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Sample records for length grammatical complexity

  1. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  2. The Relation of Utterance Length to Grammatical Complexity in Normal and Language-Disordered Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Hollis S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines mean length of utterance (MLU) in morphemes as a predictor of the grammatical complexity of the natural language corpora of normal preschoolers and of children and adolescents with delayed language, Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome, and autism. (43 references) (GLR)

  3. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  4. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2004-11-05

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  5. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front

  6. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Hénon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  7. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Grammaticality and Utterance Length Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Fulcher-Rood, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This feasibility study examines the convergent and divergent validity of the Grammaticality and Utterance Length Instrument (GLi), a tool designed to assess the grammaticality and average utterance length of a child's prerecorded story retell. Method: Three raters used the GLi to rate audio-recorded story retells from 100 English-speaking…

  8. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children With SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points in time (T1, T2, T3) with 12-month intervals during a 2-year period. Participants were 30 monolingual Dutch children with SLI, age 6;5 (years;months) at T1; 30 typically developing peers, age 6;6 at T1; and 30 typically developing language-matched children, age 4;7 at T1. On the morphosyntactic accuracy measures, the group with SLI performed more poorly than both control groups. Error rates in the group with SLI were much higher than expected on the basis of mean length of T-units and scores on standardized language tests. Percentages of dummy auxiliaries remained high over time. No group differences were found for grammatical complexity, except at T3, when the group with SLI used fewer relative clauses than the typically developing peer group. The narrative analysis demonstrates different developmental trajectories for morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in children with SLI and typically developing peer and language-matched children. In the group with SLI, grammatical skills continue to develop.

  9. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  10. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  11. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  12. Grammatical Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe R. Ezeifeka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract writing presents problems to budding academics, especially in keeping to the generic structure and the requisite word counts by the various publishers. The article focuses on grammatical metaphor as a systemic resource for achieving proficiency in research abstract writing. Borrowing from Halliday and Matthiessen’s semantic domains beyond the clause and Halliday’s theorizing of the language of science, the article explores the various forms of transferences made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements and things, involving downgrading of linguistic units from higher semantic domains to lower ones. The resulting nominalization is seen as the single most powerful resource for effecting grammatical metaphor of the ideational type through its capacity for lexical packing. The article analyzes five randomly selected undergraduate research abstracts that exhibited an obvious lack of awareness of this systemic resource. By focusing on the sequences of figures from each abstract, comprising various numbers of clause nexuses, the article demonstrates how the judicious use of nominalization can simultaneously achieve word economy and information density, which are obvious marks of proficiency in this academic genre, and strongly recommends this grammatical strategy for students and budding academics.

  13. Grammatically Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ...... ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars....

  14. Synaptonemal Complex Length Variation in Wild-Type Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Vranis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis yields haploid gametes following two successive divisions of a germ cell in the absence of intervening DNA replication. Balanced segregation of homologous chromosomes in Meiosis I is aided by a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC. The objective of this study was to determine total average autosomal SC lengths in spermatocytes in three commonly used mouse strains (129S4/SvJae, C57BL/6J, and BALB/c. Our experiments revealed that the total autosomal SC length in BALB/c spermatocytes is 9% shorter than in the two other strains. Shorter SCs are also observed in spermatocytes of (BALB/c × 129S4/SvJae and (C57BL/6J × BALB/c F1 hybrids suggesting a genetic basis of SC length regulation. Along these lines, we studied expression of a selected group of genes implicated in meiotic chromosome architecture. We found that BALB/c testes express up to 6-fold less of Rec8 mRNA and 4-fold less of REC8 protein. These results suggest that the mechanism that defines the SC length operates via a REC8‑dependent process. Finally, our results demonstrate that genetic background can have an effect on meiotic studies in mice.

  15. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    micelles and enzymes, can span several orders of magnitude in length and time scales. The length and time scales of ... length and time scales is required in order to understand and predict structure and dynamics in such com- plex systems. This review .... The late 1980s saw the birth of femtochemistry with Ahmed Zewail ...

  16. Persistent problems in SLI: which grammatical problems remain when children grow older?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinmeijer, I.

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical problems are a hallmark of SLI: most children with SLI seem to have problems with grammatical rules like inflection, agreement or those involved in complex syntactic structures. While grammatical abilities have been studied extensively in younger children with SLI, fewer studies have

  17. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

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    Saeideh Ahangari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  18. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    INF] as a grammatical construction consists in: 1) [méllo INF] is more resistant to restructuring than many other verbal periphrases with an INF; and 2) in LBG [méllo INF] seems to have grammaticalized — as one of its uses — a specialized function embedded in subjunctives, in which méllo...

  19. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can accomodate multiple pathways and transition state ensembles. When entropic and enthalpic con- tributions to the free energy compensate, there may be no significant barriers to folding, leading to very fast, 'downhill' folding. The existence of complex protein folding path- ways implies that in the cellular enviroment, the.

  20. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  1. Rara and grammatical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that grammatical theorizing and linguistic typologizing must go hand in hand and that rare typological features play a central role in the interaction of typology and theory. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses a sampling method that (compared to other sampling...... methods) offers the best chance of finding and identifying rara or rarissima (features and properties attested in very few languages), because the method in question is designed to generate samples that display the greatest possible linguistic variety. Section 3 discusses some relevant details about...... Functional (Discourse) Grammar and sections 4 and 5 are concerned with the crucial role of rara both in theory driven data collection and in data driven theory building....

  2. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Stuttering Frequency in Relation to Lexical Diversity, Syntactic Complexity, and Utterance Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…

  4. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  5. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  6. A low complexity method for the optimization of network path length in spatially embedded networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guang; Yang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Xin-Li; Ming, Yong; Chen, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Wan-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The average path length of a network is an important index reflecting the network transmission efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new method of decreasing the average path length by adding edges. A new indicator is presented, incorporating traffic flow demand, to assess the decrease in the average path length when a new edge is added during the optimization process. With the help of the indicator, edges are selected and added into the network one by one. The new method has a relatively small time computational complexity in comparison with some traditional methods. In numerical simulations, the new method is applied to some synthetic spatially embedded networks. The result shows that the method can perform competitively in decreasing the average path length. Then, as an example of an application of this new method, it is applied to the road network of Hangzhou, China. (paper)

  7. A Short Introduction to Model Selection, Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Description Length (MDL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The concept of overtting in model selection is explained and demon- strated. After providing some background information on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a short explanation of Minimum Description Length and error minimization. We conclude with a discussion of the typical

  8. Internal Grammar and Children's Grammatical Creativity against Poor Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Belletti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the unexpected linguistic behavior that young children sometimes display by producing structures that are only marginally present in the adult language in a constrained way, and that adults do not adopt in the same experimental conditions. It is argued here that children's capacity to overextend the use of given syntactic structures thereby resulting in a grammatical creative behavior is the sign of an internal grammatical pressure which manifests itself given appropriate discourse conditions and factors of grammatical complexity and which does not necessarily require a rich input to be put into work. This poverty of the stimulus type situation is illustrated here through the overextended use of a-Topics and reflexive-causative passives by young Italian speaking children when answering eliciting questions concerning the direct object of the clause.

  9. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  10. Grammatical competence of ESL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafisa, Palesa J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to report on a study investigating the grammatical competence of English Second Language teachers in secondary schools. This study came about as a result of the widespread concern that these teachers may not always be competent enough in English. We determined the teachers’ familiarity with standard English grammar as well as their acceptance of Black South African English features. The findings indicate that teachers had problems with the grammatical structures tested and accepted some Black South African English grammatical features as correct usage. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om verslag te doen oor ‘n studie wat die grammatikale vermoë van onderwysers van Engels Tweedetaal-onderwysers in sekondêre skole gemeet het. Die studie is gedoen na aanleiding van ‘n wydverspreide besorgdheid dat onderwysers van Engels nie altyd vaardig genoeg in Engels is nie. Ons het die onderwysers se bekendheid met standaard-Engels grammatika vasgestel asook hul aanvaarding van Swart Suid-Afrikaanse Engelse grammatikale verskynsels. Die bevindinge dui aan dat onderwysers probleme het met die grammatikale strukture wat getoets is en dat hulle sekere Swart Suid-Afrikaanse Engelse grammatikale verskynsels as korrek aanvaar.

  11. Topoclimate effects on growing season length and montane conifer growth in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, D. M.; Barnard, H. R.; Molotch, N. P.

    2017-05-01

    Spatial variability in the topoclimate-driven linkage between forest phenology and tree growth in complex terrain is poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how ecosystems function as a whole. To characterize the influence of topoclimate on phenology and growth, we determined the start, end, and length of the growing season (GSstart, GSend, and GSL, respectively) using the correlation between transpiration and evaporative demand, measured with sapflow. We then compared these metrics with stem relative basal area increment (relative BAI) at seven sites among elevation and aspects in a Colorado montane forest. As elevation increased, we found shorter GSL (-50 d km-1) due to later GSstart (40 d km-1) and earlier GSend (-10 d km-1). North-facing sites had a 21 d shorter GSL than south-facing sites at similar elevations (i.e. equal to 200 m elevation difference on a given aspect). Growing season length was positively correlated with relative BAI, explaining 83% of the variance. This study shows that topography exerts strong environmental controls on GSL and thus forest growth. Given the climate-related dependencies of these controls, the results presented here have important implications for ecosystem responses to changes in climate and highlight the need for improved phenology representation in complex terrain.

  12. ERP correlates of lexical analysis: N280 reflects processing complexity rather than category or frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelliere, Angele; Hoen, Michel; Dominey, Peter F

    2005-09-08

    In the context of language processing, the N280 is an anterior negative event-related potential profile associated with the lexical categorization of grammatical function words versus content words. Subsequent studies suggested that this effect was related to word statistics including length and frequency in the lexicon. The current research tests the hypothesis that the N280 effect is related to an index of grammatical complexity. We recorded event-related potentials during a sentence reading task. Comparing content versus function words revealed the classic N280. Within function words, we compared the relative pronouns 'qui' and 'que' (which are identical for length and frequency) that in French indicate a subsequent simple (subject-subject) and complex (subject-object) relative clause, respectively. A left anterior N280 effect was observed only for 'que', supporting our hypothesis that the N280 reflects grammatical complexity that can be confounded with lexical category and statistical properties.

  13. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  14. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  15. A Hybrid Approach for Correcting Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for correcting grammatical errors in the sentences uttered by Korean learners of English. The error correction system plays an important role in GenieTutor, which is a dialogue-based English learning system designed to teach English to Korean students. During the talk with GenieTutor, grammatical error…

  16. Targeting a complex transcriptome: the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carninci, Piero; Waki, Kazunori; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Konno, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Arakawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Daisuke; Bono, Hidemasa; Kondo, Shinji; Sugahara, Yuichi; Saito, Rintaro; Osato, Naoki; Fukuda, Shiro; Sato, Kenjiro; Watahiki, Akira; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Mari; Shibata, Yuko; Yasunishi, Ayako; Kikuchi, Noriko; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Gustincich, Stefano; Beisel, Kirk; Pavan, William; Aidinis, Vassilis; Nakagawara, Akira; Held, William A; Iwata, Hiroo; Kono, Tomohiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Lyons, Paul; Wells, Christine; Hume, David A; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K; Brinkmeier, Michelle; Camper, Sally; Hirota, Junji; Mombaerts, Peter; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-06-01

    We report the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia,the most extensive view of a complex transcriptome,on the basis of preparing and sequencing 246 libraries. Before cloning,cDNAs were enriched in full-length by Cap-Trapper,and in most cases,aggressively subtracted/normalized. We have produced 1,442,236 successful 3'-end sequences clustered into 171,144 groups, from which 60,770 clones were fully sequenced cDNAs annotated in the FANTOM-2 annotation. We have also produced 547,149 5' end reads,which clustered into 124,258 groups. Altogether, these cDNAs were further grouped in 70,000 transcriptional units (TU),which represent the best coverage of a transcriptome so far. By monitoring the extent of normalization/subtraction, we define the tentative equivalent coverage (TEC),which was estimated to be equivalent to >12,000,000 ESTs derived from standard libraries. High coverage explains discrepancies between the very large numbers of clusters (and TUs) of this project,which also include non-protein-coding RNAs,and the lower gene number estimation of genome annotations. Altogether,5'-end clusters identify regions that are potential promoters for 8637 known genes and 5'-end clusters suggest the presence of almost 63,000 transcriptional starting points. An estimate of the frequency of polyadenylation signals suggests that at least half of the singletons in the EST set represent real mRNAs. Clones accounting for about half of the predicted TUs await further sequencing. The continued high-discovery rate suggests that the task of transcriptome discovery is not yet complete.

  17. Resolving Conflicts in Natural and Grammatical Gender Agreement: Evidence from Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, Maya; Deutsch, Avital; Bock, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The present research investigated the attraction phenomenon, which commonly occurs in the domain of production but is also apparent in comprehension. It particularly focused on its accessibility to conceptual influence, in analogy to previous findings in production in Hebrew (Deutsch and Dank, J Mem Lang, 60:112-143, 2009). The experiments made use of the contrast between grammatical and natural gender in Hebrew, using complex subject noun phrases containing head nouns and prepositional phrases with local nouns. Noun phrases were manipulated to produce (a) matches and mismatches in grammatical gender between heads and local nouns; and (b) inanimate nouns and animate nouns with natural gender that served either as head or as local nouns. These noun phrases were the subjects of sentences that ended with predicates agreeing in gender with the head noun, with the local noun, or both. The ungrammatical sentences were those in which the gender of the predicate and the head noun did not match. To assess the impact of conflicts in grammatical and natural gender on the time course of reading, participants' eye movements were monitored. The results revealed clear disruptions in reading the predicate due to grammatical-gender mismatches with head and local nouns, in analogy to attraction in production. When the head nouns conveyed natural gender these effects were amplified, but variations in the natural gender of local nouns had negligible consequences. The results imply that comprehension and production are similarly sensitive to the control of grammatical agreement by grammatical and natural gender in subject noun phrases.

  18. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  19. Some Dictionary Descriptions of Grammatical Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Dictionary Descriptions of. Grammatical Structure. William Branford, Department of Linguistics, University of Cape Town opsomming: Enkele woordeboekbeskrywings van grammatikale struk- tuur. Hierdie artikel ondersoek enkele aspekte van die behandeling van grammatikale struktuur in vier resente woordeboeke ...

  20. Learning Transformation Rules to Find Grammatical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Lisa; Vilain, Marc; Yeh, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Grammatical relationships are an important level of natural language processing. We present a trainable approach to find these relationships through transformation sequences and error-driven learning. Our approach finds grammatical relationships between core syntax groups and bypasses much of the parsing phase. On our training and test set, our procedure achieves 63.6% recall and 77.3% precision (f-score = 69.8).

  1. Time for actions in lucid dreams: Effects of task modality, length, and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eErlacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (Erlacher & Schredl, 2004; LaBerge, 1985, but Erlacher and Schredl (2004 found that performing squats required about 40 % more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted.In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20 and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20 or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps.Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics. However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.

  2. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations.

  3. Time for actions in lucid dreams: effects of task modality, length, and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Stumbrys, Tadas; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between time in dreams and real time has intrigued scientists for centuries. The question if actions in dreams take the same time as in wakefulness can be tested by using lucid dreams where the dreamer is able to mark time intervals with prearranged eye movements that can be objectively identified in EOG recordings. Previous research showed an equivalence of time for counting in lucid dreams and in wakefulness (LaBerge, 1985; Erlacher and Schredl, 2004), but Erlacher and Schredl (2004) found that performing squats required about 40% more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state. To find out if the task modality, the task length, or the task complexity results in prolonged times in lucid dreams, an experiment with three different conditions was conducted. In the first condition, five proficient lucid dreamers spent one to three non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants counted to 10, 20, and 30 in wakefulness and in their lucid dreams. Lucidity and task intervals were time stamped with left-right-left-right eye movements. The same procedure was used for the second condition where eight lucid dreamers had to walk 10, 20, or 30 steps. In the third condition, eight lucid dreamers performed a gymnastics routine, which in the waking state lasted the same time as walking 10 steps. Again, we found that performing a motor task in a lucid dream requires more time than in wakefulness. Longer durations in the dream state were present for all three tasks, but significant differences were found only for the tasks with motor activity (walking and gymnastics). However, no difference was found for relative times (no disproportional time effects) and a more complex motor task did not result in more prolonged times. Longer durations in lucid dreams might be related to the lack of muscular feedback or slower neural processing during REM sleep. Future studies should explore factors that might be associated with prolonged durations. PMID:24474942

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex differentiation using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Chimara

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Differentiation of MTBC members is required for appropriate treatment of individual patients and for epidemiological purposes. Strains from six MTBC species - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis subsp. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, and "M. canetti" - were studied using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism (gyrB-RFLP analysis. A table was elaborated, based on observed restriction patterns and published gyrB sequences. To evaluate applicability of gyrB-RFLP at Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory, 311 MTBC clinical isolates, previously identified using traditional methods as M. tuberculosis (306, M. bovis (3, and M. bovis BCG (2, were analyzed by gyrB-RFLP. All isolates were correctly identified by the molecular method, but no distinction between M. bovis and M. bovis BCG was obtained. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis is of utmost importance, because they require different treatment schedules. In conclusion, gyrB-RFLP is accurate and easy-to-perform, with potential to reduce time needed for conventional differentiation methods. However, application for epidemiological studies remains limited, because it cannot differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. africanum subtype II, and "M. canetti", M. africanum subtype I from M. pinnipedii, and. M. bovis from M. bovis BCG.

  5. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Renán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae. Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to determine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b, standard error (SE b and coefficients of determination (R2 were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers’ juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers’ b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was t-tested (t-Student to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3, which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b between Snappers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  6. Selection of optimal complexity for ENSO-EMR model by minimum description length principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, E. M.; Mukhin, D.; Mukhina, A.; Gavrilov, A.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Feigin, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main problems arising in modeling of data taken from natural system is finding a phase space suitable for construction of the evolution operator model. Since we usually deal with strongly high-dimensional behavior, we are forced to construct a model working in some projection of system phase space corresponding to time scales of interest. Selection of optimal projection is non-trivial problem since there are many ways to reconstruct phase variables from given time series, especially in the case of a spatio-temporal data field. Actually, finding optimal projection is significant part of model selection, because, on the one hand, the transformation of data to some phase variables vector can be considered as a required component of the model. On the other hand, such an optimization of a phase space makes sense only in relation to the parametrization of the model we use, i.e. representation of evolution operator, so we should find an optimal structure of the model together with phase variables vector. In this paper we propose to use principle of minimal description length (Molkov et al., 2009) for selection models of optimal complexity. The proposed method is applied to optimization of Empirical Model Reduction (EMR) of ENSO phenomenon (Kravtsov et al. 2005, Kondrashov et. al., 2005). This model operates within a subset of leading EOFs constructed from spatio-temporal field of SST in Equatorial Pacific, and has a form of multi-level stochastic differential equations (SDE) with polynomial parameterization of the right-hand side. Optimal values for both the number of EOF, the order of polynomial and number of levels are estimated from the Equatorial Pacific SST dataset. References: Ya. Molkov, D. Mukhin, E. Loskutov, G. Fidelin and A. Feigin, Using the minimum description length principle for global reconstruction of dynamic systems from noisy time series, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 80, P 046207, 2009 Kravtsov S, Kondrashov D, Ghil M, 2005: Multilevel regression

  7. The Impact of Teaching Grammatical Structures on Writing Ability of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of language studies, second language acquisition (SLA researchers have been searching for effective ways of improving learners’ language skills. With this in mind this study aimed to examine the effect of teaching grammatical structures on developing writing ability of Chabehar high school students. The research identified some effective strategies in improving writing ability of students. Twenty subjects were assigned in one group and were pretested/ post tested on the writing section. To obtain information on the effect of this model, some grammatical structures including conjunctions, adjective clause, adverb clause and noun clause were taught to learners. The topic of composition was to describe their town. The items which were considered to rate were length and rate in subordinate conjunctions, transitive adverbs, coordinate conjunctions, connectors in composition.. The results showed that teaching grammatical structures affects writing ability and there was a meaningful improvement compared with the beginning of the research.

