by equations, based on the cortical/cancellous bone behavior. Based on the results, insertion torque and bone strength can be estimate in order to prevent failure of the cortical layer during temporary screw placement. The stability provided by a cortical thickness of 2 or 1 mm coupled to cancellous bone was deemed sufficient for temporary implants stability.

  14. Influence of length-to-diameter ratio on shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijie, MA; Yang, Jiansen; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaojun

    2017-09-01

    In order to study the shrinkage performance of basalt concrete, using the shrinkage rate as index, the work not only studied the influence of different length-to-diameter ratio (LDR) on plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete, but also analyzed the action mechanism. The results show that when the fiber content is 0.1%, the LDR of 800 and 1200 take better effects on reducing plastic shrinkage, however the fiber content is 0.3%, that of LDR 600 is better. To improve drying shrinkage, the fiber of LDR 800 takes best effect. In the concrete structure, the adding basalt fibers form a uniform and chaotic supporting system, optimize the pore and the void structure of concrete, make the material further compacted, reduce the water loss, so as to decrease the shrinkage of concrete effectively.

  15. A method for estimating age of medieval sub-adults from infancy to adulthood based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila Saidane; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL AND ME...... as later than the medieval period, although this would require further testing. The quadratic equations are suggested to yield more accurate ages then using simply linear regression equations. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......OBJECTIVES: To develop a series of regression equations for estimating age from length of long bones for archaeological sub-adults when aging from dental development cannot be performed. Further, to compare derived ages when using these regression equations, and two other methods. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: A total of 183 skeletal sub-adults from the Danish medieval period, were aged from radiographic images. Linear regression formulae were then produced for individual bones. Age was then estimated from the femur length using three different methods: equations developed in this study, data based...

  16. Gestational length in Carthusian broodmares: effects of breeding season, foal gender, age of mare, year of parturition, parity and sire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, K; Felipe, M; Mota, J; Muñoz, A

    2011-01-01

    The length of gestation in Carthusian broodmares was calculated on the basis of 339 spontaneous full-term deliveries taking place in the 8-year period 1998-2005 from 158 broodmares and 29 stallions in a major farm of Spanish horses of Carthusian strain in southern Spain. Ultrasonography was used to determine follicular dehiscence, 1st day of pregnancy and to confirm conception in mares. Mean GL was 332.4 +/- 12.1 days, and a normal interval of 297-358 days was established for this breed. GL records were grouped on the basis of foal sex (colts or fillies), mating month (between November and January; February and April; May and July), age of the mare (4 to 7 years; 8 to 12 years; 13 to 17 years), breeding year, stallion and parity (primiparous vs. multiparous). GLs were 12.9 days shorter in mares mated between May and July than those mated between November and January and 15.3 days in mares mated between February and April (p < 0.001). Mares aged between 8-12 years had 5.3 days shorter GLs than those aged between 13-17 years (p < 0.05). Pregnancy was significantly 5.7 days longer when the mare gave birth to colts than fillies (p < 0.05). GL was 14.5 days longer in primiparous than in multiparous mares ( p < 0.001). No statistical differences in GL were found between the studied years. This study shows the influence of certain stallion on GL.

  17. Dual influences of ecosystem size and disturbance on food chain length in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Peter A; McIntosh, Angus R; Jellyman, Phillip G

    2010-07-01

    The number of trophic transfers occurring between basal resources and top predators, food chain length (FCL), varies widely in the world's ecosystems for reasons that are poorly understood, particularly for stream ecosystems. Available evidence indicates that FCL is set by energetic constraints, environmental stochasticity, or ecosystem size effects, although no single explanation has yet accounted for FCL patterns in a broad sense. Further, whether environmental disturbance can influence FCL has been debated on both theoretical and empirical grounds for quite some time. Using data from sixteen South Island, New Zealand streams, we determined whether the so-called ecosystem size, disturbance, or resource availability hypotheses could account for FCL variation in high country fluvial environments. Stable isotope-based estimates of maximum trophic position ranged from 2.6 to 4.2 and averaged 3.5, a value on par with the global FCL average for streams. Model-selection results indicated that stream size and disturbance regime best explained across-site patterns in FCL, although resource availability was negatively correlated with our measure of disturbance; FCL approached its maximum in large, stable springs and was disturbed streams. Community data indicate that size influenced FCL, primarily through its influence on local fish species richness (i.e., via trophic level additions and/or insertions), whereas disturbance did so via an effect on the relative availability of intermediate predators (i.e., predatory invertebrates) as prey for fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate that disturbance can have an important food web-structuring role in stream ecosystems, and further imply that pluralistic explanations are needed to fully understand the range of structural variation observed for real food webs.

  18. TAILLE À 3 ANS DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LES RIVIÈRES DES PYRÉNÉES FRANÇAISES : RELATIONS AVEC LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES MÉSOLOGIQUES ET INFLUENCE DES AMÉNAGEMENTS HYDROÉLECTRIQUES. TOTAL LENGTH OF AGE-3 BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN FRENCH PYRENEAN STREAMS : RELATIONSHIPS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND INFLUENCE OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée sur 84 cours d'eau répartis sur l'ensemble de la chaîne des Pyrénées. Pour cela, des échantillons d'écailles ont été récoltés dans 215 sites situés à des altitudes comprises entre 185 et 2000 m, pour des largeurs variant de 1,2 à 60 m. La croissance des individus a été déterminée par scalimétrie. La longueur totale moyenne atteinte par les individus à l'âge de 3 ans a été retenue comme variable biologique. La taille moyenne à 3 ans des individus est fortement structurée par l'altitude, ce gradient altitudinal représentant en grande partie un gradient thermique. Elle est corrélée négativement avec l'altitude et la densité totale en truites communes et positivement avec la largeur du cours d'eau et la conductivité estivale. La nature du débit joue également un rôle important sur la croissance puisqu'à altitude et à température moyenne estivale équivalentes, la taille moyenne à 3 ans est significativement plus faible en site soumis à un débit réservé qu'en site à débit naturel. Selon la nature du débit, deux modèles prédictifs de la taille moyenne à 3 ans (T3 en fonction de l'altitude (ALT et de la largeur du cours d'eau (L ont été établis par régression multiple pas à pas : - sites à débit naturel : Log (T3 = 2.457 - 0.007 x sgrt ALT + 0.066 x Log (L 65.5 % (p The growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L. populations has been studied on 84 streams distributed over the whole range of the Pyrenees. Samples of scales were collected in 215 sites located at altitudes ranging between 185 and 2000 m, for width varying from 1,2 to 60 m. The growth of individuals was determined by scale reading. The mean total length of age-3 trout was selected as the biological variable. The mean total length of age-3 trout was strongly structured by altitude, this altitudinal gradient mainly representing a thermal gradient. It is

  19. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  20. Do the angle and length of the eustachian tube influence the development of chronic otitis media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Uğur, Mehmet Birol; Öz, Ibrahim Ilker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Bişkin, Sultan; Tutar, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    To compare the eustachian tube (ET) angle (ETa) and length (ETl) of ears with and without chronic otitis media (COM), and to determine the relationship between ET anatomy and the development of COM. A retrospective case-control study. The study group comprised 125 patients (age range, 8-79 years; 64 males and 61 females) with 124 normal ears and 126 diseased ears, including ears with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with central perforation, intratympanic tympanosclerosis (ITTS), cholesteatoma, and a tympanic membrane with retraction pockets (TMRP). ET angle and length were measured using computed tomography employing the multiplanar reconstruction technique. The ETa was significantly more horizontal in diseased versus normal ears of all study groups (P = .030), and there was no group difference in ETl (P = .160). ETl was shorter in CSOM versus ITTS ears and normal ears (P = .007 and P = .003, respectively) and in cholesteatoma versus TMRP ears (P = .014). In the unilateral COM group, there were no significant differences in the ETa or ETl of diseased versus contralateral normal ears (P = .155 and P = .710, respectively). The ETa was significantly more horizontal in childhood-onset diseased versus normal ears (P = .027), and there was no group difference in ETl (P = .732). The ETa (P = .002) and ETl (P < .001) were significantly greater in males than females. A more horizontal ETa and shorter ETl could be contributory (though not significantly) etiological factors in the development of COM. 3b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Relationship Between the Relative Age Effect and Lengths of Professional Careers in Male Japanese Baseball Players: a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.

  2. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  3. The Aged Microenvironment Influences Prostate Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLoS Biol 2008, 6:e301 31. Jeyapalan JC, Ferreira M...Sedivy JM, Herbig U: Accumulation of senescent cells in mitotic tissue of aging primates. Mech Ageing Dev 2007, 128:36-44 32. Jeyapalan JC, Sedivy JM

  4. Longitudinal changes of telomere length and epigenetic age related to traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marco P; van Mierlo, Hans C; Rutten, Bart P F; Radstake, Timothy R D J; De Witte, Lot; Geuze, Elbert; Horvath, Steve; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Broen, Jasper C A; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between traumatic stress and telomere length suggesting that traumatic stress has an impact on ageing at the cellular level. A newly derived tool provides an additional means to investigate cellular ageing by estimating epigenetic age based on DNA methylation profiles. We therefore hypothesise that in a longitudinal study of traumatic stress both indicators of cellular ageing will show increased ageing. We expect that particularly in individuals that developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases in these ageing parameters would stand out. From an existing longitudinal cohort study, ninety-six male soldiers were selected based on trauma exposure and the presence of symptoms of PTSD. All military personnel were deployed in a combat zone in Afghanistan and assessed before and 6 months after deployment. The Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD was used to measure the presence of PTSD symptoms, while exposure to combat trauma during deployment was measured with a 19-item deployment experiences checklist. These groups did not differ for age, gender, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, military rank, length, weight, or medication use. In DNA from whole blood telomere length was measured and DNA methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina 450K DNA methylation arrays. Epigenetic ageing was estimated using the DNAm age estimator procedure. The association of trauma with telomere length was in the expected direction but not significant (B=-10.2, p=0.52). However, contrary to our expectations, development of PTSD symptoms was associated with the reverse process, telomere lengthening (B=1.91, p=0.018). In concordance, trauma significantly accelerated epigenetic ageing (B=1.97, p=0.032) and similar to the findings in telomeres, development of PTSD symptoms was inversely associated with epigenetic ageing (B=-0.10, p=0.044). Blood cell count, medication and premorbid early life trauma exposure did not

  5. Polyol Synthesis of Silver Nanowires by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Mechanistic Aspects Influencing its Length and Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Waynie Mark

    Various additives are employed in the polyol synthesis of silver nanowires (Ag NWs), which are typically halide salts such as NaCl. A variety of mechanistic roles have been suggested for these additives. My research showed that the early addition of NaCl in the polyol synthesis of Ag NWs from AgNO3 in ethylene glycol results in the rapid formation of AgCl nanocubes, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic Ag upon their surfaces. Ag NWs subsequently grow from these nucleation sites. The conclusions are supported by studies using ex-situ generated AgCl nanocubes. Additionally, the final mean silver nanowire diameter is found to be independent of the size of the heterogeneous nucleant, showing that the diameter is not significantly influenced by the nucleation event. Kinetics studies determine that nanowire diameter, length, and aspect ratio grow in parallel to one another and with the extent of the Ag+ reduction reaction, demonstrating that growth is reduction-rate limited. The results are interpreted to support nanowire growth by a surface-catalyzed reduction process occurring on all nanowire surfaces, and to exclude nanoparticle aggregation or Ostwald ripening as primary components of the growth mechanism.

  6. On the influence of the nozzle length on the arc properties in a cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L; Risso, M; Infante, D; Kelly, H

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study on the influence of the nozzle geometry on the physical properties of a cutting arc is reported. Ion current signals collected by an electrostatic probe sweeping across a 30 A oxygen cutting arc at 3.5 mm from the nozzle exit were registered for different nozzle lengths. The temperature and density radial profiles of the arc plasma were found in each case by an inversion procedure of these signals. A comparison between the obtained results shows that the shorter nozzle (R N = 0.50 mm, L N = 4.5 mm operated at 0.7 MPa and 35 Nl/min) produces a thinner and hotter arc than the larger nozzle (R N = 0.50 mm, L N = 9.0 mm operated at 1.1 MPa and 20 Nl/min). This behavior is attributed to the marked difference of gas flow rate due to the clogging effect. A smaller gas mass flow reduces the convective cooling at the arc border and decreases the power dissipation of the arc column, resulting in small axis temperatures.

  7. On the influence of the nozzle length on the arc properties in a cutting torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Risso, M; Infante, D [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Las Heras 644, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.a [Instituto de FIsica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    In this work, an experimental study on the influence of the nozzle geometry on the physical properties of a cutting arc is reported. Ion current signals collected by an electrostatic probe sweeping across a 30 A oxygen cutting arc at 3.5 mm from the nozzle exit were registered for different nozzle lengths. The temperature and density radial profiles of the arc plasma were found in each case by an inversion procedure of these signals. A comparison between the obtained results shows that the shorter nozzle (R{sub N} = 0.50 mm, L{sub N} = 4.5 mm operated at 0.7 MPa and 35 Nl/min) produces a thinner and hotter arc than the larger nozzle (R{sub N} = 0.50 mm, L{sub N} = 9.0 mm operated at 1.1 MPa and 20 Nl/min). This behavior is attributed to the marked difference of gas flow rate due to the clogging effect. A smaller gas mass flow reduces the convective cooling at the arc border and decreases the power dissipation of the arc column, resulting in small axis temperatures.

  8. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  9. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Hou

    2015-06-01

    Interpretation: Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker.

  10. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    infants. In the third trimester, the pregnant women completed questionnaires, and clinical examination included birthweight, head circumference, and infant length at age 14 days. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the newborn population had UC 25(OH)D ... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...

  11. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  12. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  14. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchelle, E.; Zahm, J.-M.; Bertrand, A.

    1979-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance was measured in 19 healthy non-smoking male subjects, aged between 21 and 69, by analysing the decrease in bronchial radioactivity of an aerosol of resin particles (mean diameter 7.4 +- 1.5 μm) labelled with sup(99m)Tc. The mucociliary clearance was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity eliminated after 1 h. The measurements were made on two occasions with an average time lapse of 5 weeks. The intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 15.6% and 41.5% respectively. The mucociliary clearance was significantly lower (P 54 years) than that observed (mean 34.1 +- s.d. 14.1%) in the younger subjects (21 to 37 years). A significant negative correlation (r=-0.472, P<0.05) was obtained between the ages of the healthy subjects and their mucociliary clearance. However, the fact that the results varied considerably within each age group suggests that factors other than age may have an effect on the mucociliary clearance. (author)

  15. Age Differences in Resistance to Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research describes the development of susceptibility to peer pressure in adolescence as following an inverted U-shaped curve, increasing during early adolescence, peaking around age 14, and declining thereafter. This pattern, however, is derived mainly from studies that specifically examined peer pressure to engage in antisocial behavior. In…

  16. Influence of repair length on residual stress in the repair weld of a clad plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenchun; Xu, X.P.; Gong, J.M.; Tu, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate is investigated. ► The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied. ► Large tensile residual stress is generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone. ► With the increase of repair length, transverse stress is decreased. ► Repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress. - Abstract: A 3-D sequential coupling finite element simulation is performed to investigate the temperature field and residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate. The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied, aiming to provide a reference for repairing the cracked clad plate. The results show that large tensile residual stresses are generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), and then decrease gradually away from the weld and HAZ. The residual stresses through thickness in the clad layer are relative uniform, while they are non-uniform in the base metal. A discontinuous stress distribution is generated across the interface between weld metal and base metal. The repair length has a great effect on transverse stress. With the increase of repair length, the transverse stress is decreased. When the repair length is increased to 14 cm, the peak of transverse stress has been decreased below yield strength, and the transverse stress in the weld and HAZ has also been greatly decreased. But the repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress.

  17. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Keller, B.P.; Ramshorst, B. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of pressure ulcers following cardiothoracic surgery increases the length of hospitalisation. BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that a pressure ulcer extends the length of hospital stay. The impact of

  18. Does working memory change with age? The interactions of concurrent articulation with the effects of word length and acoustic confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireta, Tamra J; Fine, Hope C; Vanwormer, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of acoustic confusion (phonological similarity), word length, and concurrent articulation (articulatory suppression) are cited as support for Working Memory's phonological loop component (e.g., Baddeley, 2000 , Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 7, 544). Research has focused on younger adults, with no studies examining whether concurrent articulation reduces the word length and acoustic confusion effects among older adults. In the current study, younger and older adults were given lists of similar and dissimilar letters (Experiment 1) or long and short words (Experiment 2) for immediate serial reconstruction of order. Items were presented visually or auditorily, with or without concurrent articulation. As expected, younger and older adults demonstrated effects of acoustic confusion, word length, and concurrent articulation. Further, concurrent articulation reduced the effects of acoustic confusion and word length equally for younger and older adults. This suggests that age-related differences occur in overall performance, but do not reflect an age-related deficiency in the functioning of the phonological loop component of working memory.

  19. Route complexity and simulated physical ageing negatively influence wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Emma; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cornelis; Mobach, Mark P.

    The aim of this age-simulation field experiment was to assess the influence of route complexity and physical ageing on wayfinding. Seventy-five people (aged 18-28) performed a total of 108 wayfinding tasks (i.e., 42 participants performed two wayfinding tasks and 33 performed one wayfinding task),

  20. Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of stress, age and work on the coping behaviour of breast-feeding mothers. A total of three hundred breast-feeding mothers with age ranged between 17-40 years, mean age 23.6 years and SD 11.2 were randomly selected from five different maternity clinics in Ekpoma metropolis and its ...

  1. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  2. The Influences of Overlap Length, Bond Line Thickness and Pretreatmant on the Mechanical Properties of Adhesives : Focussing on Bonding Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, J.; Kwakernaak, A.; Poulis, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences of overlap length, bond line thickness and pretreatment on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds. In order to determine the bond strength, lap shear tests were performed. The researched adhesives are a 2 component epoxy and MS polymer. The smallest overlap

  3. Influence of hydration and experimental length scale on themechanical response of human skin in vivo, using optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Brokken, D.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    Human skin is a complex tissue consisting of different layers. To gain better insight into the mechanical behaviour of different skin layers, the mechanical response was studied with experiments of various length scales. Also, the influence of (superficial) hydration on the mechanical response is

  4. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.

  6. The Aged Microenvironment Influences Prostate Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    23. Zhan M, Yamaza H, Sun Y, Sinclair J, Li H, Zou S: Temporal and spatial transcriptional profiles of aging in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Res...key to longevity? Med Hypotheses 53: 329- 332. 2. Risques RA, Lai LA, Brentnall TA, Li L, Feng Z, et al. (2008) Ulcerative colitis is a disease of...neoplasia. Adv Cancer Res 72: 141-196. 5. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100: 57-70. 6. Patil CK, Mian IS, Campisi J

  7. Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length, Hematological Parameters and Anemia - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Buchmann, Nikolaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The length of the chromosome ends, telomeres, is widely accepted as a biomarker of aging. However, the dynamic of the relationship between telomere length and hematopoietic parameters in the normal aging process, which is of particular interest with respect to age-related anemia, is not well understood. We have analyzed the relationship between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and several hematological parameters in the older group of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) participants. This paper also compares rLTL between both BASE-II age groups (22-37 and 60-83 years). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of BASE-II participants and used to determine rLTL by a quantitative PCR protocol. Standard methods were used to determine blood parameters, and the WHO criteria were used to identify anemic participants. Telomere length data were available for 444 younger participants (28.4 ± 3.1 years old; 52% women) and 1,460 older participants (68.2 ± 3.7 years old; 49.4% women). rLTL was significantly shorter in BASE-II participants of the older group (p = 3.7 × 10-12) and in women (p = 4.2 × 10-31). rLTL of older men exhibited a statistically significant, positive partial correlation with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; p = 0.012) and MCH concentration (p = 0.002). While these correlations were only observed in men, the rLTL of older women was negatively correlated with the number of thrombocytes (p = 0.015) in the same type of analysis. Among all older participants, 6% met the criteria to be categorized as 'anemic'; however, there was no association between anemia and rLTL. In the present study, we have detected isolated correlations between rLTL and hematological parameters; however, in all cases, rLTL explained only a small part of the variation of the analyzed parameters. In disagreement with some other studies showing similar data, we interpret the association between rLTL and some of the hematological parameters studied here to be

  8. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  9. Influence of gap length on the field increase factor β of an electrode projection (whisker)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    β, the increase of the macroscopic electric field at the tip of a projection, varies with the gap length. The sign and magnitude of this variation depends upon how the gap length is defined. If gap length is defined as x, the distance from the projection tip to the opposing electrode, then β is a strong function of x and may be approximated by β(x) = β/sub infinity/x/(x+h) [h = projection height] in the region where x/h>10/β/sub infinity/. If gap length is defined as d, the interelectrode distance ignoring the projection, then β is a weak function of d and may be set equal to β/sub infinity/ in the region d/h>2

  10. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  11. The influence of lead length on the fractures associated with leading corners and sidings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, PA

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available leading and lagging panels was found generally to extend further into the lagging panel with increasing lead length. Curves fitted to the data seem to be asymptotic to a limiting fracture extent of about 15 to 20 m. More information is needed on the siding...

  12. Factors that influence femoral neck length. Analysis of 1543 patients with advanced osteoarthritis of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Wybren; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is little known about the relationship between patient characteristic and the variance in geometrical properties of the femoral neck. The length of the femoral neck is relevant when considering a femoral neck preserving hip replacement. Based on surgical experience we

  13. Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments: Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haloua, Max H.; Sierevelt, Inger; Theuvenet, Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the buckling force of Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments is influenced by changes in temperature, humidity, and aging. Methods: We tested 16 Semmes-Weinstein monofflaments from North Coast Medical, varying in age from new to 12 years old. From each kit, we used the

  14. Age Differences in Children's Strategies for Influencing Parents' Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Ann; And Others

    The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…

  15. Social Relationships and Salivary Telomere Length Among Middle-Aged and Older African American and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D; Lloyd, Donald A; Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-05-09

    A common mechanism underlying premature morbidity may be accelerated biological aging as reflected by salivary telomere length (STL). This study examined the extent to which social relationships, both positive and negative, can be protective or confer risk relative to biological aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Study and multiple regression were used to examine cross-sectional associations between STL, self-reported social support, and negative interaction (e.g., conflict, criticism) with family in a nationally representative sample of African American and non-Hispanic White middle-aged and older adults (N = 4,080). Social support from family was associated with shorter STL. Negative interaction with family had no main effect on STL but interactions characterized by high social support and more frequent negative interactions were associated with longer STL. Negative interaction with family was negatively associated with STL for African Americans and Whites but the magnitude of the effect was greater for African Americans. Study findings highlight the role of social relationships in physiological deterioration among middle-aged and older adults and identify a potential mechanism whereby race is linked to accelerated biological aging. Findings highlight the importance of considering positive and negative aspects of social relationships to understand the consequences of social connections for cellular aging in diverse populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Weight, Length, and Body Mass Index Growth of Children Under 2 Years of Age With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gabriela Serrano; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; de Barros, Suely Prietto; Arena, Eliane Petean; de Souza, Luiz

    2016-05-01

    To study the growth of length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and body mass index (BMI) of children with cleft lip and palate receiving a normal diet; to establish specific growth curves for children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CLP/ICP) who had not undergone palatoplasty and for children with isolated cleft lip (ICL); and to assess if CLP/ICP growth differed from ICL growth and if CLP/ICP and ICL growth differed from growth for typical children. Prospective and cross-sectional study. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Weight and length of 381 children with cleft lip and palate and who were younger than 2 years were recorded and used to calculate W/A, L/A, and BMI growth curves. The 2006 World Health Organization growth charts were used as a reference for typical children. All children received a normal diet for age. Children with CLP/ICP had median W/A and BMI growth curves below growth curves for typical children but showed spontaneous recovery starting at approximately 5 months of age, even with nonoperated cleft palate. Children with ICL had growth similar to that of typical children. Children with CLP/ICP, who initially had W/A and BMI values less than those of the ICL group, had W/A and BMI equal to or higher than the ICL group after 9 months of age. Children with CLP/ICP had impaired W/A and BMI growth with spontaneous recovery starting early in childhood. This study established specific W/A, BMI, and L/A growth curves for children with cleft lip and palate.

  17. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  18. Chronological Age as Factor Influencing the Dental Implant Osseointegration in the Jaw Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Papež

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate osseointegration of dental implant in the jaw bone in the young and elderly population and comparing the results to assess indicators and risk factors as age for the success or failure of dental implants. A retrospective study of 107 implants (Impladent, LASAK, Czech Republic was prepared. The patients at implants surgery were divided in three groups. The patients were followed-up for a 7-year period. We evaluated osseointegration from long term point of view as a change of marginal bone levels close to dental implant. Marginal bone levels were recorded and analysed with regard to different patient- and implant-related factors. An influence of chronological age on change of marginal bone levels during 6-year retrospective study vas evaluated. The study examined 47 patient charts and 107 implants from the Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Motol. We proved that young healthy patients with long bridges or Branemarks have the same progression of marginal bone levels changes. The chronological age hasn’t therefore direct influence on the osseointegration from long term point of view. But we found that the length of dental suprastrucure-prosthetic construction negatively influences marginal bone changes, though these results weren’t statistically significant. More extensive dental implant suprastrucure undergoes smaller osseointegration. On the other hand the length of dental suprastrucure (prosthetic construction negatively influences dental osseointegration in both groups of patient.

  19. Productivity, Disturbance and Ecosystem Size Have No Influence on Food Chain Length in Seasonally Connected Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Pettit, Neil E.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M.; Douglas, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of produ...

  20. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T.; Granatstein, V.L.; Destler, W.W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the .resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 em - 3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5 X 1011 ...

  1. Plasma influence on the dispersion properties of finite-length, corrugated waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkvarunets, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Weaver, J.; Carmel, Y.; Rodgers, J.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Granatstein, V. L.; Destler, W. W.; Ogura, K.; Minami, K.

    1996-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the electromagnetic properties of transverse magnetic modes in a corrugated-wall cavity filled with a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The shifts of the resonant frequencies of a finite-length, corrugated cavity were measured as a function of the background plasma density and the dispersion diagram was reconstructed up to a peak plasma density of 1012 cm-3. Good agreement with a calculated dispersion diagram is obtained for plasma densities below 5×1011 cm-3.

  2. Offspring telomere length in the long lived Alpine swift is negatively related to the age of their biological father and foster mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Bize, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of studies is showing that offspring telomere length (TL) can be influenced by the age of their parents. Such a relationship might be explained by variation in TL at conception (gamete effect) and/or by alteration of early growth conditions in species providing parental care. In a long-lived bird with bi-parental care, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), we exchanged an uneven number of 2 to 4-day-old nestlings between pairs as part of a brood size manipulation. Nestling TL was measured at 50 days after hatching, which allowed investigation of the influence of the age of both their biological and foster parents on offspring TL, after controlling for the manipulation. Nestling TL was negatively related to the age of their biological father and foster mother. Nestling TL did not differ between enlarged and reduced broods. These findings suggest that offspring from older males were fertilized by gametes with shorter telomeres, presumably due to a greater cell division history or a longer accumulation of damage, and that older females may have provided poorer parental care to their offspring. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.

  4. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfe, Danielle M; Jardine, Timothy D; Pettit, Neil E; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations), disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation) and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  5. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  6. The Associations of Lens Power With Age and Axial Length in Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Zhang, Bo; Hong, Yuan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between lens power and age as well as the relationship between lens power and axial length (AL) in Chinese children and adolescents. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included AL, cycloplegic refraction, and Pentacam measurements. The crystalline lens power was calculated using Bennett's formula and then compared among the children of different age groups, refractive statuses, and AL categories. The association of lens power and AL was analyzed using multiple regression. A total of 1992 children and adolescents aged 6- to 18-years old were included. The difference in lens power was greater before 10-years old, followed by a relatively smaller difference in children aged 10 to 14 years and the difference in lens power came to a near plateau in adolescents after 14-years old. The negative association between lens power and AL was found to be more evident in nonmyopes than in myopes irrespective of age (younger than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.499, myopes: β = -0.872; older than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.288, myopes: β = -0.390, all P power in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years exhibited three stages. The association between lens power and AL differed between the nonmyopes and myopes. These findings suggested that less reduction in lens power might be associated with both growing age and increasing AL in myopes.

  7. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader’s life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1 lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2 distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3 the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  8. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Swenarton, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader's life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles ) have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1) lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2) distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3) the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  9. The influence of the excitation pulse length on ultrafast magnetization dynamics in nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fognini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced demagnetization of a ferromagnet is caused by the temperature of the electron gas as well as the lattice temperature. For long excitation pulses, the two reservoirs are in thermal equilibrium. In contrast to a picosecond laser pulse, a femtosecond pulse causes a non-equilibrium between the electron gas and the lattice. By pump pulse length dependent optical measurements, we find that the magnetodynamics in Ni caused by a picosecond laser pulse can be reconstructed from the response to a femtosecond pulse. The mechanism responsible for demagnetization on the picosecond time scale is therefore contained in the femtosecond demagnetization experiment.

  10. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  11. Bilingualism and age are continuous variables that influence executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2018-05-01

    We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged. Second, after controlling for baseline, the Flanker effect was not influenced by bilingualism or age. These results support the notion that bilingualism is one way of enhancing some aspects of executive function - specifically those related to the Stroop task - across the adult life span. In sum, different levels of bilingualism, and different ages, result in varying degrees of executive function as measured by the Stroop task.