  8. Accentuate the Negative: Grammatical Errors during Narrative Production as a Clinical Marker of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate…

  9. Grammatical inference algorithms, routines and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wieczorek, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on grammatical inference, presenting classic and modern methods of grammatical inference from the perspective of practitioners. To do so, it employs the Python programming language to present all of the methods discussed. Grammatical inference is a field that lies at the intersection of multiple disciplines, with contributions from computational linguistics, pattern recognition, machine learning, computational biology, formal learning theory and many others. Though the book is largely practical, it also includes elements of learning theory, combinatorics on words, the theory of automata and formal languages, plus references to real-world problems. The listings presented here can be directly copied and pasted into other programs, thus making the book a valuable source of ready recipes for students, academic researchers, and programmers alike, as well as an inspiration for their further development.>.

  10. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  11. The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... utilise the format of the microstructure as a means to convey grammatical facts of the target language to the learner. Keywords: afrikaans, grammatical equivalence, learners' dictionaries, lexicography, macrostructure, microstructure, morphology, syntax, translating dictionaries, translation theory, trilingual dictionaries, zulu ...

  12. Motion of nanoprobes in complex liquids within the framework of the length-scale dependent viscosity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Sozanski, Krzysztof; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Tabaka, Marcin; Hou, Sen; Holyst, Robert

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the recent phenomenological model of the motion of nanoscopic objects (colloidal particles, proteins, nanoparticles, molecules) in complex liquids. We analysed motion in polymer, micellar, colloidal and protein solutions and the cytoplasm of living cells using the length-scale dependent viscosity model. Viscosity monotonically approaches macroscopic viscosity as the size of the object increases and thus gives a single, coherent picture of motion at the nano and macro scale. The model includes interparticle interactions (solvent-solute), temperature and the internal structure of a complex liquid. The depletion layer ubiquitously occurring in complex liquids is also incorporated into the model. We also discuss the biological aspects of crowding in terms of the length-scale dependent viscosity model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Grammatical Categories in Robert Frost's Blank Verse: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, Roland Hazen

    Structural linguistic techniques were utilized to categorize the grammatical elements employed by Robert Frost in 46 blank-verse poems. Nineteen main grammatical categories and 26 verb sub-categories based on distinctive selection criteria were devised to examine the range and distribution of Frost's grammatical patterns. Five control poems by E.…

  14. Grammatical Metaphor and Its Difficulties in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-feng

    2010-01-01

    Grammatical metaphor is the term used by Halliday to refer to meaning transference in grammar. Instead of the congruent realization of a norm, the metaphorical representation has become the norm in many instances. Metaphorical modes of expression are characteristic of all adult discourses (Halliday, 1994). The shift from congruent to metaphorical…

  15. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  16. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  17. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  18. The force-length relationship of a muscle-tendon complex : experimental results and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Ettema, Gertjan C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Models are useful when studying how architectural and physiological properties of muscle-tendon complexes are related to function, because they allow for the simulation of the behaviour of such complexes during natural movements. In the construction of these models, evaluation of their accuracy is

  19. Backbone assignment of the binary complex of the full length Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjeong; Fowler, Jason D; Suo, Zucai; Wu, Zhengrong

    2017-04-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), a model Y-family DNA polymerase, bypasses a wide range of DNA lesions in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we report the backbone chemical shift assignments of the full length Dpo4 in its binary complex with a 14/14-mer DNA substrate. Upon DNA binding, several β-stranded regions in the isolated catalytic core and little finger/linker fragments of Dpo4 become more structured. This work serves as a foundation for our ongoing investigation of conformational dynamics of Dpo4 and future determination of the first solution structures of a DNA polymerase and its binary and ternary complexes.

  20. Polycation-Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate-Type Surfactant Complexes : Influence of Ethylene Oxide Length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Leo F. W.; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Poiyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether Sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES

  1. At grammatical faculty of language, flies outsmart men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Nüesch, Patrick; Stoop, Ralph Lukas; Bunimovich, Leonid A

    2013-01-01

    Using a symbolic dynamics and a surrogate data approach, we show that the language exhibited by common fruit flies Drosophila ('D.') during courtship is as grammatically complex as the most complex human-spoken modern languages. This finding emerges from the study of fifty high-speed courtship videos (generally of several minutes duration) that were visually frame-by-frame dissected into 37 fundamental behavioral elements. From the symbolic dynamics of these elements, the courtship-generating language was determined with extreme confidence (significance level > 0.95). The languages categorization in terms of position in Chomsky's hierarchical language classification allows to compare Drosophila's body language not only with computer's compiler languages, but also with human-spoken languages. Drosophila's body language emerges to be at least as powerful as the languages spoken by humans.

  2. Grammatical production deficits in PPA: Relating narrative and structured task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Grammatical production impairments in primary progressive aphasia (PPA have been investigated using structured language tasks and analysis of narrative language samples (for review see Thompson & Mack, 2014; Wilson et al., 2012. However, little research has examined the relationship between them in PPA. Whereas structured tasks often assess production accuracy at different levels of syntactic complexity (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013, narrative measures typically assess overall lexical and grammatical usage (e.g., % grammatical sentences; noun-to-verb ratio, with lesser emphasis on complexity. The present study investigated the relationship between narrative measures of grammatical production and performance on structured language tests in the domains of syntax, verb morphology, and verb-argument structure (VAS. Materials and methods Data from 101 individuals with PPA were included. Participants completed a test battery including the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS, Thompson, 2011, the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Lee & Thompson, experimental version and the Northwestern Anagram Test (NAT, Thompson, Weintraub, & Mesulam, 2012. Grammatical production deficits were quantified as follows: for syntax, accuracy of non-canonical sentence production on the NAVS Sentence Production Priming Test (SPPT and the NAT; for morphology, the accuracy on finite verbs on the NAVI; for VAS, the accuracy of sentences produced with 2- and 3-argument verbs on the NAVS Argument Structure Production Test (ASPT. Cinderella narrative samples were analyzed using the Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis system (e.g., Thompson et al., 2012. For syntax, complexity was measured by the ratio of syntactically complex to simple sentences produced, whereas accuracy was indexed by computing the proportion of words with a locally grammatical lexical category. Morphological complexity was measured by mean number of verb

  3. A neurolinguistic model of grammatical construction processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Hoen, Michel; Inui, Toshio

    2006-12-01

    One of the functions of everyday human language is to communicate meaning. Thus, when one hears or reads the sentence, "John gave a book to Mary," some aspect of an event concerning the transfer of possession of a book from John to Mary is (hopefully) transmitted. One theoretical approach to language referred to as construction grammar emphasizes this link between sentence structure and meaning in the form of grammatical constructions. The objective of the current research is to (1) outline a functional description of grammatical construction processing based on principles of psycholinguistics, (2) develop a model of how these functions can be implemented in human neurophysiology, and then (3) demonstrate the feasibility of the resulting model in processing languages of typologically diverse natures, that is, English, French, and Japanese. In this context, particular interest will be directed toward the processing of novel compositional structure of relative phrases. The simulation results are discussed in the context of recent neurophysiological studies of language processing.

  4. FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FACTORS IN THE ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sergeevna Kotova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research conducted is revealing the peculiarities of lexical paradigmatics influence upon the usage of aspect and temporal verb forms and the opposite impact as well, i.e. the influence of aspect and temporal verb forms upon the lexical meaning of this verb groups under specific conditions of functioning. The lexical paradigmatics is considered as the system of mutually contrasted semantic features of particular verb groups. In this case, we analyze the paradigmatics in the middle language hierarchy for each language level separately. Methodology. The research is conducted synchronically on the material of the contemporary English verb system. Interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is examined in a functional aspect. Such consideration gives a possibility to differentiate the intrasystem phenomena and phenomena of pragmatic character and expose the system-structural mutual relations of lexical and grammatical factors. The research material is the verb as massive word group. From the point of view of interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the functional and semantic field representing aspectuality, we get interested in the meaning which realizes in the opposition ofatelicity – telicity(telicity correlates the action with the limit, and atelicity demotes the action irrespectively to its limit. The technique applied to the analysis of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is complex combining descriptive and comparative and functional methods. Results. Interrelations and interdependency of lexical and grammatical paradigmatics create particular sustainability in using the lexical unit of this paradigm with aspect and temporal verb forms. In this case, the tendencies of the language sign developing and changing are expressed in the process of the mutual substitution and interpenetration of grammatical forms primarily under the influence of paradigmatic

  5. GRAMMATICAL CONSTRAINTS ON VERB PHRASES IN TWI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akos

    of the switch patterns that occur in Twi/English CS. This however does not mean it is ..... tone pattern of the stems of the verbs and these perform grammatical functions. For example, when pam is marked for the ... vowel in procrastinate is pronounced on a high tone to indicate a question. (10a) e-/dѐpèndì/. 3SG- depend.

  6. FROM GRAMMATICAL SEMANTICS TO GRAMMAR OF DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Б Уланова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an excerpt from the song « A Hard Rain’s A-Gonna Fall» by Bob Dylan, an American rock musician and a Nobel Prize laureate, and views song lyrics as a type of poetry. The author pays special attention to semantic potential of different word classes (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, prepositions and examines the way they contribute to the creation of personal and spatial deixis, narrative dynamics, the correlation between the individual and the universal, definiteness and indefiniteness. The paper analyses the grammatical framing of the lyrics and the violation of morpho-syn-tactic combinability. The author investigates the semantic features of «a-gonna» verb form and draws some conclusions about the discursive nature of A-prefixation. Grammatical features are studied in their close connection with stylistic devices (rhythmic and morpho-syntactic repetition, assonance and alliteration, allusion, symbols, etc. The conclusions drawn touch upon the fields of grammatical semantics and lin-guopoetics.

  7. Can Translation Improve EFL Students' Grammatical Accuracy? [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Ebbert-Hübner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on research results from a project completed at Trier University in December 2015 that provides insight into whether a monolingual group of learners can improve their grammatical accuracy and reduce interference mistakes in their English via contrastive analysis and translation instruction and activities. Contrastive analysis and translation (CAT instruction in this setting focusses on comparing grammatical differences between students’ dominant language (German and English, and practice activities where sentences or short texts are translated from German into English. The results of a pre- and post-test administered in the first and final week of a translation class were compared to two other class types: a grammar class which consisted of form-focused instruction but not translation, and a process-approach essay writing class where students received feedback on their written work throughout the semester. The results of our study indicate that with C1 level EAP students, more improvement in grammatical accuracy is seen through teaching with CAT than in explicit grammar instruction or through language feedback on written work alone. These results indicate that CAT does indeed have a place in modern language classes.

  8. Constraints on probability distributions of grammatical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the constraints on probability distribution of grammatical forms within morphological paradigms of Serbian language, where paradigm is specified as a coherent set of elements with defined criteria for inclusion. Thus, for example, in Serbian all feminine nouns that end with the suffix "a" in their nominative singular form belong to the third declension, the declension being a paradigm. The notion of a paradigm could be extended to other criteria as well, hence, we can think of noun cases, irrespective of grammatical number and gender, or noun gender, irrespective of case and grammatical number, also as paradigms. We took the relative entropy as a measure of homogeneity of probability distribution within paradigms. The analysis was performed on 116 morphological paradigms of typical Serbian and for each paradigm the relative entropy has been calculated. The obtained results indicate that for most paradigms the relative entropy values fall within a range of 0.75 - 0.9. Nonhomogeneous distribution of relative entropy values allows for estimating the relative entropy of the morphological system as a whole. This value is 0.69 and can tentatively be taken as an index of stability of the morphological system.

  9. Grammatical Means of Temporality Expression in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulegen Asylbekovich Merkibayev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Creation problem of model of grammatical means of temporality expression in translation from English into Kazakh and Russian languages is considered in the article. At a choice of translation of transformations of aspectual-temporal categories of a verb from English into Kazakh and Russian languages it is considered not only grammatical compliance of categories of tense, but also the contextual use of a functional and semantic field of verbs, comparison of lexical temporality with positions of concepts, specific to each language world picture, with positions of modern philosophy and logic of language. Authors come to a conclusion that productive use of analytical forms in the Kazakh and English languages is the result of structural features of categories of tense and a type of English and Kazakh languages. Comparison of a phase of actions of a verb in English and Kazakh languages allows creation of reference model of grammatical means of expression of temporality in translation from English into Kazakh and Russian languages on the basis of a functional and semantic field of verbs, comparison of lexical temporality from positions specific on each language picture of the world.

  10. Effects of age and syntactic complexity on speech motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromey, Christopher; Boyce, Kelsey; Channell, Ron

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of age on articulatory movement and stability in young, middle-age, and older adults. It also examined the potential influence of linguistic complexity on speech motor control across utterances that differed in their length and grammatical complexity. There were 60 participants in 3 age groups: 20-30 years, 40-50 years, and 60-70 years, with equal numbers of men and women in each group. The speakers produced 10 repetitions of 5 different stimuli-each of which included the same bilabial-loaded phrase in different grammatical contexts-while their lip movements were recorded. Participants from the 60-year-old group had significantly longer utterance durations, whereas those from the 20-year-old group had the highest jaw spatiotemporal index (STI) values. There were significant differences in the upper lip STI, displacement, and velocity as well as in vocal intensity for the longer, complex conditions compared with the shorter, phrase-only task. Overall, the differences in performance were minimal across grammatical complexity levels that were equal in length. These findings suggest that speech motor control matures beyond young adulthood and that linguistic complexity in a repetitive task does not appear to have a consistent effect on measures of speech movement.

  11. Effects of the series length on Lempel-Ziv Complexity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Massimo W; Migliorini, Matteo; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto; Bianchi, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) has been demonstrated to be a powerful complexity measure in several biomedical applications. During sleep, it is still not clear how many samples are required to ensure robustness of its estimate when computed on beat-to-beat interval series (RR). The aims of this study were: i) evaluation of the number of necessary samples in different sleep stages for a reliable estimation of LZC; ii) evaluation of the LZC when considering inter-subject variability; and iii) comparison between LZC and Sample Entropy (SampEn). Both synthetic and real data were employed. In particular, synthetic RR signals were generated by means of AR models fitted on real data. The minimum number of samples required by LZC for having no changes in its average value, for both NREM and REM sleep periods, was 10(4) (p1000 when a tolerance of 5% is considered satisfying. The influence of the inter-subject variability on the LZC was first assessed on model generated data confirming what found (>10(4); pNREM and REM stage. However, on real data, without differentiate between sleep stages, the minimum number of samples required was 1.8×10(4). The linear correlation between LZC and SampEn was computed on a synthetic dataset. We obtained a correlation higher than 0.75 (p<;0.01) when considering sleep stages separately, and higher than 0.90 (p<;0.01) when stages were not differentiated. Summarizing, we suggest to use LZC with the binary quantization and at least 1000 samples when a variation smaller than 5% is considered satisfying, or at least 10(4) for maximal accuracy. The use of more than 2 levels of quantization is not recommended.

  12. Measuring the Effects of Recasts According to Grammatical Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Rintaro

    2010-01-01

    The recast is the most frequently used feedback method across a spectrum of classroom settings (Lyster, 2007). Previous research has shown the potential advantages of the recast, although some problems have also been suggested. Previous studies reported that recasts to learners' grammatical errors were more frequently provided than to any other error types, but that the success rate in grammatical recasts was the lowest. After categorizing grammatical structures as either early developmental ...

  13. Role of the ratio of biopolyelectrolyte persistence length to nanoparticle size in the structural tuning of electrostatic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Carn, Florent; Boué, François; Buhler, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Aggregation of nanoparticles of given size R induced by addition of a polymer strongly depends on its degree of rigidity. This is shown here on a large variety of silica nanoparticle self-assemblies obtained by electrostatic complexation with carefully selected oppositely charged biopolyelectrolytes of different rigidity. The effective rigidity is quantified by the total persistence length LT representing the sum of the intrinsic (Lp) and electrostatic (Le) polyelectrolyte persistence length, which depends on the screening, i.e., on ionic strength due to counterions and external salt concentrations. We experimentally show that the ratio LT/R is the main tuning parameter that controls the fractal dimension Df of the nanoparticles' self-assemblies, which is determined using small-angle neutron scattering: (i) For LT/R nanoparticles in excess, hence ramified structures with Df˜2 . (ii) For 0.3 nanoparticles), in good agreement with computer simulations. (iii) For LT/R >1 ,Le is strongly increased due to the absence of salt and repulsions between nanoparticles cannot be compensated for by the polyelectrolyte wrapping, which allows a spacing between nanoparticles and the formation of one-dimensional pearl necklace complexes. (iv) Finally, electrostatic screening, i.e., ionic strength, turned out to be a reliable way of controlling Df and the phase diagram behavior. It finely tunes the short-range interparticle potential, resulting in larger fractal dimensions at higher ionic strength.

  14. Novel full-length major histocompatibility complex class I allele discovery and haplotype definition in pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Matthew R; Wiseman, Roger W; Karl, Julie A; Graham, Michael E; Gieger, Samantha M; O'Connor, David H

    2017-11-13

    Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina, Mane) are important models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies. Their infectability with minimally modified HIV makes them a uniquely valuable animal model to mimic human infection with HIV and progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, variation in the pig-tailed macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the impact of individual transcripts on the pathogenesis of HIV and other infectious diseases is understudied compared to that of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time circular consensus sequencing to describe full-length MHC class I (MHC-I) transcripts for 194 pig-tailed macaques from three breeding centers. We then used the full-length sequences to infer Mane-A and Mane-B haplotypes containing groups of MHC-I transcripts that co-segregate due to physical linkage. In total, we characterized full-length open reading frames (ORFs) for 313 Mane-A, Mane-B, and Mane-I sequences that defined 86 Mane-A and 106 Mane-B MHC-I haplotypes. Pacific Biosciences technology allows us to resolve these Mane-A and Mane-B haplotypes to the level of synonymous allelic variants. The newly defined haplotypes and transcript sequences containing full-length ORFs provide an important resource for infectious disease researchers as certain MHC haplotypes have been shown to provide exceptional control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication and prevention of AIDS-like disease in nonhuman primates. The increased allelic resolution provided by Pacific Biosciences sequencing also benefits transplant research by allowing researchers to more specifically match haplotypes between donors and recipients to the level of nonsynonymous allelic variation, thus reducing the risk of graft-versus-host disease.

  15. Data Mining for Grammatical Inference with Bioinformatics Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vivian F.; Aguilar, Ramiro; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, María N.; Corchado, Juan M.

    In this paper we describe both theoretical and practical results of a novel data mining process that combines hybrid techniques of association analysis and classical sequentiation algorithms of genomics to generate grammatical structures of a specific language. We used an application of a compilers generator system that allows the development of a practical application within the area of grammarware, where the concepts of the language analysis are applied to other disciplines, such as Bioinformatic. The tool allows the complexity of the obtained grammar to be measured automatically from textual data. A technique of incremental discovery of sequential patterns is presented to obtain simplified production rules, and compacted with bioinformatics criteria to make up a grammar.

  16. Life expectancy: complex measures of the length and the health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spizzichino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Life expectancy is one of the most frequently used indicators to assess mortality and the health of a population. It is a synthetic measure of mortality, which has the advantage of allowing for comparisons over time and between different groups, while eliminating the influence of the age structure of the population. Life expectancy has the advantage of being very easy to understand, although it needs to be interpreted within the context of the complex system of hypothesis that generates it. This is even more important for health expectancies and health gap measures, which are synthetic indicators that take into account both survival and health condition of a population.

    Methods: It is given a description of the most frequently used methods to calculate life expectancy, health expectancies and health gap measures. Measures of health expectancy are disability free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. As health gap measures, frequently are used DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Discussion: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At an international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on the part of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability.

    Results and Conclusions: There are several methods to compute life expectancy, each of these has some advantages and some disadvantages. Usually life expectancy is used also to account for the health status of population. Actually with the growing role of chronic and degenerative diseases, the increased number of

  17. Haplotyping the human T-cell receptor β-chain gene complex by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmley, P.; Chao, A.; Gatti, R.A.; Concannon, P.; Hood, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied the genetic segregation of human T-cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) genes on chromosome 7q in 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). They constructed haplotypes from eight RFLPs by using variable- and constant-region cDNA probes, which detect polymorphisms that span more than 600 kilobases of the TCRβ gene complex. Analysis of allele distributions between TCRβ genes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium between only 6 of the 28 different pairs of RFLPs. This linkage disequilibrium strongly influences the most efficient order to proceed for typing of these RFLPs in order to achieve maximum genetic informativeness, which in this study revealed a 97.3% level of heterozygosity within the TCRβ gene complex. The results should provide new insight into recent reports of disease associations with the TCRβ gene complex and should assist in designing future experiments to detect or confirm the existence of disease-susceptibility loci in this region of the human genome

  18. Indonesian Efl Advanced Learners' Grammatical Errors

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mardijono, Josefa

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on an error analysis of the written work of the English Department students who have finished the seventh semester of a four-year undergraduate English Program. The source of the data consists of seventeen proposals for linguistics researches, as the final projects upon the completion of the undergraduate study year 2001 in Petra Christian University. The purpose of the study is to reveal the grammatical errors and to find out the types of errors and their frequency of occ...

  19. An analytical commentary on some telling grammatical errors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of some serious grammatical aberrations on nearly all the Frequency Modulation Stations (FM) in the Kumasi Metropolis. The paper argues that owing to the power of the electronic media, constant repetition of grammatical aberrations tend to exert a negative effect on learners, especially, the ...

  20. Grammatical Errors Produced by English Majors: The Translation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Hamid; Zarandi, Fatemeh Mahmoudi; Shariati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of the grammatical errors related to the four categories of preposition, relative pronoun, article, and tense using the translation task. In addition, the frequencies of these grammatical errors in different categories and in each category were examined. The quantitative component of the study further looked…

  1. Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follman, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Twelve college seniors in an English methods course were assigned to three treatment groups, Grammatical, Holistic, and Both. Each group received different instructions but graded the same 10 themes. Themes graded for grammatical errors received lower grades than the same themes graded holistically. (NH)

  2. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  3. Grammatical Accuracy and Learner Autonomy in Advanced Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Ene, Estela

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to explore advanced ESL learners' ability to make improvements in grammatical accuracy by autonomously noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. In the recent literature in SLA, it is suggested that classroom tasks can be used to foster autonomous language learning habits (cf. Dam 2001). Therefore, it is important to…

  4. Grammatical constraints on verb phrases in Twi/English code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that items from the languages that participate in code switching (henceforth CS) do not occur at random. Rather they are guided by the grammatical rules of the languages involved. Verbs that participate in Twi/English CS also do not occur at random. They are constrained by the grammatical rules of ...

  5. Percent Grammatical Responses as a General Outcome Measure: Initial Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This report investigated the validity of using percent grammatical responses (PGR) as a measure for assessing grammaticality. To establish construct validity, we computed the correlation of PGR with another measure of grammar skills and with an unrelated skill area. To establish concurrent validity for PGR, we computed the correlation of…

  6. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  7. INDONESIAN EFL ADVANCED LEARNERS' GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa J. Mardijono

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an error analysis of the written work of the English Department students who have finished the seventh semester of a four-year undergraduate English Program. The source of the data consists of seventeen proposals for linguistics researches, as the final projects upon the completion of the undergraduate study year 2001 in Petra Christian University. The purpose of the study is to reveal the grammatical errors and to find out the types of errors and their frequency of occurrence in the students' written work. The errors collected are identified and classified using Linguistic Category Taxonomy as a guideline. To describe the errors, Surface Strategy Taxonomy is employed to explain the ways surface structures are altered. The findings present the types of morphological and syntactic errors, their detailed description, and the frequency of occurrence of each error type. It is hoped that this study will give a new perspective in the advanced learners' grammatical errors, and provide data for teachers and syllabus designers dealing with English Grammar.

  8. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  9. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  10. Grammatical Structures in Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Н Гладкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how cultural information is embedded at the level of grammar and it treats grammar as inseparable from semantics and pragmatics. The study is done within the approach known as ethnosyntax. The article provides examples of cultural meaning embedded at the level of syntax relying on examples from Russian and English. In particular, it demonstrates variation in impersonal constructions in Russian and causative constructions in English. It then discusses variation in the use of grammatical structures due to the influence of cultural factors on the basis of ways of wording ‘requests’ in English and Russian. The linguistic examples in the discussion are sources from the Russian National Corpus for Russian and Collins Wordbanks Online for English. The article argues for the importance of culture-sensitive linguistic studies in language teaching.

  11. Supramolecular structures for determination and identification of the bond lengths in novel uranyl complexes from their infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; Morgan, Sh. M.; Seyam, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Novel dioxouranium (VI) heterochelates with neutral bidentate compounds (Ln) have been synthesized. The ligands and the heterochelates [UO2(Ln)2(O2NO)2] were confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, UV.-Vis, IR, mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). IR spectral data suggest that the molecules of the Schiff base are coordinated to the central uranium atom (ON donor). The nitrato groups are coordinated as bidentate ligands. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The ligands (Ln) and their complexes (1-3) showed the υ3 frequency of UO22+ has been shown to be an excellent molecular probe for studying the coordinating power of the ligands. The values of υ3 of the prepared complexes containing UO22+ were successfully used to calculate the force constant, FUO (1n 10-8N/Å) and the bond length RUO (Å) of the Usbnd O bond. A strategy based upon both theoretical and experimental investigations has been adopted. The theoretical aspects are described in terms of the well-known theory of 5d-4f transitions. Wilson's, matrix method, Badger's formula, and Jones and El-Sonbati equations were used to calculate the Usbnd O bond distances from the values of the stretching and interaction force constants. The most probable correlation between Usbnd O force constant to Usbnd O bond distance were satisfactorily discussed in term of Badger's rule and the equations suggested by Jones and El-Sonbati. The effect of Hammett's constant is also discussed.

  12. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar

    2009-10-15

    Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the

  13. Grammatical Errors In Oral Recount Of Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, Alvina; Wijaya, Bambang; Susilawati, Endang

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the most frequent type of grammatical error in oral recount, the frequency of grammatical error and the main causes of students' grammatical error in oral recount. The reserach was carried out at SMP N 2 Sungai Raya. It was descriptive research and the sample was eighth grade students of VIII A. Data analysis showed that the most frequent type of errors was misinformation by 141 errors made.The percentage of errors were omission by 36,25 % (moderat...

  14. Length-scales of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle section of the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, B.; Walker, R. J.; Clay, P. L.; Day, J. M. D.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Kilometre to sub-metre scale heterogeneities have been inferred in the oceanic mantle based on sampling of both ophiolites and abyssal peridotites. The ∼492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC) contains a well-preserved mantle section that is dominated by harzburgite (∼70 vol.%) previously reported to have variable major and trace element compositions, yet dominantly chondritic initial 187Os/188Os compositions. To assess the preservation of compositional heterogeneities at sub-metre length-scales in the oceanic mantle, a ∼45 m2 area of the SOC mantle section was mapped and sampled in detail. Harzburgites, dunites and a pyroxenite from this area were analysed for lithophile and highly-siderophile element (HSE) abundances, as well as for 187Os/188Os ratios. Lithophile element data for most rocks are characteristic of supra-subduction zone (SSZ) metasomatic processes. Two dunites have moderately fractionated HSE patterns and suprachondritic γOs(492 Ma) values (+5.1 and +7.5) that are also typical of ophiolitic dunites generated by SSZ melt-rock interactions. By contrast, six harzburgites and four dunites have approximately chondritic-relative abundances of Os, Ir and Ru, and γOs(492 Ma) values ranging only from -0.6 to +2.7; characteristics that imply no significant influence during SSZ processes. Two harzburgites are also characterised by significantly less radiogenic γOs(492 Ma) values (-3.5 and -4), and yield Mesoproterozoic time of Re depletion (TRD) model ages. The range of Os isotope compositions in the studied area is comparable to the range reported for a suite of samples representative of the entire SOC mantle section, and approaches the total isotopic variation of the oceanic mantle, as observed in abyssal peridotites. Mechanisms by which this heterogeneity can be formed and preserved involve inefficient and temporally distinct melt extraction events and strong localised channelling of these melts.

  15. Exploiting Unlabeled Data for Neural Grammatical Error Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhuoran; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and correcting grammatical errors in the text written by non-native writers has received increasing attention in recent years. Although a number of annotated corpora have been established to facilitate data-driven grammatical error detection and correction approaches, they are still limited in terms of quantity and coverage because human annotation is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. In this work, we propose to utilize unlabeled data to train neural network based gr...

  16. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  17. Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Bioinformatics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelli Pier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminative models are designed to naturally address classification tasks. However, some applications require the inclusion of grammar rules, and in these cases generative models, such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Stochastic Grammars, are routinely applied. Results We introduce Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields (GRHCRFs as an extension of Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs. GRHCRFs while preserving the discriminative character of HCRFs, can assign labels in agreement with the production rules of a defined grammar. The main GRHCRF novelty is the possibility of including in HCRFs prior knowledge of the problem by means of a defined grammar. Our current implementation allows regular grammar rules. We test our GRHCRF on a typical biosequence labeling problem: the prediction of the topology of Prokaryotic outer-membrane proteins. Conclusion We show that in a typical biosequence labeling problem the GRHCRF performs better than CRF models of the same complexity, indicating that GRHCRFs can be useful tools for biosequence analysis applications. Availability GRHCRF software is available under GPLv3 licence at the website http://www.biocomp.unibo.it/~savojard/biocrf-0.9.tar.gz.

  18. Adaptive CGFs Based on Grammatical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated forces (CGFs play blue or red units in military simulations for personnel training and weapon systems evaluation. Traditionally, CGFs are controlled through rule-based scripts, despite the doctrine-driven behavior of CGFs being rigid and predictable. Furthermore, CGFs are often tricked by trainees or fail to adapt to new situations (e.g., changes in battle field or update in weapon systems, and, in most cases, the subject matter experts (SMEs review and redesign a large amount of CGF scripts for new scenarios or training tasks, which is both challenging and time-consuming. In an effort to overcome these limitations and move toward more true-to-life scenarios, a study using grammatical evolution (GE to generate adaptive CGFs for air combat simulations has been conducted. Expert knowledge is encoded with modular behavior trees (BTs for compatibility with the operators in genetic algorithm (GA. GE maps CGFs, represented with BTs to binary strings, and uses GA to evolve CGFs with performance feedback from the simulation. Beyond-visual-range air combat experiments between adaptive CGFs and nonadaptive baseline CGFs have been conducted to observe and study this evolutionary process. The experimental results show that the GE is an efficient framework to generate CGFs in BTs formalism and evolve CGFs via GA.

  19. Grammatical Error Analysis in Recount Text Made by the Students of Cokroaminoto University of Palopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermini Hermini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out (1 Grammatical errors in recount text made by the English Department students of the second and the sixth semester of Cokroaminoto University of Palopo, (2 the frequent grammatical errors made by the second and the sixth semester students of English department students (3 The difference of grammatical errors made by the second and the sixth semester students. The sample of the study was 723 sentences made by 30 students of the second semester and 30 students of the sixth semester students in academic year 2013/2014 that were taken by cluster random sampling technique. The sentences were 337 (46.61% simple sentences, 83(11.48% compound sentences, 218 (30.15% complex sentences, 85 (11.76% compound complex sentences. The data were collected by using two kinds of instruments namely: writing test to find the students’ grammatical errors and questionnaire to find the solution to prevent or minimize errors. Data on the students’ errors were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results of the study showed that the students made 832 errors classified into13 types of errors which consisted of 140 (16.82% errors in production of verb, 110 (13.22% errors in preposition, 106 (12,74% errors in distribution of verb, 98 (11.77% miscellaneous errors, 82 (9.85% errors in missing subject, 67(8.05% errors in part of speech, 61 (7,33% errors in irregular verbs, 58 (6.97% other errors in verb groups, 52(6.25% errors in the use of article, 24 (2.88% errors in gerund, 18 (2.16% errors in infinitive, 11(1.32% errors in pronoun/case, and 5 (0.6% errors in questions. The top six frequent grammatical errors made by the students were production of verb group, preposition, distribution of verb group, miscellaneous error, missing subject, and part of speech. The difference of both groups was the frequency in committing errors such as part of speech, irregular verb, infinitive verbs, and other errors in verb.

  20. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    He was interested to know how `large' is the set of numbers x for which the series is convergent. Here large refers to its length. But his set is not in the class ♢. Here is another problem discussed by Borel. Consider .... have an infinite collection of pairs of new shoes and want to choose one shoe from each pair. We have an ...

  1. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, B.H.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  2. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  3. GRAMMATICAL ERRORS FOUND IN ARTICLES’ ABSTRACTS OF INDONESIAN SCHOLARLY JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to know the grammatical errors found in the articles’ abstracts of scholarly journals published by one of Indonesian Islamic State Colleges in 2008-2010. The theory used to analyze the data in this case study is Burt and Kiparsky’s theory, namely Surface Strategy Taxonomy. This theory devides errors into errors of omission, errors of addition, errors of misformation and errors of misordering. This results of the study show that there are 172 items of grammatical errors. The most frequent type of grammatical error is omission with the total number is 72 items or 41.9%. The second is errors of misformation which consist of 57 items or 33.1%. The next is errors of addition (27 items or 15.7% and finally is errors of misordering as the least number of errors with 16 items or 9.3%

  4. Revisit complexation between DNA and polyethylenimine — Effect of length of free polycationic chains on gene transfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yanan; Jin, Fan; Deng, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Our revisit of the complexation between DNA and polyethylenimine (PEI) by using a combination of laser light scattering and gel electrophoresis confirms that nearly all the DNA chains are complexed with PEI to form polyplexes when the molar ratio of nitrogen from PEI to phosphate from DNA (N:P) r...

  5. One-step affinity tag purification of full-length recombinant human AP-1 complexes from bacterial inclusion bodies using a polycistronic expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ming; Lee, A-Young; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2008-05-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is a dimeric protein complex formed primarily between Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) family members. These distinct AP-1 complexes are expressed in many cell types and modulate target gene expression implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses. Although the importance of AP-1 has long been recognized, the biochemical characterization of AP-1 remains limited in part due to the difficulty in purifying full-length, reconstituted dimers with active DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. Using a combination of bacterial coexpression and epitope-tagging methods, we successfully purified all 12 heterodimers (3 Junx4 Fos) of full-length human AP-1 complexes as well as c-Jun/c-Jun, JunD/JunD, and c-Jun/JunD dimers from bacterial inclusion bodies using one-step nickel-NTA affinity tag purification following denaturation and renaturation of coexpressed AP-1 subunits. Coexpression of two constitutive components in a dimeric AP-1 complex helps stabilize the proteins when compared with individual protein expression in bacteria. Purified dimeric AP-1 complexes are functional in sequence-specific DNA binding, as illustrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting, and are also active in transcription with in vitro-reconstituted human papillomavirus (HPV) chromatin containing AP-1-binding sites in the native configuration of HPV nucleosomes. The availability of these recombinant full-length human AP-1 complexes has greatly facilitated mechanistic studies of AP-1-regulated gene transcription in many biological systems.

  6. Determination by vibrational spectra of the strength and the bond length of atoms U and O in uranyl complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.

    1996-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds were studied. The wave number was related to the harmonic oscillator model and to the mathematical expression of Badger as modified by Jones, to determine the strength and the bond length of atoms U and O in UO 2 2+ . A mathematical simplification develop by us is proposed and its results compared with values obtained by other methods. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of Effects of Gradual Increase Length and Complexity of Utterance (GILCU) Treatment Method on the Reduction of Dysfluency in School-Aged Children with Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Masume Basi; Morteza Farazi; Enayatollah Bakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Gradual Increase Length and Complexity of Utterance (GILCU) therapy method is a form of operant conditioning. This is a precise and controlled treatment that is done in 54 steps in 3 speech situations consisting of monologue, reading, and conversation. This study aimed at examining the effects of GILCU treatment method on the reduction of speech dysfluency of school-aged children with stuttering. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 children with stu...

  8. Grammatical replacements in translation of German advertising texts of utomotive subject including participial constructions with attributive meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.

  9. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  10. Syntactic processes in speech production: The retrieval of grammatical gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Two picture-naming experiments tested the hypothesis that the speed with which native speakers of a gender-marking language retrieve the grammatical gender of a noun from their mental lexicon may depend on the recency of earlier access to that same noun's gender. Ss were 96 native speakers of Dutch.

  11. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  12. Representation and processing of grammatical gender in language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriefers, H.J.; Jescheniak, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews recent empirical evidence on the representation and processing of grammatical gender in language production. The evidence comes from experimental studies on error free production, studies on the tip-of-the tongue phenomenon, and studies on naturally occurring or experimentally

  13. Validating Grammaticality Judgment Tests: Evidence from Two New Psycholinguistic Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaee, Payman; Suzuki, Yuichi; Kachisnke, Ilina

    2017-01-01

    Several previous factor-analytic studies on the construct validity of grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) concluded that untimed GJTs measure explicit knowledge (EK) and timed GJTs measure implicit knowledge (IK) (Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005; R. Ellis & Loewen, 2007). It has also been shown that, irrespective of the time condition chosen,…

  14. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter; Boye, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    of hitherto disparate phenomena into a motivated relationship, while certain well-entrenched criteria (such as ‘closed paradigms’) are shown to be incidental to grammatical status and grammaticalization. The central idea is that grammar is constituted by expressions that by linguistic convention are ancillary...

  15. Grammatical realization of Russian etiquette speech genres: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the issue of grammatical approach application during the teaching of Russian etiquette speech for foreigners. In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, the issues related to the development of etiquette speech genres arise at all stages of language learning, beginning with the first ...

  16. Evolving Levels for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Nicolau, Miguel; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of design grammars to evolve playable 2D platform levels through grammatical evolution (GE). Representing levels using design grammars allows simple encoding of important level design constraints, and allows remarkably compact descriptions of large spaces of levels...

  17. A Grammatical Assessment of Preachers' Application of English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The observation of concord rules poses one of the greatest grammatical challenges in the use of English as a second language (L2) in Nigeria owing to the non-existence of the phenomenon in most Nigerian languages. This study investigates the degree of competence exhibited by Pastors in the application of English ...

  18. Recent trends in grammatical variation in Afrikaans varieties within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88 geographic areas. Evidence in this regard is found in North America, in what seems to be geographically underdetermined distance between African American Vernacular English. (AAVE) and vernacular Anglo American varieties: The common core of AAVE grammatical features shared across distant urban locations as ...

  19. The Dilemma of Grammatical Data in Travel Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    language learning and practising. In order to ensure flexible and easy access to the grammatical data, this development could best be achieved by the publica- tion of online travel dictionaries linked to associated online basic language courses, whereby consultation asynchronicity would truly become a functional asset.

  20. Collocations and grammatical patterns in a Multilingual Online Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Collocations and Grammatical Patterns in a Multilingual Online Term Bank. 393 the design of a variety of terminology tools. The E-Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Verbs in Science (DicSci) project, reported on by Alonso et al. (2011), the. ARTES project of which one outcome is the compilation of an online bilingual.

  1. Grammatical Metaphor in SFL: A Rhetorical Resource for Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on grammatical metaphor as a rhetorical systemic resource for achieving lexical economy and information density in academic writing. It explores the various forms of transferences which are made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements, things ...

  2. Grammatical Aspect in uences Event Duration Estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.; Knauff, M.; Pauen, M.; Sebanz, N.; Wachsmuth, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers’ estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the ‘inherent’ or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect

  3. Process Writing and the Development of Grammatical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artunduaga Cuéllar, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an action research study whose purpose was to apply alternatives for the development of grammatical competence in a group of third semester students of a Morphosyntax I course in an English language teaching undergraduate program at a Colombian public university. Given the fact that the teaching of grammar has…

  4. Evolving Personalized Content for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    -adapted content by employing an adaptation mechanism as a fitness function in grammatical evolution to optimize the player experience of three emotional states: engagement, frustration and challenge. The fitness functions used are models of player experience constructed in our previous work from crowd...

  5. En otras palabras: Illustrated Grammatical Concepts and Communicative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfora, Juanita; Carfora, Lolita

    This manual, designed for teachers of Spanish as a second language, contains visual aids to illustrate certain grammatical concepts and related vocabulary. The manual consists of 30 tear-out blackline masters, each containing one to six separate cartoon pictures, to be used for classroom or homework activities in any sequence. Accompanying each…

  6. Cross-sectional studies of grammatical morphemes in autistic and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, G; Pierce, S J; Streiner, D

    1980-03-01

    The frequency of occurrence of functors in obligatory contexts was studied in verbal autistic and mentally retarded children matched for nonverbal mental age, and the percentages of correct use of functors were rank-ordered. The grammatical complexity of their language was also described using a transformational grammar. The data were compared to those obtained in a normal group matched for mental age and to the data presented by Brown (1973) and deVilliers and deVilliers (1973) in younger children. The autistic subjects omitted functors frequently and independently of the grammatical complexity of their language. The rank ordering of morphemes was consistent within both the autistic and mentally retarded groups but showed no correlation between the two groups or to the rank ordering described by deVilliers and deVilliers. It is suggested that functors in autistic subjects may develop in an atypical but consistent order and that this may be due to specific semantic deficits, particularly in the areas of person and time deixis.