  12. Variants in TERT influencing telomere length are associated with paranoid schizophrenia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuquan; Ye, Ning; Hu, Huiling; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders, with a high heritability of up to 80%. Several studies have reported telomere dysfunction in schizophrenia, and common variants in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. TERT is a key component of the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length by addition of telomere repeats to telomere ends, and has repeatedly shown association with mean lymphocyte telomere length (LTL). Thus, we hypothesized that TERT may be a novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Using a Taqman protocol, we genotyped eight tag SNPs from the TERT locus in 1,072 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 1,284 control subjects from a Chinese Han population. We also measured mean LTL in 98 cases and 109 controls using a quantitative PCR-based technique. Chi-square tests showed that two SNPs, rs2075786 (P = 0.0009, OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.65-0.90) and rs4975605 (P = 0.0026, OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.60-0.90), were associated with a protective effect, while rs10069690 was associated with risk of paranoid schizophrenia (P = 0.0044, OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42). Additionally, the rs2736118-rs2075786 haplotype showed significant association with paranoid schizophrenia (P = 0.0013). Moreover, mean LTL correlated with rs2075786 genotypes was significantly shorter in the patient group than the control group. The present results suggest that the TERT gene may be a novel candidate involved in the development of paranoid schizophrenia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Contributing Factors to Injury’s Length of Stay in Hospital Among Productive Age Workers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is one of the factors that contribute to health problems and disabilities. In Indonesia, the data oninjury and its impact are still limited and only focus on formal workers. Methods: This research aimed to describe thecharacteristics of injury by occupation and to identify factors contributed to severity (length of stay in hospital amongproductive age workers in Indonesia, using the data of National Health Research (Riskesdas in 2013. Results: We analyzed30.455 data using complex samples at 95% confi dence level. People worked as farmer, fi sherman, labor, entrepreneur,and others had more injuries in 12 months than employee (p = 0.0001. Non traffi c accident as cause of injury was alsohigher in those group of occupations than employee (p = 0.0001. The contributing factors of length of stay in hospital werethe injury with concussion (OR 23.1; 95% CI 9.2–58.1 p = 0.0001, fractures (OR 6.3; 95%CI 4.6–8.6 p = 0.0001, eyeinjury (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.2–7.3 p = 0.0001, followed by road traffi c accident (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9 p = 0.0001, andinjury occurred in the business/industry/construction/farm area (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.4 p = 0.006. Conclusion: Factorsthat contributed to the length of stay in hospital of the injury were the type of injury, cause of injury, and the area of injury.Recommendation: Efforts to overcome the injury need to be improved, especially for traffi c accidents and injury in thebusiness/industry/construction/farm area.

  14. Sports and Exercise at Different Ages and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Later Life--Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saßenroth, Denise; Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Kroh, Martin; Norman, Kristina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and sports have repeatedly been reported to be associated with telomere length. We studied the association of different types of sports across different stages of life on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in advanced age.815 participants (397 men) from the Berlin Aging Study II aged over 61 years were included in the analysis. rLTL was measured by real time PCR and physical activity was determined retrospectively by questionnaire, assessing type and duration of sports in the past as well as currently. Five separate multiple linear regression models adjusted for various control variables were performed. 67.3% of participants exercised currently, whereas 19.4% performed sports only between the age of 20 and 30. rLTL was higher in subjects who stated to exercise currently (N = 456), and in subjects who engaged in endurance (N = 138) or intensive activity sports (N = 32). Current physical activity was positively associated with rLTL in the risk factor adjusted regression model (β = 0.26, p sports for a minimum of 10 years preceding the assessment had a significant effect on rLTL (β = 0.39, p = 0.011). The highest impact was seen for intensive activity sports (β = 0.79, p sports at all (β = -0.16, p = 0.21). Physical activity is clearly associated with longer rLTL. The effect is seen with longer periods of physical activity (at least 10 years), with intensive sports activities having the greatest impact on rLTL. Our data suggest that regular physical activity for at least 10 years is necessary to achieve a sustained effect on rLTL.

  15. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  16. Influence of the Particle Length of Carbon Nanotube for Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement of Nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Seek; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nam Jin

    2013-01-01

    The results of this experiment were that the CHF of the two nanofluids increased along with the volumetric fraction until 0.001 vol%, and the two types of nanofluids are the highest CHF at 0.001 vol%. Also, the results show clearly that the rate of CHF increase of the CM-100 MWCNT nanofluid with longer-length nanoparticles is higher than that of the CM-95 MWNCT nanofluid. These results indicate that the length of carbon nanotube influences the pool boiling CHF of carbon nanotube nanofluid and that long-length MWCNT, as above-noted, offers a superior effect in this regard. Boiling heat transfer is used in a variety of industrial processes and applications, such as refrigeration, power generation, heat exchangers, cooling of high-power electronics components and cooling of nuclear reactors. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon is the thermal limit during a boiling heat transfer phase change; at the CHF point the heat transfer is maximised, followed by a drastic degradation after the CHF point. The consequence is a substantial increase in wall temperature which may result in physical failure phenomenon of heat transfer systems. Therefore, the CHF is important being considered in the cooling device design, such as nuclear reactor and nuclear fuels, steam generators, high-density electronic component, etc. And, CHF enhancement is essential for safety of heat transfer system. Recently, CHF reported increased when applied to the nanofluids, with its high (higher-than-base-fluid) thermal characteristic in the nuclear power plant system. Therefore, in this study, carried out the pool boiling CHF experiments by the particle length using carbon nanotube nanofluids, and the results are compared and analyzed for the CHF enhancement. The pool boiling CHF of experiments of carbon nanotube nanofluids carried out by the length of particles and the various concentrations

  17. Distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in an aged population in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Weirong

    2016-05-01

    Ocular biometry is important for preoperative assessment in cataract and anterior segment surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate normative ocular biometric parameters and their associations in an older Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional observational study. From 2013 to 2014, we recruited inhabitants aged 50 years or older in Guangzhou, China. Among 1,117 participants in the study, data from 1,015 phakic right eyes were used for analyses. Ocular parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (K) were measured using an IOL Master. The mean AL, ACD, and K were 23.48 mm [95 % confidence interval (CI), 23.40-23.55], 3.03 mm (CI, 3.01-3.05), and 44.20 mm (CI, 44.11-44.29), respectively. A mean reduction in ACD with age was observed (P = 0.002) in male subjects but not in female subjects (P = 0.558). Male subjects had significantly longer ALs (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P population in South China. The AL in this Chinese cohort was greater than that observed in the Singaporean Chinese but smaller than that observed in Malaysia and for Caucasians. The Chinese have a shallower ACD than some other racial groups. Age and sex were the most consistent predictors of ocular biometry in the older population from South China.

  18. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...

  19. Multivalent cyclic RGD ligands: influence of linker lengths on receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubas, Holger; Schaefer, Martin; Bauder-Wuest, Ulrike; Eder, Matthias; Oltmanns, Doerte [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, Michael, E-mail: m.eisenhut@dkfz.d [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Peptides involving the RGD motive (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) recognize members of the integrin receptor family. Since the receptors are located mainly on the surface of endothelial cells, structural modifications including multimers of c(RGDfE) were recently found to improve the binding avidity for {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin significantly. The multivalent RGD peptides exhibited rather loose linkages partly including oligo(ethylene glycol) spacers (EG{sub n}) with different chain lengths. Therefore, the dependence of multivalent RGD systems with and without EG{sub n} linkers were investigated on their binding properties to cultured {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin-expressing U87MG cells. Methods: We synthesized a series of di-, tri- and tetravalent rigid scaffolds (terephthalic acid, trimesic acid and adamantane-1,3,5,7-tetracarboxylic acid) conjugated to c(RGDyK) ligands, which were linked contiguously or separated by the oligo(ethylene glycol) spacers. The inhibition constants of these c(RGDyK) derivatives were determined by competition assays with {sup 125}I-labeled echistatin. Results: While c(RGDyK) function is a relative weak competitor against [{sup 125}I]echistatin (K{sub i}, 329{+-}18 nM) for {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin-expressing U87MG cells, RGD dimers improved the competition potency considerably (K{sub i}, 64{+-}23 nM). This effect was even more pronounced with the RGD trimers (K{sub i}, 40{+-}7 nM) and tetramers (K{sub i}, 26{+-}9 nM). The introduction of EG{sub n} spacers and the increase of linker lengths proved to be detrimental since more competitors were needed to compete with [{sup 125}I]echistatin. The EG{sub 6} group, for example, reduced the inhibition constants by 29% (dimer), 57% (trimer) and 97% (tetramer). Conclusion: The binding experiments performed with the three forms of multivalent RGD ligands indicate the weakening of competitive potency against [{sup 125}I]echistatin with the introduction of EG{sub n} spacers. This effect

  20. Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and service provision for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania. ... However there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in marital status, education levels, use of English language, number of dependants, and income from ...

  1. The influence of age on the exploitation period in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These investigations were intended to identify the influence of parental flock age at heavy hybrid Ross 308 (usage period) on more important reproductive capabilities (carrying eggs intensity of brood eggs, egg mass, one day old chick mass, relative chick mass share in complete egg mass) and consumption of food per ...

  2. Influence of age on reproductive performance of the Improved Boer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of age on reproductive performance of the Improved Boer goat doe. JA Erasmus, AJ Fourie, JJ Venter. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  3. Influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Fisher, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    The location of crack closure with respect to crack wake and specimen thickness under different loading conditions was determined. The rate of increase of K sub CL in the crack wake was found to be significantly higher for plasticity induced closure in comparison to roughness induced closure. Roughness induced closure was uniform throughout the thickness of the specimen while plasticity induced closure levels were 50 percent higher in the near surface region than in the midthickness. The influence of state of stress on low-high load interaction effects was also examined. Load interaction effects differed depending upon the state of stress and were explained in terms of delta K sub eff.

  4. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  5. Polycation-sodium lauryl ether sulfate-type surfactant complexes: influence of ethylene oxide length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Leo F W; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-05-21

    Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES with only one or two ethylene oxide (EO) groups are used for this application. We have studied the influence of the size of the EO block (ranging from 0 to 30 EO groups) on complexation with two model polycations: linear polyDADMAC and branched PEI. PESC size and electrostatic properties were determined during stepwise titration of buffered polycation solutions. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of PESC was determined by surface tension measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. For polyDADMAC, there is no influence of the size of the EO block on the complexation behavior; the stiff polycation governs the structure formation. For PEI, it was seen that the EO block size does affect the structure of the complexes. The CAC value of the investigated complexes turns out to be rather independent of the EO block size; however, the CMC/CAC ratio decreases with increasing size of the EO block. This latter observation explains why the Lochhead-Goddard effect is most effective for small EO blocks.

  6. The influence of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, J; Jung, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing can be a positive experience if there is good adaptation to ageing processes. Positive ageing needs to be a basis of nursing care, health promotion and education within community settings. Data were collected in March and April of 2014 from 262 older adults living in Seoul and Jeju, South Korea. We used a four-part survey consisting of demographic data, daily stress, resilience and successful ageing scales, in total 91 items. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to identify the influence of variables on successful ageing. Successful ageing had a significant negative correlation with daily stress and a positive correlation with resilience. Daily stress had a negative correlation with resilience. Findings of hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that resilience and subjective economic status had an effect on successful ageing. Furthermore, these variables accounted for 41.6% of the variance in successful ageing. Data were collected in only two cities of Korea based on convenience sampling. The findings of the study suggest that daily stress and resilience have a statistically significant relationship with successful ageing. Furthermore, resilience is an important influential factor and a much-needed personal characteristic for one's successful ageing. Nurses can advocate joining with health and social policy makers to implement policies on healthy ageing, including evaluation of stress, education programmes and implementation of self-help groups to enhance resilience in older people. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Influence of HPPMS pulse length and inert gas mixture on the properties of (Cr,Al)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagcivan, N.; Bobzin, K. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Grundmeier, G.; Wiesing, M.; Ozcan, O.; Kunze, C. [University of Paderborn, Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Brugnara, R.H., E-mail: brugnara@iot.rwth-aachen.de [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-31

    During the production of plastic products by injection molding processes adhesion and abrasion wear as well as corrosion take place in the molding tools. Concerning this, (Cr,Al)N coatings deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) have a good potential to be used as protective coatings on injection tools. For an effective protection of coated tools a uniform layer of coating material is also required. In this regard, the HPPMS (high power pulse magnetron sputtering) technology offers possibilities to improve coating thickness uniformity as well as to adapt the chemical and mechanical properties. The present work deals with the investigation of influence of HPPMS pulse length and the argon/krypton ratio in the deposition process on (Cr,Al)N coating properties. For this reason, (Cr,Al)N coatings were deposited with HPPMS pulse length of 40, 80 and 200 μs at constant Ar/Kr ratio (120/80 sccm). The results were compared with a coating deposited with DC Magnetron Sputtering (DC-MS) with the same Ar/Kr ratio. Afterwards, a (Cr,Al)N coating was deposited with constant pulse length (200 μs) without Kr. The chemical composition, morphology and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by means of EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), respectively. The composition of the surface near region in the samples was investigated by means of XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Mechanical properties were measured by means of nanoindentation. Decreasing of pulse length at constant mean power leads to a considerable increase of cathode current. It could be observed that the deposition rate of the HPPMS process reduces with decreasing pulse length. Nevertheless, short HPPMS pulse lengths and high peak currents lead to an increase of hardness from 25 GPa to 32 GPa while the DC-MS coating displays a hardness of 18 GPa. The use of krypton within the sputter process leads to a marginal increase of the deposition

  8. Influence of circumferential flaw length on internal burst pressure of a wall-thinned pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masataka, E-mail: tsuji-m@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Meshii, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} was examined by experimental analysis and FEA. ► Here θ is the circumferential angle of a flaw, p{sub f} is the internal burst pressure. ► p{sub f} decreased as θ increased in some cases. ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} should be taken into consideration in evaluating p{sub f}. -- Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the circumferential angle of a flaw θ on the internal burst pressure p{sub f} of pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws. The effect of θ has conventionally been regarded as unimportant in the evaluation of the p{sub f} of wall-thinned straight pipes. Therefore, a burst pressure equation for an axial crack inside a cylinder (Fig. 1, left), such as Kiefner's equation (Kiefner et al., 1973), has been widely applied (ANSI/ASME B31.G., 1991; Hasegawa et al., 2011). However, the following implicit assumptions notably exist when applying the equation to planar flaws in situations with non-planar flaws. 1)The fracture mode of the non-planar flaw under consideration is identical to that of the crack. 2)The effect of θ on p{sub f}, which is not considered for an axial crack, is small or negligible. However, the experimental results from the systematic burst tests for carbon steel pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws examined in this paper showed that these implicit assumptions may be incorrect. In this paper the experimental results are evaluated in further detail. The purpose of the evaluation was to clarify the effect of θ on p{sub f}. Specifically, the significance of the flaw configuration (axial length δ{sub z} and wall-thinning ratio t{sub 1}/t) was studied for its effects on θ and p{sub f}. In addition, a simulation of this effect was conducted using a large strain elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. As observed from the experimental results, θ tended to affect p{sub f} in cases with large δ{sub z}, and t{sub 1}/t was also correlated with a decrease in p{sub f

  9. Influence of spacer length on heparin coupling efficiency and fibrinogen adsorption of modified titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbureck Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical bonding of the drug onto surfaces by means of spacer molecules is accompanied with a reduction of the biological activity of the drug due to a constricted mobility since normally only short spacer molecule like aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APMS are used for drug coupling. This work aimed to study covalent attachment of heparin to titanium(oxide surfaces by varying the length of the silane coupling agent, which should affect the biological potency of the drug due to a higher mobility with longer spacer chains. Methods Covalent attachment of heparin to titanium metal and TiO2 powder was carried out using the coupling agents 3-(Trimethoxysilyl-propylamine (APMS, N- [3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine (Diamino-APMS and N1- [3-(Trimethoxy-silyl-propyl]diethylenetriamine (Triamino-APMS. The amount of bound coupling agent and heparin was quantified photometrically by the ninhydrin reaction and the tolidine-blue test. The biological potency of heparin was determined photometrically by the chromogenic substrate Chromozym TH and fibrinogen adsorption to the modified surfaces was researched using the QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring technique. Results Zeta-potential measurements confirmed the successful coupling reaction; the potential of the unmodified anatase surface (approx. -26 mV shifted into the positive range (> + 40 mV after silanisation. Binding of heparin results in a strongly negatively charged surface with zeta-potentials of approx. -39 mV. The retaining biological activity of heparin was highest for the spacer molecule Triamino-APMS. QCM-D measurements showed a lower viscosity for adsorbed fibrinogen films on heparinised surfaces by means of Triamino-APMS. Conclusion The remaining activity of heparin was found to be highest for the covalent attachment with Triamino-APMS as coupling agent due to the long chain of this spacer molecule and therefore the highest mobility of the drug

  10. Influence of aging on culinary and chemical properties of basmati 385 rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Ali, A.; Karim, M.A.; Ali, S.S.; Hassan, G.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of aging of milled rice on physico-chemical characteristics was studied during 1989-90 and 1990-91. Rice from freshly harvested paddy was stored in a cloth bag at room temperature. Analysis of rice was done for 24-months, starting from zero at a uniform interval of one month. However the effect of aging on cooking time was not significant. Water absorption and volume expansion increased throughout the aging period. Similarly, cooked grain length was minimum (13.9 mm) in freshly milled rice, it increased gradually with the storage period and obtained a maximum value (15.5 mm) after 2-year storage. Bursting of grains during cooking decreased from 11.5% to 2.0% on storage. Loss of total solids in washing water and gruel was the highest (14.9%) at the beginning of the experiment which decreased significantly and reached the lowest value (3.2%) at the completion of the studies. The effect of aging on protein content, alkali spreading value and gel length was, however, non-significant. Amylose content decreased slightly during aging but remained in the intermediate amylose group. (author)

  11. The influence of age on lung epithelial permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Minfu; Wang Daoyu; Liu Xiujie; He Zuoxiang; Wang Yuetao; Wang Shiwen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized 99 Tc m -DTPA is a sensitive index for measurement of lung epithelial permeability (LEP). It is well established that LEP increases in some pathological conditions. However, little is known about the influence of age on LEP. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between age and LEP in healthy nonsmokers. Methods: Seventy-nine healthy nonsmokers underwent 99 Tc m -DTPA inhalation imaging and pulmonary clearance index (k) was calculated. The following analyses were done: (1) To compare the difference of k values between aged (≥ 65 years) and non-aged ( 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x 2 + b 3 x 3 , y symbolized k values and x symbolized age). Conclusions: The data of LEP at different age groups showed negative correlation of LEP and age in non-smokers. This data might play an age-related reference data in investigating senescence and lung disease in non-smokers. (authors)

  12. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Free-living gait characteristics in ageing and Parkinson's disease: impact of environment and ambulatory bout length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Din, Silvia; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-05-12

    Gait is emerging as a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool, and as a surrogate marker of disease progression for Parkinson's disease (PD). Accelerometer-based body worn monitors (BWMs) facilitate the measurement of gait in clinical environments. Moreover they have the potential to provide a more accurate reflection of gait in the home during habitual behaviours. Emerging research suggests that measurement of gait using BWMs is feasible but this has not been investigated in depth. The aims of this study were to explore (i) the impact of environment and (ii) ambulatory bout (AB) length on gait characteristics for discriminating between people with PD and age-matched controls. Fourteen clinically relevant gait characteristics organised in five domains (pace, variability, rhythm, asymmetry, postural control) were quantified using laboratory based and free-living data collected over 7 days using a BWM placed on the lower back in 47 PD participants and 50 controls. Free-living data showed that both groups walked with decreased pace and increased variability, rhythm and asymmetry compared to walking in the laboratory setting. Four of the 14 gait characteristics measured in free-living conditions were significantly different between controls and people with PD compared to two measured in the laboratory. Between group differences depended on bout length and were more apparent during longer ABs. ABs ≤ 10s did not discriminate between groups. Medium to long ABs highlighted between-group significant differences for pace, rhythm and asymmetry. Longer ABs should therefore be taken into account when evaluating gait characteristics in free-living conditions. This study provides encouraging results to support the use of a single BWM for free-living gait evaluation in people with PD with potential for research and clinical application.

  15. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.

  16. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  17. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  19. Keeping you at arm's length: modifying peripersonal space influences interpersonal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesque, F; Ruggiero, G; Mouta, S; Santos, J; Iachini, T; Coello, Y

    2017-07-01

    Peripersonal space represents the area around the body where objects are coded in motor terms for the purpose of voluntary goal-directed actions. Previous studies have suggested that peripersonal space is also a safe space linked with our private area, influencing interpersonal space in social contexts. However, whether these two spaces rely on similar embodied processes remains an open issue. In the present study, participants observed a point-light walker (PLW) approaching them from different directions and passing near them at different distances from their right or left shoulder. While approaching, the PLW disappeared at a distance of 2 m and the task for the participants was to estimate if the interpersonal distance, at the time the PLW would have reached their level, was comfortable or not. Between two sessions of comfort judgments, the participants manipulated a 70 cm tool entailing an extension of peripersonal space, or a 10 cm tool entailing no extension of peripersonal space. The results revealed that the comfortable interpersonal distance was larger when the PLW crossed the mid-sagittal plane of the participants than when it approached them laterally, with a concomitant increase of response time. After participants manipulated the long tool, comfortable interpersonal distance increased, but predominantly when the PLW trajectory implied crossing the participants' mid-sagittal plane. This effect was not observed when participants manipulated the short tool. Two control tasks showed that using the long tool modified the reachability (control 1), but not the time to passage (control 2) estimates of PLW stimuli, suggesting that tool use extended peripersonal space without changing perceived visual distances. Overall, the data show that comfortable interpersonal distance is linked to the representation of peripersonal space. As a consequence, increasing peripersonal space through tool use has the immediate consequence that comfortable interpersonal distance

  20. Influence of age on adaptability of human mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Blanc, Olivier; Lund, James P; Woda, Alain

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of age on the ability of subjects to adapt mastication to changes in the hardness of foods. The study was carried out on 67 volunteers aged from 25 to 75 yr (29 males, 38 females) who had complete healthy dentitions. Surface electromyograms of the left and right masseter and temporalis muscles were recorded simultaneously with jaw movements using an electromagnetic transducer. Each volunteer was asked to chew and swallow four visco-elastic model foods of different hardness, each presented three times in random order. The number of masticatory cycles, their frequency, and the sum of all electromyographic (EMG) activity in all four muscles were calculated for each masticatory sequence. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the effects of hardness, age, and gender. Hardness was associated to an increase in the mean number of cycles and mean summed EMG activity per sequence. It also increased mean vertical amplitude. Mean vertical amplitude and mean summed EMG activity per sequence were higher in males. These adaptations were present at all ages. Age was associated with an increase of 0.3 cycles per sequence per year of life and with a progressive increase in mean summed EMG activity per sequence. Cycle and opening duration early in the sequence also fell with age. We concluded that although the number of cycles needed to chew a standard piece of food increases progressively with age, the capacity to adapt to changes in the hardness of food is maintained.

  1. Influence of the age upon the job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Riemer, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Presented bachelor thesis covers the topic of job satisfaction in the context of the age of worker. It is focused on theoretical base of job satisfaction, its character or influencing factors. It explores the job satisfaction-job behavior relations and basic methods of research in the field of job satisfaction. Attention is also paid to researches already performed and they are compared. The thesis also includes original empirical survey performed in the international bank company, which is f...

  2. Experimental research of influence of length of direct insert on safety of run of cars on adjacent switches laid according to the first scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Moyseyenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental research of influence of length of a direct insert between adjacent switches, laid according to the first scheme, on the traffic safety of cars (by criterion of the wheel stability against derailment.

  3. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  4. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  5. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Stello, Dennis; Mints, Alexey; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Maraston, Claudia; Serenelli, Aldo; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Basu, Sarbani; Bird, J. C.; Cohen, R. E.; Cunha, Katia; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael A.

    2017-01-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α ML,YREC ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  6. The Correlation between Mixing Length and Metallicity on the Giant Branch: Implications for Ages in the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayar, Jamie; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, OH 43210 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mints, Alexey [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Maraston, Claudia [ICG—University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Serenelli, Aldo [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC-IEEC), Carrer de Can Magrans, Barcelona, E-08193 (Spain); Bastien, Fabienne A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bird, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Circle, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cohen, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional-MCTI (Brazil); Elsworth, Yvonne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); García, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2017-05-01

    In the updated APOGEE- Kepler catalog, we have asteroseismic and spectroscopic data for over 3000 first ascent red giants. Given the size and accuracy of this sample, these data offer an unprecedented test of the accuracy of stellar models on the post-main-sequence. When we compare these data to theoretical predictions, we find a metallicity dependent temperature offset with a slope of around 100 K per dex in metallicity. We find that this effect is present in all model grids tested, and that theoretical uncertainties in the models, correlated spectroscopic errors, and shifts in the asteroseismic mass scale are insufficient to explain this effect. Stellar models can be brought into agreement with the data if a metallicity-dependent convective mixing length is used, with Δ α {sub ML,YREC} ∼ 0.2 per dex in metallicity, a trend inconsistent with the predictions of three-dimensional stellar convection simulations. If this effect is not taken into account, isochrone ages for red giants from the Gaia data will be off by as much as a factor of two even at modest deviations from solar metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.5).

  7. Aged care nurses' job control influence satisfaction and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Rodwell, John; Martin, Angela J

    2017-10-01

    Relationships exist between aged care nurses' perceptions of psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction and mental health, suggesting these characteristics may be important for the management of aged care services. An expanded demand-control-support model that included justice perceptions was examined to determine its impact on multiple types of psychological and organisational well-being outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression). Data were collected from a sample of 173 aged care nurses using a self-report survey and analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. A significant proportion (27-28%) of the variance in aged care nurses' satisfaction, depression and psychological distress was explained by the psychosocial factors included in the model. Job control had the most consistent impact with direct effects on job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Informational justice was associated with both psychological distress and depression. Targeting job control may provide the biggest response for nurse managers in aged care, as it is likely to influence nurses' job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Facility managers should implement organisational policies and procedures that promote higher levels of control over how nurses perform their work in order to improve nurse well-being in aged care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The influence of age perception on women consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Mumel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Demographic changes of inhabitants are a factor changing increasingly the situation in Europe and other developed parts of the world. People live longer and are more vital than in the past. The ageing of population affects many areas of everyday life. The number of older persons grows and their characteristics are essentially different than the characteristics of past generations. Those were the reasons for the authors’ interest in the perception of the psychological age of women older than 50. They also focused on the differences between a group of women who see themselves as younger than their actual age and a group of women who feel older. The third field of interest was how that influence on their behavior as a consumer. A total of 225 women were included in the research. To acquire the informations we use a questionnaire, which includes questions about the chronological age against the perceived age and questions about 23 values, 31 free time activities and 15 sports activities. Results show that more than a half of the women feel younger than they really are, 40% feel as old as they are and less than 5% feel older than their actual age. More than a half of the interviewed women think they look 10 years younger. Most of the women think that a person is old when he/she is over 70.

  9. Influence of animal age upon antioxidant-modified UV carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H S [Photobiology Laboratory, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Houston, TX (USA); McCann, V [Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine; Thornby, J I [Biostatistics Section, Research Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Houston, TX (USA)

    1982-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the effects of animal age on the anticarcinogenic properties of antioxidants. Female hairless mice, 2.5, 4.5 and 9.5 months of age, were subjected to daily irradiation from Westinghouse BZS-WLG lamps for 19 weeks. Experimental groups of animals were maintained on a commercial rodent meal supplemented with a 2% (w/w) antioxidant mixture. Control groups received only the meal. Tumour latency, expressed as median time to tumor development, was significantly greater for all age groups receiving antioxidants than for their similarly aged controls. However, the response to antioxidants appeared to decrease with age and the antioxidant effect was significantly less in the 9.5 month-old group than in the 2.5 month-old group. Likewise, the two youngest groups receiving antioxidants demonstrated a significantly fewer number of tumors per animal. It is concluded that animal age influences the degree of photoprotection provided by antioxidants. Whether this effect is related to dietary intake, and thus dependent upon resident antioxidant levels, is unknown. Nevertheless, dietary antioxidants provide significant protection in young animals against carcinogenesis induced by radiation of predominantly UVB wavelengths.

  10. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  11. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Pecho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB length and polarization resistance (Rpol. Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance. However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and Rpol. The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and Rpol. In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPBactive by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPBactive, effective ionic conductivity are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  12. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, Omar M; Mai, Andreas; Münch, Beat; Hocker, Thomas; Flatt, Robert J; Holzer, Lorenz

    2015-10-21

    3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB) length and polarization resistance ( R pol ). Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance . However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and R pol . The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and R pol . In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPB active by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPB active , effective ionic conductivity) are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  13. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  14. Benefits of napping in healthy adults: impact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Catherine E; Cote, Kimberly A

    2009-06-01

    Napping is a cross-cultural phenomenon which occurs across the lifespan. People vary widely in the frequency with which they nap as well as the improvements in alertness and well-being experienced. The systematic study of daytime napping is important to understand the benefits in alertness and performance that may be accrued from napping. This review paper investigates factors that affect the benefits of napping such as duration and temporal placement of the nap. In addition, the influence of subject characteristics such as age and experience with napping is examined. The focus of the review is on benefits for healthy individuals with regular sleep/wake schedules rather than for people with sleep or medical disorders. The goal of the review is to summarize the type of performance improvements that result from napping, critique the existing studies, and make recommendations for future research.