  7. Relationship between aerodynamic roughness length and bulk sedge leaf area index in a mixed-species boreal mire complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseychik, P. K.; Korrensalo, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.; Tuittila, E.-S.

    2017-06-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter in natural ecosystems, representing the seasonal development of vegetation and photosynthetic potential. However, direct measurement techniques require labor-intensive field campaigns that are usually limited in time, while remote sensing approaches often do not yield reliable estimates. Here we propose that the bulk LAI of sedges (LAIs) can be estimated alternatively from a micrometeorological parameter, the aerodynamic roughness length for momentum (z0). z0 can be readily calculated from high-response turbulence and other meteorological data, typically measured continuously and routinely available at ecosystem research sites. The regressions of LAI versus z0 were obtained using the data from two Finnish natural sites representative of boreal fen and bog ecosystems. LAIs was found to be well correlated with z0 and sedge canopy height. Superior method performance was demonstrated in the fen ecosystem where the sedges make a bigger contribution to overall surface roughness than in bogs.

  8. Grammatical Errors in English Essays Written by Thai EFL Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilak Khumphee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to three research objectives: 1 to investigate common types of grammatical errors based on their frequency of occurrence in English essay writing of Thai EFL undergraduate students, 2 to examine the effects of L1 interference on discovered grammatical errors, in particular, to find out whether there were any of the errors influenced by the students’ mother tongue (Thai language, and 3 to provide some essential pedagogical implications for second language learning and teaching. The subjects of this study were 83 second-year students majoring in English at Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, and they were drawn by using purposive sampling method. The study procedures consisted of 2 steps: 1 the students were asked to write an English essay, and 2 the researcher of this study analyzed the students’ essays by employing the study analysis framework which was adapted from Na-ngam’s (2005 error taxonomy and Richards’ (1971 error categories. The findings indicated that ; 1 there were 26 types of grammatical errors, with the total number of 4,909 errors, occurred in the students’ written work, and the five most common types of all were punctuation, nouns, prepositions, verbs, and articles respectively ; and 2 there were 1,560 out of 4,909 errors, which were categorized into 14 types, caused by the students’ L1 interference, Thai language. The five most frequent numbers of these types of errors fell into the use of plural form of nouns, omission of punctuation, wrong structures of complex sentences, omission of some parts of a sentence, and fragments respectively.

  9. Peculiarities of Grammatical Properties in Nominal Word Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Klienkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some peculiarities if grammatical properties of nominal word combinations based on the study of German-speaking Swiss press. The accumulated experience of linguists is analyzed and certain factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in nominal word combinations with quantitative meaning are researched. It has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in such word combinations is determined by functional style, semantics and grammatical features of nouns - first or second components in a word combination. The aforementioned factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in quantitative nominal word combinations are studied on the material of Germanspeaking Swiss press. The research revealed a number of peculiarities. First of all, German-speaking Swiss press uses such syntactic relation as genitive subordination quite often, not only on "special occasion" and unlike its use in Germany does not produce a magniloquent, pompous impression. Secondly, it has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in word combinations of the above-mentioned type of word combinations greatly depends on the semantic meaning of the noun - the first component of the word combination - and does not always coincide with the grammatical properties in nominal combinations in Germany. Thirdly, a clear dependence of syntactic relations choice is observed. Moreover, the article highlights the importance of grammatical features of the second component. These are such features as gender, number, case accompanied by noun declension. All the afore-mentioned features help to define the type of syntactic relations, which nominal quantitative word combinations may be connected by. The results of the comparisons of grammatical properties of quantitative nominal word combinations in German and Swiss press are demonstrated in a table below.

  10. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Jyotishi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”. Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later

  11. Complex image method for calculating electric and magnetic fields produced by an auroral electrojet of finite length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pirjola

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field due to ionospheric currents has to be known when evaluating space weather effects at the earth's surface. Forecasting methods of these effects, which include geomagnetically induced currents in technological systems, are being developed. Such applications are time-critical, so the calculation techniques of the electromagnetic field have to be fast but still accurate. The contribution of secondary sources induced within the earth leads to complicated integral formulas for the field at the earth's surface with a time-consuming computation. An approximate method of calculation based on replacing the earth contribution by an image source having mathematically a complex location results in closed-form expressions and in a much faster computation. In this paper we extend the complex image method (CIM to the case of a more realistic electrojet system consisting of a horizontal line current filament with vertical currents at its ends above a layered earth. To be able to utilize previous CIM results, we prove that the current system can be replaced by a purely horizontal current distribution which is equivalent regarding the total (=primary + induced magnetic field and the total horizontal electric field at the earth's surface. The latter result is new. Numerical calculations demonstrate that CIM is very accurate and several magnitudes faster than the exact conventional approach.Key words. Electromagnetic theory · Geomagnetic induction · Auroral ionosphere

  12. Cross-Linguistic Lexical, Grammatical, and Discourse Performance on Oral Narrative Retells Among Young Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relations among microlevel and macrolevel domains of oral narrative retells within and across the languages of Spanish-speaking bilingual children. Fifty-six first and second graders (Mage = 7 years, 3 months) were assessed on a retell task in Spanish and English. Two statistical analyses were conducted: (a) correlations within and across microlevel lexical (number of different words) and grammatical (mean length of utterance-word and subordination index) domains and (b) hierarchical regression to determine the influence of microlevel domains on a macrolevel discourse score. Results highlighted a number of significant within- and cross-language correlations, and identified vocabulary as a significant predictor of macrolevel discourse scores within both languages, while grammar was a predictor within English only. © 2015 The Author. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Transitions in social complexity along elevational gradients reveal a combined impact of season length and development time on social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Sarah D; Pellissier, Loïc; Veller, Carl; Purcell, Jessica; Nowak, Martin A; Chapuisat, Michel; Pierce, Naomi E

    2014-07-22

    Eusociality is taxonomically rare, yet associated with great ecological success. Surprisingly, studies of environmental conditions favouring eusociality are often contradictory. Harsh conditions associated with increasing altitude and latitude seem to favour increased sociality in bumblebees and ants, but the reverse pattern is found in halictid bees and polistine wasps. Here, we compare the life histories and distributions of populations of 176 species of Hymenoptera from the Swiss Alps. We show that differences in altitudinal distributions and development times among social forms can explain these contrasting patterns: highly social taxa develop more quickly than intermediate social taxa, and are thus able to complete the reproductive cycle in shorter seasons at higher elevations. This dual impact of altitude and development time on sociality illustrates that ecological constraints can elicit dynamic shifts in behaviour, and helps explain the complex distribution of sociality across ecological gradients. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Minimising participant non-response in postal surveys helps to maximise the generalisability of the inferences made from the data collected. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on postal survey response rate and quality and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternative survey strategies. Methods In a pilot study for a population study of travel behaviour, physical activity and the environment, 1000 participants sampled from the UK edited electoral register were randomly allocated using a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive one of four survey packs: a personally addressed long (24 page) questionnaire pack, a personally addressed short (15 page) questionnaire pack, a non-personally addressed long questionnaire pack or a non-personally addressed short questionnaire pack. Those who did not return a questionnaire were stratified by initial randomisation group and further randomised to receive either a full reminder pack or a reminder postcard. The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results An overall response rate of 17% was achieved. Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). In those participants who received a reminder, personalisation of the survey pack and reminder also increased the odds of response (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.95). Item non-response was relatively low, but was significantly higher in the long questionnaire than the short (9.8% vs 5.8%; p = .04). The cost per additional usable questionnaire returned of issuing the reminder packs was £23.1 compared with £11.3 for the reminder postcards. Conclusions In contrast to some previous studies of shorter questionnaires, this trial found that shortening a relatively lengthy questionnaire significantly increased the response. Researchers should consider the trade off

  15. PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL PERFORMANCE OF DISABLED STUDENTS IN SLB NEGERI UNGARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhimatul Ifadah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, disabled students are taught in particular schools. The research was aimed to give an overview of phonological and grammatical performance of those students and to find out how the teachers deliver English. English was not taught since primary school due to the competence of the teachers and some complexities of the students themselves, so English taught only for those with cognitive or learning disability and autism. The English teachers at the school did not have qualification in English because their major was not English; however, this gave impact on their teaching. In the process of teaching, the students were much asked to listen and imitate the teachers’ pronunciation, and they always used pictures as media. Unfortunately, words found in the material distributed in the classroom pronounced differently by the teacher and he seems do not realize with this weakness. Meanwhile, in grammatical performance they always use present progressive in the process of teaching. The students were much taught lexical or vocabulary to simplify the concept of English subject.Hence, the students were already sat on the senior high level, and the material were the same with the elementary. Meanwhile, the students made many unappropriate pronunciation because the teacher inconsistently pronouncing the words or sentences. It is suggested that teachers should have adequate skill in English to help those students in English class, because in a classroom setting, communication means a lot of things, and it is represented by the sufficient competence in English skills.

  16. Effects of statistical learning on the acquisition of grammatical categories through Qur'anic memorization: A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhurudeen, Fathima Manaar; Huang, Yi Ting

    2016-03-01

    Empirical evidence for statistical learning comes from artificial language tasks, but it is unclear how these effects scale up outside of the lab. The current study turns to a real-world test case of statistical learning where native English speakers encounter the syntactic regularities of Arabic through memorization of the Qur'an. This unique input provides extended exposure to the complexity of a natural language, with minimal semantic cues. Memorizers were asked to distinguish unfamiliar nouns and verbs based on their co-occurrence with familiar pronouns in an Arabic language sample. Their performance was compared to that of classroom learners who had explicit knowledge of pronoun meanings and grammatical functions. Grammatical judgments were more accurate in memorizers compared to non-memorizers. No effects of classroom experience were found. These results demonstrate that real-world exposure to the statistical properties of a natural language facilitates the acquisition of grammatical categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The biological basis of language: insight from developmental grammatical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Pinker, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), a genetic developmental disorder, offers insights into the neurobiological and computational organization of language. A subtype, Grammatical-SLI (G-SLI), involves greater impairments in 'extended' grammatical representations, which are nonlocal, hierarchical, abstract, and composed, than in 'basic' ones, which are local, linear, semantic, and holistic. This distinction is seen in syntax, morphology, and phonology, and may be tied to abnormalities in the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, consistent with new models of the neurobiology of language which distinguish dorsal and ventral processing streams. Delineating neurolinguistic phenotypes promises a better understanding of the effects of genes on the brain circuitry underlying normal and impaired language abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible word classes in linguistic typology and grammatical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Currently one of the most controversial topics in linguistic typology and grammatical theory concerns the existence of FLEXIBLE LANGUAGES, i.e. languages with a word class whose members cover functions that are typically associated with two or more of the traditional word classes (verb, noun...... to integrate the individual chapters under a single theoretical approach. It rather presents a wide range of novel descriptive facts and shows how some grammatical theories could accommodate these facts.3 Some of the chapters are primarily theoretically and typologically oriented, taking into account several...... languages (see esp. the contribution by Hengeveld; also those by Don and van Lier; Bisang). Other chapters combine a theoretical analysis with the description of flexibility in a single language (chapters by Gil, Peterson, and McGregor). Finally, a number of case studies of individual languages illustrate...

  19. Probabilistic orthographic cues to grammatical category in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; McMahon, Katie; Zubicaray, Greig de

    2012-12-01

    What helps us determine whether a word is a noun or a verb, without conscious awareness? We report on cues in the way individual English words are spelled, and, for the first time, identify their neural correlates via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a lexical decision task with trisyllabic nouns and verbs containing orthographic cues that are either consistent or inconsistent with the spelling patterns of words from that grammatical category. Significant linear increases in response times and error rates were observed as orthography became less consistent, paralleled by significant linear decreases in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the left supramarginal gyrus of the left inferior parietal lobule, a brain region implicated in visual word recognition. A similar pattern was observed in the left superior parietal lobule. These findings align with an emergentist view of grammatical category processing which results from sensitivity to multiple probabilistic cues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALYSING THE STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERROR ON WRITING NARRATIVE TEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Janah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This qualitative study described about grammatical error on students narrative writing. The participants were the second semester students of STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in academic year 2013/ 2014. In collecting data,this study uses forms with general, emerging questions to permit the participant to generate responses. Then, gathering word (text from the participants, and collecting information from individual of participants. Data analysis tends to consist of text analysis, to involve developing a description and themes, then interpretation tends to sonsist of stating the larger meaning of the findings. After analysing the students writing, it was found that most of mistakes made by students were: missing subject, missing be in simple predicate, wrong simple predicate missing be, superfluous be, misinformation of passive form, the verb comes after the subject, pronoun form, agreement, and reference. Key Word: Grammar,Grammatical Error, Writing Skill, Narrative Text

  1. Grammatical error correction using hybrid systems and type filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, M; Yuan, Z; Andersen, ØE; Yannakoudakis, H; Kochmar, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our submission to the CoNLL 2014 shared task on grammatical error correction using a hybrid approach, which includes both a rule-based and an SMT system augmented by a large webbased language model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that correction type estimation can be used to remove unnecessary corrections, improving precision without harming recall. Our best hybrid system achieves state of-the-art results, ranking first on the original test set and second on the test set...

  2. Grammatical Aspect and Gesture in French: A kinesiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Доминик Бутэ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we defend the idea that research on Gesture with Speech can provide ways of studying speakers’ conceptualization of grammatical notions as they are speaking. Expressing an idea involves a dynamic interplay between our construal, shaped by the sensori-motoric and interactive experiences linked to that idea, the plurisemiotic means at our disposal for expressing it, and the linguistic category available for its expression in our language. By analyzing the expression of aspect in Speech with Gesture (GeSp in semi-guided oral interactions, we would like to make a new contribution to the field of aspect by exploring how speakers’ construal of aspectual differences grammaticalized in their language, may be enacted and visible in gesture. More specifically we want to see the degree to which event structure differences expressed in different grammatical aspects (perfective and imperfective correlate with kinesiological features of the gestures. To this end, we will focus on the speed and flow of the movements as well as on the segments involved (fingers, hand, forearm, arm, shoulder. A kinesiological approach to gestures enables us to analyze the movements of human bodies according to a biomechanical point of view that includes physiological features. This study is the first contribution focused on the links between speech and gesture in French in the domain of grammatical aspect. Grammatical aspect was defined by Comrie (1976 [1989] as involving the internal unfurling of the process, «[...] tense is a deictic category, i.e. locates situations in time, usually with reference to the present moment [...]. Aspect is not concerned with relating time of the situation to any other time-point, but rather with the internal temporal constituency of the one situation; one could state the difference as one between situation-internal time (aspect and situation-external time (tense » (Comrie, 1976 [1989]: 5. Can kinesic features express and make

  3. Grammaticality judgments in adolescents with and without language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Finneran, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing evidence suggests that young children with specific language impairment (SLI) have unusual difficulty detecting omissions of obligatory tense-marking morphemes, but little is known about adolescents' sensitivity to such violations. Aims The study investigated whether limitations in receptive morphosyntax (as measured by grammaticality judgments) were present at age 16 years, and if so, whether participants' profiles showed less sensitivity to omissions of tense and agreement morphemes than to (a) inappropriate uses (intrusions) of these same morphemes, and (b) omissions of morphemes that do not encode tense and agreement. We also compared adolescents with language impairment and nonverbal IQ more than 1 SD below the mean (nonspecific language impairment; NLI) to adolescents with SLI. Methods & Procedures Adolescents with SLI (n = 48), adolescents with NLI (n = 25), and adolescents with normal language development (NLD, n = 108) performed speeded grammaticality judgments of sentences presented over headphones. Half of the sentences were ungrammatical. They included omissions of nontense morphemes (-ing and possessive –s), omissions of tense morphemes (-ed and third person singular present –s), and intrusions of the same tense morphemes. The A' statistic was used as the dependent variable for comparisons across groups and item types. Outcomes & Results Overall, the NLD group was more sensitive to grammatical violations than the SLI and NLI groups, and there was no significant interaction of group and item type. Post-hoc analyses showed that the SLI group was less sensitive to violations than the NLD group on each item type, and the SLI and NLI groups did not differ. Across groups, performance on omission of past tense –ed was lowest, and properties of the items that may have contributed to this difference were explored. Conclusions & Implications The adolescents with language impairment in this study showed evidence of reduced sensitivity to

  4. Full-length coding sequences of three major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A alleles, MICA*019, MICA*027 and MICA*045, identified by sequence-based typing in Chinese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y P; Gao, S Q; Tao, H

    2015-10-01

    Full-length coding sequences of three major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A alleles, MICA*019, MICA*027 and MICA*045. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mechanical properties of milk sphingomyelin bilayer membranes in the gel phase: Effects of naturally complex heterogeneity, saturation and acyl chain length investigated on liposomes using AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et-Thakafy, Oumaima; Delorme, Nicolas; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) molecules are major lipid components of plasma membranes that are involved in functional domains. Among natural SMs, that found in milk (milk-SM) exhibits important acyl chain heterogeneities in terms of length and saturation, which could affect the biophysical properties and biological functions of the milk fat globule membrane or of liposome carriers. In this study, the thermotropic and mechanical properties of milk-SM, synthetic C16:0-SM, C24:0-SM and the binary mixtures C16:0-SM/C24:0-SM (50:50% mol) and C24:0-SM/C24:1-SM (95:5% mol) bilayer membranes were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Results showed that acyl chain length, heterogeneity and unsaturation affected i) the temperature of phase transition of SM bilayers, and ii) the mechanical properties of liposome (diametermembranes in the gel phase, e.g. the Young modulus E and the bending rigidity k C . This study increases our knowledge about the key role of naturally complex lipid compositions in tailoring the physical properties of biological membranes. It could be also used in liposomes development e.g. to select the suitable lipid composition according to usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  7. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  8. Reasons of differences in Grammatical Opinions among the Ancients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadh Alsawad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reasons of differences in Grammatical Opinions among the Ancients         Ryadh Alsawad *   Marzieh Ghorbankhani **     Abstract     The most important characteristic of the rules of Arabic language is their extent and diversity, so that they are difficult for learners to manage and learn. There are Different reasons that play role in formation of this diversity. Some reasons are due to the language itself, because it is a language of derivation it has the ability to expand and borrow words from other languages and interpret them based on the capabilities of its own native speakers. Another reason is because of the grammarians themselves who have undergone forgetting, errors, delusion or change in opinion. And some of these are general and come from cultural difference or incorrect punctuation and interpolating occurred in many of the views of grammarians, or because of tune and the music of the words. It may be caused by jurisprudential doctrinal differences raised among people. The research with a descriptive and analytical approach is an attempt to collect reasons for this multiplicity. one of the main results obtained by the study is that the language and its rules over the centuries have been influenced by the cultural, social and religious circumstances of life, and are subjected to the culture of grammarians and their sectarian affiliation, and we believe that this vulnerability is a double-edged sword whenever it leads to the enrichment of the language and its expansion, it leads to ambiguity and learning difficulty to learners .     Keywords : Syntax, Grammarian, Grammatical opinion, Grammatical dispute, Reasons of difference  * Assistant Professor, education faculty university of Dhi Qar, E-mail: ryalsawad@yahoo.com.  ** PhD student in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, E-mail: marziehghorbankhani@yahoo.com.

  9. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Michel Lange

    Full Text Available Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words differ from lexical words in being dependent on a lexical host, it is hypothesized that the retrieval of a grammatical word has to be put on hold until its lexical host is available, and it is predicted that this is reflected in longer reaction times (RTs for grammatical compared to lexical words. We investigated these predictions by comparing fully homonymous sentences with only a difference in verb status (grammatical vs. lexical elicited by a specific context. We measured RTs, duration and accuracy rate. No difference in duration was observed. Longer RTs and a lower accuracy rate for grammatical words were reported, successfully reflecting grammatical word properties as defined by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models. Importantly, this study provides insight into the span of encoding and grammatical encoding processes in speech production.

  10. Process Writing and the Development of Grammatical Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Artunduaga Cuéllar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an action research study whose purpose was to apply alternatives for the development of grammatical competence in a group of third semester students of a Morphosyntax I course in an English language teaching undergraduate program at a Colombian public university. Given the fact that the teaching of grammar has for a long time been a polemical issue, the study intended to find an effective and meaningful way to develop this competence in a contextualized manner and writing was the selected medium. The results indicate that the use of writing activities to develop grammar generates a mutually enriching process as both linguistic elements are enhanced.

  11. A novel approach for modeling malaria incidence using complex categorical household data: The minimum message length (MML method applied to Indonesian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Visser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the application of a Minimum Message Length (MML modeling approach to identify the simplest model that would explain two target malaria incidence variables: incidence in the short term and on the average longer term, in two areas in Indonesia, based on a range of ecological variables including environmental and socio-economic ones. The approach is suitable for dealing with a variety of problems such as complexity and where there are missing values in the data. It can detect weak relations, is resistant to overfittingand can show the way in which many variables, working together, contribute to explaining malaria incidence. This last point is a major strength of the method as it allows many variables to be analysed. Data were obtained at household level by questionnaire for villages in West Timor and Central Java. Data were collected on 26 variables in nine categories: stratum (a village-level variable based on the API/AMI categories, ecology, occupation, preventative measures taken, health care facilities, the immediate environment, household characteristics, socio-economic status and perception of malaria cause. Several models were used and the simplest (best model, that is the one with the minimum message length was selected for each area. The results showed that consistent predictors of malaria included combinations of ecology (coastal, preventative (clean backyard and environment (mosquito breeding place, garden and rice cultivation. The models also showed that most of the other variables were not good predictors and this is discussed in the paper. We conclude that the method has potential for identifying simple predictors of malaria and that it could be used to focus malaria management on combinations of variables rather than relying on single ones that may not be consistently reliable.

  12. Grammaticality Differences between Spanish-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Maldonado, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background: A limited number of studies have analyzed grammaticality in monolingual Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Most of the available data are based on bilingual speakers. Aims: To extend previous studies by doing a more detailed analysis of grammatical types in monolingual Spanish-speakers with and without…

  13. Grammatical Gender and Mental Representation of Object: The Case of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Bjekic, Jovana; Radivojevic, Natalija

    2015-01-01

    A body of research shows that grammatical gender, although an arbitrary category, is viewed as the system with its own meaning. However, the question remains to what extent does grammatical gender influence shaping our notions about objects when both verbal and visual information are available. Two experiments were conducted. The results obtained…

  14. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    than not, strong vowels from the mother tongue were substituted for the weak sound / ə / which is the commonest vowel found in the weak forms of English grammatical words. Elision, which often occurs to English grammatical words, was also found not to manifest remarkably in this 'geo-tribal' variety of Nigerian English.

  15. Teachers and Peers as Communication Models to Teach Grammatical Forms to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G.; Bobzien, Jonna L.; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Raver, Sharon A.; Browning, Ellen L.; Hester, Peggy P.

    2016-01-01

    Structured input from both teachers and peers maximizes the opportunities for preschoolers to learn grammatical forms. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a teacher and a peer with typical hearing and language skills to model grammatically correct verbal responses to action "wh-" questions…

  16. The acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 German by learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been an increase in research on the acquisition of morphological aspects of a second language (L2). Specifically, a number of studies have been conducted on the acquisition of grammatical gender in the L2. The study reported in this paper investigated the adult L2 acquisition of grammatical ...

  17. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  18. Toddlers' Use of Grammatical and Social Cues to Learn Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2016-01-01

    By their second birthday, children have begun using grammatical cues to decipher the meaning of newly encountered words. By 3 years of age, there is evidence that children are more reliant on grammatical than social cues to decipher verb meaning (Nappa, Wessel, McEldoon, Gleitman, & Trueswell, 2009). Here, we investigate children's reliance on…

  19. The Picture-Word Interference Paradigm: Grammatical Class Effects in Lexical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Flavia; Collina, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Four picture-word interference experiments aimed to test the role of grammatical class in lexical production. In Experiment 1 target nouns and verbs were produced in presence of semantically unrelated distractors that could also be nouns and verbs. Participants were slower when the distractor was of the same grammatical category of the target. To…

  20. Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Contreras

    Full Text Available The large patient variability in human physiology and the effects of variables such as exercise or meals challenge current prediction modeling techniques. Physiological models are very precise but they are typically complex and specific physiological knowledge is required. In contrast, data-based models allow the incorporation of additional inputs and accurately capture the relationship between these inputs and the outcome, but at the cost of losing the physiological meaning of the model. In this work, we designed a hybrid approach comprising physiological models for insulin and grammatical evolution, taking into account the clinical harm caused by deviations from the target blood glucose by using a penalizing fitness function based on the Clarke error grid. The prediction models were built using data obtained over 14 days for 100 virtual patients generated by the UVA/Padova T1D simulator. Midterm blood glucose was predicted for the 100 virtual patients using personalized models and different scenarios. The results obtained were promising; an average of 98.31% of the predictions fell in zones A and B of the Clarke error grid. Midterm predictions using personalized models are feasible when the configuration of grammatical evolution explored in this study is used. The study of new alternative models is important to move forward in the development of alarm-and-control applications for the management of type 1 diabetes and the customization of the patient's treatments. The hybrid approach can be adapted to predict short-term blood glucose values to detect continuous glucose-monitoring sensor errors and to estimate blood glucose values when the continuous glucose-monitoring system fails to provide them.

  1. Error-related activity and correlates of grammatical plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Doug J; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants' classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning.

  2. Error-related activity and correlates of grammatical plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eDavidson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase spanning two days spaced one week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants' classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar acquisition.

  3. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  4. Sleep-based memory processing facilitates grammatical generalization: Evidence from targeted memory reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Paller, Ken A

    2017-04-01

    Generalization-the ability to abstract regularities from specific examples and apply them to novel instances-is an essential component of language acquisition. Generalization not only depends on exposure to input during wake, but may also improve offline during sleep. Here we examined whether targeted memory reactivation during sleep can influence grammatical generalization. Participants gradually acquired the grammatical rules of an artificial language through an interactive learning procedure. Then, phrases from the language (experimental group) or stimuli from an unrelated task (control group) were covertly presented during an afternoon nap. Compared to control participants, participants re-exposed to the language during sleep showed larger gains in grammatical generalization. Sleep cues produced a bias, not necessarily a pure gain, suggesting that the capacity for memory replay during sleep is limited. We conclude that grammatical generalization was biased by auditory cueing during sleep, and by extension, that sleep likely influences grammatical generalization in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Messerschmidt, Maria; Harder, Peter

    2017-01-01

    that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared......Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose...... to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words...

  6. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  7. Complexes possessing rare "tertiary" sulfonamide nitrogen-to-metal bonds of normal length: fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dien)]PF6 complexes with hydrophilic sulfonamide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhayawardhana, Pramuditha L; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2014-01-21

    Tertiary sulfonamide nitrogen-to-metal bonds of normal length are very rare. We recently discovered such a bond in one class of fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2)](n) complexes (Z = 2-pyridyl) with N(SO2R)dpa ligands derived from di-(2-picolyl)amine (N(H)dpa). fac-[M(CO)3(N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2)](n) agents (M = (186/188)Re, (99m)Tc) could find use as radiopharmaceutical bioconjugates when R is a targeting moiety. However, the planar, electron-withdrawing 2-pyridyl groups of N(SO2R)dpa destabilize the ligand to base and create relatively rigid chelate rings, raising the possibility that the rare M-N(sulfonamide) bond is an artifact of a restricted geometry. Also, the hydrophobic 2-pyridyl groups could cause undesirable accumulation in the liver, limiting future use in radiopharmaceuticals. Our goal is to identify a robust, hydrophilic, and flexible N(CH2Z)2 chelate framework. New C2-symmetric ligands, N(SO2R)(CH2Z)2 with (Z = CH2NH2; R = Me, dmb, or tol), were prepared by treating N(H)dien(Boc)2, a protected diethylenetriamine (N(H)dien) derivative, with methanesulfonyl chloride (MeSO2Cl), 3,5-dimethylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (dmbSO2Cl), and 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (tolSO2Cl). Treatment of fac-[Re(CO)3(H2O)3](+) with these ligands, designated as N(SO2R)dien, afforded new fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2R)dien)]PF6 complexes. Comparing the fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2Me)dien)]PF6 and fac-[Re(CO)3(N(SO2Me)dpa)]PF6 complexes, we find that the Re(I)-N(sulfonamide) bonds are normal in length and statistically identical and that the methyl (13)C NMR signal has an unusually upfield shift compared to that in the free ligand. We attribute this unusual upfield shift to the fact that the sulfonamide N undergoes an sp(2)-to-sp(3) rehybridization upon coordination to Re(I) in both complexes. Thus, the sulfonamide N of N(SO2R)dien ligands is a good donor, even though the chelate rings are conformationally flexible. Addition of the strongly basic and potentially monodentate ligand, 4-dimethylaminopyridine

  8. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by region of differentiation-typing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaki, Seydeh Zeinab; Mosavari, Nader; Nazari, Razieh; Akbarian, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common zoonotic infectious diseases in the world. Identification of Mycobacterium isolates is essential for proper treatment of TB. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium isolates collected from TB patients in Alborz Province, Iran, by region of differentiation (RD)-typing. Fifty samples from tuberculosis patients were cultured in pyruvate and glycerinated Lowenstein-Jensen medium. DNA was extracted from the isolates by the van Solingen method and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-16SrRNA, PCR-IS6110, and RD-typing with primers RD1, RD4, RD9, and RD12, respectively. Out of 50 isolates, only one isolate appeared negative in IS6110-PCR and was considered nontuberculosis complex. The remaining isolates gave PCR products of approximately 543bp, 245bp, 146bp, 172bp, 235bp, and 369bp with 16s-rRNA, IS6110-PCR, RD-1, RD-4, RD-9, and RD-12 PCR, respectively. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of oxyR pseudogene confirmed the results. All isolates except one from Alborz Province appeared positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the obtained results, all isolates except one were identified as M. tuberculosis. The only negative isolate appeared 93% and 97% similar to Nocardia or Mycobacterium sp. (Mycobacterium neoaurum), respectively, based on sequencing and alignment of 16s-rRNA and hsp65. Accurate identification of Mycobacterium isolates is of utmost importance for proper and immediate treatment of TB patients. In this study, RD-typing appeared to be a suitable method for correct identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. Copyright © 2016.

  9. Experience and grammatical agreement: statistical learning shapes number agreement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R; Thornton, Robert; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2010-02-01

    A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present on plurals but not singulars. An alternative approach is presented in which a process similar to structural priming contributes to the error asymmetry via speakers' past experiences with related agreement constructions. A corpus analysis and two agreement production studies test this account. The results suggest that agreement production is shaped by statistical learning from past language experience. Implications for accounts of agreement are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating linguistic relativity through bilingualism: the case of grammatical gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers and show that gender affects the semantic substitution errors made by monolingual Italian speakers compared with monolingual English speakers. They then showed that Italian-English bilingual speakers behave like monolingual English speakers when the task is in English and like monolingual Italian speakers when the task is in Italian, hence exhibiting appropriate semantic representations for each language. These results show that for bilingual speakers there is intraspeaker relativity in semantic representations and, therefore, that gender does not have a conceptual, nonlinguistic effect. The results also have implications for models of bilingual semantic memory and processing. (c) 2008 APA

  11. A Neural Network Architecture for Detecting Grammatical Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

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    Tezcan Arda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a Neural Network (NN architecture for detecting grammatical errors in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT using monolingual morpho-syntactic word representations in combination with surface and syntactic context windows. We test our approach on two language pairs and two tasks, namely detecting grammatical errors and predicting overall post-editing effort. Our results show that this approach is not only able to accurately detect grammatical errors but it also performs well as a quality estimation system for predicting overall post-editing effort, which is characterised by all types of MT errors. Furthermore, we show that this approach is portable to other languages.

  12. Don’t omit –s!: a common grammatical error of Chinese speakers of English

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the common grammatical error of Taiwanese students in oral English, namely the omission of the final suffix -s in its three grammatical functions, especially in the 3 rd person singular. The major causes of this error are studied in this paper and further divided into two main categories, the grammatical and phonetic one. The omission of -s is primarily considered as interference error or “negative transfer” caused by non-inflectional nature of the Chinese la...

  13. Grammatical gender in the discourse of multilingual children's acquisition of German

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    Montanari, Elke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of grammatical gender by multilingual pre-school children (aged six was investigated by observing their narration and discourse. It emerged that only three of the 17 children actually used gender to classify nouns. Grammatical agreement is acknowledged as a key feature of gender acquisition, and it reflects developmental steps. Children growing up with mostly bilingual German input at a low proficiency level had the greatest difficulties in acquiring gender and agreement in the group investigated.

  14. Grammatical Errors In The Translation Of Majalah Mahligai Tradisi, Pernikahan & Gaya Hidup Into English

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled „Grammatical Errors in the Translation of MAJALAH MAHLIGAI TRADISI, PERNIKAHAN & GAYA HIDUP into English‟ is a study on translation. This study appeared because of the importance of translation role in the translation product from Indonesian into English. It was conducted to answer the curiosity of the writer about what kinds of grammatical errors made by the translator in the translation product from Indonesian into English. This magazine was chosen because of many gramma...

  15. On projecting grammatical persons into social neurocognition: a view from linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    Though it draws on the grammatical metaphor of person (first, third, second) in terms of representations, Schilbach et al.'s target article does not consider an orthogonal line of evidence for the centrality of interaction to social cognition: the many grammatical phenomena, some widespread cross-linguistically and some only being discovered, which are geared to supporting real-time interaction. My commentary reviews these, and the contribution linguistic evidence can make to a fuller account of social cognition.

  16. The Difference of Grammatical Error in Writing Recount Text Between Natural Science and Social Science Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Imantha Eko Putra; Gintings, Elia Masa

    2013-01-01

    This study concerned on the difference of grammatical error in writing recount text between natural science and social science students. The objective of this study was to find out the difference of grammatical error in writing recount text between natural science and social science students. This research was conducted by using causal- comparative research. The subject of the study was the students of XI-IPA1 and XI- IPS1 of SMA Swasta Methodist Berastagi. The number of the samples was twent...

  17. The Blame Game: An investigation of Grammatical Aspect and Blame Judgments

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    Anita Eerland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfective aspect (i.e., Mark was 'punching' John is interpreted by the language processing system as a dynamic, unfolding sequence of actions, whereas perfective aspect (i.e., Mark 'punched' John is interpreted as a complete whole. A recent study showed that grammatical aspect can influence perceptions of intentionality for criminal actions (Hart & Albarracín, 2011. The current study builds on this finding. Five experiments examine whether grammatical aspect can also influence perceptions of blame, a concept related to intentionality. There were no effects of grammatical aspect on judgments of blame but the results showed an effect of narrated order (Experiments 1–3. First-mentioned actions made the agent more to blame for the outcomes than last-mentioned actions. This effect was not due to the order of the blame questions (Experiment 2 or influenced by the chronological order of the events (Experiment 3. Experiments 4 and 5 showed strong effects of grammatical aspect on temporal dynamics and revealed an interesting new finding. Grammatical aspect can influence the mental representation of a non-mentioned action. We discuss our results in light of the current literature on grammatical aspect effects.

  18. Understanding Disorder Within Variation: Production of English Grammatical Forms by English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa

    2018-04-05

    This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.

  19. EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Perceptions of Grammatical Difficulties

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    Maha Alhaysony

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates grammatical difficulty from the perspective of Saudi university students, of EFL as well as from the perspective of university teachers. It aims to find out which English grammar features are more difficult/less difficult than others. Furthermore, it attempts to determine the reasons and causes that account for such grammar difficulty. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were the two research instruments used in this study. A total number of 103 students and 85 university teachers took part in the questionnaire, while only 20 teachers and 25 students responded in the interview. All the participants were from Aljouf University (males and females. The results showed that some English grammar features were more difficult and some were less difficult than others. The obtained difficulty order determined by EFL learners and the one obtained by the teachers’ perceptions were compared. Some similarities and differences were found to exist in the rank order of the features for the two groups. The findings of the study may be beneficial to syllabus designers, material developers, teachers and EFL learners.

  20. Indignation, practical rationality and our moral life: a grammatical investigation

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    Jônadas Techio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n2p260 This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement(e.g. by expressing indignation, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational agreement among agents; from that perspective, expressing indignation would just amount to an irrational way of trying to get rid of the burdens put upon the agent's shoulders in the context of a moral discussion. Against that widespread viewIwill defend a Cavellian version of moral perfectionism, which takes rational disagreement as a legitimate (and even productive outcomeof moral arguments. That view, as we shall see, will be predicated upon a distinctive understanding of practical rationality, hence the importance of comparing moral discussion to other forms of rational engagement (e.g., aesthetic, scientific and mathematical.

  1. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

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    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  2. Probabilistic grammatical model for helix‐helix contact site classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models power many state‐of‐the‐art tools in the field of protein bioinformatics. While excelling in their tasks, these methods of protein analysis do not convey directly information on medium‐ and long‐range residue‐residue interactions. This requires an expressive power of at least context‐free grammars. However, application of more powerful grammar formalisms to protein analysis has been surprisingly limited. Results In this work, we present a probabilistic grammatical framework for problem‐specific protein languages and apply it to classification of transmembrane helix‐helix pairs configurations. The core of the model consists of a probabilistic context‐free grammar, automatically inferred by a genetic algorithm from only a generic set of expert‐based rules and positive training samples. The model was applied to produce sequence based descriptors of four classes of transmembrane helix‐helix contact site configurations. The highest performance of the classifiers reached AUCROC of 0.70. The analysis of grammar parse trees revealed the ability of representing structural features of helix‐helix contact sites. Conclusions We demonstrated that our probabilistic context‐free framework for analysis of protein sequences outperforms the state of the art in the task of helix‐helix contact site classification. However, this is achieved without necessarily requiring modeling long range dependencies between interacting residues. A significant feature of our approach is that grammar rules and parse trees are human‐readable. Thus they could provide biologically meaningful information for molecular biologists. PMID:24350601

  3. Grammatical Means of Expressing Emotions in English Discourse

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    Владимир Иванович Озюменко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of expressing emotions in different languages and cultures are nowadays of great interest among researchers. However, traditionally, more attention is paid to lexis, phraseology, prosody, and nonverbal signs of communication and grammatical means are ignored. Nevertherless, they also possess significant emotive potential. The goal of this article is to systematize some facts showing that grammar can implicitly convey various emotions of the speaker and impact the hearer, as well as to draw attention of language teachers and translators to this phenomenon. I will mainly focus on modal verbs and expressions, nontraditional use of tenses, nontraditional use of some adverbs, inverse word order and some other cases summing up the earlier described facts (Ozyumenko 2005-2006, 2007 and supplementing them with new observations. The article emphasizes that discovering emotive implicature, i.e. implicit emotive intention of the speaker, and revealing its meaning is sine qua non for successful intercultural communication and equivalent translation. The data for the research were taken from English language text books, grammar books, dictionaries and fiction. The study implements contextual, definitive, pragmatic, discourse and contrastive analyses.

  4. Are some parents' interaction styles associated with richer grammatical input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Colleen E; Hadley, Pamela A; Rispoli, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Evidence for tense marking in child-directed speech varies both across languages ( Guasti, 2002; Legate & Yang, 2007) and across speakers of a single language ( Hadley, Rispoli, Fitzgerald, & Bahnsen, 2011). The purpose of this study was to understand how parent interaction styles and register use overlap with the tense-marking properties of child-directed speech. This study investigated how parent interaction style, measured by utterance function, and parent register use when asking questions interacted with verb forms in child-directed input to identify interaction styles associated with the richest grammatical input. Participants were 15 parent-toddler dyads. The communicative function of parent utterances and the form of their questions were coded from language samples of parent-child play when children were 21 months of age. Verbs were coded for linguistic form (e.g., imperative, modal, copula). Directives and reduced questions were both negatively related to input informativeness (i.e., the proportion of unambiguous evidence for tense). Other-focused descriptives were positively related to input informativeness. Predictable overlap existed between the characteristics of parents' interaction styles and register use and their input informativeness. An other-focused descriptive style most strongly related to richer evidence for the +Tense grammar of English.