  15. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  16. Enhanced registered nurse care coordination with sensor technology: Impact on length of stay and cost in aging in place housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn; Lane, Kari; Phillips, Lorraine J; Despins, Laurel A; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Gregory L; Koopman, Richelle J; Hicks, Lanis; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    When planning the Aging in Place Initiative at TigerPlace, it was envisioned that advances in technology research had the potential to enable early intervention in health changes that could assist in proactive management of health for older adults and potentially reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to compare length of stay (LOS) of residents living with environmentally embedded sensor systems since the development and implementation of automated health alerts at TigerPlace to LOS of those who are not living with sensor systems. Estimate potential savings of living with sensor systems. LOS for residents living with and without sensors was measured over a span of 4.8 years since the implementation of sensor-generated health alerts. The group living with sensors (n = 52) had an average LOS of 1,557 days (4.3 years); the comparison group without sensors (n = 81) was 936 days (2.6 years); p = .0006. Groups were comparable based on admission age, gender, number of chronic illnesses, SF12 physical health, SF12 mental health, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), activities of daily living, independent activities of daily living, and mini-mental status examination scores. Both groups, all residents living at TigerPlace since the implementation of health alerts, receive registered nurse (RN) care coordination as the standard of care. Results indicate that residents living with sensors were able to reside at TigerPlace 1.7 years longer than residents living without sensors, suggesting that proactive use of health alerts facilitates successful aging in place. Health alerts, generated by automated algorithms interpreting environmentally embedded sensor data, may enable care coordinators to assess and intervene on health status changes earlier than is possible in the absence of sensor-generated alerts. Comparison of LOS without sensors TigerPlace (2.6 years) with the national median in residential senior housing (1.8 years) may be attributable to the RN care coordination

  17. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the ‘optimal length’. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force–length and force–velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg −1 when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg −1 when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s −1 at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s −1 for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force–length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force–length versus force–velocity effects, showing a transition from force–length limitations to force–velocity limitations as starting length increased. (paper)

  18. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  19. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn S. Knibbe-Hollinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization.

  20. Age-related differences in social influence on risk perception depend on the direction of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Leung, Jovita T; Foulkes, Lucy; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents are particularly susceptible to social influence. Here, we investigated the effect of social influence on risk perception in 590 participants aged eight to fifty-nine-years tested in the United Kingdom. Participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations, were then informed about the rating of these situations from a (fictitious) social-influence group consisting of teenagers or adults, and then re-evaluated the situation. Our first aim was to attempt to replicate our previous finding that young adolescents are influenced more by teenagers than by adults. Second, we investigated the social-influence effect when the social-influence group's rating was more, or less, risky than the participants' own risk rating. Younger participants were more strongly influenced by teenagers than by adults, but only when teenagers rated a situation as more risky than did participants. This suggests that stereotypical characteristics of the social-influence group - risk-prone teenagers - interact with social influence on risk perception. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of prenatal Leydig cell function on the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Prenatal sex hormones can induce abnormalities in the reproductive system and adversely impact on genital development. We investigated whether sex hormones in cord blood influenced the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths (2D/4D in school-aged children. Of the 514 children who participated in a prospective cohort study on birth in Sapporo between 2002 and 2005, the following sex hormone levels were measured in 294 stored cord blood samples (135 boys and 159 girls; testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone, LH, FSH, inhibin B, and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. A total of 350 children, who were of school age and could be contacted for this survey, were then requested via mail to send black-and-white photocopies of the palms of both the left and right hands. 2D/4D was calculated in 190 children (88 boys and 102 girls using photocopies and derived from participants with the characteristics of older mothers, a higher annual household income, higher educational level, and fewer smokers among family members. 2D/4D was significantly lower in males than in females (p<0.01. In the 294 stored cord blood samples, T, T/E, LH, FSH, Inhibin B, and INSL3 levels were significantly higher in samples collected from males than those from females. A multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with INSL3 in males and was significantly higher in males with <0.32 ng/mL of INSL3 (p<0.01. No correlations were observed between other hormones and 2D/4D. In conclusion, 2D/4D in school-aged children, which was significantly lower in males than in females, was affected by prenatal Leydig cell function.

  2. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-José Navarro

    Full Text Available The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE. This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES, and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders.The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5, in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest.The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.The RAE remains, even

  3. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance.

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    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R

    2015-01-01

    The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance. The RAE remains, even with residual

  4. Gender influences headache characteristics with increasing age in migraine patients.

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    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa

    2015-08-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.

  5. The Influence of Physician Communication Style on Overweight Patients’ Perceptions of Length of Encounter and Physician Being Rushed

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    Gulbrandsen, Pål; Østbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; Tulsky, James A.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Pollak, Kathryn I.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about how patients and physicians perceive time and the extent to which they perceive the physician being rushed during encounters. One aim of this paper is to examine whether patient and physician characteristics and physician communication influence patient perception of the duration of the encounter and their perception of physicians being rushed. Another aim is to examine the relationship between patient and physician perceptions of physicians feeling rushed. METHODS We audiorecorded 461 encounters of overweight or obese patients with 40 primary care physicians and included 320 encounters in which weight was discussed. We calculated time spent with physician and coded all communication about weight using the Motivational Interview Treatment Integrity scale (MITI). Patients completed post-visit questionnaires in which they reported the estimated duration of the encounter and how rushed they thought the physician was during the encounter. Physicians reported how rushed they felt. RESULTS Patients estimated encounters to be longer than they actually were by an average of 2.6 minutes (SD=11.0). When physicians used reflective statements when discussing weight, patients estimated the encounter to be shorter than when physicians did not use reflective statements (1.17 versus 4.56 minutes more than actual duration). Whites perceived the encounter as shorter than African Americans (1.45 versus 4.28 minutes more than actual duration). Physicians felt rushed in 66% of visits; however, most patients did not perceive this. Internists were perceived to be more rushed than family physicians. CONCLUSIONS There is wide variation in patients’ ability to estimate the length of time they spend with their physician. Some physician and patient characteristics were related to patient perceptions of the length of the encounter. Reflective statements might lead patients to perceive encounters as shorter. Physicians, especially family

  6. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

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    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  7. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  8. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

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    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  9. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  10. Influence of age and gender before and after liver transplantation.

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    Burra, Patrizia; De Martin, Eleonora; Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica

    2013-02-01

    Women constitute a particular group among patients with chronic liver disease and in the post-liver transplantation (LT) setting: they are set apart not only by traditional differences with respect to men (ie, body mass index, different etiologies of liver disease, and accessibility to transplantation) but also in increasingly evident ways related to hormonal changes that characterize first the fertile age and subsequently the postmenopausal period (eg, disease course variability and responses to therapy). The aim of this review is, therefore, to evaluate the role of the interplay of factors such as age, gender, and hormones in influencing the natural history of chronic liver disease before and after LT and their importance in determining outcomes after LT. As the population requiring LT ages and the mean age at transplantation increases, older females are being considered for transplantation. Older patients are at greater risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, and a worse response to antiviral therapy. Female gender per se is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis because of metabolic changes after menopause, the bodily structure of females, and, in the population of patients with chronic liver disease, the greater prevalence of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. With menopause, the fall of protective estrogen levels can lead to increased fibrosis progression, and this represents a negative turning point for women with chronic liver disease and especially for patients with hepatitis C. Therefore, the notion of gender as a binary female/male factor is now giving way to the awareness of more complex disease processes within the female gender that follow hormonal, social, and age patterns and need to be addressed directly and specifically. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Thermophysical properties of hydrophobised lime plasters - The influence of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Zemanová, Lucie; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    The building envelope is a principal responsible for buildings energy loses. Lime plasters as the most popular finishing materials of historical buildings and culture monuments influence the thermal behaviour as well as construction material of masonry. On this account, the effect of ageing on the thermophysical properties of a newly designed lime plasters containing hydrophobic admixture is analysed in the paper. For the comparative purposes, the reference lime plaster is tested. The ageing is accelerated with controlled carbonation process to simulate the final plasters properties. Basic characterization of the tested materials is done using bulk density, matrix density, and porosity measurements. Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity are experimentally assessed using a transient impulse method. The obtained data revealed the significant changes of the both studied thermal parameters in the dependence on plasters composition and age. The assessed material parameters will be stored in a material database, where will find use as an input data for computational modelling of heat transport in this type of porous building materials and evaluation of energy-savings and sustainability issues.

  12. French Influence on Portuguese Architects in the Age of Enlightenment

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    Sampayo, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    This investigation shows the European influence on the work of Portuguese architects of the Enlightenment period. Based on previous studies we focus our attention on the design of “Praça do Comércio” square and on a hypothesis, that it was based on the French Royal Square. We demonstrate that the design of Lisbon from the second half of the eighteenth-century was influenced by the theories and best practices of the time. We also confirm that the architect Eugénio dos Santos e Carvalho, a member of the reconstruction team for the Baixa, had in his personal library several reference books of French architectural practice that certainly influenced his architecture. The plans for the main square of Lisbon’s lower city, “Praça do Comércio”, can be compared to the “Place de Nos Conquêtes”, predecessor of the “Place Vêndome”, in its design, architecture and dimensions. This research analysed the cartography and iconography of Lisbon’s reconstruction. In particular, the drawings of “Praça do Comércio” and “Place de nos Conquêtes” were exhaustively studied. The comparative study of the elements for both squares lead to the conclusion that the Portuguese square presents many aspects of the French Age of Enlightenment, and in particular those featured in the “Place de nos Conquêtes”. This paper concludes that the Portuguese urban design and architectural projects of the 18th century are the result of previous knowledge where it was always possible to articulate the vernacular with academic design, and where many different influences left their mark on the culture of the period. The plans for the lower part of Lisbon display a mixture of references that relate to architectural and urban planning traditions of the Portuguese military engineering and contemporary French urban planning.

  13. The influence of post-acute rehabilitation length of stay on traumatic brain injury outcome: a retrospective exploratory study.

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    Ashley, Jessica G; Ashley, Mark J; Masel, Brent E; Randle, Kevin; Kreber, Lisa A; Singh, Charan; Harrington, David; Griesbach, Grace S

    2018-01-01

    Data regarding length of stay (LOS) in a rehabilitation programme after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of LOS and disability on outcome following TBI. Records from patients in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme at least 3 months after TBI were analysed retrospectively to study the influence of LOS on functional outcome at different levels of disability. Functional status was determined by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) and the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). Patients were further grouped by time since injury of 3-12 months or over 1 year. Those with a mild and moderate disabilities and over 1 year chronicity showed improvements after 90 days of rehabilitation. Patients with a severe disability and over 1 year chronicity required at least 180 days to show improvements. Moderately and severely disabled patients with an injury chronicity of 3-12 months showed improvements in the MPAI after 90 days. However, further improvement was observed after 180 days in the severely disabled group. Results suggest that both, level of disability and injury chronicity, should be considered when determining LOS. Data also show an association between LOS and changes in the MPAI and CIQ.

  14. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

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    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  15. The influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (pknee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain Gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

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    Glowacka, Halszka; McFarlin, Shannon C; Catlett, Kierstin K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Bromage, Timothy G; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoinski, Tara S; Schwartz, Gary T

    2016-05-01

    Great ape teeth must remain functional over long lifespans. The molars of the most folivorous apes, the mountain gorillas, must maintain shearing function for 40+ years while the animals consume large quantities of mechanically challenging foods. While other folivorous primates experience dental senescence, which compromises their occlusal surfaces and affects their reproductive success as they age, it is unknown whether dental senescence also occurs in mountain gorillas. In this article, we quantified and evaluated how mountain gorilla molars change throughout their long lifespans. We collected high-resolution replicas of M(1)s (n = 15), M(2)s (n = 13), and M(3)s (n = 11) from a cross-sectional sample of wild mountain gorilla skeletons from the Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in age from 4 to 43 years. We employed dental topographic analyses to track how aspects of occlusal slope, angularity, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated change with age. In addition, we measured the relative length of shearing crests in two- and three-dimensions. Occlusal topography was found to decrease, while 2D relative shearing crest length increased, and 3D relative crest lengths were maintained with age. Our findings indicate that shearing function is maintained throughout the long lifetimes of mountain gorillas. Unlike the dental senescence experienced by other folivorous primates, mountain gorillas do not appear to possess senesced molars despite their long lifetimes, mechanically challenging diets, and decreases in occlusal topography with age. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Validation of the multiplier method for leg-length predictions on a large European cohort and an assessment of the effect of physiological age on predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, J J; Cheesman, C L; Schade, A T; Monsell, F P

    2017-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective cohort was used to determine the accuracy of the Paley multiplier method for predicting leg length. Using menarche as a proxy, physiological age was then used to increase the accuracy of the multiplier. Chronological age was corrected in female patients over the age of eight years with documented date of first menses. Final sub-ischial leg length and predicted final leg length were predicted for all data points. Good correlation was demonstrated between the Paley and ALSPAC data. The average error in prediction depended on the time of assessment, tending to improve as the child got older. It varied from 2.2 cm at the age of seven years to 1.8 cm at the age of 14 years. When chronological age was corrected, the accuracy of multiplier increased. Age correction of 50% improved multiplier predictions by up to 28%. There appears to have been no significant change in growth trajectories of the two populations who were chronologically separated by 40 years. While the Paley data were based on extracting trends from averaged data, the ALSPAC dataset provides descriptive statistics from which it is possible to compare populations and assess the accuracy of the multiplier method. The data suggest that the accuracy improves as the patient gets close to the average skeletal maturity but that results need to be interpreted in conjunction with a radiological assessment of the growth plates. The magnitude of the errors in prediction suggest that when using the multiplier, the clinician must remain vigilant and prepared to perform a contralateral epiphyseodisis if the prediction proves to be wrong. The data suggest a relationship between the multiplier and menarche. There appears to be a factorisation and when accounting for physiological age, one needs to correct by 50% of the difference between chronological and physiological age.

  18. Influence of the chain length of surfactant in the modification of zeolites and clays. Removal of atrazine from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Jaldin, Helen Paola; Blanco-Flores, Alien; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Martín-Hernández, Osnieski

    2017-08-30

    Removal potentials of a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) and clay (SMC) for atrazine adsorption were evaluated. Materials were modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) and benzyl octadecyl dimethyl ammonium (BODA) chloride considering the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of each one (0.94 and 0.041 meq/L, respectively). The influence of the surfactant was analyzed in detail, particularly the formation of surfactant layers (complete or partial) connected with the length of the surfactant tail (16 and 18 methyl groups or number of carbons in the chain). Raw materials were characterized by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SMZ and SMC were analyzed by FTIR. Results obtained from kinetic adsorption experiments shown that equilibrium time is less for materials modified with HDTMA (8 h) than materials with BODA (10 and 12 h). Materials modified with the largest chain surfactant (BODA) showed more resistance to atrazine masse transference. The chemisorption was presented in the adsorption mechanisms of atrazine and adsorbent materials. Based on the results of adsorption isotherms Langmuir isotherms showed the better correlation coefficients value. The q max is greater for materials modified with BODA (0.9232 and 4.2448 mg/g) than for materials modified with HDTMA (0.6731 and 3.9121 mg/g). Therefore, SMZ and SMC modified with the largest chain surfactant has more affinity for the pesticide. The removal process at high concentration of atrazine depends of the partition process but at lower concentration, it occurs not only by this process but also by absorption process.

  19. Clonal Propagation of Khaya senegalensis: The Effects of Stem Length, Leaf Area, Auxins, Smoke Solution, and Stockplant Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ky-Dembele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Khaya senegalensis is a multipurpose African timber species. The development of clonal propagation could improve plantation establishment, which is currently impeded by mahogany shoot borer. To examine its potential for clonal propagation, the effects of cutting length, leaf area, stockplant maturation, auxin, and smoke solution treatments were investigated. Leafy cuttings rooted well (up to 80% compared to leafless cuttings (0%. Cuttings taken from seedlings rooted well (at least 95%, but cuttings obtained from older trees rooted poorly (5% maximum. The rooting ability of cuttings collected from older trees was improved (16% maximum by pollarding. Auxin application enhanced root length and the number of roots while smoke solution did not improve cuttings' rooting ability. These results indicate that juvenile K. senegalensis is amenable to clonal propagation, but further work is required to improve the rooting of cuttings from mature trees.

  20. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Age, growth and length-weight relationship of the white skate, Rostroraja alba (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae, from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the length distribution, sex ratio, length-weight relationship, age and growth of Rostroraja alba in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: This study estimated age and growth of the white skate, Rostroraja alba by counting vertebral band pairs from 112 specimens taken by commercial fisheries during 2006-2009 from the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Results: This is the first and only known information in regards to the age and growth of this species in Tunisia. Vertebra diameter was strongly correlated with total length and age, which were expressed by linear or cubic regression equations. The oldest female in this study was 35 years and 160 cm, whereas the oldest male was 32 years and 150 cm. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were TL∞=(202.26±3.40 cm, K=(0.040±0.038/year and t0=(1.84±0.01 10 -1 /year for females and TL∞=(198.60±3.61 cm, K=(0.060±0.076/year and t0=(1.28±0.04/year for males. Conclusions: This study would be an effective tool for fishery biologists, managers and conservationists to initiate management strategies and regulations for the sustainable conservation of the remaining stocks of this species in the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia ecosystem

  2. Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Franz Josef Gellert; R. Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: – This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the

  3. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  4. Influence of fiber length on flexural and impact properties of Zalacca Midrib fiber/HDPE by compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Agil Fitri; Ariawan, Dody; Surojo, Eko; Triyono, Joko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of fiber length on the flexural and impact properties of the composite of Zalacca Midrib Fiber (ZMF)/HDPE. The process of making composite was using compression molding method. The variation of fiber length were 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm and 9 mm, at 30% fiber volume fraction. The flexural and impact test according to ASTM D790 and ASTM D5941, respectively. Observing fracture surface was examained by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the flexural and impact strengths would be increase with the increase of fiber length.

  5. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  6. Factors influencing hand/eye synchronicity in the computer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A H

    1992-09-01

    In using a computer, the relation of vision to hand/finger actuated keyboard usage in performing fine motor-coordinated functions is influenced by the physical location, size, and collective placement of the keys. Traditional nonprehensile flat/rectangular keyboard applications usually require a high and nearly constant level of visual attention. Biometrically shaped keyboards would allow for prehensile hand-posturing, thus affording better tactile familiarity with the keys, requiring less intense and less constant level of visual attention to the task, and providing a greater measure of freedom from having to visualize the key(s). Workpace and related physiological changes, aging, onset of monocularization (intermittent lapsing of binocularity for near vision) that accompanies presbyopia, tool colors, and background contrast are factors affecting constancy of visual attention to task performance. Capitas extension, excessive excyclotorsion, and repetitive strain injuries (such as carpal tunnel syndrome) are common and debilitating concomitants to computer usage. These problems can be remedied by improved keyboard design. The salutary role of mnemonics in minimizing visual dependency is discussed.

  7. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and Aug...

  8. Are Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Birth Length Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions? A Structural Equation Analysis of Filipino Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Noble, Mark D.; Adair, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models (SEMs), to expl...

  9. Influence of day-length and isolates of Phytophthora infestans on field resistance to late blight of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilovich, E; Munive, S; Bonierbale, M

    2010-04-01

    Main and interaction effects of day-length and pathogen isolate on the reaction and expression of field resistance to Phytophthora infestans were analyzed in a sample of standard clones for partial resistance to potato late blight, and in the BCT mapping population derived from a backcross of Solanum berthaultii to Solanum tuberosum. Detached leaves from plants grown in field plots exposed to short- and long day-length conditions were independently inoculated with two P. infestans isolates and incubated in chambers under short- and long photoperiods, respectively. Lesion growth rate (LGR) was used for resistance assessment. Analysis of variance revealed a significant contribution of genotype x isolate x day-length interaction to variation in LGR indicating that field resistance of genotypes to foliar late blight under a given day-length depended on the infecting isolate. An allele segregating from S. berthaultii with opposite effects on foliar resistance to late blight under long- and short day-lengths, respectively, was identified at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that mapped on chromosome 1. This allele was associated with positive (decreased resistance) and negative (increased resistance) additive effects on LGR, under short- and long day-length conditions, respectively. Disease progress on whole plants inoculated with the same isolate under field conditions validated the direction of its effect in short day-length regimes. The present study suggests the occurrence of an isolate-specific QTL that displays interaction with isolate behavior under contrasting environments, such as those with different day-lengths. This study highlights the importance of exposing genotypes to a highly variable population of the pathogen under contrasting environments when stability to late blight resistance is to be assessed or marker-assisted selection is attempted for the manipulation of quantitative resistance to late blight.

  10. Factors that influence length of stay for in-patient gynaecology surgery: is the Case Mix Group (CMG) or type of procedure more important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mark S; Victory, Rahi; Stitt, Larry; Tsang, Nicole

    2006-02-01

    To compare the association between the Case Mix Group (CMG) code and length of stay (LOS) with the association between the type of procedure and LOS in patients admitted for gynaecology surgery. We examined the records of women admitted for surgery in CMG 579 (major uterine/adnexal procedure, no malignancy) or 577 (major surgery ovary/adnexa with malignancy) between April 1997 and March 1999. Factors thought to influence LOS included age, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, physician, day of the week on which surgery was performed, and procedure type. Procedures were divided into six categories, four for CMG 579 and two for CMG 577. Data were abstracted from the hospital information costing system (T2 system) and by retrospective chart review. Multivariable analysis was performed using linear regression with backwards elimination. There were 606 patients in CMG 579 and 101 patients in CMG 577, and the corresponding median LOS was four days (range 1-19) for CMG 579 and nine days (range 3-30) for CMG 577. Combined analysis of both CMGs 577 and 579 revealed the following factors as highly significant determinants of LOS: procedure, age, physician, and ASA score. Although confounded by procedure type, the CMG did not significantly account for differences in LOS in the model if procedure was considered. Pairwise comparisons of procedure categories were all found to be statistically significant, even when controlled for other important variables. The type of procedure better accounts for differences in LOS by describing six statistically distinct procedure groups rather than the traditional two CMGs. It is reasonable therefore to consider changing the current CMG codes for gynaecology to a classification based on the type of procedure.

  11. Age or experience? The influence of age at implantation and social and linguistic environment on language development in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Stumper, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    The authors investigated the influence of social environmental variables and age at implantation on language development in children with cochlear implants. Participants were 25 children with cochlear implants and their parents. Age at implantation ranged from 6 months to 42 months ( M (age) = 20.4 months, SD = 22.0 months). Linguistic progress was assessed at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after implantation. At each data point, language measures were based on parental questionnaire and 45-min spontaneous speech samples. Children's language and parents' child-directed language were analyzed. On all language measures, children displayed considerable vocabulary and grammatical growth over time. Although there was no overall effect of age at implantation, younger and older children had different growth patterns. Children implanted by age 24 months made the most marked progress earlier on, whereas children implanted thereafter did so later on. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with faster linguistic progress; age at implantation was not. Properties of maternal language input, mean length of utterance, and expansions were associated with children's linguistic progress independently of age at implantation. In children implanted within the sensitive period for language learning, children's home language environment contributes more crucially to their linguistic progress than does age at implantation.

  12. Coronary bypass surgery in patients aged 70 years and over: Mortality, morbidity, & length of stay. Dar al-fouad experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ghali

    2014-03-01

    This study supports the continued performance of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients 70 years. Advanced age alone should not deter a cardiac surgeon from offering such a potentially beneficial intervention.

  13. Influence of the gauge length on the accuracy of long-gauge sensors employed in monitoring of prismatic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glisic, Branko

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the geometric basis of measurement (gauge length), discrete strain sensors used in structural monitoring of civil engineering structures can be considered as short-gauge sensors or long-gauge sensors. Long-gauge sensors measure average strain over the gauge lengths and are used for global monitoring of structures, in particular, those built of inhomogeneous materials. However, the strain distribution along the sensor's gauge length may be nonlinear and the measured average strain value that is commonly attributed to the midpoint of the sensor may be different from the real value of strain at that point. Consequently, excessively long sensors may feature significant errors in measurement. However, short-gauge sensors are more susceptible to other types of measurement error, most notably, error caused by discontinuities (open cracks) distributed in the monitored material. Thus an optimum gauge length is to be found. The error in average strain measurement inherent to the sensor's gauge length introduced by the strain distribution and discontinuities in the monitored material is modelled for the most common applications met in civil engineering practice. The modelling takes into account the geometric properties of the monitored structure and various load cases. Guidelines for the selection of an appropriate gauge length are proposed, and tables for measurement error estimation are presented

  14. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  15. The effects of rest interval length on acute bench press performance: the influence of gender and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rest interval (RI) length on bench press performance in subjects with disparity in maximum strength. Two cohorts of subjects performed 3 bench press protocols in random order consisting of 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) using either 1-, 2-, or 3-minute RIs between sets. In the first cohort, 22 men and women were studied to investigate gender influence. In the second cohort, 23 men were tested for 1RM bench press strength and placed into a low 1RM (mean = 80.7 ± 7.5 kg) or high 1RM (mean = 140.6 ± 11.9 kg) experimental group. The number of successful repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set were recorded. Women performed significantly more repetitions than men with 1-minute (26.9 ± 4.4 vs. 21.1 ± 3.5), 2-minute (29.0 ± 2.0 vs. 24.0 ± 4.5), and 3-minute (29.7 ± 1.8 vs. 25.8 ± 5.1) RIs. The magnitude of decline in average velocity and power was significantly higher in men than in women. Total number of repetitions performed was significantly greater in the low 1RM group than in the high 1RM group at 1-minute (21.6 ± 5.0 vs. 18.1 ± 2.0) and 2-minute RIs (24.2 ± 5.4 vs. 21.3 ± 2.8). Significant negative correlations were observed between 1RM bench press and total number of repetitions completed for 1- and 2-minute RIs (r = -0.558 and -0.490, respectively). These data indicate that maximal strength plays a role in bench press performance with varying RIs and suggest that shorter RIs may suffice in women to attain a specific volume.

  16. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal......). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding......DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental...

  17. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...... abutments and did not necessarily result in an increased crown length. The distal implant papilla heightwas obviously shorter, althoughthe mesial papilla height was similar to thatof the healthy dentition.The papilla index score was tested to be a valid index for papilla fill....

  18. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  19. Association between leukocyte telomere length and bone mineral density in women 25-93 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Bendix, Laila

    2015-01-01

    whether there is an association of LTL with BMD and to determine whether this possible association is independent of age. The BMDs of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were evaluated in 460 women using DXA. LTL was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The women...... and 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.003 (-0.005; -0.002)); and between BMI adjusted age and logarithmic transformed BMD. Estimates and 95% CI were as follows: LS: -0.13 (-0.26; -0.01); right TH: -0.44 (-0.53; -0.34); left TH: -0.38 (-0.48; -0.28); right FN: -0.57 (-0.67; -0.46) and left FN: -0.51 (-0.......62; -0.40). There were no statistically significant associations between BMD and LTL (both logarithmically transformed) with or without age adjustments. The age-adjusted estimates and CI were as follows: LS: -0.10 (-0.71; 0.52); right TH: -0.13 (-0.66; 0.41); left TH: -0.13 (-0.67; 0.42); right FN: -0...

  20. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingg MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra

  1. On the frequency distributions per unit area of the projected and etchable lengths of surface-intersecting fission tracks: influences of track revelation, observation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonckheere, R.; Haute, P. van den

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the statistical bounds discussed, thermal history analysis based on the projected and etchable length distributions of surface intersecting fission tracks is limited by systematic factors related to track revelation, observation and measurement. The effects of track revelation, in particular, distort these distributions in the length intervals of interest. An observation threshold poses a problem if it is described by a critical angle θ c , but not if it is described by other criteria proposed in the literature. Measurement imprecisions, predictably, blur the thermal history information contained in these distributions. Measurements of semi-confined tracks, added as a result of surface etching, are a more promising alternative to confined track length measurements for accessing the thermal history record in the fission track length distribution. On the other hand, measurements of the projected lengths of surface intersecting tracks offer the theoretical possibility of determining the true volumetric density N and true mean length m of an arbitrary population of fission tracks, thus allowing direct determination of the corrected age of samples with complex thermal histories. On a methodical level, knowledge of N and m allows to determine the efficiency with which fission tracks are counted under the optical microscope under exactly the same conditions as those under which fission track counts for routine dating purposes are performed

  2. The Influence of the Brain on Overpopulation, Ageing and Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, Ronald D. T.

    1989-01-01

    With time, an increasing number in the world population is becoming old, and changes in the aging brain mean that a significant proportion of the aged are likely to be dependent on others. The devotion of resources to research into the aging brain could bring benefits far outweighing the investment. (Author/CW)

  3. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Passos Sobreiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  4. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly Silveira; Arap, Sami

    2005-07-07

    Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals' semen characteristics. Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  5. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. RESULTS: All six AMP analogues...... acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against Serratia marcescens (MICs above 46 μM). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from Staphylococcus aureus and S. marcescens with similar time...... of onset and reduction in the number of viable cells. EDTA pre-treatment of S. marcescens and E. coli followed by treatment with chimeras resulted in pronounced killing indicating that disintegration of the Gram-negative outer membrane eliminated innate differences in susceptibility. Chimera chain length...