  5. French Williams syndrome's ability to produce judgments of grammaticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Marie; Ehret, Margot; Schweyer, Juliette; Tyson, Nathalie; Boloh, Yves

    2014-12-01

    This article reports grammatical judgment data from eighteen French Williams syndrome (WS) (mean CA = 21.10; Mean MA = 11.2). Participants had to detect ungrammatical sentences (13 amongst a set of 26 sentences) in telling whether a given sentence was well said or not. Agrammaticality could be due to errors in tense, person agreement, gender agreement, derivational or inflectional morphology, word order and so on. As a group, WS participants scored as seven-year-olds did, far below CA-controls and MA-controls. Scores did not improve with chronological age or mental age but they were related to total IQ and verbal IQ. They showed an important variability, one similar to what was observed in four-year-olds. Although a few WS individuals had good metasyntactic abilities, these abilities generally plateau in our WS group. They were not deviant, however, as the WS's profile of difficulties across items was qualitatively very similar to the one seen in seven-year-olds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kyoto University Students' Grammatical Abilities and Listening Comprehension as Measured by the TOEFL PBT and GRE

    OpenAIRE

    Aotani, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Kyoto University students' grammatical and syntactic skills, as well as their short listening comprehension skills, were compared with the corresponding world averages as measured by TOEFL. Grammatical and syntactic skills were operationalized as the structure (gap filling) and written expression (grammatical error detection) section scores from the TOEFL PBT (Paper-Based-Test) and the scores from the GRE's gap filling questions. Short listening comprehension skills were operationalized as th...

  7. Charles Darwin and the evolution of human grammatical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2010-04-08

    Charles Darwin's evolutionary theories of animal communication were deeply embedded in a centuries-old model of association psychology, whose prodromes have most often been traced to the writings of Aristotle. His notions of frequency of occurrence of pairings have been passed down through the centuries and were a major ontological feature in the formation of associative connectivity. He focused on the associations of cause and effect, contiguity of sequential occurrence, and similarity among items. Cause and effect were often reduced to another type of contiguity relation, so that Aristotle is most often evoked as the originator of the associative bondings through similarity and contiguity, contiguity being the most powerful and frequent means of association. Contiguity eventually became the overriding mechanism for serial ordering of mental events in both perception and action. The notions of concatenation throughout the association psychology took the form of "trains" of events, both sensory and motor, in such a way that serial ordering came to be viewed as an item-by-item string of locally contiguous events. Modern developments in the mathematics of serial ordering have advanced in sophistication since the early and middle twentieth century, and new computational methods have allowed us to reevaluate the serial concatenative theories of Darwin and the associationists. These new models of serial order permit a closer comparative scrutiny between human and nonhuman. The present study considers Darwin's insistence on a "degree" continuity between human and nonhuman animal serial ordering. We will consider a study of starling birdsongs and whether the serial ordering of those songs provides evidence that they have a syntax that at best differs only in degree and not in kind with the computations of human grammatical structures. We will argue that they, in fact, show no such thing.

  8. Contributions of children's linguistic and working memory proficiencies to their judgments of grammaticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Nicolette B; Redmond, Sean M; Archibald, Lisa M D

    2014-06-01

    The authors explored the cognitive mechanisms involved in language processing by systematically examining the performance of children with deficits in the domains of working memory and language. From a database of 370 school-age children who had completed a grammaticality judgment task, groups were identified with a co-occurring language and working memory impairment (LI-WMI; n = 18) or specific language impairment (SLI) with typical working memory skills ( n = 60) and matched control groups. Correct and incorrect use of grammatical markers occurred either early or late in sentence stimuli, imposing a greater working memory load for late-marker sentences. Children with SLI showed a lower preference for grammatical items than typically developing controls, regardless of error marker position. Children with LI-WMI demonstrated a performance pattern modulated by error marker position: Their preference for grammatical items was lower than typically developing controls for late but not early marker sentences. This pattern of results suggests that there are distinct and dissociable impacts of working memory and linguistic skills on metalinguistic functioning through a grammatical judgment task.

  9. Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne

    2007-03-01

    All nouns in Spanish have grammatical gender, with obligatory gender marking on preceding articles (e.g., la and el, the feminine and masculine forms of "the," respectively). Adult native speakers of languages with grammatical gender exploit this cue in on-line sentence interpretation. In a study investigating the early development of this ability, Spanish-learning children (34-42 months) were tested in an eye-tracking procedure. Presented with pairs of pictures with names of either the same grammatical gender (la pelota, "ball [feminine]"; la galleta, "cookie [feminine]") or different grammatical gender (la pelota; el zapato, "shoe [masculine]"), they heard sentences referring to one picture (Encuentra la pelota, "Find the ball"). The children were faster to orient to the referent on different-gender trials, when the article was potentially informative, than on same-gender trials, when it was not, and this ability was correlated with productive measures of lexical and grammatical competence. Spanish-learning children who can speak only 500 words already use gender-marked articles in establishing reference, a processing advantage characteristic of native Spanish-speaking adults.

  10. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE GAP BETWEEN KOREAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION

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    Kyung-Im Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the consistent emphasis on grammar instruction in English classrooms in South Korea, studies regarding grammar instruction have not yet been extensively conducted. The present study aims to discover the gap between learners’ grammatical awareness and their perception of major grammatical items. A total of 60 EFL learners from two local universities in South Korea participated in the study and were divided into two groups, a high-level and a low-level group. A set of tests was utilized to examine learners’ grammatical awareness and their perception of six major grammatical items—tense, prepositions, articles, voices, morphology, and vocabulary. The results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the scores of tense, article, and voice for grammatical awareness between the high-level and the low-level group. Also, both groups scored high for the category of voice while they received low scores for vocabulary and morphology. In addition, they showed a significant difference in the scores for the perceived difficulty of articles and voice. The high-level group perceived voice as the most difficult, whereas the low-level group perceived articles as the most difficult. These findings demonstrate a gap between the learners’ grammar awareness and perception and highlight a need to design an individualized curriculum for the effectiveness of teaching as well as self-initiated studying.

  11. Lexical constraints in second language learning: Evidence on grammatical gender in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Susan C; Kroll, Judith F; Jackson, Carrie N

    2015-07-01

    The present study asked whether or not the apparent insensitivity of second language (L2) learners to grammatical gender violations reflects an inability to use grammatical information during L2 lexical processing. Native German speakers and English speakers with intermediate to advanced L2 proficiency in German performed a translation-recognition task. On critical trials, an incorrect translation was presented that either matched or mismatched the grammatical gender of the correct translation. Results show interference for native German speakers in conditions in which the incorrect translation matched the gender of the correct translation. Native English speakers, regardless of German proficiency, were insensitive to the gender mismatch. In contrast, these same participants were correctly able to assign gender to critical items. These findings suggest a dissociation between explicit knowledge and the ability to use that information under speeded processing conditions and demonstrate the difficulty of L2 gender processing at the lexical level.

  12. When leaf becomes neuter: event-related potential evidence for grammatical gender transfer in bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Schiller, Niels O

    2011-02-16

    This study addressed the question as to whether grammatical properties of a first language are transferred to a second language. Dutch-English bilinguals classified Dutch words in white print according to their grammatical gender and colored words (i.e. Dutch common and neuter words, and their English translations) according to their color. Both the classifications were made with the same hand (congruent trials) or different hands (incongruent trials). Performance was more erroneous and the error-elated negativity was enhanced on incongruent compared with congruent trials. This effect was independent of the language in which words were presented. These results provide evidence for the fact that bilinguals may transfer grammatical characteristics of their first language to a second language, even when such characteristics are absent in the grammar of the latter.

  13. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Madden-Lombardi

    Full Text Available Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.. To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant. Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend

  14. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Lombardi, Carol; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle) should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle) should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.). To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant). Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use) and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand) or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend previous research

  15. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  16. Competition between Word Order and Case-Marking in Interpreting Grammatical Relations: A Case Study in Multilingual Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    The study examines strategies multilingual children use to interpret grammatical relations, focusing on their two primary languages, Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri. Both languages use mixed systems for indicating grammatical relations. In both languages ergative-absolutive case-marking indicates core arguments, but to different extents in…

  17. Effect of Different Teaching Techniques on the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender by Beginning German Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzt, Jessica; Kost, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The grammatical gender of German nouns continues to pose a challenge to second language learners. Following from a connectionist framework, this study explores the effect of two input enhancement techniques, color-coding and gendered actors, on the learning of grammatical gender by beginning learners of German during a vocabulary acquisition…

  18. The Impact of Implicit Tasks on Improving the Learners' Writing in Terms of Autonomy and Grammatical Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Nastaran

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners' ability to gain grammatical accuracy in their writing by noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. Recent literature in language acquisition has emphasized the role of implicit tasks in encouraging learners to develop autonomous language learning…

  19. Size polymorphism of chicken major histocompatibility complex-encoded B-G molecules is due to length variation in the cytoplasmic heptad repeat region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1990-01-01

    B-G antigens are cell-surface molecules encoded by a highly polymorphic multigene family located in the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Rabbit antisera to B-G molecules immunoprecipitate 3-6 bands from iodinated erythrocytes by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels under reducing...... conditions. These are all B-G molecules because they all map to the B-G region of the chicken MHC in congenic and recombinant chickens, most are directly recognized by the antisera, most form disulfide-linked dimers, and none bear N-linked carbohydrate. Both apparent homodimers and heterodimers are found......, which bear intrachain disulfide bonds. All 3-6 bands have different mobilities in SDS gels between different haplotypes, ranging from 30 to 55 kDa. This size polymorphism is not affected by glycosidase treatment or addition of protease inhibitors. Partial proteolysis of cell surface-iodinated B-G...

  20. Genetic evidence for the existence of cryptic species in the Anopheles albitarsis complex in Brazil: allozymes and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, S K; Klein, T A; Perera, O P; Lima, J B; Tang, A T

    1993-02-01

    Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction studies were undertaken to determine the extent of genetic divergence among field populations of Anopheles albitarsis in Brazil. Two sympatric species, An. deaneorum and An. marajoara, were identified in collections from Costa Marques (CM), Rondonia. Genetic evidence includes (1) the presence of two types of individuals, each with diagnostic allelic clusters (for Had-1, Pgi-1, Pep-1, Mpi-1, and Idh-1), (2) a deficiency of heterozygotes, and (3) characteristic mtDNA haplotypes. In addition, two allopatric cryptic species of An. marajoara were identified, one from Iguape (An. marajoara form IG), Sao Paulo state, and the other from the Island of Marajo (An. marajoara form MA). Though form IG and form-MA resemble form CM in wing spot morphology, they differ from it in diagnostic allozymes and mtDNA haplotypes. An. marajoara form CM had a higher variability (mean heterozygosity, H = 0.22, and percentage of polymorphic loci, P = 66.7) than did form IG and form MA (H = 0.08 in both, and P = 25.0 and 33.3, respectively). Form MA and form IG are genetically more similar to each other than both are to form CM. Based on wing morphology, estimates of F statistics, and genetic similarities, we propose that An. albitarsis in Brazil is a species complex. It comprises at least two morphologically distinguishable species: (1) An. deaneorum (currently one taxon) and (2) the An. marajoara species complex, which further consists of at least three cryptic forms, marajoara form MA, marajoara form IG, and marajoara form CM.

  1. A grammatical approach to customization of shape and composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Soumitra

    value of composite material properties. A grammar is a formal definition of a language written in transformational form. To address these issues, in this research a grammatical approach is developed that will generate a shape grammar to perform shape optimization, and then incorporate a composite material selection system and loading analysis techniques of Solid Mechanics in order to design load bearing components of irregular shape. The approach will be able to consider the user requirements in the very general text form, convert them to the design requirements for the component, generate optimized shape based on multiple design constraints, perform the complete design work, and generate the component. The major contributions include: (1) generating a shape grammar to represent functions of the load bearing component such a way that mass-customization of shape is possible, (2) developing a composite material customization system in order to satisfy directional property requirements, and (3) introducing a unique laminate design approach in order to satisfy design property requirements at the critical cross-sections locally that can result in highly efficient design compared to conventional design method. Verification of the approach will focus on its application to simultaneously explore shapes and customization of composite materials.

  2. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eRiordan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  3. Grammatical Error Diagnosis in Fluid Construction Grammar: A Case Study in L2 Spanish Verb Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Construction grammar (CG) has been proposed as an adequate grammatical formalism for building intelligent language tutoring systems because it is highly compatible with the learning strategies observed in second language learning. Unfortunately, the lack of computational CG implementations has made it impossible in the past to corroborate these…

  4. Grammatical Constructions in Cri du Chat Syndrome--Findings from a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2009-01-01

    The literature on grammatical skills in persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS) is very limited, and the need for more knowledge in this area is thus evident, in particular for speech and language therapists working with individuals with this syndrome. This case study report describes the syntactic skills of a 14-year-old Norwegian girl with CCS.…

  5. Basic lexical and grammatical transformations in translation of German print advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents basic lexical and grammatical transformations, which contribute to preserving the semantic and syntactic structure of a German advertising text and reproducing the image of the advertised product. This shows that the translation has the same communicative effect as that achieved by the source text.

  6. Procedural memory and speed of grammatical processing: Comparison between typically developing children and language impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-12-01

    Procedural memory has been proposed to underlie the acquisition of a range of skills including grammar, reading, and motor skills. In developmental language disorder (DLD) it has been suggested that procedural memory problems lead to the difficulties with grammar in this group. This study aimed to extend previous research by exploring associations between procedural memory and a range of cognitive skills, in children with and without language impairments. Twenty children with DLD and 20 age-matched non-language impaired children undertook tasks assessing procedural memory, grammatical processing speed, single word and nonword reading, and motor skills (as indexed by a pegboard task). For the DLD group, no significant correlations between procedural memory and any of the variables were observed. The typically developing group showed a significant correlation (r=.482, pprocedural memory and grammatical processing speed. Correlations between procedural memory and the remaining variables were all non-significant for this group. This study provides new evidence showing that grammatical processing speed is correlated with procedural memory in typically developing children. Furthermore, results suggest that the relationship with procedural memory does not extend to reading or the types of motor skills used on a pegboard task. For the DLD group the pattern of result indicate grammatical processing, reading, and motor sequencing are not supported by procedural memory or a common memory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Grammatical Accuracy in English-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the development of grammatical accuracy in English-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Method Ten children who received CIs before age 30 months participated in this study at 3, 4, and 5 years postimplantation. For the purpose of comparison, 10 children each at ages 3, 4, and 5 years with typical hearing were included as well. All children participated in a story-retell task. We computed percent grammatical communication units (PGCU) in the task. Results Children with CIs showed significant improvement in PGCU over the 3-year span. However, they produced lower PGCU than children with typical hearing who had matched hearing age at 4 and 5 years postimplantation. At the individual level, some children with CIs were able to produce PGCU comparable to children with typical hearing as early as 3 years after implantation. Better speech-perception skills at earlier time points were associated with higher PGCU at later time points. Moreover, children with and without CIs showed similar rankings in the types of grammatical errors. Conclusion Despite having auditory-perceptual and information-processing constraints, children who received CIs before age 30 months were able to produce grammatical sentences, albeit with a delayed pattern. PMID:28384729

  8. Iranian EFL Learners' Grammatical Knowledge: Effect of Direct and Metalinguistic Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Zahra Kheradmand; Saadat, Mahboobeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the impact of direct and metalinguistic written corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' grammatical knowledge. The participants were a convenient sample of students in two intact writing classes. The instruction provided in both groups was similar; however, the students in one group received direct…

  9. Noun or Verb? Adult Readers' Sensitivity to Spelling Cues to Grammatical Category in Word Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Nilsson, Jodi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The spelling of many disyllabic English word endings holds cues to their grammatical category, beyond obvious inflectional endings such as "-ing" for verbs. For example, some letter sequences are clearly associated with nouns (e.g., "-oon") and others with verbs (e.g., "-erge"). This study extended recent research by Arciuli and Cupples (2006),…

  10. Negative Input for Grammatical Errors: Effects after a Lag of 12 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Matthew; Backley, Phillip; Gallaway, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Effects of negative input for 13 categories of grammatical error were assessed in a longitudinal study of naturalistic adult-child discourse. Two-hour samples of conversational interaction were obtained at two points in time, separated by a lag of 12 weeks, for 12 children (mean age 2;0 at the start). The data were interpreted within the framework…

  11. Is the adjective distinct from the noun as a grammatical category in biblical Hebrew?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The adjective is a beleaguered category in biblical Hebrew grammar with many grammars of biblical Hebrew denying that the adjective is a category distinct from substantives. Within a variety of linguistic theories, the status of the adjective as a grammatical category is also debated. Cross-linguistically adjectives exhibit extraordinary variety: in some languages showing similarities to nouns, in others to verbs and in still others to both nouns and verbs. The debate concerning the status of the adjective is mirrored by the broader debate within contemporary linguistics concerning how the issue of grammatical categorisation ought to be approached. In this article, we re-examine the question of whether or not the adjective is a distinct grammatical category from the noun in biblical Hebrew. We approach the question of the status of the adjective as a grammatical category from two perspectives: morphology and syntax.

  12. Timed and Untimed Grammaticality Judgments Measure Distinct Types of Knowledge: Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Loewen, Shawn; Jung, Sehoon; Park, Ji-Hyun; Gass, Susan; Ellis, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) have been used to elicit data reflecting second language (L2) speakers' knowledge of L2 grammar. However, the exact constructs measured by GJTs, whether primarily implicit or explicit knowledge, are disputed and have been argued to differ depending on test-related variables (i.e., time pressure and item…

  13. Incidental Acquisition of Grammatical Features during Reading in L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Opitz, Andreas; Rogahn, Maria; Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the initial stages of incidental acquisition of two grammatical properties of verbs (subcategorization and [ir]regularity) during reading in first language (L1) and second language (L2) German using an adjusted self-paced reading paradigm. The results indicate that L1 speakers are superior to L2 speakers in the…

  14. Factors of success and failure in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the factors that are proposed in the literature to explain the success—failure in the child L2 (second language) acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch definite determiners. Focusing on four different groups of bilingual children, we discuss four external

  15. Can Late L2 Learners Acquire New Grammatical Features? Evidence from ERPs and Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of ERP and eye-tracking experiments investigating, (a) whether English-French learners can process grammatical gender online, (b) whether cross-linguistic similarities influence this ability, and (c) whether the syntactic distance between elements affects agreement processing. To address these questions we visually presented…

  16. Quirky Quotes and Needles in the Haystack: Tracing Grammatical Change in Untagged Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norde, Muriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses pivotal theoretical and methodological problems of historical corpus linguistics. In two case studies from Swedish language history, the development of the epistemic adverb kanske and the group genitive respectively, it illustrates how the use of qualitative method in addition to corpus investigation can contribute to understanding grammatical change.

  17. Can Colors, Voices, and Images Help Learners Acquire the Grammatical Gender of German Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira Santos, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of lexical items is arguably the most essential aspect of being able to communicate in a foreign language (Richards, 2000). Many studies have examined effective strategies for retaining the meaning of foreign words, but studies investigating the effectiveness of different methods for the retention of essential grammatical features of…

  18. Grammatical objections to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted at Cambridge in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1935-01-01

    It is generally known that botanical nomenclature, though sprung from mediaeval scientific Latin, and agreeing, in its orthography for the greater part, in its grammar as much as possible, with classical Latin, shows countless forms which not only from a classical-grammatical, but also from a

  19. The Representation of Grammatical Gender in the Bilingual Lexicon: Evidence from Greek and German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoura, Angeliki; Williams, John N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the shared or independent nature of grammatical gender representations in the bilingual mental lexicon and the role word form similarity (as in the case of cognates) plays in these representations. In a translation task from Greek (L1) to German (L2), nouns that had the same gender in both languages were translated faster…

  20. The acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 German by learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In recent years there has been an increase in research on the acquisition of morphological aspects of a second language (L2). Specifically, a number of studies have been conducted on the acquisition of grammatical gender in the L2. The study reported in this paper investigated the adult L2 acquisition of.

  1. Aspects on Aspect : Theory and Applications of Grammatical Aspect in Spanish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González González, P.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of disciplines related to the grammatical phenomenon of aspect. There are several claims advocated in this thesis, according to the different disciplines dealt with in each chapter. Chapter 1 claims that intra-sentential semantic structure contains three potential

  2. Grammatical gender and the notion of default: insights from language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimpli, I.M.; Hulk, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the contrast in the timing of acquisition of grammatical gender attested in Dutch and Greek child learners. Greek children show precocious acquisition of neuter gender in particular, while Dutch children experience a long delay in the acquisition of neuter

  3. The Primacy of Priming in Grammatical Learning and Intervention: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The author presents a tutorial on structural priming and its relevance to the study of grammatical development and language intervention. Method: The findings from structural priming studies are examined from the standpoint of the types of changes that occur in participants' language use, the contexts in which these changes occur, and the…

  4. L1 Influence on the Acquisition Order of English Grammatical Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira; Alexopoulou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    We revisit morpheme studies to evaluate the long-standing claim for a universal order of acquisition. We investigate the L2 acquisition order of six English grammatical morphemes by learners from seven L1 groups across five proficiency levels. Data are drawn from approximately 10,000 written exam scripts from the Cambridge Learner Corpus. The…

  5. ICALL for Improving Korean L2 Writers' Ability to Edit Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ron; Choo, Jinhee; Lee, Gabseon Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates how a synergy of two technologies--Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) and corpus linguistic analysis--can produce a lasting improvement in L2 learners' ability to edit persistent grammatical errors from their writing. A large written English corpus produced by Korean undergraduate and graduate students…

  6. The Impact of Teacher Corrective Feedback on EFL Student Writers' Grammatical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimitr, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide information about teacher corrective feedback that would be helpful for EFL students' writing improvement. It focuses on feedback provided to correct grammatical errors made by student writers as the author finds that this type of errors can obstruct the effectiveness of students' pieces of writing and may result in…

  7. Grammatical versus Pragmatic Error: Employer Perceptions of Nonnative and Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…

  8. The Dead Butler Revisited: Grammatical Accuracy and Clarity in the English Primary Curriculum 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Huw

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the grammatical description and advice contained in the new National Curriculum documentation from 2013, focusing on key stages 1 and 2. It builds on previous analyses of deficiencies in the systems of grammar and the materials in earlier incarnations of the National Curriculum. It…

  9. Categorizing with Gender: Does Implicit Grammatical Gender Affect Semantic Processing in 24-Month-Old Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Susan C.; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the interaction of implicit grammatical gender and semantic category knowledge during object identification. German-learning toddlers (24-month-olds) were presented with picture pairs and heard a noun (without a preceding article) labeling one of the pictures. Labels for target and distracter images either matched or…

  10. The usefulness of the grammaticality-acceptability distinction in functional approaches to language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between grammaticality and acceptability has been regarded with strong skepticism in functional linguistics because of its origin in Chomskyan linguistics. In this paper I will argue that the distinction is useful in functional linguistics, provided that it is based on a distincti...

  11. The Ineffectiveness of the Provision of Input on the Problematic Grammatical Feature of Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the value of giving specific input on the use of articles on an undergraduate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. This topic was chosen as previous cohorts had generated a noticeable amount of errors in their use of articles, and developing written grammatical accuracy was one of the course's aims. Participants were…

  12. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions occur in Standard English sentences, they are produced in their weak forms. The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English grammatical words in their sentences or not. One hundred Educated ...

  13. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  15. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure with Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Pena, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a)…

  16. A grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 English use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assessment tool for the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 speech of four schizophrenics and four (non-psychotic) controls who were matched to the schizophrenics in terms of age, gender and first language (L1) and L2 dialects. Following a comparison of the types and frequency of the two groups' phonological, ...

  17. Enfocando la competencia linguistica: concienciacion gramatical (Focusing on Linguistic Competence: Grammatical Consciousness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Gavin

    1997-01-01

    Argues that communicative competence in Spanish as a second language can not be taught without giving attention to the grammatical component of language. Compares aspects of the traditional and communicative approaches to language teaching, refers to theory on grammar instruction, and offers examples of classroom activities supporting the learning…

  18. The Role of the Verb in Grammatical Function Assignment in English and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heeju; Kaiser, Elsi

    2014-01-01

    One of the central questions in speech production is how speakers decide which entity to assign to which grammatical function. According to the lexical hypothesis (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994), verbs play a key role in this process (e.g., "send" and "receive" result in different entities being assigned to the subject…

  19. Do grammatical-gender distinctions learned in the second language influence native-language lexical processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Smith, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    How does learning a second language influence native language processing? In the present study, we examined whether knowledge of Spanish - a language that marks grammatical gender on inanimate nouns - influences lexical processing in English - a language that does not mark grammatical gender. We tested three groups of adult English native speakers: monolinguals, emergent bilinguals with high exposure to Spanish, and emergent bilinguals with low exposure to Spanish. Participants engaged in an associative learning task in English where they learned to associate names of inanimate objects with proper names. For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation matched the gender of the proper name (e.g., corn-Patrick). For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation mismatched the gender of the proper noun (e.g., beach-William). High-Spanish-exposure bilinguals (but not monolinguals or low-Spanish-exposure bilinguals) were less accurate at retrieving proper names for gender-incongruent than for gender-congruent pairs. This indicates that second-language morphosyntactic information is activated during native-language processing, even when the second language is acquired later in life.

  20. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  1. Towards the Problem of Translating Grammatical Means of Protagonists’ Speech Characteristics in Fictional Discourse (English-Russian Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Kozarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on translating techniques in reference to grammatical means of reflecting protagonists’ speech characetristics in fictional discourse. The research is based on English-Russian translations. Grammatical markers of protagonists’ speech are viewed as one of the most essential means of creating a fictional character and hence, objectivating the author’s intention. Any cases of neutralization of the above-mentioned grammatical markers are considered to lead to a substantional loss of both factual information and emotionalappraisive component in the majority of cases. Thus, compensation strategies with regard to grammatical markers of speech are seen as indispensable. The basic methods of reseach include the method of comparative analysis of the original and translated texts coupled with the method of contextual analysis. The equivalence of compensation relating to grammatical means of protagonists’ speech characterictics in translated text is assessed; in cases of neutralizations of grammatical markers the reasonability of neutralization is analyzed and compensation strategies are worked out; the most effective techniques are specificated. Functional transformation on a par with stylistic compensation based on lexical transformations are viewed among the most effective translating techniques with regard to grammatical means of protagonists’ speech characteristics.

  2. Mononuclear Ni(II) complexes of Schiff base ligands formed from unsymmetrical tripodal amines of differing arm lengths: Spectral, X-ray crystal structural, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Hassan; Shayesteh, Maryam; Rezaeivala, Majid; Dhers, Sébastien; Küp, Fatma Öztürk; Güllü, Mithat; Ng, Seikweng

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of two unsymmetrical N-capped tripodal amines, 2-((4-aminobutyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)ethanol (3) and 3-((2-aminoethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)propan-1-ol (4) is reported. They feature a longer, 3-hydroxypropyl or butylamino arm than that in the analogues previously employed. All four tripodal amines, 1-4, are equipped with a 2-methylpyridyl-arm, and either an ethylamino-arm (1 and 4), propylamino-arm (2) or butylamino-arm (3). The amines, 3 and 4, have been employed in one pot condensation reactions with salicylaldehyde and its derivatives in the presence of Ni(II) metal ion. A series of new mononuclear complexes, [NiIILaldi](ClO4) or [NiIILaldi(solvent)](ClO4) with different geometry, of Schiff base ligands were generated. X-ray crystal structure determinations of [NiIILOMe3(H2O)](ClO4)·2H2O and [NiIILOMe4](ClO4) revealed them to be mononuclear. The Ni(II) ion in [NiIILOMe4](ClO4) complex is in a distorted square-planar environment whilst this ion is in distorted octahedral environment in [NiIILOMe3(H2O)](ClO4)·2H2O complex despite the longer arm length of L3. While, in related systems in our previous work, they had led to dimeric complexes. These results clearly showed that the variation of the arm lengths of the ligands and metal ions has a remarkable impact on the formation and structure of the complexes. The cleavage of DNA by all synthesised complexes was examined using gel electrophoresis experiments. Also, the antibacterial effects of components were determined against the three Gram-positive bacteria, and against the three Gram-negative bacteria and against the three yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 1424 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803.

  3. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  4. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers’ Oral Proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence

  5. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  6. Inhibition of thermolysin by phosphonamidate transition-state analogues: measurement of 31P-15N bond lengths and chemical shifts in two enzyme-inhibitor complexes by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copié, V; Kolbert, A C; Drewry, D H; Bartlett, P A; Oas, T G; Griffin, R G

    1990-10-02

    31P and 15N chemical shifts and 31P-15N bond lengths have been measured with solid-state NMR techniques in two inhibitors of thermolysin, carbobenzoxy-Glyp-L-Leu-L-Ala (ZGpLA) and carbobenzoxy-L-Phep-L-Leu-L-Ala (ZFpLA), both as free lithium salts and when bound to the enzyme. Binding of both inhibitors to thermolysin results in large changes in the 31P chemical shifts. These changes are more dramatic for the tighter binding inhibitor ZFpLA, where a approximately 20 ppm downfield movement of the 31P isotropic chemical shift (sigma iso) is observed. This shift is due to changes in the shift tensor elements sigma 11 and sigma 22, while sigma 33 remains essentially constant. We observed a similar pattern for ZGpLA, but only a approximately 5 ppm change occurs in sigma iso. The changes in the 15N chemical shifts for both inhibitors are small upon binding, amounting to downfield shifts of 2 and 4 ppm for ZGpLA and ZFpLA, respectively. This indicates that there are no changes in the protonation state of the 15N in either the ZFpLA- or the ZGpLA-thermolysin complex. NMR distance measurements yield a P-N bond length rP-N = 1.68 +/- 0.03 A for the tight binding inhibitor ZFpLA both in its free lithium salt form and in its thermolysin-ZFpLA complex, a distance that is much shorter than the 1.90-A distance reported by X-ray crystallography studies [Holden et al. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 8542-8553].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Projecting Grammatical Features in Nominals: Cognitive Processing Theory & Computational Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    functionality and plausibility distinguishes this research from most research in computational linguistics and computational psycholinguistics . The... Psycholinguistic Theory There is extensive psycholinguistic evidence that human language processing is essentially incremental and interactive...challenges of psycholinguistic research is to explain how humans can process language effortlessly and accurately given the complexity and ambiguity that is

  8. TEACHING GRAMMAR-IN-CONTEXT AND ITS IMPACT IN MINIMIZING STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadhi Nur Amin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated by teaching grammar-in-context. The results of the study showed that the mean score in the post-test was higher than that in the pretest; and the mean score of experimental group increased 16.20 point after the treatment. This result indicated that teaching grammarin-context is considered to be effective in minimizing students‘ grammatical errors in writing.

  9. Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B; Miller, Carol A; Finneran, Denise A

    2008-07-01

    Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence.

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF ACEHNESE EFL STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING RECOUNT TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudwatin Nisak M. Isa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding empirical evidence of the most common types of grammatical errors and sources of errors in recount texts written by the first-year students of SMAS Babul Maghfirah, Aceh Besar. The subject of the study was a collection of students’ personal writing documents of recount texts about their lives experience. The students’ recount texts were analyzed by referring to Betty S. Azar classification and Richard’s theory on sources of errors. The findings showed that the total number of error is 436. Two frequent types of grammatical errors were Verb Tense and Word Choice. The major sources of error were Intralingual Error, Interference Error and Developmental Error respectively. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is necessary for EFL teachers to apply appropriate techniques and strategies in teaching recount texts, which focus on past tense and language features of the text in order to reduce the possible errors to be made by the students.

  11. Does Grammatical Gender Influence Perception? A Study of Polish and French Speakers

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    Haertlé Izabella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can the perception of a word be influenced by its grammatical gender? Can it happen that speakers of one language perceive an object to have masculine features, while speakers of another language perceive the same object to have feminine features? Previous studies suggest that this is the case, and also that there is some supra-language gender categorisation of objects as natural/feminine and artefact/masculine. This study was an attempt to replicate these findings on another population of subjects. This is the first Polish study of this kind, comparing the perceptions of objects by Polish- and French-speaking individuals. The results of this study show that grammatical gender may cue people to assess objects as masculine or feminine. However, the findings of some previous studies, that feminine features are more often ascribed to natural objects than artifacts, were not replicated.

  12. Learning grammatical categories from distributional cues: flexible frames for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H

    2010-09-01

    Numerous distributional cues in the child's environment may potentially assist in language learning, but what cues are useful to the child and when are these cues utilised? We propose that the most useful source of distributional cue is a flexible frame surrounding the word, where the language learner integrates information from the preceding and the succeeding word for grammatical categorisation. In corpus analyses of child-directed speech together with computational models of category acquisition, we show that these flexible frames are computationally advantageous for language learning, as they benefit from the coverage of bigram information across a large proportion of the language environment as well as exploiting the enhanced accuracy of trigram information. Flexible frames are also consistent with the developmental trajectory of children's sensitivity to different sources of distributional information, and they are therefore a useful and usable information source for supporting the acquisition of grammatical categories. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using aided AAC models, recasts, and contrastive targets to teach grammatical morphemes to children who use AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effects of using aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) modeling and recasting on the expression of grammatical morphemes with children who used AAC. A single-subject, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used for the study. Three participants were each taught to use 3 grammatical structures. Intervention consisted of aided AAC models and recasts during storybook reading tasks. All three children readily began using the targeted grammatical morphemes. However, none of the participants maintained use of the first morpheme. Error analyses revealed that the children either omitted the targeted morpheme or replaced it with another morpheme. To address this issue, a second intervention phase was implemented for the targets that were not maintained. During this phase, various grammatical morphemes were contrasted with each other (e.g., past tense -ed vs. possessive 's). Following the second intervention phase, participants maintained all targets. Aided AAC models and recasts may be used as part of intervention packages designed to help children acquire production of grammatical morphemes; however, it is important to provide contrasts of grammatical forms to ensure acquisition. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Teaching Grammar-in-context and Its Impact in Minimizing Students' Grammatical Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Yadhi Nur

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated...

  15. GenERRate: generating errors for use in grammatical error detection

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Jennifer; Andersen, Øistein E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of automatically generated ungrammatical data and its use in error detection, with a focus on the task of classifying a sentence as grammatical or ungrammatical. We present an error generation tool called GenERRate and show how GenERRate can be used to improve the performance of a classifier on learner data. We describe initial attempts to replicate Cambridge Learner Corpus errors using GenERRate.

  16. Grammatical Error Analysis in Tourism Objects Information of Websiteof Malang City Tour

    OpenAIRE

    YUDHARAHARJA, ADHITYA PRATAMA

    2013-01-01

    The internet website is widely used to promote tourism objects Internationally, especially the English written website. However, information should be well written. Sometimes incorrect tenses or structures of a sentence, which are called error, can cause multiple interpretations to the readers. Related to that, the writer conducted this study to reveal the grammatical errors in tourism object information of Malang City Tour website.This study is a qualitative one, which uses document or conte...

  17. The Use of Indirect Feedback to Reduce Students' Grammatical Errors in Writing an Analytical Exposition Text

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumawardhani, Annisa Bintang

    2015-01-01

    Feedback provision is a necessity for students in the process of writing. Thus, this research aims to discover the use of indirect feedback to reduce students' grammatical errors in writing an analytical exposition text. Furthermore, this study was conducted to find out students' response toward indirect feedback given as treatment. The study implemented a quasi- experimental design. The sample of this study involves 60 students as control group and experimental group. Students' writing and q...

  18. The Effect of Incidental Focus on Form on EFL Learners’ Grammatical Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Abdollahzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Focus on form instruction is a kind of instruction that draws students, attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in meaning based instruction.  There are different types of focus on form instruction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy among Iranian L2 learners. Eighty learners from Sahand language Institute in Miandoab after taking grammatical judgment test which was administered to homogenize them, were placed in two control and experimental groups. Learners in experimental group received feedback through recasting during retelling the reading passage according to principles of Jigsaw task. But learners in control group did not receive any feedback. After treatment, which lasted for eight sessions, post-test was given to both control and experimental groups to observe the difference resulted from the treatment. To be sure about the significance of the difference between post-test means of both groups, a t-test was used. The results at the end supported the hypotheses of the study and positive effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of L2 learners. After that, for the purpose of analyzing the effect of incidental focus on form on accuracy of pronouns, tenses, articles and propositions separately, other tests (pronoun, article, tense, proposition tests was given to the learners in both control and experimental groups. The data collected was computed through t-test which revealed that the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of articles is greater than pronouns and tenses but incidental focus on form didn’t have any effect on accuracy of propositions. Pedagogical implications have been discussed. Keywords:  Focus on form, Incidental focus on form, recast, task, Accuracy

  19. The neural substrate of naming events: effects of processing demands but not of grammatical class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Simona; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F; Della Rosa, Pasquale; Saccuman, Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    Grammatical class is a fundamental property of language, and all natural languages distinguish between nouns and verbs. Brain activation studies have provided conflicting evidence concerning the neural substrates of noun and verb processing. A major limitation of many previous imaging studies is that they did not disentangle the impact of grammatical class from the differences in semantic correlates. In order to tease apart the role of semantic and grammatical factors, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study presenting Italian speakers with pictures of events and asked them to name them as 1) Infinitive Verb (e.g., mangiare [to eat]); 2) Inflected Verb (e.g., mangia [she/he eats]); and 3) Action Noun (e.g., mangiata [the eating]). We did not find any verb-specific activation. However, reliable left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activations were found when contrasting the Action Noun with the Infinitive Verb condition. A second-level analysis indicated then that activation in left IFG was greatest for Action Nouns, intermediate for Inflected Verbs, and least for Infinitive Verbs. We conclude that, when all other factors are controlled, nouns and verbs are processed by a common neural system. In the present case, differences in left IFG activation emerge as a consequence of increasing linguistic and/or general processing demands.

  20. Grammatical Adaptation of English Loanwords of Gaming Industry in the Russian Language

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    Semen V. Gornostaev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the grammatical adaptation of borrowed from the English lexems in the sphere of the interactive entertainment industry. It has been given also other processes of development of language units of the thematic groups: phonetic, lexical, semantic. Nominations were taken by continuous sampling of periodicals (magazine «Gambling», various Internet sources and lively conversation, presented on Internet forums. The subject of the analysis is one-component substantive derivative and nonderivative nomination. During the study the following results were obtained. 1. The leading features of grammatical adaptation of anglicisms in the sphere of the gaming industry are: a the appearance of declinability, stabilization of generic relatedness (not only animated, but also inanimate nouns, b expansion of the capacity of the diversion, which is manifested in the formation of word-forming nest of three types - nest-pairs, nest-bundles and nest-chains. 2. Derivative words included in their composition, may belong to different parts of speech (nouns and verbs and formed by affix (suffixes and prefixing and non-affix (abbriviation, clipping, adding ways. 3. There are units in the language-recipient that have not undergone the process of grammatical adaptation: blotches and immutable acronyms.

  1. School-age children's metalinguistic awareness of grammaticality in verb form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1990-03-01

    This study investigated 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children's ability to monitor grammaticality in the past progressive, perfect progressive, and perfect verb forms. The children achieved a significantly higher rate of accurate judgments monitoring grammatical forms that ungrammatical forms. Age was a significant factor in error identification. Eight-year-olds were substantially better at identifying ungrammatical forms than were their younger schoolmates. Verb form, in conjunction with type of anomaly, significantly varied with respect to ease of identification. Errors of the auxiliary and suffix were easier for children to identify than an adverbial error which required a sentence analysis to determine the incompatibility. The context surrounding ungrammatical verb forms significantly affected monitoring ability. Anomalous forms in unrelated sentences were easier to identify as ungrammatical than anomalous forms in sentences taken from a story the children had just heard. It appears that school-age children prefer to maintain the semantic intent of the message rather than critically search for grammatical errors.

  2. From a spatial adposition to a grammatical relations' marker: contact- and context-induced grammaticalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kolehmainen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of grammatical relations' marking that combines the advances of monolingual analysis with cross-linguistic comparison. It examines adpositions as grammatical relations' markers and the linguistic change which leads to the rise of adpositional objects from freely insertable spatial adverbials. Th is study concentrates on the Finnish adposition perään 'after'. An empirical monolingual corpus analysis shows that perään as a grammatical relations' marker is a productive device for argument linking in contemporary Finnish. In a cross-linguistic comparison, the properties of Swedish, German and Finnish adpositional objects with efter, nach and perään 'after, are studied with regard to the continuum between prototypical freely insertable adverbials and prototypical adpositional objects. A diachronic comparison, in turn, focuses on the development of adpositional objects from spatial adverbials and examines three alternative possibilities for perään: native grammaticalization, contact-induced grammaticalization and the interaction of both language-internal and -external factors.

  3. The Ineffectiveness of the Provision of Input on the Problematic Grammatical Feature of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the value of giving specific input on the use of articles on an undergraduate English for Academic Purposes (EAP course. This topic was chosen as previous cohorts had generated a noticeable amount of errors in their use of articles, and developing written grammatical accuracy was one of the course’s aims. Participants were provided with input on the definite, indefinite and zero articles. This involved providing images of authentic article errors, and catering for the interpersonal learner, with emphasis on student: student interaction. Also, a newspaper article was incorporated to illustrate how grammar works at a textual level, and because research has shown that accuracy in the use of the definite article increases during contextualized tasks exploiting authentic materials learners can relate to. However, the lack of effectiveness of highlighting this grammatical feature is illustrated by the students’ post-input writing, which generated more errors than the pre-input task, pro rata. In the post-input essay, there was one error for every 25 of the noun phrases, the equivalent of an error every 131 words. In comparison, the rate of errors in the pre-input work was one in every 28 of the noun phrases, or an error every 153 words. Therefore, due to the 16.7% increase in post-input errors, in future, I will not focus on this grammatical feature when attempting to improve written accuracy.