  6. The Influence of Activity-Based Funding on Treatment Intensity and Length of Stay of Geriatric Rehabilitation Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwstra, Hylco; Wattel, Lizette M; de Groot, Aafke J; Smalbrugge, Martin; Hertogh, Cees M

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of activity-based funding (ABF) to increase treatment intensity and decrease length of stay (LOS) of inpatient geriatric patients. In January 2014, ABF was implemented in The Netherlands with the aim to increase treatment intensity and shorten LOS in geriatric rehabilitation (GR). To describe the influence of ABF on treatment intensity and LOS of inpatient GR patients before and after ABF was implemented. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Thirty nursing homes providing inpatient GR across The Netherlands. Digital medical records of patients who had received inpatient GR in Dutch nursing homes across The Netherlands were studied between January 1, 2013 and March 14, 2016. We calculated the mean treatment intensity in hours per week and median LOS in days in 3 cohorts according to the year of admittance. In addition, a historical representative cohort of GR patients who were admitted in 2007 was studied that represented the situation before the ABF reform was announced (eg, funding with a fixed price per day). In 2013, the funding with a fixed price per day was still in use but with compulsory ABF registration. In 2014 and 2015, the ABF was fully implemented. Statistical differences in treatment intensity and LOS were calculated between patients admitted in 2007 and 2013, 2013 and 2014, and 2013 and 2015. Statistical significance was set at a P value of <.02 (Bonferroni correction P = .05/3). Discharge destinations of patients discharged from March 1, 2015 to January 1, 2016 could be obtained and compared with 2007. The treatment intensity and LOS of 16,823 GR patients could be obtained and compared with the historical cohort from 2007 (n = 2950). Patients who were admitted in the year 2013 received higher treatment intensities and had the same median LOS compared with 2007. After the implementation of ABF in January 2014, the mean treatment intensity increased significantly by 37% (3.8 hours/week in 2013, 4.7

  7. Moderate and intense exercise lifestyles attenuate the effects of aging on telomere length and the survival and composition of T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Silva, Paulo Roberto; Duarte, Alberto J S; Garcez Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil

    2016-02-01

    Studies indicate that exercise might delay human biological aging, but the effects of long-term exercise on T cell function are not well known. We tested the hypothesis that moderate or intense exercise lifestyle may attenuate the effects of aging on the telomere length and the survival and composition of T cell subpopulations. Elderly (65-85 years) with intense training lifestyle (IT, n = 15), moderate training lifestyle (MT, n = 16), and who never trained (NT, n = 15) were studied. Although the three groups presented the age-associated contraction of the TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) naïve compartments and expansion of the memory compartments, both training modalities were associated with lower proportion of terminally differentiated (CD45RA(+)CCR7(neg)) TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) cells, although among the latter cells, the reduction reached statistical significance only with IT. MT was associated with higher proportion of central memory TCD4(+) cells, while IT was associated with higher proportion of effector memory TCD8(+) cells. However, both training lifestyles were unable to modify the proportion of senescent (CD28(neg)) TCD8(+) cells. Telomeres were longer in T cells in both training groups; with IT, telomere length increased mainly in TCD8(+) cells, whereas with MT, a modest increase in telomere length was observed in both TCD8(+) and TCD4(+) cells. Reduced commitment to apoptosis of resting T cells, as assessed by caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression, was seen predominantly with IT. Measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)'s supernatants did not show chronic low-grade inflammation in any of the groups. In conclusion, MT and IT lifestyles attenuated some of the effects of aging on the immune system.

  8. Change in muscle fascicle length influences the recruitment and discharge rate of motor units during isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Benjamin; Carpentier, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the effect of fascicle length change on motor-unit recruitment and discharge rate in the human tibialis anterior (TA) during isometric contractions of various intensities. The torque produced during dorsiflexion and the surface and intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) from the TA were recorded in eight subjects. The behavior of the same motor unit (n = 59) was compared at two ankle joint angles (+10 and -10 degrees around the ankle neutral position). Muscle fascicle length of the TA was measured noninvasively using ultrasonography recordings. When the ankle angle was moved from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion, the torque produced during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was significantly reduced [35.2 +/- 3.3 vs. 44.3 +/- 4.2 (SD) Nm; P Motor units were activated at a lower recruitment threshold for short compared with long muscle fascicle length, either when expressed in absolute values (2.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 3.6 +/- 3.7 Nm; P motor-unit recruitment were observed at a given absolute or relative torque when muscle fascicles were shortened. However, the data indicate that increased rate coding was mainly present at low torque level (recruitment of additional motor units played a dominant role at higher torque level and decreased compliance (10-35% MVC). Taken together, the results suggest that the central command is modulated by the afferent proprioceptive information during submaximal contractions performed at different muscle fascicle lengths.

  9. Measurements on the influence of the length of the daily submergence time on the condition and appearence of mussels (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basal, M.

    1972-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) living at different intertidal levels (viz. about 40, 10 and 0% of time exposed to the air) were compared as to length distribution, meat and shell weight, and linear dimensions. The long-exposed mussels were found to be on average smaller, to contain less meat, to

  10. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório de; Temponi, Eduardo Frois; Paganini, Vinícius Oliveira; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  11. Influence of Landscape Coverage on Measuring Spatial and Length Properties of Rock Fracture Networks: Insights from Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhuo; Lei, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Natural fractures are ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and often deeply buried in the subsurface. Due to the difficulty in accessing to their three-dimensional structures, the study of fracture network geometry is usually achieved by sampling two-dimensional (2D) exposures at the Earth's surface through outcrop mapping or aerial photograph techniques. However, the measurement results can be considerably affected by the coverage of forests and other plant species over the exposed fracture patterns. We quantitatively study such effects using numerical simulation. We consider the scenario of nominally isotropic natural fracture systems and represent them using 2D discrete fracture network models governed by fractal and length scaling parameters. The groundcover is modelled as random patches superimposing onto the 2D fracture patterns. The effects of localisation and total coverage of landscape patches are further investigated. The fractal dimension and length exponent of the covered fracture networks are measured and compared with those of the original non-covered patterns. The results show that the measured length exponent increases with the reduced localisation and increased coverage of landscape patches, which is more evident for networks dominated by very large fractures (i.e. small underlying length exponent). However, the landscape coverage seems to have a minor impact on the fractal dimension measurement. The research findings of this paper have important implications for field survey and statistical analysis of geological systems.

  12. Research regarding the influence of driving-wires length change on positioning precision of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper emphasise positioning precision of an elephant's trunk robotic arm which has joints driven by wires with variable length while operating The considered 5 degrees of freedom robotic arm has a particular structure of joint that makes possible inner actuation with wire-driven mechanism. We analyse solely the length change of wires as a consequence due inner winding and unwinding on joints for certain values of rotational angles. Variations in wires length entail joint angular displacements. We analyse positioning precision by taking into consideration equations from inverse kinematics of the elephant's trunk robotic arm. The angular displacements of joints are considered into computational method after partial derivation of positioning equations. We obtain variations of wires length at about tenths of micrometers. These variations employ angular displacements which are about minutes of sexagesimal degree and, thus, define positioning precision of elephant's trunk robotic arms. The analytical method is used for determining aftermath design structure of an elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires on positioning precision. Thus, designers could take suitable decisions on accuracy specifications limits of the robotic arm.

  13. Choice of primary anesthetic regimen can influence intensive care unit length of stay after coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Stefan G.; van der Linden, Philippe J.; Cromheecke, Stefanie; Meeus, Roel; ten Broecke, Pieter W.; de Blier, Ivo G.; Stockman, Bernard A.; Rodrigus, Inez E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics protect the myocardium during coronary surgery. This study hypothesized that the use of a volatile agent in the anesthetic regimen would be associated with a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), compared with a total intravenous

  14. The Influence of Different Interstock Lengths of Minneola Tanjelo on Photosynthetic Parameters and Fruit Yield of Star Ruby Grapefruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Minneola Tangelo hybrid, a cross of grapefruit and mandarin (Duncan grapefruit x Dancy mandarin, used as interstock to Star Ruby grapefruit with different lengths. Effects of different interstock lengths on fruit yield and quality, plant development and photosynthetic parameters were investigated. According to the results, different interstock lengths significantly affected fruit yield and size. The highest fruit yield was determined in T-M20-S whereas the lowest was on T-M5-S. The highest fruit size were determined in Star Ruby fruits on T-M5-S and T-M40-S whereas the lowest on T-M20-S and T-S (control. T-M40-S and T-M20-S treatments markedly reduced stem diameter and tree canopy in comparison to other treatments and control. Usage of different interstock lengths did not significantly affected some of fruit quality traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf water usage efficiency and leaf chlorophyll concentration. In regards to seasonal changes, net photosynthetic rate were higher in spring and summer seasons then winter and fall seasons.

  15. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  16. New insights in factors influencing growth in children born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Renes (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Small for gestational age (SGA) refers to the size of an infant at birth. It is defined as a birth weight and/ or birth length of at least two standard deviation scores (SDS) below the mean for gestational age (1, 2). SGA children can be born full-term or premature.

  17. The influence of unilateral oophorectomy on the age of menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M; Simonsen, M K; Kjer, J J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of menopause after premenopausal unilateral oophorectomy (UO) and to establish whether UO at a young age leads to menopause at a younger age than if UO occurs at an older age. METHODS: A cohort of 28 731 women, of whom 17 781 (62%) were menopausal, was investigated....... Information on menopause was obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Surgical data were obtained from the National Patient Register to avoid recollection bias. Age of menopause after UO/not UO was determined using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to identify factors of importance for early...... menopause. RESULTS: UO was performed in 1148 women. Women with UO after the age of 45 years, premenopausal hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and cancer were excluded, leaving 236 in the analysis. Menopause occurred 1.8 years earlier after UO compared to women with two intact ovaries (mean 49.5 vs. 51...

  18. INFLUENCE OF A LOW TEMPERATURE AGEING ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a low temperature ageing treatment on the hardness, tensile and corrosion characteristics of sand cast Al-6.5%Si-0.35%Mg alloy was studied. The temper conditions are low temperature ageing at 90oC, 95oC, 100oCand 105oC respectively followed by ageing to 180oC for 2 hrs. This was compared with the ...

  19. Influences of brain development and ageing on cortical interactive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengyu; Guo, Xiaoli; Jin, Zheng; Sun, Junfeng; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-02-01

    To study the effect of brain development and ageing on the pattern of cortical interactive networks. By causality analysis of multichannel electroencephalograph (EEG) with partial directed coherence (PDC), we investigated the different neural networks involved in the whole cortex as well as the anterior and posterior areas in three age groups, i.e., children (0-10 years), mid-aged adults (26-38 years) and the elderly (56-80 years). By comparing the cortical interactive networks in different age groups, the following findings were concluded: (1) the cortical interactive network in the right hemisphere develops earlier than its left counterpart in the development stage; (2) the cortical interactive network of anterior cortex, especially at C3 and F3, is demonstrated to undergo far more extensive changes, compared with the posterior area during brain development and ageing; (3) the asymmetry of the cortical interactive networks declines during ageing with more loss of connectivity in the left frontal and central areas. The age-related variation of cortical interactive networks from resting EEG provides new insights into brain development and ageing. Our findings demonstrated that the PDC analysis of EEG is a powerful approach for characterizing the cortical functional connectivity during brain development and ageing. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the hemodynamic influence of variable main body-to-iliac limb length ratios in aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Xenakis, Antonios; Georgiadis, George S

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a computational study to assess the hemodynamic impact of variant main body-to-iliac limb length (L1/L2) ratios on certain hemodynamic parameters acting on the endograft (EG) either on the normal bifurcated (Bif) or the cross-limb (Cx) fashion. A customary bifurcated 3D model was computationally created and meshed using the commercially available ANSYS ICEM (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The total length of the EG, was kept constant, while the L1/L2 ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 in the Bif and Cx reconstructed EG models. The compliance of the graft was modeled using a Fluid Structure Interaction method. Important hemodynamic parameters such as pressure drop along EG, wall shear stress (WSS) and helicity were calculated. The greatest pressure decrease across EG was calculated in the peak systolic phase. With increasing L1/L2 it was found that the Pressure Drop was increasing for the Cx configuration, while decreasing for the Bif. The greatest helicity (4.1 m/s2) was seen in peak systole of Cx with ratio of 1.5 whereas its greatest value (2 m/s2) was met in peak systole in the Bif with the shortest L1/L2 ratio (0.3). Similarly, the maximum WSS value was highest (2.74Pa) in the peak systole for the 1.5 L1/L2 of the Cx configuration, while the maximum WSS value equaled 2 Pa for all length ratios of the Bif modification (with the WSS found for L1/L2=0.3 being marginally higher). There was greater discrepancy in the WSS values for all L1/L2 ratios of the Cx bifurcation compared to Bif. Different L1/L2 rations are shown to have an impact on the pressure distribution along the entire EG while the length ratio predisposing to highest helicity or WSS values is also determined by the iliac limbs pattern of the EG. Since current custom-made EG solutions can reproduce variability in main-body/iliac limbs length ratios, further computational as well as clinical research is warranted to delineate and predict the hemodynamic and clinical effect of variable

  1. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) old people were selected through random sampling for the study.…

  2. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND SIRE LINE ON YOUNG CATTLE BEHAVIOUR TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Broucek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test effects of age, gender, and sire line on dairy cattle behaviour. We have analyzed results of ethological tests for 40 Holstein breed animals (23 males and 17 females, offsprings of three sires. Maintenance behaviour were observed at the age of 90, 130 and 170 days. Behaviour in the maze was conducted at the age of 119 days, an open-field test was applied at the age of 124, 168, and 355 days. The social behaviour was determined by feeding on 155th day of the age. The times and the number of periods in all activities of maintenance behaviour were changing significantly (P<0.001 according to the age. The total time of lying, lying with ruminating, ruminating, feeding was increasing from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days, on the other hand the time of standing was decreasing. The times of total lying, lying with ruminating, total ruminating, feeding were increased, and time of standing was decreased from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days. Calves spent more time lying on the left side than on the right side. The number of ruminating periods was increasing according to the age. Eating periods were decreasing from the age of 90 to 170 days. The most of lying periods were recorded at the age of 130 days. The differences between sex were found in total time of lying, lying on the right side (P<0.05, and the males rest longer and had more periods of lying than females. We have found differences in times of feeding (P<0.001, total lying, standing (P<0.01, and lying on the left side (P<0.05 according to sire by comparing behaviour of the calves. Sire genotypes were significantly manifested in period number of total lying (P<0.001, lying on the right side, feeding (P<0.01, and standing (P<0.05. Males stood in the first part of maze longer than females (P<0.001, also length of total standing was longer by bulls (P<0.01. Heifers took shorter time to leave the maze than bulls (P<0.05. Sire lineages significantly

  3. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...... and immunopotentiating properties of the clinically tested liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and analogues of trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). TDB analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate...

  4. Age, growth and length-weight relationship of the rough skate, Raja radula (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyans: Rajidae, from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Kadri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the length distribution, sex ratio, length-weight relationship, age and growth of Raja radula in the Gulf of Gabes. Methods: The age and growth characteristic of the rough skate (Raja radula inhabiting in the Gulf of Gabes (Central Mediterranean Sea was determined. A total of 1 250 specimens were sampled. According to the marginal increment band its growth was annual. Results: The growth parameters were derived by using the von-Bertalanffy method and were separately evaluated as follows: TL∞=97.2 cm, K= 0.15 y -1 , to= 0.35, and W∞= 5.28 kg, and TL∞= 76.4 cm, K = 0.22 y -1 , to= 0.16, and W∞= 3.77 kg, for females and males respetively. The maximum age was 12 years for females and 10 years for males. Conclusions: Results from this research will provide a starting point to develop a management plan for the rough skate in the Gulf of Gabes. Further investigations are necessary to quantify the impact of the existing regulations on the population dynamics and recruitment patterns of this species in the region.

  5. Influence of channel length and layout on TID for 0.18 μm NMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Xi Shanbin; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa; Li Yudong; Sun Jing; Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Different channel lengths and layouts on 0.18 μm NMOS transistors are designed for investigating the dependence of short channel effects (SCEs) on the width of shallow trench isolation (STI) devices and designing in radiation hardness. Results show that, prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal I-V characteristics, with no significant SCEs. Following irradiation, no noticeable shift of threshold voltage is observed, radiation-induced edge-leakage current, however, exhibits significant sensitivity on TID. Moreover, radiation-enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and channel length modulation (CLM) effects are observed on short-channel NMOS transistors. Comparing to stripe-gate layout, enclosed-gate layout has excellent radiation tolerance. (authors)

  6. Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living...

  7. Influence of physical fitness parameters on relative age effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the onset of puberty, boys experience great changes in growth and development. As such, boys who differ in age even by less than 12 months display significant differences in size, strength, power and skill levels and is known as Relative Age Effect (RAE). This study attempted to determine the prevalence of RAE in ...

  8. The influence of early age at breeding on reproductive parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002–2006), early-age (2–5 years) Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii nested in more concealed sites than older-age (6–7 years) birds, possibly because of a relatively lower competitive ability. Fledging success and breeding productivity were ...

  9. Environmental influences on age at first lambing and lambing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different environmental factors on age at first lambing and lambing interval of Yankasa sheep kept at the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika, were studied. Least-squares means ( ± SE) for age at first lambing and lambing interval were respectively, 597.2 ±12.6 days and 253.1± 2.9 days.

  10. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  11. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Honório de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. Materials and methods: the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. Results: between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  12. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmetović Zlatko; Romanov Romana; Dimitrić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND WORKING EXPERIENCE ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following research question were formulated to guide the study;. • What is ... What is the influence of gender on librarians' job satisfaction in university .... relevant data which was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative statistics. From.

  14. The influence of a vertical ground heat exchanger length on the electricity consumption of the heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineer Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), P.O. Box 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The use of heat pumps combined with vertical ground heat exchangers for heating and cooling of buildings, has significantly gained popularity in recent years. The design method for these systems, as it is proposed by ASHRAE, is taking into account the maximum thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the soil at the area of installation and a minimum Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the heat pumps. This approach usually results in larger than needed length of the ground heat exchanger, thus increasing the installation cost. A new analytical simulation tool, capable to determine the required ground heat exchanger length has been developed at the Process Equipment Design Laboratory (PEDL) of the AUTh. It models the function of the system as a whole over long time periods, e.g. 20 years, using as input parameters the thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the borehole and the characteristic curves of the heat pumps. The results include the electricity consumption of the heat pumps and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The aim of this paper is to describe the developed simulation algorithm and present the results of such a simulation in a case study. It is proved that the total required length of the ground heat exchanger is less than that calculated using the common numerical method. (author)

  15. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and uterine length of developing gilts fed two lysine and three metabolizable energy concentrations from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements, and to determine relationships between these traits and growth trajectories. Crossbred Large White × L...

  16. Effects of Age and Schooling on Intellectual Performance: Estimates Obtained from Analysis of Continuous Variation in Age and Length of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffordson, Christina; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age and schooling on different aspects of intellectual performance, taking track of study into account, are investigated. The analyses were based on military enlistment test scores, obtained by 48,269 males, measuring Fluid ability (Gf), Crystallized intelligence (Gc), and General visualization (Gv) ability. A regression method,…

  17. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-12-11

    Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.

  18. Age at First Concussion Influences the Number of Subsequent Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Rizzone, Katherine; Hoffman, Nicole L; Weber, Michelle L; Jones, Courtney; Bazarian, Jeff; Broglio, Steven P; McCrea, Michael; McAllister, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Individuals who sustain their first concussion during childhood may be at greater risk of sustaining multiple concussions throughout their lifetime because of a longer window of vulnerability. This article aims to estimate the association between age at first concussion and number of subsequent concussions. A total of 23,582 collegiate athletes from 26 universities and military cadets from three military academies completed a concussion history questionnaire (65% males, age 19.9 ± 1.4 years). Participants self-reported concussions and age at time of each injury. Participants with a history of concussion (n = 3,647, 15.5%) were categorized as having sustained their first concussion during childhood (less than ten years old) or adolescence (≥10 and ≤18 years old). Poisson regression was used to model age group (childhood, adolescence) predicting the number of subsequent concussions (0, 1, 2+). A second Poisson regression was developed to determine whether age at first concussion predicted the number of subsequent concussions. Participants self-reporting their first concussion during childhood had an increased risk of subsequent concussions (rate ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 2.64) compared with participants self-reporting their first concussion during adolescence. For every one-year increase in age at first concussion, we observed a 16% reduction in the risk of subsequent concussion (rate ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.86). Individuals self-reporting a concussion at a young age sustained a higher number of concussions before age 18. Concussion prevention, recognition, and reporting strategies are of particular need at the youth level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age and sex influences on running mechanics and coordination variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Katherine A; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age on running mechanics separately for male and female runners and to quantify sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability for older runners. Kinematics and kinetics were captured for 20 younger (10 male) and 20 older (10 male) adults running overground at 3.5 m · s -1 . A modified vector coding technique was used to calculate segment coordination variability. Lower extremity joint angles, moments and segment coordination variability were compared between age and sex groups. Significant sex-age interaction effects were found for heel-strike hip flexion and ankle in/eversion angles and peak ankle dorsiflexion angle. In older adults, mid-stance knee flexion angle, ankle inversion and abduction moments and hip abduction and external rotation moments differed by sex. Older compared with younger females had reduced coordination variability in the thigh-shank transverse plane couple but greater coordination variability for the shank rotation-foot eversion couple in early stance. These results suggest there may be a non-equivalent aging process in the movement mechanics for males and females. The age and sex differences in running mechanics and coordination variability highlight the need for sex-based analyses for future studies examining injury risk with age.

  20. Influence of prenatal and postnatal growth on intellectual functioning in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Ramakrishnan, Usha; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Flores, Rafael; Singkhornard, Jintana; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the relative influence of size at birth, infant growth, and late postnatal growth on intellectual functioning at 9 years of age. A follow-up, cross-sectional study. Three districts in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. A total of 560 children, or 92% of former participants of a trial of iron and/or zinc supplementation during infancy. Prenatal (size at birth), early infancy (birth to 4 months), late infancy (4 months to 1 year), and late postnatal (1 to 9 years) growth. Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Intellectual functioning was measured at 9 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (Pearson). Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. Significant relationships were found between growth and IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, third edition, Thai version), but only up to 1 year of age; overall, growth was not related to the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length (birth, early infancy, and late infancy); for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months (but not head circumference growth thereafter) was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome. Physical growth in early infancy (and, to a lesser extent, physical growth in late infancy and at birth) is associated with IQ at 9 years of age. Early infancy may be a critical window for human development.

  1. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 ?m underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40? relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-?m-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks ...

  2. Influence of the stack length on the stresses and temperatures at the location of a borehole seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beemsterboer, C.J.J.; Prij, J.

    1993-02-01

    This report deals with a numerical analysis to determine the sensitivity of the thermomechanical loading of the borehole seal with respect to the length of the stack of canisters. The analysis deals with the mechanical loads (stresses, deformation and temperature) caused by the rock pressure at the location of the borehole seal and by the heat producing canisters in the borehole. The aim of the analysis is to obtain insight in the temperature and stress load on the borehole seal and to define the distance above which these loads can be neglected

  3. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content in adolescence: The Tromsø Study, Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Tore; Ahmed, Luai A; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Dennison, Elaine M; Evensen, Elin K; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Grimnes, Guri; Nilsen, Ole-Andreas; Schei, Berit; Tell, Grethe S; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Winther, Anne; Emaus, Nina

    2017-12-01

    The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral parameters in adolescence is unclear. We found a positive association between birth size and bone mineral content, attenuated by lifestyle factors. This highlights the impact of environmental stimuli and lifestyle during growth. The influence of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content later in life is unclear, especially in adolescence. This study evaluated the impact of birth weight and length on bone mineral density and content among adolescents. We included 961 participants from the population-based Fit Futures study (2010-2011). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and total body (TB). BMD and BMC measures were linked with birth weight and length ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Linear regression models were used to investigate the influence of birth parameters on BMD and BMC. Birth weight was positively associated with BMD-TB and BMC at all sites among girls; standardized β coefficients [95% CI] were 0.11 [0.01, 0.20] for BMD-TB and 0.15 [0.06, 0.24], 0.18 [0.09, 0.28] and 0.29 [0.20, 0.38] for BMC-FN, TH and TB, respectively. In boys, birth weight was positively associated with BMC at all sites with estimates of 0.10 [0.01, 0.19], 0.12 [0.03, 0.21] and 0.15 [0.07, 0.24] for FN, TH and TB, respectively. Corresponding analyses using birth length as exposure gave significantly positive associations with BMC at all sites in both sexes. The significant positive association between birth weight and BMC-TB in girls, and birth length and BMC-TB in boys remained after multivariable adjustment. We found a positive association between birth size and BMC in adolescence. However, this association was attenuated after adjustment for weight, height and physical activity during adolescence.

  4. Influence Of Age, Gender, Subject Background And Predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that not many undergraduates of Nigerian universities apply to study library and information science unless as a last resort. This situation is unwholesome for the future of the librarianship profession in the 21st Century Nigeria, considering its dynamic nature. Hence, this study investigated the influence ...

  5. Proteomics and aging : studying the influence of aging on endothelial cells and human plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eman, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    In general, human aging is considered one of the most complex and less-well understood process in biology. In this thesis the possibilities of proteomics technology in the field of aging were explored. The complexity of the aging process was supposed to accompanied by relatively subtle proteome

  6. Accelerated aging of AP/HTPB propellants and the influence of various environmental aging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers, H.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary resuits on accelerated aging of lab-scale produced AP/HTPB propellant and propellants from dissectioned rocket motors are discussed, including aging logic, storage conditions, test techniques and resuits on mechanical, ballistic and safety testing. The mam aging effect observed was

  7. Motion of variable-length MreB filaments at the bacterial cell membrane influences cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Christian; Defeu Soufo, Herve Joel; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L

    2013-08-01

    The maintenance of rod-cell shape in many bacteria depends on actin-like MreB proteins and several membrane proteins that interact with MreB. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that at 50-nm resolution, Bacillus subtilis MreB forms filamentous structures of length up to 3.4 μm underneath the cell membrane, which run at angles diverging up to 40° relative to the cell circumference. MreB from Escherichia coli forms at least 1.4-μm-long filaments. MreB filaments move along various tracks with a maximal speed of 85 nm/s, and the loss of ATPase activity leads to the formation of extended and static filaments. Suboptimal growth conditions lead to formation of patch-like structures rather than extended filaments. Coexpression of wild-type MreB with MreB mutated in the subunit interface leads to formation of shorter MreB filaments and a strong effect on cell shape, revealing a link between filament length and cell morphology. Thus MreB has an extended-filament architecture with the potential to position membrane proteins over long distances, whose localization in turn may affect the shape of the cell wall.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS OF EASTERN POLAND ON SWEET CORN YIELDS AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weather components (air temperature, precipitation on the growth, yield and the length of the growing season of sweet corn cultivated in eastern Poland. The results come from a field experiment conducted in 2006–2011. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study significantly modified the yield of ears, weight and number of formatted ears, high of plants and the length of the growing season of sweet corn. Good yielding of sweet corn favoured years with moderate air temperatures in July and uniform distribution of precipitation during the growing season. The highest yield of ears was found in 2011, the lowest in the very difficult in terms of weather 2006. The shortest growing season was characterized corn grown in the years 2006 and 2010 with the high air temperatures in July and August, the longest in the years 2009 and 2011, in which the temperatures in the period June-August were the lowest of all the years of research. Irrespective of the year of study, cv ‘Sheba F1’ was formatted eras with higher weight than cv ‘Sweet Nugget F1’.

  9. Influence of the linking spacer length and type on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jialiang; Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Chang, Yiqun; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-05-15

    In order to investigate the effect of the linking spacer on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polymeric monoliths, three β-CD-functionalized organic polymeric monoliths with different spacer lengths were prepared by using three amino-β-CDs, i.e. mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-ethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-hexamethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, as starting materials. These amino-β-CDs reacted with glycidyl methacrylate to produce functional monomers which were then copolymerized with ethylene dimethacrylate. The enantioseparation ability of the three monoliths was evaluated using 14 chiral acidic compounds, including mandelic acid derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-derivatized amino acids, and chiral herbicides under optimum chromatographic conditions. Notably, the poly(GMA-NH2-β-CD-co-EDMA) column provides higher enantioresolution and enantioselectivity than the poly(GMA-EDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) and poly(GMA-HDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) columns for most tested chiral analytes. Furthermore, the enantioseparation performance of triazole-linker containing monoliths was compared to that of ethylenediamine-linker containing monoliths. The results indicate that the enantioselectivity of β-CD monolithic columns is strongly related to the length and type of spacer tethering β-CD to the polymeric support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of resonator length on catastrophic optical damage in high-power AlGaInP broad-area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Sanayeh, Marwan

    2017-05-01

    The increasing importance of extracting high optical power out of semiconductor lasers motivated several studies in catastrophic optical damage (COD) level improvement. In this study, the influence of the resonator length in high-power broad-area (BA) AlGaInP lasers on COD is presented. For the analyses, several 638 nm AlGaInP 60 μm BA lasers from the same wafer were used. Resonator lengths of 900, 1200, 1500, and 1800 μm were compared. In order to independently examine the effect of the resonator length on the maximum power reached by the lasers before COD (PCOD), the lasers used are uncoated and unmounted, and PCOD under pulsed mode was determined. It was found that higher output powers and eventually higher PCOD can be achieved using longer resonators; however, it was also found that this is mainly useful when working at high output powers far away from the laser threshold, since the threshold current and slope efficiency worsen when the resonator length increases.

  11. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  12. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  13. Influence of age on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    I studied age-related breeding performance of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) on Cousin Island, Seychelles, during 14 years. The annual number of young that fledged is significantly related to territory quality and number of helpers in the breeding group.

  14. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of doe age, body weight and different management systems, as practiced in various Angora goat studs, on reproductive performance of does was investigated. The data used were collected from 2000 to 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. The data set analysed for this study ...

  15. Influence of ageing on zinc bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-12-01

    Currently, soil quality criteria or soil risk assessments of metals are based on laboratory toxicity tests which are carried out in soils freshly spiked with metal salts. With these data, species sensitivity distributions are fitted, from which hazardous concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations are derived. However, due to long-term processes, called ageing, soil metal availability decreases with time. Here we show that pH is the most important parameter determining the effect of ageing on zinc partitioning in soils, with the effect of ageing becoming more important with increasing pH. Furthermore, zinc bioavailability, expressed as the internal zinc concentrations in red clover (Trifolium pratense) is closely related to pore water zinc concentration. In addition, there is a clear dose-response relationship between the survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the calcium chloride-extracted zinc fraction. These results indicate that zinc partitioning can be used to predict zinc bioavailability to terrestrial organisms. However, the use of spiked soils in toxicity assays can result in an over-estimation of the effects of zinc, especially at a high pH. - Zn ageing is affected by pH, while Zn partitioning can be used to predict its bioavailability.

  16. Influence of body weight, age and management system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRETHA SNYMAN

    South African Journal of Animal Science 2010, 40 (1). © South African ... African Angora goat does ... 2004 on 12 Angora goat studs kept under different management systems. ... There is a tendency among Angora goat stud breeders to retain stud does in the breeding flock up to the age ...... SAS Institute Inc., Raleigh, North.

  17. The influence of nationality and playing position on relative age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    for this phenomenon, termed the relative age effect (RAE), is that children born in the ... of countries have introduced modified games or weight categories in some ... A review of an online database (http://www.itsrugby.co.uk/) revealed the names ... positive SR indicated a higher than expected number of births in that quarter.

  18. Influence of age, sex and pregnancy status on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from 80 rabbits of mixed breeds comprising adults, growers and weaners between June and August 2005 to determine the mean variations in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) as affected by sex, age and pregnancy status. The mean variation in PCV, Hb and ...

  19. Does Age Influence Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Use and Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Paul A; Tsai, Vivian; Bao, Haikun; Curtis, Jeptha; Goldstein, Mary; Curtis, Lesley; Hernandez, Adrian; Peterson, Pamela; Turakhia, Mintu P; Masoudi, Frederick A

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to describe the use of CRT-D and its association with survival for older patients. Many patients who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) in practice are older than those included in clinical trials. We identified patients undergoing ICD implantation in the National Cardiovascular Disease Registry (NCDR) ICD registry from 2006 to 2009, who also met clinical trial criteria for CRT, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, QRS ≥120 ms, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV. NCDR registry data were linked to the social security death index to determine the primary outcome of time to death from any cause. We identified 70,854 patients from 1,187 facilities who met prior trial criteria for CRT-D. The mean age of the 58,147 patients receiving CRT-D was 69.4 years with 6.4% of patients age 85 or older. CRT use was 80% or higher among candidates in all age groups. Follow-up was available for 42,285 patients age ≥65 years at 12 months. Receipt of CRT-D was associated with better survival at 1 year (82.1% vs. 77.1%, respectively) and 4 years (54.0% vs. 46.2% , respectively) than in those receiving only an ICD (p different for different age groups (p = 0.86 for interaction). More than 80% of older patients undergoing ICD implantation who were candidates for a CRT-D received the combined device. Mortality in older patients undergoing ICD implantation was high but was lower for those receiving CRT-D. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  1. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of alkyl chain length and temperature on thermophysical properties of ammonium-based ionic liquids with molecular solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama; Hofman, T

    2012-04-19

    Mixing of ionic liquids (ILs) with molecular solvent can expand the range of structural properties and the scope of molecular interactions between the molecules of the solvents. Exploiting of these phenomena essentially require a basic fundamental understanding of mixing behavior of ILs with molecular solvents. In this context, a series of protic ILs possessing tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R(4)N](+) with commonly used anion hydroxide [OH](-) were synthesized and characterized by temperature dependent thermophysical properties. The ILs [R(4)N](+)[OH](-) are varying only in the length of alkyl chain (R is methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl) of tetra-alkyl ammonium on the cationic part. The ILs used for the present study included tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH(3))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(2)H(5))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(3)H(7))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TPAH) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TBAH). The alkyl chain length effect has been analyzed by precise measurements such as densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocity (u), and viscosity (η) of these ILs with polar solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), over the full composition range as a function of temperature. The excess molar volume (V(E)), the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ(s)) and deviation in viscosity (Δη) were predicted using these properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and NMP molecules. Later, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs and NMP were also analyzed using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem 7.

  3. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  4. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  5. Age influence on naso-pharynx carcinomas prognosis after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Peyrade, F.; Marcy, P.Y.; Guevara, N.; Dassonville, O.; Doglio, A.; Benezery, K.; Ortholan, C.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Santini, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recurrence modes were not different before and after seventy years. The conformal radiotherapy in classical fractionation can be realised for subjects over 70. The triplets are not easily used in chemotherapy of induction after 70 years, as the concomitant chemotherapy by cisplatin. The optimization perspectives include targeted therapies, and the lympho-therapy anti-Epstein-barr virus, especially in the aged subpopulations. (N.C.)

  6. Electroencephalogram approximate entropy influenced by both age and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerick M. H. Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of information-based measures to assess changes in conscious state is an increasingly popular topic. Though recent results have seemed to justify the merits of such methods, little has been done to investigate the applicability of such measures to children. For our work, we used the approximate entropy (ApEn, a measure previously shown to correlate with changes in conscious state when applied to the electroencephalogram (EEG, and sought to confirm whether previously reported trends in adult ApEn values across wake and sleep were present in children. Besides validating the prior findings that ApEn decreases from wake to sleep (including wake, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep, and non-REM sleep in adults, we found that previously reported ApEn decreases across vigilance states in adults were also present in children (ApEn trends for both age groups: wake > REM sleep > non-REM sleep. When comparing ApEn values between age groups, adults had significantly larger ApEn values than children during wakefulness. After the application of an 8 Hz high-pass filter to the EEG signal, ApEn values were recalculated. The number of electrodes with significant vigilance state effects dropped from all 109 electrodes with the original 1 Hz filter to 1 electrode with the 8 Hz filter. The number of electrodes with significant age effects dropped from ten to four. Our results support the notion that ApEn can reliably distinguish between vigilance states, with low-frequency sleep-related oscillations implicated as the driver of changes between vigilance states. We suggest that the observed differences between adult and child ApEn values during wake may reflect differences in connectivity between age groups, a factor which may be important in the use of EEG to measure consciousness.

  7. Influence of age on postural sway during different dual-task conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eBergamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-task performance assessments of competing parallel tasks and postural outcomes are growing in importance for geriatricians, as it is associated with predicting fall risk in older adults. This study aims to evaluate the postural stability during different dual-task conditions including visual (SMBT, verbal (CBAT and cognitive (MAT tasks in comparison with the standard Romberg’s open eyes position (OE. Furthermore, these conditions were investigated in a sample of young adults and a group of older healthy subjects to examine a potential interaction between type of secondary task and age status. To compare these groups across the four conditions, a within-between mixed model ANOVA was applied. Thus, a stabilometric platform has been used to measure center of pressure velocity (CoPV, sway area (SA, antero-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML oscillations as extents of postural sway. Tests of within-subjects effects indicated that different four conditions influenced the static balance for CoPV (p<0.001, SA (p<0.001. Post-hoc analyses indicated that CBAT task induced the worst balance condition on CoPV and resulted in significantly worse scores than OE (-11.4%; p<0.05, SMBT (-17.8% p<0.01 and MAT (-17.8% p<0.01 conditions; the largest SA was found in OE, and it was statistically larger than SMBT (-27.0%, p<0.01 and MAT (-23.1%; p<0.01. The between-subjects analysis indicated a general lower balance control in the group of elderly subjects (CoPV p<0.001, SA p<0.002, while, the mixed model ANOVA did not detect any interaction effect between types of secondary task and groups in any parameters (CoPV p=0.154, SA p=0.125. Postural sway during dual-task assessments was also found to decrease with advancing age, however, no interactions between aging and types of secondary tasks were found. Overall, these results indicated that the secondary task which most influenced the length of sway path, as measured by postural stability was a simple verbal

  8. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  9. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL TRAINING ON CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE IN PREADOLESCENT AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Marinkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory or aerobic endurance is the ability of the whole body to sustain physical activity for an extended period of time, involving relatively large groups of muscles. The attitudes on the possible impact of training on cardiorespiratory endurance in preadolescents are contradictory. Our study enrolled 195 boys aged 11 to 12 years. Experimental group (n=92 consisted of the children who had been involved with planned and programmed water polo training for at least two years. Control group (n=103 consisted of schoolchildren who only had had regular physical education in schools. Our investigation protocol included standardized anthropometric measurements and tests, performed respecting the appropriate protocols. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in age and relative values of oxygen consumption (VO2peak. Body height and mass, as well as the skinfold thickness, were significantly higher in experimental group subjects. The values of absolute VO2peak, FVC and FEV1.0 were also significantly higher in the examinees involved with water polo training. These findings stress the importance of a systematic training process even in this early period of growth and development in order for the trainees to acquire important functional advantages. We believe that a properly planned and programmed physical training can significantly contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory endurance even as early as preadolescent age.

  10. Influence of aging time on residual tritium in Pd beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinshui; Zhang Zhi; Su Yongjun; Jing Wenyong; Du Jie

    2012-01-01

    The amount of tritium in Pd beds. which were initially loaded at room temperature with tritium at the atomic ratio of T/Pd≈0.65 and aged 1.66 years, 3.47 years and 5.94 years, respectively, was investigated by methods of deuterium exchange, thermal desorption and aqua regia dissolution. Obtained results show that after deuterium exchange and thermal desorption, about 99% of tritium is desorbed from Pd tritide. and the amount of residual tritium become in- creasing significantly as the aged time is increased. which is 3.99 × 10 -7 gT/gPd, 4. 97 × 10 -7 gT/gPd and 1.29 × 10 -6 gT/gPd respectively. The increasing amount of residual tritium could be attributed to the increase of interstitial form of tritium, resulting from increasing interstitial type defects induced by the migration of 3 He atoms in interstitial sites as a function of aged time. (authors)

  11. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Victora, Cesar G; Ohuma, Eric O; Bertino, Enrico; Altman, Doug G; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Carvalho, Maria; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Noble, Alison J; Pang, Ruyan; Barros, Fernando C; Chumlea, Cameron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2014-09-06

    In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selected because most of the health and nutrition needs of mothers were met, adequate antenatal care was provided, and there were no major environmental constraints on growth. As part of the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS), a component of INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, we measured weight, length, and head circumference in all newborn infants, in addition to collecting data prospectively for pregnancy and the perinatal period. To construct the newborn standards, we selected all pregnancies in women meeting (in addition to the underlying population characteristics) strict individual eligibility criteria for a population at low risk of impaired fetal growth (labelled the NCSS prescriptive subpopulation). Women had a reliable ultrasound estimate of gestational age using crown-rump length before 14 weeks of gestation or biparietal diameter if antenatal care started between 14 weeks and 24 weeks or less of gestation. Newborn anthropometric measures were obtained within 12 h of birth by identically trained anthropometric teams using the same equipment at all sites. Fractional polynomials assuming a skewed t distribution were used to estimate the fitted centiles. We identified 20,486 (35%) eligible women from the 59,137 pregnant women enrolled in NCSS between May 14, 2009, and Aug 2, 2013. We calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth. The observed and smoothed centiles were almost identical. We present the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90

  12. Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon Exposure, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicino, Elena; Wilson, Ander; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Prada, Diddier; Power, Melinda C; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Weisskopf, Marc G; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2017-01-01

    Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with age-related cognitive impairment, possibly because of enhanced inflammation. Leukocytes with longer telomere length (TL) are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli, yet TL has not been evaluated in relation to air pollution and cognition. We assessed whether TL modifies the association of 1-year exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, with cognitive function in older men, and we examined whether this modification is independent of age and of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Between 1999 and 2007, we conducted 1-3 cognitive examinations of 428 older men in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measure logistic regression to estimate associations of 1-year BC exposure with relative odds of being a low scorer (≤ 25) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is a proxy of poor cognition. Confounders included age, CRP, and lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. Each doubling in BC level was associated with 1.57 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.05) times higher odds of low MMSE scores. The BC-MMSE association was greater only among individuals with longer blood TL (5th quintile) (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.59; p = 0.04 for BC-by-TL-interaction). TL and CRP were associated neither with each other nor with MMSE. However, CRP modified the BC-MMSE relationship, with stronger associations only at higher CRP (5th quintile) and reference TL level (1st quintile) (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; p = 0.04 for BC-by-CRP-interaction). TL and CRP levels may help predict the impact of BC exposure on cognitive function in older men. Citation: Colicino E, Wilson A, Frisardi MC, Prada D, Power MC, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA. 2017. Telomere length, long-term black carbon exposure, and cognitive function in a cohort of older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect

  13. Retraction notice to: influence of post fit and post length on fracture resistance: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(3):496-500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    It has been notified to the Editorial Board, The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice (JCDP), that considerable script of the aforementioned article has been plagiarized from the article: Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of Post Fit and Post Length on Fracture Resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42(1):47-53. The same was confirmed after thorough evaluation and interpretation. In accordance to observe serious view in case of plagiarism, the Editorial Board, JCDP decided to take appropriate action against the act. Thus, it is herewith decided by the Editorial Board, JCDP to retract the title as addressed from the assigned issue.

  14. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullett, J D [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dodd, R [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Williams, C J [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Triantos, G [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Dearden, G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Shenton, A T [Powertrain Control Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Watkins, K G [Laser Group, Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Carroll, S D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Scarisbrick, A D [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Research and Engineering Centre, Laindon, Basildon, Essex, SS15 6EE (United Kingdom); Keen, S [GSI Group, Cosford Lane, Swift Valley, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 1QN (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-07

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV{sub IMEP}) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var{sub PPP}). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  15. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullett, J D; Dodd, R; Williams, C J; Triantos, G; Dearden, G; Shenton, A T; Watkins, K G; Carroll, S D; Scarisbrick, A D; Keen, S

    2007-01-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COV IMEP ) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (Var PPP ). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air

  16. Probing the Influence of Linker Length and Flexibility in the Design and Synthesis of New Trehalase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero D’Adamio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to synthesize new trehalase inhibitors selective towards the insect trehalase versus the porcine trehalase, in view of their application as potentially non-toxic insecticides and fungicides. The synthesis of a new pseudodisaccharide mimetic 8, by means of a stereoselective α-glucosylation of the key pyrrolizidine intermediate 13, was accomplished. The activity of compound 8 as trehalase inhibitor towards C. riparius trehalase was evaluated and the results showed that 8 was active in the μM range and showed a good selectivity towards the insect trehalase. To reduce the overall number of synthetic steps, simpler and more flexible disaccharide mimetics 9–11 bearing a pyrrolidine nucleus instead of the pyrrolizidine core were synthesized. The biological data showed the key role of the linker chain’s length in inducing inhibitory properties, since only compounds 9 (α,β-mixture, bearing a two-carbon atom linker chain, maintained activity as trehalase inhibitors. A proper change in the glucosyl donor-protecting groups allowed the stereoselective synthesis of the β-glucoside 9β, which was active in the low micromolar range (IC50 = 0.78 μM and 12-fold more potent (and more selective than 9α towards the insect trehalase.

  17. Does Volunteering Experience Influence Advance Care Planning in Old Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Khosla, Nidhi

    2016-07-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) increases the likelihood patients will receive end-of-life care that is congruent with their preferences and lowers stress among both patients and caregivers. Previous efforts to increase ACP have mainly focused on information provision in the very late stage of life. This study examines whether a relationship exists between volunteering and ACP, and whether this relationship is associated with social support. The sample comprises 877 individuals who were aged 55+ in 2008, and were deceased before 2010. The sample is derived from seven waves (1998-2010) of data from the Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regression results showed that overall ACP and durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) were both higher (OR = 1.61 and 1.71, respectively) for older adults with volunteering experience in the past 10 years than those without such experience. Available social support (relatives and friends living nearby) was not associated with the relationship between volunteering and ACP. Other factors related to ACP included poorer health, death being expected, death due to cancer, older age, and being a racial minority. Involving older people in volunteer work may help to increase ACP. Future research is encouraged to identify reasons for the association between volunteering and ACP.

  18. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  19. Increased Ice-age Influence of Antarctic Intermediate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratli, J.; McManus, J.; Mix, A.; Chase, Z.

    2008-12-01

    A depth transect of three ODP sites collected along the central Chile Margin constrain Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) distributions and regional export production over the last 30 ka. Reduced Re and Cd, and increased Mn are proxies for higher bottom water oxygenation; 230Th-normalized burial of opal is a proxy for productivity. Mn/Al is high during the glacial interval at all three sites, suggesting high oxygenation and the retreat of the oxygen minimum zone during this period. At Site 1233, within the core of modern AAIW, Re and Cd are unchanged from detrital values throughout the last 30 ky, implying continuously oxic conditions. In contrast, at the northern sites 1234 and 1235, which reside below and above AAIW respectively, Re and Cd rise rapidly from low glacial values at ~15ka, signifying lower oxygen concentrations at the sea floor during Holocene time relative to ice-age conditions. Local productivity, recorded in Th-normalized opal burial, is highest during the glacial interval at both sites 1233 and 1234, and varies independently from the redox proxies. We conclude that local productivity does not drive bottom water oxygenation here, and that ventilation of the shallow subsurface southeast Pacific increased during the last ice age, with an expanded depth range of AAIW relative to the present.

  20. Association between PER3 length polymorphism and onco-hematological diseases and its influences on patients' functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Cerliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clock gene PER3 and its length polymorphism may have a role in oncogenesis as clock genes act as key regulators of cell cycle and DNA repair pathways. The polymorphism may affect the condition of patients who show disrupted circadian rhythm due to tumor development. The aim was to assess the association between PER3 polymorphism and onco-hematological diseases, and analyze whether this variant has an impact on patient’s functionality. We conducted a case-control study on 125 patients with onco-hematological diseases and 310 control patients. PER3 allelic variants were detected by using polymerase chain reaction. Sociodemographic data and information on patient’s habits and functionality were obtained through questionnaire. Genotypes 4/5 + 5/5 showed an odd ratio (OR = 1.39, with no statistical significance. However, those genotypes were associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of acute/chronic lymphoblastic/myeloblastic leukemia, taken all together. The occurrence of “changes in humor during last two months” was significantly associated with onco-hematological diseases. “Fatigue on awakening” and “self-reported snore” were associated with cases carrying the 4/5 or 5/5 genotypes. The results suggested that PER3 polymorphism may have a role in the risk of leukemia, and might be a possible marker for individual differences in susceptibility to sleep disruption. This work provides insights for the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer, and those who are more susceptible to circadian disruption, which may decrease the physiological defenses against the tumor.

  1. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmetović Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environment. In such an environment, one does not only face infectious diseases, but also the misery and poverty in developing countries and massive noninfectious diseases, in developed countries. These facts introduce evidence about the possible effects of physical activity as to prevent the consequences of mass noninfectious diseases, as well as to strengthen the competence of people in general. Therefore, in a holistic, synergic concept of interpretation of human life, it is significant to include biological indicators that have an impact on the growth of the world population and may be associated with the kinesiology. Quantitative indicators of the trend of human development on this planet are the basic research unit observed in this paper. At the same time, the subjects of observation are also other indicators that can be causally linked to the development of the human population and are especially valuable evidence of the contribution of physical activity to the human development. The data that is associated with the theoretical considerations and the results of various statistics are presented based on the rules of ex-post-facto analysis. It is concluded that the value of physical activity has long had to have the equal status with one's chances of being better prepared for life on this planet ontogenetically and phylogenetically, and for the life conditions that will become even more extreme and that increasing older humans will face.

  2. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czop, V.; Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  3. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  4. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  5. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  6. Influence of length of interval between pulses in PDR brachytherapy (PDRBT on value of Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED in healthy tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piotrowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different PDR treatment schemas are used in clinical practice, however optimal length of interval between pulses still remains unclear. The aim of this work was to compare value of BED doses measured in surrounded healthy tissues according to different intervals between pulses in PDRBT. Influence of doses optimization on BED values was analyzed.Material and methods: Fifty-one patients treated in Greater Poland Cancer Centre were qualified for calculations.Calculations of doses were made in 51 patients with head and neck cancer, brain tumor, breast cancer, sarcoma, penis cancer and rectal cancer. Doses were calculated with the use of PLATO planning system in chosen critical points in surrounded healthy tissues. For all treatment plans the doses were compared using Biologically Equivalent Dose formula.Three interval lengths (1, 2 and 4 hours between pulses were chosen for calculations. For statistical analysis Friedman ANOVA test and Kendall ratio were used.Results: The median value of BED in chosen critical points in healthy tissues was statistically related to the length of interval between PDR pulses and decreased exponentially with 1 hour interval to 4 hours (Kendall = from 0.48 to 1.0; p = from 0.002 to 0.00001.Conclusions: Prolongation of intervals between pulses in PDR brachytherapy was connected with lower values of BED doses in healthy tissues. It seems that longer intervals between pulses reduced the risk of late complications, but also decreased the tumour control. Furthermore, optimization influenced the increase of doses in healthy tissues.

  7. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  8. Influence of female age on blastulation rate of embryo produced by ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Borges Soares

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a tendency to adopt prolonged culture inolder patients; however there are no conclusive results about theinfluence of age on blastulation rate. Therefore, we decided to analyzethe influence of female age on prolonged culture results. METHODS:One hundred and seven ICSI procedures performed in our centerfrom January 1999 to December 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.The blastulation rate was verified and correlated with patient age.RESULTS: In average, 2.8 blastocysts/patient were transferred. Theblastulation rate for each age group was: 180 (32% in the group 40 years. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significantdifference (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The percentage of embryosthat achieved the blastocyst stage was different in each age groupand this percentage dropped as patient age increased. Female agemay influence on blastulation rate of pre-embryos, observing a dropin this rate as patient age increased.

  9. Variations and Determinants of Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Low for Gestational Age Infants in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatttore, Giovanni; Numerato, Dino; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Graziani, Rebecca; Heijink, Richard; Over, Eelco; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Mihalicza, Péter; Sveréus, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    The EuroHOPE very low birth weight and very low for gestational age infants study aimed to measure and explain variation in mortality and length of stay (LoS) in the populations of seven European nations (Finland, Hungary, Italy (only the province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland and Sweden). Data were linked from birth, hospital discharge and mortality registries. For each infant basic clinical and demographic information, infant mortality and LoS at 1 year were retrieved. In addition, socio-economic variables at the regional level were used. Results based on 16,087 infants confirm that gestational age and Apgar score at 5 min are important determinants of both mortality and LoS. In most countries, infants admitted or transferred to third-level hospitals showed lower probability of death and longer LoS. In the meta-analyses, the combined estimates show that being male, multiple births, presence of malformations, per capita income and low population density are significant risk factors for death. It is essential that national policies improve the quality of administrative datasets and address systemic problems in assigning identification numbers at birth. European policy should aim at improving the comparability of data across jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Childhood Personality, Betrayal Trauma, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Adulthood: A Lifespan Perspective on Conscientiousness and Betrayal Traumas as Predictors of a Biomarker of Cellular Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Grant W; Hampson, Sarah E; Côté, Hélène C F; Hill, Patrick L; Klest, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Conscientiousness is associated with longevity. As such, identifying the biological pathways linking personality to mortality is important. This study employs longitudinal data spanning >40 years to test prospective associations with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a potential marker of cellular aging. Because telomeres shorten over time, and are sensitive to oxidative stress, shorter LTL may reflect cumulative damage associated with negative health behaviors and past stressful events. We investigated childhood conscientiousness as a protective factor, expecting an association with longer LTL in adulthood, possibly reflecting slower LTL shortening. Potential lifespan pathways involving childhood trauma, smoking behaviors, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were explored. Childhood conscientiousness showed a small raw association with LTL ( r = .08, p = .04), although this effect did not persist when controlling for age and sex. Despite this lack of a direct effect on LTL, we detected an indirect effect operating jointly through BMI and smoking. Higher rates of childhood betrayal trauma were associated with shorter LTL. Contrary to our hypothesis that conscientiousness would buffer this effect, we found evidence for an interaction with childhood betrayal traumas where the association between childhood betrayal traumas and LTL was larger for those higher on conscientiousness in childhood.

  11. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  12. Influence of maternal age, gestational age and fetal gender on expression of immune mediators in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenbacher Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in cytokine and immune mediator expression patterns in amniotic fluid due to gestational age, maternal age and fetal gender were investigated. Findings Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from 192 women, 82 with a mid-trimester amniocentesis (median gestational age 17 weeks and 110 with a caesarean section not in labor (median gestational age 39 weeks. Amniotic fluid was screened by commercial ELISAs for the TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and immune mediators IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, TNF alpha, GRO-alpha, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, Histone, and IP10. Analysis was by Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. None of the 15 examined cytokines revealed any differences in expression patterns regarding fetal gender. Significant differences were found in IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF- alpha, GRO-alpha and MIP1-beta with respect to gestational age and in GRO-alpha regarding maternal age. Conclusion Cytokines utilized as biomarkers in the diagnosis of intrauterine infections are not influenced in their expression pattern by fetal gender but may vary with respect to maternal age and gestational age.

  13. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  14. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    as the presentation of participants. OBJECTIVE: It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10...... body. Intra- and inter-assessor agreements between photographic presentations were similar among both assessor groups. The accuracy in age assessment was significantly influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor. The difference in the mean perceived...... both facial and whole-body photographs. A regression towards the mean age was seen. CONCLUSION: The assessment of perceived age was influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor....

  15. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  17. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  18. The age-dependency of genetic and environmental influences on serum cytokine levels : A twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Zheng, Dongling; Wu, Ting; Korf, Jakob; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have evaluated the use of immunological markers as possible tools for measuring ageing and predicting age-related pathology. The importance of both genetic and environmental influences in regulation of these markers has been emphasized. In order to further evaluate

  19. The Impact of Anesthesia-Influenced Process Measure Compliance on Length of Stay: Results From an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Colorectal Surgery Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael C; Pio Roda, Claro M; Canner, Joseph K; Sommer, Philip; Galante, Daniel; Hobson, Deborah; Gearhart, Susan; Wu, Christopher L; Wick, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    Process measure compliance has been associated with improved outcomes in enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. Herein, we sought to assess the impact of compliance with measures directly influenced by anesthesiology in an ERAS for colorectal surgery cohort. From January 2013 to April 2015, data from 1140 consecutive patients were collected for all patients before (pre-ERAS) and after (ERAS) implementation of an ERAS program. Compliance with 9 specific process measures directly influenced by the anesthesiologist or acute pain service was analyzed to determine the impact on hospital length of stay (LOS). Process measure compliance was associated with a stepwise reduction in LOS. Patients who received >4 process measures (high compliance) had a significantly shorter LOS (incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70-0.85); P process measures) counterparts. Multivariable regression suggests that utilization of multimodal nausea and vomiting prophylaxis (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P process measures directly influenced by the anesthesiologists and in concert with a formal anesthesia protocol is associated with reduced LOS. Engaging anesthesiology colleagues throughout the surgical encounter increases the overall value of perioperative care.

  20. AB089. Impaired adenosine signaling influences erectile function in aging rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingliang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2017-01-01

    Background As one of the most common disorders in old adult, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains attracting andrological physicians? attention. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations of adenosine signaling in the penis of aging rats, and the influence to erectile function. Methods According to apomorphine test, the aging rats (18 months) with ED were selected as age-related erectile dysfunction (A-ED) group, and the young rats (2 months) were selected as normal control (NC) gro...

  1. Health care prioritization in ageing societies: influence of age, education, health literacy and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Benise; Woo, Jean; Bowling, Ann; Wong, Florens; Chau, Pui Hing

    2011-05-01

    To examine how Chinese people in Hong Kong view health care prioritization and to compare the findings with those from a United Kingdom survey. A cross-sectional opinion survey was conducted in Hong Kong and 1512 participants were interviewed. Data show that the highest rankings were accorded to "treatment for children" and "high technology services." Services for the elderly, whether in the community or in hospitals, and including end-of-life care, were ranked among the lowest. This view was also shared by healthcare professionals. Compared with the UK findings, there are stark contrasts in the low ranking of end-of-life care and the high ranking of high technology services among the HK population. It is evident that most people would give priority to the young over the old in distributing a given amount of healthcare services. To meet the needs of ageing societies and to meet the needs of all users equitably, health care policy needs to acknowledge constraints and the needs for prioritization. Both the public and professionals should engage with policy makers in formulating a policy based on cost benefit considerations as well as overall societal view of prioritization that is not based on age alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of hearing age and understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.

  3. The influence of gate length on the electron injection of velocity in an AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, S. V.; Galiev, R. R.; Zuev, A. V.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Ponomarev, D. S.; Khabibullin, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Field-effect high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with various gate lengths L g have been studied. The maximum values of current and power gaincutoff frequencies ( f T and f max, respectively) amounted to 88 and 155 GHz for HEMTs with L g = 125 nm, while those for the transistors with L g = 360 nm were 26 and 82 GHz, respectively. Based on the measured S-parameters, the values of elements in small-signal equivalent schemes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs were extracted and the dependence of electron-injection velocity vinj on the gate-drain voltage was determined. The influence of L g and the drain-source voltage on vinj has been studied.

  4. Manipulation of Ovarian Function Significantly Influenced Sarcopenia in Postreproductive-Age Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett L. Peterson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice. The percentages of lean body mass and total body water were significantly reduced in 13-month-old control mice but were restored in 16- and 25-month-old recipient mice by ovarian transplantation to the levels found in six-month-old control mice. In summary, we have shown that skeletal muscle mass, which is negatively influenced by aging, can be positively influenced or restored by reestablishment of active ovarian function in aged female mice. These findings provide strong incentive for further investigation of the positive influence of young ovaries on restoration of health in postreproductive females.

  5. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  6. The influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect across the Australian Rules football talent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Jade A Z; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Pyne, David B; Larkin, Paul; Robertson, Sam

    2018-03-21

    To identify the influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect (RAE) across the Australian Football League (AFL) talent pathway. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of junior AFL players attending the National Draft (National), State, and State Under 16s (U16) combines between 1999-2016. Birth-date data was obtained for players attending the AFL State U16 (n=663, age: 15.9±0.4years), State (n=803, age: 19.1±1.7years), National (n=1111, age: 18.3±0.8years) combines. Corresponding aged-matched Australian general population birth rate data was also collected. A chi-squared analysis comparing birth month distributions found all combine groups differed significantly from the general population (Under 16s: χ 2 =62.61, State: χ 2 =38.83, National: χ 2 =129.13, pborn in January (4.9%, ptalent pathways. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of time to diagnosis of severe influenza on antibiotic use, length of stay, isolation precautions, and mortality: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Isabel E; Weber, Rainer; Sax, Hugo; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Kuster, Stefan P

    2017-07-01

    Timely diagnosis of influenza infection in patients might help reduce antibiotic use during influenza seasons and, consequently, antibiotic selection pressure. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate whether time to influenza diagnosis in patients with severe influenza is associated with the duration of antibiotic therapy. We retrospectively included all hospitalized patients >16 years who tested positive for influenza A or B by polymerase chain reaction during influenza seasons 2013/2014 or 2014/2015 at the University Hospital Zurich. The primary aim was to assess the association between timing of laboratory-confirmed influenza diagnosis and duration of antibiotic therapy. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, duration of isolation precautions, and mortality. Early diagnosis was defined as laboratory confirmation on the day of or the day after hospital admission or symptom onset. A total of 126 patients were included (median age 57 years). Timing of influenza diagnosis was not associated with the duration of antibiotic treatment, the duration of isolation precautions, or mortality. Early influenza was associated with reduced length of hospital stay (median 7 vs 9 days [P=.014]) in patients with community-acquired influenza. Although the duration of antibiotic therapy and mortality were found unaffected by early influenza diagnosis, our data indicate that it is linked with a reduction in the length of hospitalization in patients with community-acquired influenza. This highlights a need to also fully understand the effect of time to diagnosis of bacterial pathogens on antibiotic prescribing patterns in order to exploit the potential of early influenza diagnosis in patient care. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna M. Giaffredo Angrisani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR in preterm (PT and term (T newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age. All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups.

  9. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  10. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalley Lawrence J

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive ageing is a major burden for society and a major influence in lowering people's independence and quality of life. It is the most feared aspect of ageing. There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive changes. Seeking the determinants of cognitive ageing is a research priority. A limitation of many studies is the lack of a sufficiently long period between cognitive assessments to examine determinants. Here, the aim is to examine influences on cognitive ageing between childhood and old age. Methods/Design The study is designed as a follow-up cohort study. The participants comprise surviving members of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947; N = 70,805 who reside in the Edinburgh area (Lothian of Scotland. The SMS1947 applied a valid test of general intelligence to all children born in 1936 and attending Scottish schools in June 1947. A total of 1091 participants make up the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They undertook: a medical interview and examination; physical fitness testing; extensive cognitive testing (reasoning, memory, speed of information processing, and executive function; personality, quality of life and other psycho-social questionnaires; and a food frequency questionnaire. They have taken the same mental ability test (the Moray House Test No. 12 at age 11 and age 70. They provided blood samples for DNA extraction and testing and other biomarker analyses. Here we describe the background and aims of the study, the recruitment procedures and details of numbers tested, and the details of all examinations. Discussion The principal strength of this cohort is the rarely captured phenotype of lifetime cognitive change. There is additional rich information to examine the determinants of individual differences in this lifetime cognitive change. This protocol report is important in alerting other researchers to the data available in the cohort.

  11. Visual search for tropical web spiders: the influence of plot length, sampling effort, and phase of the day on species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Leite, C M; Rocha, P L B

    2012-12-01

    Empirical studies using visual search methods to investigate spider communities were conducted with different sampling protocols, including a variety of plot sizes, sampling efforts, and diurnal periods for sampling. We sampled 11 plots ranging in size from 5 by 10 m to 5 by 60 m. In each plot, we computed the total number of species detected every 10 min during 1 hr during the daytime and during the nighttime (0630 hours to 1100 hours, both a.m. and p.m.). We measured the influence of time effort on the measurement of species richness by comparing the curves produced by sample-based rarefaction and species richness estimation (first-order jackknife). We used a general linear model with repeated measures to assess whether the phase of the day during which sampling occurred and the differences in the plot lengths influenced the number of species observed and the number of species estimated. To measure the differences in species composition between the phases of the day, we used a multiresponse permutation procedure and a graphical representation based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling. After 50 min of sampling, we noted a decreased rate of species accumulation and a tendency of the estimated richness curves to reach an asymptote. We did not detect an effect of plot size on the number of species sampled. However, differences in observed species richness and species composition were found between phases of the day. Based on these results, we propose guidelines for visual search for tropical web spiders.

  12. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (p<0.01, 75.6%). There were no significant correlations between the GIN test and the variables tested. Auditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  13. Different influences of field aging on nickel toxicity to Folsomia candida in two types of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Li, Jing; He, Ji-Zheng; Ma, Yi-Bing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Metal aging in soils has been considered an important factor influencing its availability and toxicity to organisms. In this study, we report the influence of 5 years field aging on the nickel (Ni) toxicity to collembolan Folsomia candida based on two different types of soil from Dezhou (DZ) and Qiyang (QY) counties in China. Acute and chronic toxicity of Ni to F. candida was assessed in both freshly spiked and field aging contaminated soils. We found that 5 years field aging increased the EC50 and 2d-LC50 values of Ni to F. candida in the DZ soil, while little influence on the Ni toxicity was observed in the QY soil. There was no adverse effect of the long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to the survival of F. candida in the two tested soils. In addition, field aging of the two soils impacted differently the water-soluble Ni concentrations, which were significantly correlated to the juvenile production of F. candida based on a logistic model. Our study highlights different effects of long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to F. candida between divergent types of soil, and this should be taken into account in future toxicity testing and risk assessment practices.

  14. Ageing influence for the evaluation of DXA precision in female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiang; Yu Wei; Qin Mingwei; Shang Wei; Tian Junping; Han Shaomei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether aging factor influence the precision of DXA measurement at the lumbar spine in females. Methods: A total of 90 female subjects were recruited and divided into three age groups, i.e. 45-55 years, 56-65 years and 66-75 years. There were 30 female subjects for each age group. Each subject was scanned twice at the same day. Mean BMD values from L2 to L4 were collected and grouped by calculating the root mean square (RMS). Precision errors were expressed as root mean square (RMS). P 2 , (0.992±0.010) g/cm 2 , (0.910±0.010) g/cm 2 , respectively. Mean BMD values from L2 to L4 decreased with increasing age group. Root mean square was lower in the 45 -55 age group, and was same between 56-65 and 66-75 age group. There were significant difference of BMD standard deviation between both there groups (F=5.213, P<0.05) any age group (q value I vs II 0.035; II vs III 0.500; I vs III 0.035, P<0.05). Conclusion: Age could influence the precision of DXA measurement at the site of lumbar spine in females. Therefore, caution should be paid to the age of female subjects recruited for the evaluation of precision for DXA measurement in the clinical trials. (authors)

  15. Influence of age and menstrual cycle on mammography and MR imaging of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M.; Ohmenhaeuser, K.; Claussen, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Age and menstrual cycle have an important influence on the breast. This well-known fact is experienced in the daily routine of gynecologists and radiologists. The number of publications addressing the effect of these influences on imaging, however, is surprisingly low. The aim of this work is to describe the influences of age and menstrual cycle on the breast and to address their clinical relevance for mammography and MR mammography. Therefore, own data are presented concerning the age and menstrual cycle influences on breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography. Literature data are used to correlate mammography and MR imaging findings with these influences. The changes of the breast due to age and menstrual cycle have important direct implications on performing and reading conventional mammography and MR mammography. The knowledge of these changes is also helpful in the interpretation of findings when comparing different methods. Finally, the data gained by using imaging methods enable important basic insights into physiology and physiopathology of the breast in vivo. (orig.) [de

  16. Establishing length-at-age references in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L. 1758 (Pisces, Mullidae, a case study for growth assessments in the Mediterranean Geographical Sub-Areas (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. BIANCHINI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Length at age data are a fundamental tool for the assessment of exploited fish populations, their use requiring the identification of the ‘unit stock’. At the present, however, the spatial reference for stock assessment in the Mediterranean Sea is based on a grid of 30 arbitrary Geographical Sub Areas (GSA. Since older data rarely respect the GSA borders, the authors propose to reconstruct the historical data within a common frame and to assess a single reference length at age, together with the corresponding von Bertalanffy growth parameters, to be used as a broad benchmark for analyses inter and intra GSAs. This approach was tested using, as a case study, the red mullet (Mullus barbatus L. 1758, one of the most investigated fish of the whole Mediterranean basin. Published and grey literature was browsed, to get direct and/or indirect length at age estimations. To establish a common baseline and maximize the use of partial information, a vBGF (L∞, total length in mm, and Ky-1 was fitted to length at age data whenever possible. 56 Mediterranean sets were utilized; an overall reference growth line was estimated by sex, discussing its adequacy to the life traits of the species.

  17. Influence Of Smoking Habit On Age At Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Mehrdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No studies have yet investigated the influence of smoking on age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the present study was carried out. This study consisted of 605 females with pathologically confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the breast and 438 healthy females matched by age. Among our participants, 86 (14.2% patients and 62 (14.1% control subjects, respectively, were smokers. Based on a Cox regression model, evidence suggested that smoking status influenced the age at diagnosis of breast cancer (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99, P=0.040. After stratification of the patients according to their menopausal status, the same results were obtained. The present study indicated that non-smokers have a lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients who smoke.

  18. The Influenced of Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Addition and The Length Time of Fermentation Process on The Activity of Seaweed Antioxidant Ulva lactuca from Krakal Beach, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, N. D.; Rushanti, I. R. P. A.; Setyaji, A.; Ningsih, T. R.; Nurhana, N.; Subekhi, I.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed contains phenol compound functioning as antioxidant. Lactobacillus plantarum starter addition in a fermentation process was expected will increase the activity of antioxidant. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of L. plantarum addition and the length of fermentation on the activity of antioxidant in U. lactuca. The experiment was conducted with factorial design. The first treatment consisted 2 different factors namely without L. plantarum addition and L. plantarum addition. While the second treatment were the different length fermentation time: 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Each treatment were done in thriplicate. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and BNJ test was applied if there any differences betweenthe treatments. The results showed that the fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation had TPC BAL 9,83 CFU/ml, pH 4,26, phenol 231 ppm and antioxidant activity IC501375,12 ppm. Dried U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition that was fermentized for 36 hours had TPC BAL 9,10 CFU/ml, pH 4,75, phenol 166,24 ppm and antioxidant activity IC504070,32 ppm. The fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation was the best treatment since the antioxidant activity is IC501375,12 ppm. Although the antioxidant activity was categorized as weak but it was still showed an increase compared to the result of antioxidant activity with maceration method using n-hexana dissolver which was 11213,76 ppm, ethyl acetate 9770,285 ppm, and ethanol extact 4921,79 ppm.

  19. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  20. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  1. Context influences on the relationship between views of aging and subjective age: The moderating role of culture and domain of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; O'Brien, Erica L; Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene H; Popham, Lauren E

    2017-08-01

    Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning. More positive attitudes about aging were associated with older subjective ages, whereas more positive views of self in old age were associated with younger subjective age. It is hypothesized that these effects are reflective of social-comparison processes and self-protective mechanisms. These influences varied considerably over contexts, with views of aging having a greater impact in domains associated with stronger negative stereotypes of aging (e.g., health) compared to those with more positive ones (e.g., family). Culture also moderated the impact of aging views in terms of the strength of prediction, direction of effect, and age of greatest influence, presumably due to cultural differences in the salience and strength of aging-related belief systems across contexts. The results illustrate the contextual sensitivity of subjective age and highlight the role played by an individual's views of old age-both in general and regarding oneself-in determining their own experience of aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Aging and ABO blood type influence von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels through interrelated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albánez, S; Ogiwara, K; Michels, A; Hopman, W; Grabell, J; James, P; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Essentials von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) levels are modulated by age and ABO status. The effect of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII was assessed in 207 normal individuals. Aging and ABO blood type showed combined and bidirectional influences on VWF and FVIII levels. Aging and ABO blood type influence VWF levels through both secretion and clearance mechanisms. Background The effect of aging and ABO blood type on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) have been widely reported; however, a comprehensive analysis of their combined effect has not been performed and the mechanisms responsible for the age-related changes have not been determined. Objectives To assess the influence of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII levels, and to evaluate the contribution of VWF secretion and clearance to the age-related changes. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a cohort of 207 normal individuals, whose levels of VWF, FVIII, VWF propeptide (VWFpp), VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio and blood type A antigen content on VWF (A-VWF) were quantified. Results Aging and ABO blood type exerted interrelated effects on VWF and FVIII plasma levels, because the age-related increase in both proteins was significantly higher in type non-O individuals (β = 0.011 vs. 0.005). This increase with age in non-O subjects drove the differences between blood types in VWF levels, as the mean difference increased from 0.13 U/mL in the young to 0.57 U/mL in the old. Moreover, A-VWF was associated with both VWF antigen (β = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09, 0.50) and VWF clearance (β = -0.15; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.06). We also documented an effect of ABO blood type on VWF secretion with aging, as old individuals with blood type non-O showed higher levels of VWFpp (mean difference 0.29 U/mL). Conclusions Aging and ABO blood type have an interrelated effect on VWF and FVIII levels, where the effect of one is significantly

  3. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  4. Moderation of genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference by age in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Diurnal preference changes across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying this age-related shift are poorly understood. The aim of this twin study was to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference are moderated by age. Seven hundred and sixty-eight monozygotic and 674 dizygotic adult twin pairs participating in the University of Washington Twin Registry completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of diurnal preference. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 93 years (mean = 36.23, SD = 15.54) and were categorized on the basis of age into three groups: younger adulthood (19-35 years, n = 1715 individuals), middle adulthood (36-64 years, n = 1003 individuals) and older adulthood (65+ years, n = 168 individuals). Increasing age was associated with an increasing tendency towards morningness (r = 0.42, p influences for the total sample as well as for each age group separately. Additive genetic influences accounted for 52%[46-57%], and non-shared environmental influences 48%[43-54%], of the total variance in diurnal preference. In comparing univariate genetic models between age groups, the best-fitting model was one in which the parameter estimates for younger adults and older adults were equated, in comparison with middle adulthood. For younger and older adulthood, additive genetic influences accounted for 44%[31-49%] and non-shared environmental influences 56%[49-64%] of variance in diurnal preference, whereas for middle adulthood these estimates were 34%[21-45%] and 66%[55-79%], respectively. Therefore, genetic influences on diurnal preference are attenuated in middle adulthood. Attenuation is likely driven by the increased importance of work and family responsibilities during this life stage, in comparison with younger and older adulthood when these factors may be less influential in determining sleep-wake timing. These findings have implications for studies

  5. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of artificial accelerated aging on dimensional stability of acrylic resins submitted to different storage protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Roselino, Lourenço de Moraes Rego; Mundim, Fabrício Mariano; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Consani, Simonides

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial accelerated aging on dimensional stability of two types of acrylic resins (thermally and chemically activated) submitted to different protocols of storage. One hundred specimens were made using a Teflon matrix (1.5 cm x 0.5 mm) with four imprint marks, following the lost-wax casting method. The specimens were divided into ten groups, according to the type of acrylic resin, aging procedure, and storage protocol (30 days). GI: acrylic resins thermally activated, aging, storage in artificial saliva for 16 hours, distilled water for 8 hours; GII: thermal, aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, dry for 8 hours; GIII: thermal, no aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, distilled water for 8 hours, GIV: thermal, no aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, dry for 8 hours; GV: acrylic resins chemically activated, aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, distilled water for 8 hours; GVI: chemical, aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, dry for 8 hours; GVII: chemical, no aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, distilled water for 8 hours; GVIII: chemical, no aging, artificial saliva for 16 hours, dry for 8 hours GIX: thermal, dry for 24 hours; and GX: chemical, dry for 24 hours. All specimens were photographed before and after treatment, and the images were evaluated by software (UTHSCSA - Image Tool) that made distance measurements between the marks in the specimens (mm), calculating the dimensional stability. Data were submitted to statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA, Tukey test, p= 0.05). Statistical analysis showed that the specimens submitted to storage in water presented the largest distance between both axes (major and minor), statistically different (p artificial accelerated aging and storage period influenced these alterations.

  7. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Metzler; Ayca Erdem; Chin Pao Huang

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 ...

  8. The Stereotype-Matching Effect: Greater Influence on Functioning When Age Stereotypes Correspond to Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Older individuals assimilate, and are targeted by, contradictory positive and negative age stereotypes. It was unknown whether the influence of stereotype valence is stronger when the stereotype content corresponds to the outcome domain. We randomly assigned older individuals to either positive-cognitive, negative-cognitive, positive-physical, or negative-physical subliminal-age-stereotype groups and assessed cognitive and physical outcomes. As predicted, when the age stereotypes corresponded to the outcome domains, their valence had a significantly greater impact on cognitive and physical performance. This suggests that if a match occurs, it is more likely to generate expectations that become self-fulfilling prophecies. PMID:19290757

  9. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  10. Age as an Affective Factor in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety of English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibani, Ahmed; Elmenfi, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    The study is to show how age factor can influence public speaking anxiety among English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University. To indicate the influence of age factor a questionnaire was distributed to the participants of the study. As well as correlation was also undertaken to the data collected to investigate the influence of age…

  11. The Influence of Age of Acquisition in Word Reading and Other Tasks: A Never Ending Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Barry, Christopher; Meot, Alain; Chalard, Marylene

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the influence of age of acquisition (AoA) in word reading and other tasks, and attempts to develop a number of issues raised by Zevin and Seidenberg (2002). Analyses performed on both rated and objective measures of AoA show that the frequency trajectory of words is a reliable predictor of their order of acquisition, which…

  12. Baroreflex sensitivity in the elderly : influence of age, breathing and spectral methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J; TenVoorde, B J; Dekker, J M; Kostense, P J; Bouter, L M; Heethaar, R M

    2000-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has been proposed as a diagnostic parameter for neurological disorders and as a survival-prognosis parameter in diabetic and cardiac patients. Therefore reference values and the reproducibility of BRS were assessed, taking into account the possible influence of age,

  13. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  14. The Influence of Gestational Age on the Loss of Maternal Measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred in mother-infant pairs during third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational age (GA) affects the levels of MMA such that longer GA may result in infants starting out with high levels of MMA. Objective: To determine the influence of GA on the loss of MMA in ...

  15. Lifetime Assessment of Load-Bearing Polymer Glasses: The Influence of Physical Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wolters, Mannes; Wismans, Joris G.F.; Govaert, Leon E.

    2010-01-01

    The timescale at which ductile failure occurs in loaded glassy polymers can be successfully predicted using the engineering approach presented in a previous publication. In this paper the influence of progressive physical ageing on the plastic deformation behaviour of unplasticised poly(vinyl

  16. Lifetime assessment of load-bearing polymer glasses : the influence of physical ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.A.; Bor, T.C.; Wolters, M.; Wismans, J.G.F.; Govaert, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The timescale at which ductile failure occurs in loaded glassy polymers can be successfullypredicted using the engineering approach presented in a previous publication.In this paper the influence of progressive physical ageing on the plastic deformationbehaviour of uPVC is characterised and

  17. Influence Of Social Support, Duration Of Illness And Age On Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated influence of social support, duration of illness, and age on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Twenty women with breast cancer drawn from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and Irrua Specialist Hospital participated in the study. One out of three hypotheses stated was ...

  18. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Hoof, J. van; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  19. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  20. Gender, age and ethnicity influence on pain levels and analgesic use in the acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S

    2015-06-01

    Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.

  1. Knowledge about factors that influence fertility among Australians of reproductive age: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Setter, Tracey; Norman, Robert J; Holden, Carol A; Michelmore, Janet; Johnson, Louise

    2013-02-01

    To explore knowledge about the effects on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse among Australians of reproductive age. Telephone survey of a representative sample of Australians. Not applicable. Australians aged 18 to 45 years who wish to have a child or another child now or in the future. None. Knowledge about the effect on fertility of age, obesity, smoking, and timing of intercourse. A total of 462 interviews were conducted. The majority of respondents underestimated, by about 10 years, the age at which male and female fertility starts to decline. Only one in four correctly identified that female fertility starts to decline before age 35, and one in three identified that male fertility starts to decline before age 45. Most (59%) were aware that female obesity and smoking affect fertility, but fewer recognized that male obesity (30%) and smoking (36%) also influence fertility. Almost 40% of respondents had inadequate knowledge of when in the menstrual cycle a woman is most likely to conceive. Considerable knowledge gaps about modifiable factors that affect fertility were identified. These are targeted in a national education campaign to promote awareness of factors that influence fertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M; Glenn, T; Alda, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset...... cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared. Results: There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After...... on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more...

  3. Asymmetric Conjugated Molecules Based on [1]Benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene for High-Mobility Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Influence of Alkyl Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Keqiang; Li, Weili; Tian, Hongkun; Zhang, Jidong; Yan, Donghang; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2017-10-11

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT)-based asymmetric conjugated molecules, that is, 2-(5-alkylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT-Tn, in which T and n represent thiophene and the number of carbons in the alkyl group, respectively). All of the molecules with n ≥ 4 show mesomorphism and display smectic A, smectic B (n = 4), or smectic E (n > 4) phases and then crystalline phases in succession upon cooling from the isotropic state. Alkyl chain length has a noticeable influence on the microstructures of vacuum-deposited films and therefore on the performance of the organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). All molecules except for 2-(thiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 2-(5-ethylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene showed OTFT mobilities above 5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . 2-(5-Hexylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 2-(5-heptylthiophen-2-yl)[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene showed the greatest OTFT performance with reliable hole mobilities (μ) up to 10.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 because they formed highly ordered and homogeneous films with diminished grain boundaries.

  4. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  5. Do economic recessions during early and mid-adulthood influence cognitive function in older age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/2009 and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b=-0.06, CI -0.11 to -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34=-0.03, CI -0.04 to -0.01; b35-44=-0.02, CI -0.04 to -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly through more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function.

  6. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. The recognition of facial expressions: an investigation of the influence of age and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Sheena M; Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Davis, Hasker P

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in facial expression recognition across the lifespan, as well as to determine the influence of fluid intelligence, processing speed, and memory on this ability. Peak performance in the ability to identify facial affect was found to occur in middle-age, with the children and older adults performing the poorest. Specifically, older adults were impaired in their ability to identify fear, sadness, and happiness, but had preserved recognition of anger, disgust, and surprise. Analyses investigating the influence of cognition on emotion recognition demonstrated that cognitive abilities contribute to performance, especially for participants over age 45. However, the cognitive functions did not fully account for the older adults' impairments on expression recognition. Overall, the age-related deficits in facial expression recognition have implications for older adults' use of non-verbal communicative information.

  8. Does psychotherapy work with school-aged youth? A meta-analytic examination of moderator variables that influence therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L; Ahn, Soyeon; Reese, Robert J; Suarez, Marietta M; Macquoid, Ahjane; Davis, Matthew C; Prout, H Thompson

    2016-06-01

    The present study is a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy for children's mental health outcomes. In particular, this study focuses on potential moderating variables-study design, treatment, client, and therapist characteristics-that may influence therapeutic outcomes for youth but have not been thoroughly accounted for in prior meta-analytic studies. An electronic search of relevant databases resulted in 190 unpublished and published studies that met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Effect sizes differed by study design. Pre-post-test designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.02| to |-0.76| while treatment versus control group comparison designs resulted in absolute magnitudes of treatment effects ranging from |-0.14| to |-2.39|. Changes in youth outcomes larger than 20% were found, irrespective of study design, for outcomes focused on psychosomatization (29% reduction), school attendance (25% increase), and stress (48% reduction). The magnitude of changes after psychotherapy ranged from 6% (externalizing problems) to 48% (stress). Several moderator variables significantly influenced psychotherapy treatment effect sizes, including frequency and length of treatment as well as treatment format. However, results did not support the superiority of a single type of intervention for most outcomes. Implications for therapy with school-aged youth and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Social Factors on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Miha Kaučič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is the connection between social factors and life satisfaction in old age? Purpose: The purpose of this research was to establish the influence of social factors on life satisfaction in old age. Method: The quantitative research method was used, a causal non-experimental method. As sampling data technique we used the technique of a survey questionnaire in ten statistical regions. For the analysis of causal effects and conditional associations we used the advanced statistical propensity score methods (Rubin, 2006. From the statistical set a simple random sample was chosen, we decided on proportionate stratification. For measuring life satisfaction we used Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, to which we added questions in order to study social factors. The research included 656 older adults aged 65 years and above, living in the home environment or in social care institutions. Results: Closely connected to life satisfaction in old age is the living conditions index (housing conditions, environment, financial situation, safety, whereas the lifestyle index (physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption is less closely connected. Discussion: Life satisfaction in old age is importantly influenced by social factors – suitable living conditions and less influenced by a healthy lifestyle, both of which allow for a quality life also in old age. Society: The research has an important influence on the society, as too little attention is being devoted to the phenomenon of ageing. By alerting the public we wish to contribute towards the detabuisation of ageing and ageism. For the stable healthcare system it is important that older adults remain healthy, independent and satisfied. Originality: The originality of the research is in the studying of social factor in the holistic model of satisfaction with life in the old age, which also includes physical, psychological and spiritual factors. Limitations

  10. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  11. Influence of a water regulation event on the age of Yellow River water in the Bohai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xinyu; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Huiwang; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-10-01

    Abrupt changes in freshwater inputs from large rivers usually imply regime shifts in coastal water environments. The influence of a water regulation event on the age of the Yellow River water in the Bohai was modeled using constituent-oriented age and residence time theory to better understand the change in the environmental function of the hydrodynamic field owing to human activities. The water ages in Laizhou Bay, the central basin, and the Bohai strait are sensitive to water regulation. The surface ages in those areas can decrease by about 300 days, particularly in July, and the age stratification is also strengthened. A water regulation event can result in declines in the water age in early July ahead of declines in the water age under climatological conditions (without the regulation event) by about 1 and 5 months in the central basin and Laizhou Bay, respectively. The change in the coastal circulation due to the water regulation event is the primary reason for the change in the Yellow River water age. The high Yellow River flow rate can enhance the density flow and, therefore, reduce the age of the Yellow River water. The subsequent impact of a single water regulation event can last about 1.0 to 4.0 years in different subregions.

  12. "Which Mouse Kissed the Frog?" Effects of Age of Onset, Length of Exposure, and Knowledge of Case Marking on the Comprehension of "Wh"-Questions in German-Speaking Simultaneous and Early Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Anne Dorothee; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining age of onset (AoO) effects in childhood bilingualism have provided mixed results as to whether early sequential bilingual children (eL2) differ from simultaneous bilingual children (2L1) and L2 children on the acquisition of morphosyntax. Differences between the three groups have been attributed to other factors such as length of…

  13. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  14. Context Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy

    2017-08-01

    Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Influence of Macronutrients on Splanchnic and Hepatic Lymphocytes in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteur, David G; Tay, Szun S; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Bertolino, Patrick; McMahon, Aisling C; Cogger, Victoria C; Colakoglu, Feyza; Warren, Alessandra; Holmes, Andrew J; Pichaud, Nicolas; Horan, Martin; Correa, Carolina; Melvin, Richard G; Turner, Nigel; Ballard, J William O; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    There is a strong association between aging, diet, and immunity. The effects of macronutrients and energy intake on splanchnic and hepatic lymphocytes were studied in 15 month old mice. The mice were ad-libitum fed 1 of 25 diets varying in the ratios and amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat over their lifetime. Lymphocytes in liver, spleen, Peyers patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Low protein intake reversed aging changes in splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells, CD4:CD8 T cell ratio, memory/effector CD4 T cells and naïve CD4 T cells. A similar influence of total caloric intake in these ad-libitum fed mice was not apparent. Protein intake also influenced hepatic NK cells and B cells, while protein to carbohydrate ratio influenced hepatic NKT cells. Hepatosteatosis was associated with increased energy and fat intake and changes in hepatic Tregs, effector/memory T, and NK cells. Hepatic NK cells were also associated with body fat, glucose tolerance, and leptin levels while hepatic Tregs were associated with hydrogen peroxide production by hepatic mitochondria. Dietary macronutrients, particularly protein, influence splanchnic lymphocytes in old age, with downstream associations with mitochondrial function, liver pathology, and obesity-related phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The influence of the accelerated ageing on the black screen element of the Electroink prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majnaric, I; Bolanca, Z; Mirkovic, I Bolanca, E-mail: majnaric@grf.h, E-mail: zbolanca@grf.h, E-mail: ibolanca@grf.h [University of Zagreb Faculty of Graphic Arts, Getaldiceva 2, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-06-01

    Printing material and prints undergo changes during ageing which can be recognized in deterioration in the physical, chemical and optical properties. The aim of this work is to determine the optical changes of the prints caused by ageing of the printing material and of the prints obtained by the application of the indirect electrophotography. The change of the screen elements in lighter halftone areas, which was obtained by the usage of the microscopic image analysis, has been discussed in the article. For the preparation of samples the following papers were used: fine art paper, recycled paper and offset paper as well as black Electroink. Three sample series were observed: prints on nonaged paper and ElectroInk, prints on aged paper and ElectroInk and prints on aged paper and nonaged ElectroInk. The investigation results show that by ageing of the uncoated printing substrates the decrease of the dots on prints can be expected, while the printing on the aged paper results in the increased reproduction of the halftone dots. The obtained results are the contribution to the explanation of the influence of the accelerated ageing process of papers which are used for printing and the aged prints on the halftone dot changes. Except the mentioned determined scientific contribution the results are applicable in the area of the printing product quality as well as in the forensic science.

  17. The influence of age on posterior pelvic floor dysfunction in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, S M; Rodrigues, L V; Furtado, D C; Regadas, F S P; Olivia da S Fernandes, G; Regadas Filho, F S P; Gondim, A C; de Paula Joca da Silva, R

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of risk factors is particularly useful to prevent or manage pelvic floor dysfunction but although a number of such factors have been proposed, results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aging on the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders in women with obstructed defecation syndrome evaluated using echodefecography. A total of 334 patients with obstructed defecation were evaluated using echodefecography in order to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunction (rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse, paradoxical contraction or non-relaxation of the puborectalis muscle, and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele). Patients were grouped according to the age (Group I = patients up to 50 years of age; Group II = patients over 50 years of age) to evaluate the isolated and associated incidence of dysfunctions. To evaluate the relationship between dysfunction and age-related changes, patients were also stratified into decades. Group I included 196 patients and Group II included 138. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, rectocele associated with intussusception, rectocele associated with mucosal prolapse and 3 associated disorders was higher in Group II, whereas anismus was more prevalent in Group I. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele was found to increase with age. Conversely, anismus decreased with age. Aging was shown to influence the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders (rectocele, intussusception, mucosa prolapse and enterocele/sigmoidocele), but not the incidence of anismus, in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

  18. The influence of the accelerated ageing on the black screen element of the Electroink prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majnaric, I; Bolanca, Z; Mirkovic, I Bolanca

    2010-01-01

    Printing material and prints undergo changes during ageing which can be recognized in deterioration in the physical, chemical and optical properties. The aim of this work is to determine the optical changes of the prints caused by ageing of the printing material and of the prints obtained by the application of the indirect electrophotography. The change of the screen elements in lighter halftone areas, which was obtained by the usage of the microscopic image analysis, has been discussed in the article. For the preparation of samples the following papers were used: fine art paper, recycled paper and offset paper as well as black Electroink. Three sample series were observed: prints on nonaged paper and ElectroInk, prints on aged paper and ElectroInk and prints on aged paper and nonaged ElectroInk. The investigation results show that by ageing of the uncoated printing substrates the decrease of the dots on prints can be expected, while the printing on the aged paper results in the increased reproduction of the halftone dots. The obtained results are the contribution to the explanation of the influence of the accelerated ageing process of papers which are used for printing and the aged prints on the halftone dot changes. Except the mentioned determined scientific contribution the results are applicable in the area of the printing product quality as well as in the forensic science.

  19. The Influence of Clinical Experience and Photographic Presentation on Age Assessment of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Forman, Julie Lyng; Schwarz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that a higher perceived age is associated with poor health and higher mortality. However, the method used for the assessment of perceived age differs between studies with regard to age, gender, the number and occupation of assessors as well as the presentation of participants. It is not known whether the clinical experience of the assessor or photographic presentation have an influence on the assessment of perceived age, which the present study aimed to investigate. In a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years, 10 consultants and 10 residents were asked to estimate the age of each participant using three different photographic presentations: facial photograph, whole-body photograph, and combined facial and whole-body photographs. Data were analyzed by means of summary statistics and linear mixed models. The inter-class correlation coefficient within each assessor group and photographic presentation varied from 0.66 to 0.75. Limits of agreement were in a broad range but were similar in the two assessor groups. The best inter-assessor agreement was obtained from photographs of both the face and the whole body. Intra- and inter-assessor agreements between photographic presentations were similar among both assessor groups. The accuracy in age assessment was significantly influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor. The difference in the mean perceived age of a participant of average age was estimated as +0.40 years (95% CI: -1.80; 2.59) for consultants versus residents, -2.05 years (95% CI: -2.90; -1.19) for facial photographs versus both facial and whole-body photographs, and -1.44 years (95% CI: -2.30; -0.58) for whole-body photographs versus both facial and whole-body photographs. A regression towards the mean age was seen. The assessment of perceived age was influenced by the photographic presentation but not by the clinical experience of the assessor. © 2015 S

  20. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup. Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative.

  1. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pulmonary Function and Muscle Strength: The Chinese Twin Study of Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xiaocao; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on predictors of decline in daily functioning, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), handgrip, and five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST), have not been addressed in the aging Chinese population. We performed classical twin...... was moderate for FEV1, handgrip, and FTSST (55-60%) but insignificant for FVC. Only FVC showed moderate control, with shared environmental factors accounting for about 50% of the total variance. In contrast, all measures of pulmonary function and muscle strength showed modest influences from the unique...

  3. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  4. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  5. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of female sex and fertile age on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisow, Nadja; Kleiter, Ingo; Gahlen, Anna; Fischer, Katrin; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Pache, Florence; Ruprecht, Klemens; Havla, Joachim; Krumbholz, Markus; Kümpfel, Tania; Aktas, Orhan; Ringelstein, Marius; Geis, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Berthele, Achim; Hemmer, Bernhard; Angstwurm, Klemens; Weissert, Robert; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Schuster, Simon; Stangel, Martin; Lauda, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Mayer, Christoph; Zeltner, Lena; Ziemann, Ulf; Linker, Ralf A; Schwab, Matthias; Marziniak, Martin; Then Bergh, Florian; Hofstadt-van Oy, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Oliver; Winkelmann, Alexander; Marouf, Wael; Rückriem, Lioba; Faiss, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Jarius, Sven; Trebst, Corinna; Hellwig, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset. A total of 186 NMO/SD patients (82% female) were included. In AQP4-ab-positive patients, female predominance was most pronounced during fertile age (female-to-male ratio 23:1). Female patients were more likely to be positive for AQP4-abs (92% vs 55%; p 40 years. Our data suggest an influence of sex and age on susceptibility to AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD. Genetic and hormonal factors might contribute to pathophysiology of NMO/SD.

  7. Influence of Retrogression and Re-aging on the Exfoliation Corrosion Behavior of AA 7085 Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Ajay; Raja, V. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Mukhopadhyay, A. K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-08-15

    An attempt has been made to understand the influence of retrogression and re-aging (RRA) on the exfoliation corrosion behaviour of AA 7085 alloy in comparison with the peak aged condition (PA). Immersion tests using ASTM G34 and studies involving electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the RRA treated alloy provided higher resistance to exfoliation corrosion than the PA treated alloy. The improved resistance was attributed to the enhanced Cu content and the discontinuous nature of the grain boundary precipitate, which was revealed through transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji; Andrés, Antonio R.

    2015-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show (1) the life satisfaction of females who have a child younger than 12 years old is lower than that of females with no children. (2) The greater the marginal effect of child’s age on the life satisfaction, the more developed a nation’s economic condition.

  9. Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimara Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR, pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.

  10. Latitude gradient influences the age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis: a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important outcome predictor. Northern countries report an age of RA onset of around 50 years, but apparently, variability exists across different geographical regions. The objective of the present study is to assess whether the age of onset of RA varies across latitudes worldwide. In a proof-of-concept cross-sectional worldwide survey, rheumatologists from preselected cities interviewed 20 consecutive RA patients regarding the date of RA onset (RAO, when the patient first noted a swollen joint). Other studied variables included location of each city, rheumatologist settings, latitudes (10° increments, south to north), longitudes (three regions), intracountry consistency, and countries' Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Data from 2481 patients (82% females) were obtained from 126 rheumatologists in 77 cities of 41 countries. Worldwide mean age of RAO was 44 ± 14 years (95% CI 44-45). In 28% of patients, RA began before age 36 years and before age 46 years in 50% of patients. RAO was 8 years earlier around the Tropic of Cancer when compared with northern latitudes (p worldwide. We postulate that countries' developmental status and their geographical and geomagnetic location influence the age of RAO.

  11. Influence of coating on nanocrystalline magnetic properties during high temperature thermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekdim, Atef, E-mail: atef.lekdim@univ-lyon1.fr; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-05-15

    Since their birth or mergence the late 1980s, the nanocrystalline ultrasoft magnetic materials are taking a great importance in power electronic systems conception. One of the main advantages that make them more attractive nowadays is their ability to be packaged since the reduction of the magnetostrictive constant to almost zero. In aircraft applications, due to the high component compactness and to their location (for example near the jet engine), the operating temperature increases and may reach easily 200 °C and more. Consequently, the magnetic thermal ageing may occur but is, unfortunately, weakly studied. This paper focuses on the influence of the coating (packaging type) on the magnetic nanocrystalline performances during a thermal ageing. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics of two types of nanocrystalline cores (naked and coated) during a thermal activated ageing (100, 150 and 200 °C). Based on a dedicated monitoring protocol, a large magnetic characterization has been done and analyzed. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena. - Highlights: • The coating impacts drastically the magnetic properties during thermal ageing. • Irreversible ageing phenomena after the total coating breakage. • The deteriorations are related to the storage of the magnetoelastic anisotropy.

  12. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of 109 Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of 109 Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively

  14. The social network of actors influencing age discrimination in the human resources recruiting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian SOFICĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map the area where the social construction of age discrimination in the recruiting process is perceived as taking place, especially those individuals or organized groups with enough power and interest to influence this unethical reality. The research was carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania; it uses multiple qualitative methods (focus-group and interviews and covers three layers of perception: candidate’s perception, employer’s perception and recruiter’s perception. Usually, the main social actors publically perceived as influencing age discrimination in the recruiting process are the employers (as the main responsible, some public institutions (as guardians and the candidates (as victims. The findings of the paper show that the number of social actors perceived as interested and with power by the main social actors (employers and candidates is much higher than the number classically targeted by researchers, reaching 20 or more

  15. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...

  16. Influence of age and sex on mineral absorption from the alimentary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, W.H.; Pories, W.J.; Michael, E.; Peer, R.M.; Zaresky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of age and sex on mineral absorption, especially iron and zinc, from the alimentary tract has been studied in a rat model using radioisotope retention measurements by means of a whole body counter for small animals. The body burden measurements made after oral administration of each radioisotope showed that the radionuclides were absorbed and retained more by young than by old rats, and more by female than by male animals. The sex effect was slight in young rats and became very pronounced in year-old animals. Old female breeder rats absorbed more of the radioisotopes than virgin adult females. The animal results agree well with human stable and radioisotope Fe and with the limited data on radiozinc absorption. The experimental model seems to have general applicability for investigating the influences of age and sex on trace mineral absorption

  17. The influence of family constellation on education considering age-gap and gender of siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Kuba, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Biological and social factors determines human personality. Birth order and its influence rank among strong phenotype forming factors. Practical application of the knowledge is complicated due the lack of evidence in this area in the Czech Republic. In our study, we focused on the role of age-gap between siblings and the role of gender on the birth order in education. Proportion of firstborns in various group of biology students were analysed. We found significantly higher proportions of firs...

  18. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae): influence of female age and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.; Fernandes, Odair A.; Bortoli, Sérgio A.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laborator...

  19. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  20. Robotic assessment of the influence of age on upper-limb sensorimotor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLinares A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ana LLinares, Francisco Javier Badesa, Ricardo Morales, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, JM Sabater, Eduardo Fernandez Biomedical Neuroengineering, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, Spain Purpose: This paper examines the influence of age on several attributes of sensorimotor performance while performing a reaching task. Our hypothesis, based on previous studies, is that aged persons will show differences in one or more of the attributes of sensorimotor performance. Patients and methods: Fifty-one subjects (aged 20–80 years with no known neuromotor disorders of the upper limbs participated in the study. Subjects were asked to grasp the end-effector of a pneumatic robotic device with two degrees of freedom in order to reach peripheral targets (1.0 cm radius, "quickly and accurately", from a centrally located target (1.0 cm radius. Subjects began each trial by holding the hand within the central target for 2000 milliseconds. Afterwards, a peripheral target was illuminated. Then participants were given 3000 milliseconds to complete the movement. When a target was reached, the participant had to return to the central target in order to start a new trial. A total of 64 trials were completed and each peripheral target was illuminated in a random block design. Results: Subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1 (age 20–40 years, group 2 (age 41–60 years, and group 3 (age 61–80 years. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences (P < 0.05 between groups, except for the variables postural speed in the dominant arm, and postural speed and initial deviation in the non-dominant arm (P > 0.05. These results suggest that age introduces significant differences in upper-limb motor function. Conclusion: Our findings show that there are objective differences in sensorimotor function due to age, and that these differences are greater for the dominant arm. Therefore for the assessment of upper-limb function, we should

  1. Children Facial Expression Production: Influence of Age, Gender, Emotion Subtype, Elicitation Condition and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Grossard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of facial expressions (FEs is an important skill that allows children to share and adapt emotions with their relatives and peers during social interactions. These skills are impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, the way in which typical children develop and master their production of FEs has still not been clearly assessed. This study aimed to explore factors that could influence the production of FEs in childhood such as age, gender, emotion subtype (sadness, anger, joy, and neutral, elicitation task (on request, imitation, area of recruitment (French Riviera and Parisian and emotion multimodality. A total of one hundred fifty-seven children aged 6–11 years were enrolled in Nice and Paris, France. We asked them to produce FEs in two different tasks: imitation with an avatar model and production on request without a model. Results from a multivariate analysis revealed that: (1 children performed better with age. (2 Positive emotions were easier to produce than negative emotions. (3 Children produced better FE on request (as opposed to imitation; and (4 Riviera children performed better than Parisian children suggesting regional influences on emotion production. We conclude that facial emotion production is a complex developmental process influenced by several factors that needs to be acknowledged in future research.

  2. Electrocardiographic parameters of the American Miniature Horse: influence of age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The veterinary cardiology has growing importance in equine medicine. There are studies of standardization of electrocardiographic parameters of many races, according to their stature and ability. However, no studies are in the literature with the American Miniature Horse. To evaluate the electrocardiogram (ECG tracing configuration of this breed at rest and to verify the influence of age and sex on ECG parameters, 203 horses including 143 females and 60 males were divided into four age groups (foals, yearlings, adults and elderly. Electrocardiographic parameters were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads of frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. Heart rates (HR decreased with increasing age were higher in males than in females. Sinus tachycardia followed by sinus arrhythmia was dominant in both sexes. The cardiac axis was higher in males and ranged between 120° and 150° for foals, 30° and 60° for yearlings and adults, and 60° and 90° for the elderly. The P wave was bifid in several animals. The P-wave amplitude and T-wave duration from lead II and BA were larger in males than in females. The majority of the animals exhibited ST segment depression and a negative T-wave. The most common QRS complex morphology was Qr. Differences were observed between the electrocardiographic tracings of males and females, and age influenced the ECG parameters. Therefore, this study established the ECG patterns for the American Miniature Horse breed and could be used to determine the influence of age and sex on several of the studied variables.

  3. Influence of artificial aging in marginal adaptation of mixed class V cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Barud, Hélida Gomes de Oliveira; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Lima, Darlon Martins; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; de Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the artificial aging by thermal cycling had influenced the marginal adaptation of class V restorations with/without chlorhexidine application in the bond process. Twelve intact human third molars were used. Class V cavity preparations were performed on the buccal surface and the teeth received 35% phosphoric acid-etching procedure (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah, USA). Subsequently, the samples were divided in two groups: Untreated acid-etched dentin and chlorhexidine application as an adjunct in the bond process. The adhesive Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was used after 2% chlorhexidine application, and the restorations were performed with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M ESPE) composite resin. The specimens were submitted to artificial aging by thermal cycling with 3,000 cycles. Analyzes were performed on scanning electron microscopy using replicas of marginal adaptation in percentage of continuous margin before and after the artificial aging. The data were analyzed by paired test and the results showed statistically significant differences in the percentage of continuous margin with/without chlorhexidine treatment before and after thermal cycling. This study concluded that the artificial aging by thermal cycling influenced the marginal adaptation of mixed class V composite restorations.

  4. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of pedestrian age and gender on spatial and temporal distribution of pedestrian crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2018-01-02

    Every year, about 1.24 million people are killed in traffic crashes worldwide and more than 22% of these deaths are pedestrians. Therefore, pedestrian safety has become a significant traffic safety issue worldwide. In order to develop effective and targeted safety programs, the location- and time-specific influences on vehicle-pedestrian crashes must be assessed. The main purpose of this research is to explore the influence of pedestrian age and gender on the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes to identify the hotspots and hot times. Data for all vehicle-pedestrian crashes on public roadways in the Melbourne metropolitan area from 2004 to 2013 are used in this research. Spatial autocorrelation is applied in examining the vehicle-pedestrian crashes in geographic information systems (GIS) to identify any dependency between time and location of these crashes. Spider plots and kernel density estimation (KDE) are then used to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle-pedestrian crashes for different age groups and genders. Temporal analysis shows that pedestrian age has a significant influence on the temporal distribution of vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Furthermore, men and women have different crash patterns. In addition, results of the spatial analysis shows that areas with high risk of vehicle-pedestrian crashes can vary during different times of the day for different age groups and genders. For example, for those between ages 18 and 65, most vehicle-pedestrian crashes occur in the central business district (CBD) during the day, but between 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., crashes among this age group occur mostly around hotels, clubs, and bars. This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrian age groups and genders. Therefore, specific safety measures should be in place during high crash times at different locations for different age groups and genders to

  6. Influence of fillers on mechanical properties of filled rubbers during ageing by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planes, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the evolution of mechanical properties and the prediction of the lifetime of material environment is a recurring problem. This question is very important to develop polymer formulations used for electrical cables in nuclear power plants. Thus it is important to know the evolution of materials when they are submitted to usual conditions in nuclear power plants. There are in literature some studies concerning the ageing by gamma irradiation of unfilled elastomer but the addition of fillers in the material can have consequences on the evolution of the mechanical properties during irradiation. Thus this work concerns the study of the ageing by gamma irradiation of filled rubbers and the identification of the role of fillers in the degradation mechanisms. The studied matrix, which commonly used for the type of application is EPDM. The fillers are: nano-scopic silica and aluminium trihydrate. Their surfaces have been treated in order to understand the role of filler-matrix interfaces during ageing. To evaluate the influence of fillers on the degradation mechanisms and on the evolution of the mechanical properties, the evolution during ageing of these materials filled or not has been studied for an ageing by irradiation: they have been physico-chemically, micro-structurally and mechanically characterized at various levels of ageing [fr

  7. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease.

  8. Aging Influence on Fatigue Characteristics of RAC Mixtures Containing Warm Asphalt Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an important factor to affect the long-term performance of asphalt pavement. The fatigue life of a typical warm mix asphalt (WMA is generally related to various factors of rheological and mechanical properties of the mixture. The study of the fatigue behavior of the specific rubberized WMA is helpful in recycling the scrap tires and saving energy in terms of the conventional laboratory aging process. This study explores the utilization of the conventional fatigue analysis approach in investigating the cumulative dissipated, stiffness, and fatigue life of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing the WMA additive after a long-term aging process. The aged beams were made with one rubber type (−40 mesh ambient crumb rubber, two aggregate sources, two WMA additives (Asphamin and Sasobit, and tested at 5 and 20ºC. A total of 55 aged fatigue beams were tested in this study. The test results indicated that the addition of crumb rubber extends the fatigue resistance of asphalt binder while WMA additive exhibits a negative effect. The study indicated that the WMA additive generally has an important influence on fatigue life. In addition, test temperature and aggregate source play an important role in determining the cumulative dissipated energy, stiffness, and fatigue life of an aged mixture.

  9. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Donassolo Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in chi ldren and adolescent s because the abi l ity to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturat ion and to determine the influence of these var iables on flexibi l ity in student s f rom publ ic and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p<0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  10. Influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, F M; Da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, L; Silva Sousa, A B; Cruvinel, D R; De Carvalho Panzeri Pires-De-Souza, F

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades. Four composites for direct use (Heliomolar, 4 Seasons, Tetric EvoCeram; QuiXfil) and one for indirect use (SR Adoro) in two shades were used: light (A2) and dark (C3 for direct, and D4 for indirect composite). QuiXfil was obtained in Universal shade. A Teflon matrix (12 X 2 mm) was used to obtain 54 specimens (N=6), which were submitted to color and opacity analysis (Spectrophotometer PCB 6807, Byk Gardner) before and after artificial accelerated aging for 384 hours. After the statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA - Bonferroni - PArtificial accelerated aging interfered in the optical properties assessed; however, the alterations seemed to be more related to the composites composition than to their shade.

  11. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  12. Executive Functions: Influence of Sex, Age and Its Relationship With Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira e Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Tower of Hanoi is a tool used to evaluate executive functions. However, few studies describe what functions are evaluated in this test. This study investigates the executive functions, evaluated by the Tower of Hanoi (ToH, and the influence of gender, age and its relationship with intelligence. We evaluated 55 children and adolescents, between the ages of ten and 16, without diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorders. The results showed that the performance and time in to complete the Tower of Hanoi have no discriminative power when comparing age groups and sex; there was also no significant correlation found between the ToH and the execution quotient of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC III, perceptual organization and the speed of processing. Only the subtest coding were positively related to the ToH, demonstrating that these instruments may be measuring related aspects of intelligence and executive functions, namely intelligence and working memory.

  13. The Influence of Negative Emotion on Cognitive and Emotional Control Remains Intact in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Zinchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control. In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of negative emotion on cognitive and emotional conflict processing in groups of younger adults (mean age = 25.2 years and older adults (69.4 years. Participants viewed short video clips and either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict or their emotional valence (emotional conflict, while the visual facial information was congruent or incongruent. Results show that negative emotion modulates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing in younger and older adults as indicated in reduced response times and/or enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs. In emotional conflict processing, we observed a valence-specific N100 ERP component in both age groups. In cognitive conflict processing, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the N100 responses in both age groups, and a main effect of congruence in the P200 and N200. Thus, the influence of emotion on conflict processing remains intact in aging, despite a marked decline in cognitive control. Older adults may prioritize emotional wellbeing and preserve the role of emotion in cognitive and emotional control.

  14. The influence of older age on breast cancer treatment decisions and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; McCormick, Beryl; Yahalom, Joachim; Borgen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Information concerning the differences between older and younger women with breast cancer, treated with standard therapy, is lacking from many prospective series. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence treatment decisions and determine if women age 65 and older are treated differently than younger women. The outcomes of older women would then be compared to younger women to determine if treatment differences influence outcome. Methods and Materials: The records of 558 women with early invasive breast cancer who were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Four hundred thirty-two women under the age of 65 (range: 24-64) and 126 women age 65 and older (range: 65-85) were assessed for treatment differences including breast reexcision, extent of axillary dissection, extent of breast and nodal irradiation, and the use of chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Differences in the treatment of the two groups were determined and the end points of local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were compared. Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Results: The two treatment groups had identical pathologic TNM staging with the exception that 21% of the older age group and 5% of the younger age group did not undergo axillary dissection. Women age 65 and older were less likely to have a reexcision, extensive axillary dissection, chemotherapy, or nodal irradiation. They were more likely to receive hormonal therapy. Reexcision in older women was positively influenced by a family history of breast cancer and negatively influenced by a history of previous malignancy. None of the patients who were treated without an axillary dissection suffered a regional recurrence. Although local control was better in older patients, there were no differences in disease-free or overall survival for the two groups. Discussion: The findings of this study reveal that older patients have significant treatment

  15. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additio...

  16. Influence of Bleaching Agents on Color and Translucency of Aged Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Maristela; Mozzaquatro, Lisandra R; Rodrigues, Camila; Kaizer, Marina R; Mallmann, André; Jacques, Letícia B

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate the influence of two bleaching agents (16% carbamide peroxide-CP and 35% hydrogen peroxide-HP) on color and translucency of one resin composite (Filtek Z350 XT) in two opacities (enamel and dentin) previously aged in deionized water or red wine. Sixty specimens of each material were divided in two groups (n = 30): aged in water or red wine for 14 days. Then the specimens were divided in three subgroups (n = 10): control/no treatment, treated with 16% carbamide peroxide (Mix Night), treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Mix One). Color readings were performed 24 hours after polishing (baseline); after the 14 days of aging; and after bleaching treatment. Color coordinates CIE L*a*b* were measured using a spectrophotometer (SP60 X-Rite). Color change (CIEDE2000) and translucency parameter were calculated. Data were analyzed with repeated measures two-way ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (5%). Bleaching decreased color change in stained resin composites (aged in red wine), whereas increased it in non-stained enamel resin composites (aged in water). CP had better bleaching results with stained resin composites than HP. Translucency of non-stained dentin resin composite decreased with aging, but did not change with bleaching. For stained resin composites, aging caused reduced translucency, whereas bleaching increased it. Effective bleaching of discolored resin composites aged in an acidic and alcoholic media rich in staining agents was achieved, improving color and translucency. Carbamide peroxide showed better performance than hydrogen peroxide for the bleaching of stained resin composites. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:368-377, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Aging of theory of mind: the influence of educational level and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wang, Fan; Tao, Qian; Xie, Yu; Cheng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of theory of mind (ToM) in old age have provided mixed results. We predicted that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM. To test this hypothesis, a younger group who received higher education (mean age 20.46 years), an older group with an education level equal to that of the young group (mean age 76.29 years), and an older group with less education (mean age 73.52 years) were recruited. ToM tasks included the following tests: the second-order false-belief task, the faux-pas task, the eyes test, and tests of fundamental aspects of cognitive function that included two background tests (memory span and processing speed) and three subcomponents of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting). We found that the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in inhibition, memory span, and processing speed mediated the age differences in false-belief reasoning. Also, the variables of inhibition, updating, memory span, and processing speed mediated age-related variance in faux-pas. Discussion focused on the links between ToM aging, educational level, and cognitive processing. Supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (number: 30870766) and Anhui Province Natural Science Foundation (number: 11040606M166).

  18. Influence of Age and Aerobic Fitness on the Multifractal Characteristics of Electrocardiographic RR Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal properties of electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR time-series offer insight into its long-term correlation structure, independently of RR variability. Here we quantify multifractal characteristics of RR data during 24-hour diurnal-nocturnal activity in healthy participants. We tested the hypotheses that (1 age, gender and aerobic fitness influence RR multifractal properties, and that (2 these are influenced by circadian variation.Seventy adults (39 males aged 19-58 years and of various fitness levels were monitored using 24-hour ECG. Participants were dichotomised by median age and fitness for sub-group analysis. Gender and fitness were independent of age (p=0.1, p>0.5. Younger/older group ages were substantially different (p<0.0005 and were independent of gender and fitness. Multifractality was quantified using the probability spectrum of Hölder exponents (h, from which modal h (h* and the full-width and half-widths at half-maximum measures (FWHM, HWHM+ and HWHM- were derived. FWHM decreased (p=0.004 and h* increased (p=0.011 in older people, indicating diminished long-range RR correlations and weaker anti-persistent behavior. Anti-persistent correlation (h* was strongest in the youngest/fittest individuals and weakest in the oldest/least fit individuals (p=0.015. Long-range correlation (HWHM+/FWHM was strongest in the fittest males and weakest in the least fit females (p=0.007-0.033.Multifractal RR characteristics in our healthy participants showed strong age-dependence with diminished long-range anti-persistent correlation in older people. Circadian variation of these characteristics was influenced by fitness and gender: fitter males and females of all ages had the greatest degree of multifractality or long-range order. Multifractal characterisation appears to be a useful method for exploring the physiological basis of long-term correlation structure in RR time-series as well as the benefits thereon of physical fitness training.

  19. Influence of tritium aging on kinetics feature of LaNi4.9Al0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Li Rong

    2001-01-01

    Kinetics parameters were measured at different aging time on LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy. The influence of tritium aging on kinetics feature of LaNi 4.9 Al 0.1 alloy was assessed. The results show that tritium aging does not change deuterating-dedeuterating reaction order. Reaction rate decrease with aging time. Activation energy (E) increases with aging time

  20. Changes in Search Path Complexity and Length During Learning of a Virtual Water Maze: Age Differences and Differential Associations with Hippocampal Subfield Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes has been proposed to underlie age-related deficits in navigation. Animal studies suggest a differential role of hippocampal subfields in various aspects of navigation, but that hypothesis has not been tested in humans. In this study, we examined the association between volume of hippocampal subfields and age differences in virtual spatial navigation. In a sample of 65 healthy adults (age 19-75 years), advanced age was associated with a slower rate of improvement operationalized as shortening of the search path over 25 learning trials on a virtual Morris water maze task. The deficits were partially explained by greater complexity of older adults' search paths. Larger subiculum and entorhinal cortex volumes were associated with a faster decrease in search path complexity, which in turn explained faster shortening of search distance. Larger Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-2 volume was associated with faster distance shortening, but not in path complexity reduction. Age differences in regional volumes collectively accounted for 23% of the age-related variance in navigation learning. Independent of subfield volumes, advanced age was associated with poorer performance across all trials, even after reaching the asymptote. Thus, subiculum and CA1-2 volumes were associated with speed of acquisition, but not magnitude of gains in virtual maze navigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Age and body composition influence TSH concentrations after administration of rhTSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, F F; von Müller, F; Happel, C; Kranert, W T; Grünwald, F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies listed body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM), and age as modifying factors on the TSH concentrations after administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH). The purpose of this study was to identify the main modifying factors on serum TSH levels and to compare the stimulation via single rhTSH injection after a short thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) with that of the standard stimulating protocol. 106 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergoing radioiodine therapy (RIT) after rhTSH administration were obtained through chart review. Two groups were evaluated: Group I was treated with a single rhTSH administration after two weeks of T3 therapy followed by one week of THW. Group II was stimulated according to the international standard protocol via rhTSH injections for two consecutive days. Serum TSH concentrations were documented prior to rhTSH administration (day 1 TSH), one day after (day 3 TSH) and 3-6 days after (mean 4.2 days, day 6 TSH) the last rhTSH injection. The following data was collected: age, gender, weight, height, BMI, LBM, BSA, residual thyroid tissue, CRP, creatinine, GFR, liver enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Group I: Age combined with anthropometric factors like BMI (TSH increase and day 6 TSH), BSA (TSH decrease), and gender (day 6 TSH) are the main modifying factors on serum TSH concentrations after rhTSH administration. Group II: Age and lean body mass (LBM) showed a significant impact on day 3 TSH, TSH increase (day 3-day 1), and TSH decrease (day 6-day 3). Day 6 TSH was found to be influenced by GFR (group II). Age and anthropometric parameters have significant independent influence on TSH concentrations after rhTSH injection in both groups. Anthropometric parameters (BSA, LBM) and demographic parameters (female gender) show strong influence on TSH concentrations. Further research should be conducted to examine the influence of body compartments on TSH levels

  2. Influence of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child

  3. Comparison of influence of ageing on low-temperature characteristics of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Pavla; Valentin, Jan; Benešová, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Ability of relaxation of asphalt mixtures and thus its resilience to climate change and traffic load is decreasing by influence of aging - in this case aging of bituminous binder. Binder exposed to climate and UV ages and becomes more fragile and susceptible to damage. The results of the research presented in this paper are aimed to finding a correlation between low-temperature properties of referential and aged asphalt mixture specimens and characteristics (not low-temperature) of bituminous binders. In this research there were used conventional road binders, commonly used modified binders and binders additionally modified in the laboratory. The low-temperature characteristics were determined by strength flexural test, commonly used in the Czech Republic for High Modulus Asphalt Mixtures (TP 151), and semi-cylindrical bending test (EN 12697-44). Both of the tests were extended by specimens exposed to artificial long-term aging (EN 12697-52) - storing at 85° C for 5 days. The results were compared with characteristics of binders for finding a suitable correlation between characteristics of binders and asphalt mixtures.

  4. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Essential Hypertensive Patients: Influence of Age and Left Ventricular Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Eduardo Cantoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE - To evaluate diastolic dysfunction (DD in essential hypertension and the influence of age and cardiac geometry on this parameter. METHODS - Four hundred sixty essential hypertensive patients (HT underwent Doppler echocardiography to obtain E/A wave ratio (E/A, atrial deceleration time (ADT, and isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT. All patients were grouped according to cardiac geometric patterns (NG - normal geometry; CR - concentric remodeling; CH- concentric hypertrophy; EH - eccentric hypertrophy and to age (60 years. One hundred six normotensives (NT persons were also evaluated. RESULTS - A worsening of diastolic function in the HT compared with the NT, including HT with NG (E/A: NT - 1.38±0.03 vs HT - 1.27±0.02, p<0.01, was observed. A higher prevalence of DD occurred parallel to age and cardiac geometry also in the prehypertrophic groups (CR. Multiple regression analysis identified age as the most important predictor of DD (r²=0.30, p<0.01. CONCLUSION - DD was prevalent in this hypertensive population, being highly affected by age and less by heart structural parameters. DD is observed in incipient stages of hypertensive heart disease, and thus its early detection may help in the risk stratification of hypertensive patients.

  5. Influence of pigments and opacifiers on color stability of an artificially aged facial silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filiè

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two pigments (ceramic powder and oil paint) and one opacifier (barium sulfate) on the color stability of MDX4-4210 facial silicone submitted to accelerated aging. Sixty specimens of silicone were fabricated and divided into six groups--colorless (G1), colorless with opacifier (G2), ceramic (G3), ceramic with opacifier (G4), oil (G5), oil with opacifier (G6). All replicas were submitted to accelerated aging for 1008 hours. The evaluations of chromatic alteration through visual analysis and reflection spectrophotometry were carried out initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of aging. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% level of significance. All groups exhibited chromatic alteration (ΔE > 0); however, this color alteration was not perceptible through visual analysis of the color. The pigmented groups with opacifier presented the lowest ΔE values, with a statistical difference from the other groups. For the groups without opacifier, the group pigmented with oil paint exhibited the lowest ΔE values in the different aging periods, with a statistical difference. Accelerated aging generated significant chromatic alterations in all groups after 252 hours, except for the colorless and oil groups, both with opacifier (G2 and G6). The opacifier protects facial silicones against color degradation, and oil paint is a stable pigment even without addition of opacifier. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Influence of age, mode of delivery and parity on the prevalence of posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions

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    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The correlation between vaginal delivery, age and pelvic floor dysfunctions involving obstructed defecation is still a matter of controversy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of age, mode of delivery and parity on the prevalence of posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions in women with obstructed defecation syndrome. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-nine females with obstructed defecation syndrome were retrospectively evaluated using dynamic 3D ultrasonography to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions (rectocele grade II or III, rectal intussusception, paradoxical contraction/non-relaxation of the puborectalis and entero/ sigmoidocele grade III. In addition, sphincter damage was evaluated. Patients were grouped according to age (50y and stratified by mode of delivery and parity: group I (50y: 251 patients, 60 nulliparous, 148 vaginal delivery and 43 only caesarean section. Additionally, patients were stratified by number of vaginal deliveries: 0 - nulliparous (n = 135, 1 - vaginal (n = 46, >1 - vaginal (n = 166. RESULTS: Rectocele grade II or III, intussusception, rectocele + intussusception and sphincter damage were more prevalent in Group II (P = 0.0432; P = 0.0028; P = 0.0178; P = 0.0001. The stratified groups (nulliparous, vaginal delivery and cesarean did not differ significantly with regard to rectocele, intussusception or anismus in each age group. Entero/sigmoidocele was more prevalent in the vaginal group 50y. No correlation was found between rectocele and the number of vaginal deliveries. CONCLUSION: Higher age (>50 years was shown to influence the prevalence of significant rectocele, intussusception and sphincter damage in women. However, delivery mode and parity were not correlated with the prevalence of rectocele, intussusception and anismus in women with obstructed defecation.

  7. Influence of age, mode of delivery and parity on the prevalence of posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Regadas, Francisco Sergio P; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Furtado, Débora Couto; Gondim, Ana Cecília; Dealcanfreitas, Iris Daiana

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between vaginal delivery, age and pelvic floor dysfunctions involving obstructed defecation is still a matter of controversy. To determine the influence of age, mode of delivery and parity on the prevalence of posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions in women with obstructed defecation syndrome. Four hundred sixty-nine females with obstructed defecation syndrome were retrospectively evaluated using dynamic 3D ultrasonography to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunctions (rectocele grade II or III, rectal intussusception, paradoxical contraction/non-relaxation of the puborectalis and entero/ sigmoidocele grade III). In addition, sphincter damage was evaluated. Patients were grouped according to age (≤50y x >50y) and stratified by mode of delivery and parity: group I (≤50y): 218 patients, 75 nulliparous, 64 vaginal delivery and 79 only cesarean section and group II (>50y): 251 patients, 60 nulliparous, 148 vaginal delivery and 43 only caesarean section. Additionally, patients were stratified by number of vaginal deliveries: 0 - nulliparous (n = 135), 1 - vaginal (n = 46), >1 - vaginal (n = 166). Rectocele grade II or III, intussusception, rectocele + intussusception and sphincter damage were more prevalent in Group II (P = 0.0432; P = 0.0028; P = 0.0178; P = 0.0001). The stratified groups (nulliparous, vaginal delivery and cesarean) did not differ significantly with regard to rectocele, intussusception or anismus in each age group. Entero/sigmoidocele was more prevalent in the vaginal group 50y. No correlation was found between rectocele and the number of vaginal deliveries. Higher age (>50 years) was shown to influence the prevalence of significant rectocele, intussusception and sphincter damage in women. However, delivery mode and parity were not correlated with the prevalence of rectocele, intussusception and anismus in women with obstructed defecation.

  8. Old age and gender influence the pharmacokinetics of inhaled manganese sulfate and manganese phosphate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, David C.; McManus, Brian E.; Marshall, Marianne W.; James, R. Arden; Struve, Melanie F.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether gender or age influences the pharmacokinetics of manganese sulfate (MnSO 4 ) or manganese phosphate (as the mineral form hureaulite). Young male and female rats and aged male rats (16 months old) were exposed 6 h day -1 for 5 days week -1 to air, MnSO 4 (at 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 mg Mn m -3 ), or hureaulite (0.1 mg Mn m -3 ). Tissue manganese concentrations were determined in all groups at the end of the 90-day exposure and 45 days later. Tissue manganese concentrations were also determined in young male rats following 32 exposure days and 91 days after the 90-day exposure. Intravenous 54 Mn tracer studies were also performed in all groups immediately after the 90-day inhalation to assess whole-body manganese clearance rates. Gender and age did not affect manganese delivery to the striatum, a known target site for neurotoxicity in humans, but did influence manganese concentrations in other tissues. End-of-exposure olfactory bulb, lung, and blood manganese concentrations were higher in young male rats than in female or aged male rats and may reflect a portal-of-entry effect. Old male rats had higher testis but lower pancreas manganese concentrations when compared with young males. Young male and female rats exposed to MnSO 4 at 0.5 mg Mn m -3 had increased 54 Mn clearance rates when compared with air-exposed controls, while senescent males did not develop higher 54 Mn clearance rates. Data from this study should prove useful in developing dosimetry models for manganese that consider age or gender as potential sensitivity factors

  9. Aging time on the aluminum basic acetate gel and its influence on the membrane permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, C; Scian, A. N; Aglietti, E.F

    2003-01-01

    Alumina ceramic membranes are new materials with important applications in separation processes with low energy requirements, high selectivity and ability to work at high and low temperatures.The preparation of alumina ceramic membranes from hydrates or aluminum salts as precursors implies obtaining a system of controlled porosity with a suitable mechanical resistance as well as the densification of the material thanks to the stable phases remaining after the thermal treatment.The metal carboxylates are potential precursors for the deposition and the subsequent formation of oxides at low temperatures.Aluminum basic acetate gel was synthesised in this work from commercial pseudobohemite. The influence of the aging time on the composition, crystalline structure and transition temperatures of the phases on the carboxylate was studied by XRD and DTA-TG.From suspensions of this aged gel at different times alumina ceramic membranes were prepared by dipcoating on different α-Al 2 O 3 supports and the influence of aging on the permeability of those membranes face to N 2 was also studied. It was observed that this is a parameter to be considered as it determines the thickness, permeability and integrity of the membranes

  10. Implicit activation of the aging stereotype influences effort-related cardiovascular response: The role of incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiriou, Athina; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2017-09-01

    Based on previous research on implicit effects on effort-related cardiovascular response and evidence that aging is associated with cognitive difficulties, we tested whether the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence young individuals' effort-mobilization during cognitive performance. Young participants performed an objectively difficult short-term memory task during which they processed elderly vs. youth primes and expected low vs. high incentive for success. When participants processed elderly primes during the task, we expected cardiovascular response to be weak in the low-incentive condition and strong in the high-incentive condition. Unaffected by incentive, effort in the youth-prime condition should fall in between the two elderly-prime cells. Effects on cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate (HR) largely supported these predictions. The present findings show for the first time that the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence effort mobilization during cognitive performance-even in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

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    Han Dug Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA. Repeated measures of BMI (z-score were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA.

  12. Onset age of L2 acquisition influences language network in early and late Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojin; Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Jiang, Bo; Gao, Wei; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Niu, Meiqi; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Xiaoxi; Liu, Chang; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-11-01

    Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state. In this study, we acquired resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from 10 Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals (acquired L2: 3years old) and 11 late bilinguals (acquired L2: 6years old), and analyzed their topological properties of language networks after controlling the language daily exposure and usage as well as PL in L1 and L2. We found that early bilinguals had significantly a higher clustering coefficient, global and local efficiency, but significantly lower characteristic path length compared to late bilinguals. Modular analysis indicated that compared to late bilinguals, early bilinguals showed significantly stronger intra-modular functional connectivity in the semantic and phonetic modules, stronger inter-modular functional connectivity between the semantic and phonetic modules as well as between the phonetic and syntactic modules. Differences in global and local parameters may reflect different patterns of neuro-plasticity respectively for early and late bilinguals. These results suggested that different L2 experience influences topological properties of language network, even if late bilinguals achieve high PL-L2. Our findings may provide a new perspective of neural mechanisms related to early and late bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

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    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  14. Influence of the Debye length on the interaction of a small molecule-modified Au nanoparticle with a surface-bound bioreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, Natalia; Zhao, Sandy Shuo; Charbonneau, David M; Pelletier, Joelle N; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-18

    We report that a shorter Debye length and, as a consequence, decreased colloidal stability are required for the molecular interaction of folic acid-modified Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) to occur on a surface-bound receptor, human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). The interaction measured using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing was optimal in a phosphate buffer at pH 6 and ionic strength exceeding 300 mM. Under these conditions, the aggregation constant of the Au NPs was approximately 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and the Debye length was below 1 nm, on the same length scale as the size of the folate anion (approximately 0.8 nm). Longer Debye lengths led to poorer SPR responses, revealing a reduced affinity of the folic acid-modified Au NPs for hDHFR. While high colloidal stability of Au NPs is desired in most applications, these conditions may hinder molecular interactions due to Debye lengths exceeding the size of the ligand and thus preventing close interactions with the surface-bound molecular receptor.

  15. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  16. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, L; Keski-Nisula, L; Harju, M; Räisänen, S; Georgiadis, S; Hannila, M-L; Heinonen, S

    2014-04-01

    Many complications of pregnancy and delivery are associated with umbilical cord length. It is important to examine the variation in length, in order to identify normal and abnormal conditions. Moreover, the factors influencing cord growth and development are not precisely known. The main objectives were to provide updated reference charts for umbilical cord length in singleton pregnancies and to evaluate potential factors affecting cord length. Birth register data of 47,284 singleton pregnant women delivering in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland was collected prospectively. Gender-specific centile charts for cord length from 22 to 44 gestational weeks were obtained using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Gestational, fetal, and maternal factors were studied for their potential influence on cord length with single variable analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Cord length increased according to gestational age, while the growth decelerated post-term. Birth weight, placental weight, pregravid maternal body mass index, parity, and maternal age correlated to cord length. Gestational diabetes and previous miscarriages were associated with longer cords, while female gender and placental abruption were associated with shorter cords. Girls had shorter cords throughout gestation although there was substantial variation in length in both genders. Cord length associated significantly with birth weight, placental weight, and gestational age. Significantly shorter cords were found in women with placental abruption. This important finding requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possible influence of the Kuramoto length in a photo-catalytic water splitting reaction revealed by Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations involving ionization in a weak electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohichi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We studied ion concentration profiles and the charge density gradient caused by electrode reactions in weak electrolytes by using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations without assuming charge neutrality. In weak electrolytes, only a small fraction of molecules is ionized in bulk. Ion concentration profiles depend on not only ion transport but also the ionization of molecules. We considered the ionization of molecules and ion association in weak electrolytes and obtained analytical expressions for ion densities, electrostatic potential profiles, and ion currents. We found the case that the total ion density gradient was given by the Kuramoto length which characterized the distance over which an ion diffuses before association. The charge density gradient is characterized by the Debye length for 1:1 weak electrolytes. We discuss the role of these length scales for efficient water splitting reactions using photo-electrocatalytic electrodes.

  18. Predictors of Love Attitudes: The Contribution of Cultural Orientation, Gender Attachment Style, Relationship Length and Age in Participants From the UK and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore whether a model including psychological predictors at the individual, interpersonal and cultural level could predict romantic attitudes. Attachment style, cultural orientation, gender, and relationship length were tested as predictors for each of the six love styles conceptualized by Lee (1977. Adults from Britain (N = 56 and Hong Kong (N = 52 who were in a romantic relationship completed four self-report measures; a demographic questionnaire, The Individualism and Collectivism Scale (IC-S, The Experiences in Close Relationship Scale-Short Form (ECR-S and The Love Attitude Scale short form (LAS. The model successfully predicted each love style and in one case (Mania accounted for 52% of the variance in this love style. Each love attitude had a different profile, and no one predictor dominated any one style which supports Lee’s original idea that the styles are qualitatively different.

  19. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  20. The influence of age and gender on venous symptomatology. An epidemiological survey in Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, Marc E.; Colman, Roos; Thomis, Sarah; Guillaume, Genevieve; Degrande, Evy; Staelens, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to measure the incidence of the symptoms in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD) and to look for the influence of age on the severity of symptoms for both genders. Materials and methods A survey was carried out in Belgium and Luxembourg between May and September 2013. Patient recruitment was done by 406 general practitioners (GPs). Each GP screened 10-20 consecutive patients older than 18 years. Inquiries were made regarding the presence of symptoms and poss...

  1. Aging irradiation of polymers. Dose-rate and test sequence influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, C.; Carlin, F.; Chenion, J.; Lemaire, F.; Le Meur, M.; Petitjean, M.

    1984-05-01

    This work brings up results of the irradiation dose-rate influence on mechanical and electrical properties of technical polymer materials evolution. Polymer samples were subjected to 3.3.10 -2 Gy.s -1 and 2.8.10 -1 Gy.s -1 dose-rate. Heat and radiation simultaneous action is usualy simulated sequentialy. The hardest simulation on the polymer is the sequence of irradiation followed by thermal aging not the reverse. This study was carried out on eight polymer materials among those used in the electrical appliances for P.W.R. nuclear power plants [fr

  2. Spiral tracing on a touchscreen is influenced by age, hand, implement, and friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Brittany D; Keenan, Kevin G

    2018-01-01

    Dexterity impairments are well documented in older adults, though it is unclear how these influence touchscreen manipulation. This study examined age-related differences while tracing on high- and low-friction touchscreens using the finger or stylus. 26 young and 24 older adults completed an Archimedes spiral tracing task on a touchscreen mounted on a force sensor. Root mean square error was calculated to quantify performance. Root mean square error increased by 29.9% for older vs. young adults using the fingertip, but was similar to young adults when using the stylus. Although other variables (e.g., touchscreen usage, sensation, and reaction time) differed between age groups, these variables were not related to increased error in older adults while using their fingertip. Root mean square error also increased on the low-friction surface for all subjects. These findings suggest that utilizing a stylus and increasing surface friction may improve touchscreen use in older adults.

  3. Influence of ageing on carotid baroreflex peak response latency in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, J.P.; Kim, A.; Young, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of a physiological control system, such as the arterial baroreflex, depends critically upon both the magnitude (i.e. gain or sensitivity) and timing (i.e. latency) of the effector response. Although studies have examined resting arterial baroreflex sensitivity in older subjects......, little attention has been given to the influence of ageing on the latency of peak baroreflex responses. First, we compared the temporal pattern of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) responses to selective carotid baroreceptor (CBR) unloading and loading in 14 young (22 +/- 1 years......) and older (61 +/- 1 years) subjects, using 5 s pulses of neck pressure (NP, +35 Torr) and neck suction (NS, -80 Torr). Second, CBR latency was assessed following pharmacological blockade of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity in eight young subjects, to better understand how known age-related reductions...

  4. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  5. How Do Families Matter? Age and Gender Differences in Family Influences on Delinquency and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537

  6. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives...

  7. Age and health jointly moderate the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement: Evidence from two empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Cort W; Baltes, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Research and theory support the notion that flexible work arrangements (i.e., job resources in the form of formal policies that allow employees the latitude to manage when, where, and how they work) can have a positive influence on various outcomes that are valued both by organizations and their constituents. In the present study, we integrate propositions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate how flexible work arrangements influence work engagement. Then, in 2 studies we test this association and model the influence of different conceptualizations of health and age as joint moderators of this relationship. Study 1 focuses on functional health and chronological age in an age-diverse sample, whereas study 2 focuses on health symptom severity and subjective age in a sample of older workers. In both studies, we demonstrate that the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement is contingent upon age and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Assessing the influence of age and gender on the phenotype of myotonic dystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Federica; Mondello, Stefania; Wenninger, Stephan; Kress, Wolfram; Schoser, Benedikt

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to provide a detailed clinical characterization of a large cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) patients investigating the influence of age and gender as modifying factors of DM2 phenotype. A retrospective study was conducted on 307 patients with genetically confirmed DM2. The following data were analyzed: (1) demographics, (2) clinical features (first symptom, muscular complaints, and multisystemic involvement), (3) diagnostics (serological tests, electromyography, and muscle biopsy). In this cohort (186 females, 121 males), a proximal weakness was the leading symptom at onset (55.4%), followed by myalgia (35.5%) and myotonia (25.4%). Proximal weakness was more common in women than men (64.9 vs. 43.8%, p = 0.0006), whereas being male was associated with higher odds for developing myalgia [OR 2.94 (95% CI 1.53-5.67)]. Patients with muscle weakness at onset were older than those with myalgia and myotonia (p women (p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Early onset of DM2 is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multisystemic involvement [OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98)]. In this updated clinical description of DM2 emerges a profound gender and age influence on the phenotype, emphasizing that female gender and ageing may be associated with a higher disease burden. These age- and gender-specific differences should be considered in diagnostics, management, and future clinical studies of DM2.

  9. The influence of maternal acculturation on child body mass index at age 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, Katarina M; Lindsay, Ana C; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-02-01

    Obesity rates in preschool-aged children are greatest among Latinos. Studies of the relationship of acculturation to obesity among Latino immigrants have primarily focused on adults and adolescents. We examined the influence of maternal acculturation on child body mass index (BMI) at age 24 and 36 months among predominantly Latino, low-income mother-child pairs enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Maternal characteristics were obtained from interviewer-administered surveys conducted in English or Spanish at 6 to 20 weeks postpartum among 679 participants in a randomized controlled trial of a health promotion intervention in two urban areas in the Northeast. Acculturation measures included: nativity (born in the United States vs foreign born), parents' nativity, years of US residence ( or =8 years), and exclusive use of native language vs nonexclusive use (mixed or English only). Following repeated mailings and telephone calls requesting permission to obtain their child's height and weight from Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children records, informed consent was obtained from 108 mothers. Multivariable linear regression models of maternal acculturation and child BMI z score at age 24 months and age 36 months were estimated among all mother-child pairs and within immigrant-only mother-child pairs, adjusting for relevant maternal characteristics. At age 24 months, children of mothers with exclusive use of native language had higher BMI z scores compared to children of mothers with nonexclusive use among 91 mother-child pairs (beta=.74, P=0.02) and within 63 immigrant-only mother-child pairs (beta=.92, P=0.009). Exclusive use of native language was associated with greater BMI in children as young as age 24 months. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which mothers' language acculturation may affect proximal determinants of energy balance in preschool children, including

  10. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eLawrence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognise simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modelled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognise facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy clinical database: Influence of age and gender on the electrical charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María

    The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q ® in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  13. Physiological Aging Influence on Brain Hemodynamic Activity during Task-Switching: A fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Roberta; Cutini, Simone; Cerasa, Antonio; Gramigna, Vera; Olivadese, Giuseppe; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Task-switching (TS) paradigm is a well-known validated tool useful for exploring the neural substrates of cognitive control, in particular the activity of the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. This work is aimed at investigating how physiological aging influences hemodynamic response during the execution of a color-shape TS paradigm. A multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure hemodynamic activity in 27 young (30.00 ± 7.90 years) and 11 elderly participants (57.18 ± 9.29 years) healthy volunteers (55% male, age range: (19-69) years) during the execution of a TS paradigm. Two holders were placed symmetrically over the left/right hemispheres to record cortical activity [oxy-(HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) concentration] of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the dorsal premotor cortex (PMC), and the dorso-medial part of the superior frontal gyrus (sFG). TS paradigm requires participants to repeat the same task over a variable number of trials, and then to switch to a different task during the trial sequence. A two-sample t -test was carried out to detect differences in cortical responses between groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of age on the prefrontal neural activity. Elderly participants were significantly slower than young participants in both color- ( p aging. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the HbO mean concentration of switching task in the PMC ( p = 0.01, β = -0.321) and of shape single-task in the sFG ( p = 0.003, β = 0.342) were the best predictors of age effects. Our findings demonstrated that TS might be a reliable instrument to gather a measure of cognitive resources in older people. Moreover, the fNIRS-related brain activity extracted from frontoparietal cortex might become a useful indicator of aging effects.

  14. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  15. Influence of thermal aging on primary water stress corrosion cracking of cast duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Negishi, Kazuo; Totsuka, Nobuo; Nakajima, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steels which are often used for the main coolant piping of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the slow strain rate test (SSRT) and the constant load test (CLT) of the materials were performed in simulated primary water at 360degC. The stainless steel contains ferritic phase with ranging from 8 to 23% and its mechanical properties are affected by long time thermal aging. Therefore, we paid attention to the influence of its ferrite content and thermal aging on the SCC susceptibility of this stainless steel and prepared three kinds of specimen with different ferrite contents (23%, 15% and 8%). The reduction in area observed by the SSRT in simulated primary water at 360degC was smaller than that obtained by the tensile test in air at the same temperature. Microcracks were observed on the unaged specimen surfaces and aged ones at 400degC for 10,000 hours after 3,000 hours of the CLT with the load condition of two times of yield strength. The SCC susceptibility was evaluated by reduction ratio defined by the ratio of the reduction in area by the SSRT to that by the tensile test. The reduction ratio was not clear for low ferrite specimens, but apparently decreased with increasing aging time for the specimen with 23% ferrite. This change by aging time can be explained as follows: (1) the brittle fracture in the unaged specimens is mainly caused by quasi-cleavage fracture in austenitic phase. (2) After aging, it becomes a mixture of quasi-cleavage fracture in both austenitic and ferritic phases and phase boundary fracture of both phases. (author)

  16. Influence of thermal aging on primary water stress corrosion cracking of cast duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Negishi, Kazuo; Totsuka, Nobuo; Nakajima, Nobuo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In order to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of cast duplex stainless steels which are often used for the main coolant piping of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the slow strain rate test (SSRT) and the constant load test (CLT) of the materials were performed in simulated primary water at 360degC. The stainless steel contains ferritic phase with ranging from 8 to 23% and its mechanical properties are affected by long time thermal aging. Therefore, we paid attention to the influence of its ferrite content and thermal aging on the SCC susceptibility of this stainless steel and prepared three kinds of specimen with different ferrite contents (23%, 15% and 8%). The reduction in area observed by the SSRT in simulated primary water at 360degC was smaller than that obtained by the tensile test in air at the same temperature. Microcracks were observed on the unaged specimen surfaces and aged ones at 400degC for 10,000 hours after 3,000 hours of the CLT with the load condition of two times of yield strength. The SCC susceptibility was evaluated by reduction ratio defined by the ratio of the reduction in area by the SSRT to that by the tensile test. The reduction ratio was not clear for low ferrite specimens, but apparently decreased with increasing aging time for the specimen with 23% ferrite. This change by aging time can be explained as follows: (1) the brittle fracture in the unaged specimens is mainly caused by quasi-cleavage fracture in austenitic phase. (2) After aging, it becomes a mixture of quasi-cleavage fracture in both austenitic and ferritic phases and phase boundary fracture of both phases. (author)

  17. The influence of age on wild rhesus macaques' affiliative social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhijie; Sosa, Sebastian; Wu, Chengfeng; Zhang, Peng

    2018-02-01

    The social relationships that individuals experience at different life stages have a non-negligible influence on their lives, and this is particularly true for group living animals. The long lifespan of many primates makes it likely that these animals have various tactics of social interaction to adapt to complex changes in environmental or physical conditions. The different strategies used in social interaction by individuals at different life stages, and whether the position (central or peripheral) or role (initiator or recipient) of an individual in the group social network changes with age, are intriguing questions that remain to be investigated. We used social network analysis to examine age-related differences in social interaction patterns, social roles, and social positions in three affiliative social networks (approach, allogrooming, and social play) in a group of wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results showed that social interaction patterns of rhesus macaques differ between age classes in the following ways: i) young individuals tend to allocate social time to a high number of groupmates, older individuals prefer to focus on fewer, specific partners; ii) as they grow older, individuals tend to be recipients in approach interactions and initiators in grooming interactions; and iii) regardless of the different social interaction strategies, individuals of all ages occupy a central position in the group. These results reveal a possible key role played by immature individuals in group social communication, a little-explored issue which deserves closer investigation in future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees

    2014-05-01

    Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence for the influence of cognitive functioning on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. The databases were searched for English language papers focusing on human studies published relating cognitive functioning to sexual behavior in the aging population. Keywords included sexual behavior, sexuality, cognitive functioning, healthy elderly, elderly, aging and dementia. Eight studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five included dementia patients and/or their partners, whereas only three studies included healthy older persons. Although not consistently, results indicated a trend that older people who are not demented and continue to engage in sexual activity have better overall cognitive functioning. Cognitive decline and dementia seem to be associated with diminished sexual behavior in older persons. The association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior in the aging population is understudied. The results found are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.

  20. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  1. Analysis and comparison of fish growth from small samples of length-at-age data : Detection of sexual dimorphism in Eurasian perch as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, WM; Van Rooij, JM; Wijnhoven, S

    A relatively simple approach is presented for statistical analysis and comparison of fish growth patterns inferred from size-at-age data. It can be used for any growth model and small sample sizes. Bootstrapping is used to generate confidence regions for the model parameters and for size and growth

  2. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits.

  3. Age differences in attitude change: influences of cognitive resources and motivation on responses to argument quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Chen, Yiwei

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the influences of cognitive resources and motivation on how young and older adults process different quantities of persuasive arguments. In the first experiment session, both young and older adults rated their attitudes toward marijuana legalization and capital punishment. After a week, they read either 3 or 9 similar-quality arguments supporting marijuana legalization and capital punishment. Half of participants were assigned to the high-involvement condition (i.e., told that they were going to discuss the arguments later with the experimenter) and the other half were assigned to the low-involvement condition (i.e., given no instructions). After reading the arguments, participants rated their attitudes toward those 2 social issues again. Highly involved young adults changed their attitudes regardless of the quantity of arguments, whereas lowly involved young adults' attitude change was influenced by the argument quantity. Older adults in both high-involvement and low-involvement conditions changed their attitudes according to the argument quantity. Working memory was found to mediate the age effects on attitude change. This finding demonstrated the importance of a cognitive mechanism in accounting for age differences in attitude change.

  4. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

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    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the r