  4. Grammatical markers switch roles and elicit different electrophysiological responses under shallow and deep semantic requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Static knowledge about the grammar of a natural language is represented in the cortico-subcortical system. However, the differences in dynamic verbal processing under different cognitive conditions are unclear. To clarify this, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment involving a semantic priming paradigm in which semantically congruent or incongruent word sequences (prime nouns–target verbs were randomly presented. We examined the event-related brain potentials that occurred in response to congruent and incongruent target words that were preceded by primes with or without grammatical case markers. The two participant groups performed either the shallow (lexical judgment or deep (direct semantic judgment semantic tasks. We hypothesized that, irrespective of the case markers, the congruent targets would reduce centro-posterior N400 activities under the deep semantic condition, which induces selective attention to the semantic relatedness of content words. However, the same congruent targets with correct case markers would reduce lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition because grammatical case markers are related to automatic structural integration under semantically unattended conditions. We observed that congruent targets (e.g., ‘open' that were preceded by primes with congruent case markers (e.g., ‘shutter-object case' reduced lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition. In contrast, congruent targets, irrespective of case markers, consistently yielded N400 reductions under the deep semantic condition. To summarize, human neural verbal processing differed in response to the same grammatical markers in the same verbal expressions under semantically attended or unattended conditions.

  5. On the Relation Between Grammatical Number and Cardinal Numbers in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara W Sarnecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., ‘one’ and ‘two’. Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number ‘one’ earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic learn the meaning of ‘two’ earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for ‘oneness,’ ‘twoness,’ etc. are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  6. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadzadeh

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp, C. orthopsilosis (109 bp, C. metapsilosis (217 bp and L. elongisporus (258 bp were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380 by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361, C. orthopsilosis (n = 15, C. metapsilosis (n = 1 and L. elongisporus (n = 3 by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1 comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10

  7. Improvement of remote monitoring on water quality in a subtropical reservoir by incorporating grammatical evolution with parallel genetic algorithms into satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tan, Chih-Hung; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Wang, Tai-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Parallel GEGA was constructed by incorporating grammatical evolution (GE) into the parallel genetic algorithm (GA) to improve reservoir water quality monitoring based on remote sensing images. A cruise was conducted to ground-truth chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration longitudinally along the Feitsui Reservoir, the primary water supply for Taipei City in Taiwan. Empirical functions with multiple spectral parameters from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data were constructed. The GE, an evolutionary automatic programming type system, automatically discovers complex nonlinear mathematical relationships among observed Chl-a concentrations and remote-sensed imageries. A GA was used afterward with GE to optimize the appropriate function type. Various parallel subpopulations were processed to enhance search efficiency during the optimization procedure with GA. Compared with a traditional linear multiple regression (LMR), the performance of parallel GEGA was found to be better than that of the traditional LMR model with lower estimating errors.

  8. The Effect of Planning Sub-Processes on L2 Writing Fluency, Grammatical Complexity, and Lexical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark D.; Mercado, Leonardo; Acevedo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to L2 writing research which seeks to tie predictions of the Limited Attentional Capacity Model (Skehan, 1998; Skehan & Foster, 2001) and Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2001, 2005, 2011a, 2011b) to models of working memory in L1 writing (Kellogg, 1996). The study uses a quasi-experimental research design to investigate…

  9. The Dead Ends of Language: The (mis)interpretation of a Grammatical Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the so-called ‘comparative illusion’ or ‘dead end’ experimentally – a pseudo-elliptical, seemingly grammatical, but ill-formed sentence, e.g. More people have been to Paris than I have. Repeatability of the event and choice of quantifier (more vs. fewer) do not affect acceptability significantly, whereas plurality of the than-phrase subject does. The illusion is fast and (superficially) easy to parse, suggesting that it is (mis)interpreted directly, not via ellipsis resolu...

  10. Grammatical awareness in the spoken and written language of language-disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Kantor, M; Macnab, J

    1990-12-01

    Experiments examined grammatical judgement, and error-identification deficits in relation to expressive language skills and to morphemic errors in writing. Language-disabled subjects did not differ from language-matched controls on judgement, revision, or error identification. Age-matched controls represented more morphemes in elicited writing than either of the other groups, which were equivalent. However, in spontaneous writing, language-disabled subjects made more frequent morphemic errors than age-matched controls, but language-matched subjects did not differ from either group. Proficiency relative to academic experience and oral language status and to remedial implications are discussed.

  11. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  12. Some considerations on Bible translation as complex process | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that translation is a complex process: meaning is "created" by decoding the source text on several levels (for instance, grammatical; structural; literary; and socio-cultural levels). This "meaning" must then be encoded into the target language by means of the linguistic, literary, and cultural conventions of the target ...

  13. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  14. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Grammatical Gender Trouble and Hungarian Gender[lessness]. Part I: Comparative Linguistic Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define linguistic gender[lessness], with particular reference in the latter part of the article to Hungarian, and to show why it is a feminist issue. I will discuss the [socio]linguistics of linguistic gender in three types of languages, those, like German and the Romance languages, among others, which possess grammatical gender, languages such as English, with only pronominal gender (sometimes misnamed ‘natural gender’, and languages such as Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric languages, as well as many other languages in the world, such as Turkish and Chinese, which have no linguistic or pronomial gender, but, like all languages, can make lexical gender distinctions. While in a narrow linguistic sense linguistic gender can be said to be afunctional, this does not take into account the ideological ramifications in gendered languages of the “leakage” between gender and sex[ism], while at the same time so-called genderless languages can express societal sexist assumptions linguistically through, for example, lexical gender, semantic derogation of women, and naming conventions. Thus, both languages with overt grammatical gender and those with gender-related asymmetries of a more covert nature show language to represent traditional cultural expectations, illustrating that linguistic gender is a feminist issue.

  16. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  17. THE ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMATICAL ERRORS OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ESSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukarno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A language learner often faces many linguistic differences, especially if the native language and the target language are from different language families. The current study investigates the grammatical errors made by the first year students of the English Department, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Jember, Indonesia. The data were collected from 30 participants essays of Writing 01 class (documentary data conducted from August to December 2014. Having been identified, the errors were classified into various categorizations, and analyzed based on descriptive-interpretative method to find the possible sources of the errors. The research revealed that the learners committed ten types of grammatical errors, and the six mostly prominent errors were plural form, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, word form, subject/verb omission, and passive voice respectively. This research also showed that the errors mostly resulted from the different linguistic principles of Indonesian and English (interlingual transfer, and partly from the faulty of overgeneralization of English rules (intralingual transfer. The overt influences of Indonesian to English as well as the overgeneralization of English rules can provide the writing teachers and course designers with insightful guidelines for better understanding of the sources of errors, which in turn, can help them to apply the more appropriate approaches to manage the foreign language learners errors of the year students

  18. Grammatical Errors in Speaking Made by the Third Year English Department Students STKIP Abdi Pendidikan Payakumbuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervina Hervina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is important skill in the language learning. Many people assumed that study the language must be able to speak using the language. Besides that, language is a system of understanding to communicate with others. The researcher found out the error and hopefully it can be reflection in learning English. The method of this research is qualitative research. It is based on the research focus; to analyze the grammatical errors of English department students’ of STKIP Abdi Pendidikan Payakumbuh. The methods used by the researcher to get the data were observation, interview, and documentation. There were three activities on data analysis; data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/ verification. The result shows that the students have not mastered the use of verb groups. It can be seen from the number of the errors made. Although they had been taught about it before, they were still confused which one to use when making a grammatical sentence. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  19. A Case-based Reasoning Approach to Validate Grammatical Gender and Number Agreement in Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Across Latin America 420 indigenous languages are spoken. Spanish is considered a second language in indigenous communities and is progressively introduced in education. However, most of the tools to support teaching processes of a second language have been developed for the most common languages such as English, French, German, Italian, etc. As a result, only a small amount of learning objects and authoring tools have been developed for indigenous people considering the specific needs of their population. This paper introduces Multilingual–Tiny as a web authoring tool to support the virtual experience of indigenous students and teachers when they are creating learning objects in indigenous languages or in Spanish language, in particular, when they have to deal with the grammatical structures of Spanish. Multilingual–Tiny has a module based on the Case-based Reasoning technique to provide recommendations in real time when teachers and students write texts in Spanish. An experiment was performed in order to compare some local similarity functions to retrieve cases from the case library taking into account the grammatical structures. As a result we found the similarity function with the best performance

  20. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  1. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  2. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...

  3. The Effect of Task-Based Language Teaching on Motivation and Grammatical Achievement of EFL Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    NamazianDost, Islam; Bohloulzadeh, Ghassem; Pazhakh, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    This research sought to investigate the effect of the effect of task-based language teaching on motivation and grammatical achievement of EFL junior high school students of Ahvaz. To fulfill the objectives of the study a Homogeneity test (Oxford Quick Placement Test) was administered among 100 students at the junior high school and finally 80…

  4. Does EFL Readers' Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights from a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Baghaei, Purya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between reading comprehension and lexical and grammatical knowledge among English as a foreign language students by using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). There were 825 test takers administered both a second-language reading test and a set of psychometrically validated grammar and vocabulary tests.…

  5. Using Aided AAC Models, Recasts, and Contrastive Targets to Teach Grammatical Morphemes to Children Who Use AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effects of using aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) modeling and recasting on the expression of grammatical morphemes with children who used AAC. Method: A single-subject, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used for the study. Three participants were each…

  6. Looking at the evidence in visual world : eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seckin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference

  7. Grammatical Morphology in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment : The Case of Dutch Plurals and Past Participles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, T.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371593557; Wijnen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258; Leseman, P.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810; Blom, W.B.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140893261

    Purpose Grammatical morphology is often a locus of difficulty for both children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children. In contrast to previous research that mainly focused on verbal tense and agreement markings, the present study investigated whether plural and past participle

  8. A Comparative Study of EFL Teachers' and Intermediate High School Students' Perceptions of Written Corrective Feedback on Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodaie, Mina; Farrokhi, Farahman; Zoghi, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This study was an attempt to compare EFL teachers' and intermediate high school students' perceptions of written corrective feedback on grammatical errors and also to specify their reasons for choosing comprehensive or selective feedback and some feedback strategies over some others. To collect the required data, the student version of…

  9. Detecting and Diagnosing Grammatical Errors for Beginning Learners of German: From Learner Corpus Annotation to Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Adriane

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a corpus of beginning learner German with a reliable error annotation scheme and an approach for detecting and diagnosing grammatical errors in learner language. A constraint-based dependency parser provides the foundation for a flexible and modular analysis of German by representing parsing as a constraint satisfaction…

  10. Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: relationships with nonverbal IQ over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Tomblin, J Bruce; Hoffman, Lesa; Richman, W Allen; Marquis, Janet

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between children's language acquisition and their nonverbal intelligence has a long tradition of scientific inquiry. Current attention focuses on the use of nonverbal IQ level as an exclusionary criterion in the definition of specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical tense deficits are known as a clinical marker of SLI, but the relationship with nonverbal intelligence below the normal range has not previously been systematically studied. This study documents the levels of grammatical tense acquisition (for third-person singular -s, regular and irregular past tense morphology) in a large, epidemiologically ascertained sample of kindergarten children that comprises 4 groups: 130 children with SLI, 100 children with nonspecific language impairments (NLI), 73 children with low cognitive levels but language within normal limits (LC), and 117 unaffected control children. The study also documents the longitudinal course of acquisition for the SLI and NLI children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. The LC group did not differ from the unaffected controls at kindergarten, showing a dissociation of nonverbal intelligence and grammatical tense marking, so that low levels of nonverbal intelligence did not necessarily yield low levels of grammatical tense. The NLI group's level of performance was lower than that of the SLI group and showed a greater delay in resolution of the overgeneralization phase of irregular past tense mastery, indicating qualitative differences in growth. Implications for clinical groupings for research and clinical purposes are discussed.

  11. Progressive Treatment and Self-Assessment: Effects on Students' Automatisation of Grammatical Spelling and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybroeck, Marie; Penneman, Jessica; Vidick, Charline; Galand, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    The production of grammatical markers takes a long time to master. Even when students know the rules, they do not systematically apply them. However, few studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interventions to improve this competence, and no study has addressed the issue at the cognitive and motivational levels jointly. Our study demonstrates…

  12. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  13. Exploring the longitudinal relationships between the use of grammar in text messaging and performance on grammatical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Clare; Kemp, Nenagh; Waldron, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that use of texting slang (textisms) when text messaging does not appear to impact negatively on children's literacy outcomes and may even benefit children's spelling attainment. However, less attention has been paid to the impact of text messaging on the development of children's and young people's understanding of grammar. This study therefore examined the interrelationships between children's and young adults' tendency to make grammatical violations when texting and their performance on formal assessments of spoken and written grammatical understanding, orthographic processing and spelling ability over the course of 1 year. Zero-order correlations showed patterns consistent with previous research on textism use and spelling, and there was no evidence of any negative associations between the development of the children's performance on the grammar tasks and their use of grammatical violations when texting. Adults' tendency to use ungrammatical word forms ('does you') was positively related to performance on the test of written grammar. Grammatical violations were found to be positively associated with growth in spelling for secondary school children. However, not all forms of violation were observed to be consistently used in samples of text messages taken 12 months apart or were characteristic of typical text messages. The need to differentiate between genuine errors and deliberate violation of rules is discussed, as are the educational implications of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  14. On the Flexibility of Grammatical Advance Planning During Sentence Production: Effects of Cognitive Load on Multiple Lexical Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, V.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers

  15. Visual Input Enhancement via Essay Coding Results in Deaf Learners' Long-Term Retention of Improved English Grammatical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Schmitz, Kathryn L.; Kenney, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the efficacy of visual input enhancement, specifically "essay enhancement", for facilitating deaf college students' improvement in English grammatical knowledge. Results documented students' significant improvement immediately after a 10-week instructional intervention, a replication of recent research. Additionally, the…

  16. Number Dissimilarities Facilitate the Comprehension of Relative Clauses in Children with (Grammatical) Speci?c Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Van Der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether number dissimilarities on subject and object DPs facilitate the comprehension of subject- and object-extracted centre-embedded relative clauses in children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI). We compared the performance of a group of English-speaking children with G-SLI (mean age: 12;11) with that…

  17. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  18. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  19. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  1. Using Language-Specific and Bilingual Measures to Explore Lexical-Grammatical Links in Young Latino Dual-Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Méndez, Lucía I

    2018-04-05

    This study examined the nature of the relation between language-specific vocabulary and conceptual lexical-semantic skills with grammatical abilities within and across languages in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). Sixty-one typically developing, Spanish-English speaking DLLs from preschools serving low-income families participated in the study. Lexical, semantic, and grammar skills were assessed toward the end of the fall in both Spanish and English using normative and researcher-developed assessment instruments. Hierarchical linear regressions using baseline cross-sectional data were completed to determine the association of language-specific vocabulary and bilingual lexical and semantic abilities to grammatical skills measured by sentence repetition tasks in Spanish and English both within and across languages. Results from the study revealed that a considerable percentage of the variance in the grammatical ability of these Latino DLL preschoolers in both Spanish and English was explained by lexical variables in the same language (54% in English and 16% in Spanish). In the strong language (Spanish), bilingual semantic skills also played a role, explaining an additional 8% of the variance. Conceptual vocabulary was a significant predictor of English grammar in the model that excluded the language-specific vocabulary measures. These findings suggest that grammatical skills in the Latino preschoolers examined in the study are strongly related to language-specific measures of vocabulary. In contrast, no evidence supporting the relation between vocabulary and grammar skills across languages was observed. Findings from this study provide insight into the impact of bilingual lexical-semantic knowledge on the grammatical skills of dual-language preschool children developing language abilities in their 2 languages. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  2. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners. Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jame’at al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jame’at al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country. High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically. Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers. In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. “Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye” was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian

  3. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners. Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jame’at al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jame’at al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country. High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically. Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers. In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. “Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye” was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian language; in this way, center of language and

  4. Language identification of information blocks based on lexico-grammatic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Kalegin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a continuation of the author's series of publications on the subjects of language identification of texts. In the article is being considered the creation of a technological basis for language identification systems of unstructured information blocks based on lexico-grammatical markers, in which are used the forms of verbs, verbal formations or functionally analogous constructions, are described method and algorithm for its software implementation. These developments will significantly reduce the resource intensity and improve the quality of such systems, which will give a significant economic effect and the possibility of creating fundamentally new technologies for determining the linguistic affiliation of information in a multilingual environment. Consequently, the study is of interest for computer linguists and developers of automatic word processing systems, such as: global monitoring systems, multilingual knowledge bases, automatic translation systems, information retrieval systems, document summarizing systems, literature catalogers, etc.

  5. Inflectional morphology in high-functioning autism: Evidence for speeded grammatical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Ullman, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    Autism is characterized by language and communication deficits. We investigated grammatical and lexical processes in high-functioning autism by contrasting the production of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Boys with autism and typically-developing control boys did not differ in accuracy or error rates. However, boys with autism were significantly faster than controls at producing rule-governed past-tenses ( slip-slipped, plim-plimmed, bring-bringed ), though not lexically-dependent past-tenses ( bring-brought, squeeze-squeezed, splim-splam ). This pattern mirrors previous findings from Tourette syndrome attributed to abnormalities of frontal/basal-ganglia circuits that underlie grammar. We suggest a similar abnormality underlying language in autism. Importantly, even when children with autism show apparently normal language (e.g., in accuracy or with diagnostic instruments), processes and/or brain structures subserving language may be atypical in the disorder.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STYLISTIC COMPETENCE OF FUTURE PHILOLOGISTS: GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Вовк

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a grammatical aspect of developing stylistic competence of students of linguistic departments. Particularly, the stylistic competence which is defined as a capacity to create adequate utterances under natural conditions of communication according to a concrete situation is characterized. To highlight the importance of acquiring stylistic competence the levels of speech development of an individual are indentified and the stages of teaching grammar are differentiated. The approaches to teaching stylistic grammar are characterized within a communicative framework and relevant skills are elucidated. The role of functional styles in teaching a foreign language is clarified. The idea of teaching students to be able to make register shifts and mixture of speech registers in the process of foreign language competence acquiring are highlihgted. The theoretical principles are illustrated with the appropriate examples of exercises.

  7. Cladistic analysis of Bantu languages: a new tree based on combined lexical and grammatical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexová, Kateřina; Bastin, Yvonne; Frynta, Daniel

    2006-04-01

    The phylogeny of the Bantu languages is reconstructed by application of the cladistic methodology to the combined lexical and grammatical data (87 languages, 144 characters). A maximum parsimony tree and Bayesian analysis supported some previously recognized clades, e.g., that of eastern and southern Bantu languages. Moreover, the results revealed that Bantu languages south and east of the equatorial forest are probably monophyletic. It suggests an unorthodox scenario of Bantu expansion including (after initial radiation in their homelands and neighboring territories) just a single passage through rainforest areas followed by a subsequent divergence into major clades. The likely localization of this divergence is in the area west of the Great Lakes. It conforms to the view that demographic expansion and dispersal throughout the dry-forests and savanna regions of subequatorial Africa was associated with the acquisition of new technologies (iron metallurgy and grain cultivation).

  8. Grammatical gender in the production of single words: some evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmenou, Evangelia; Bard, Ellen G; Branigan, Holly P

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of prior grammatical gender information provided by the production of a bare noun on the production of a syntactically unrelated, gender-inflected color adjective. The target language was Greek. A lexical priming task involving picture naming was employed. Participants saw a series of pictures, some in color and some in black-and-white; they had to name a black-and-white picture with the single noun (prime) and a color picture with the appropriately inflected color adjective (target). Prior gender information was shown to affect subsequent production of gender-marked words. The effect was restricted to nouns of one gender class (masculine) only. The implications of these results for the representation and processing of gender in production are discussed. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Annotated corpus and the empirical evaluation of probability estimates of grammatical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševa Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the usage of an annotated corpus in the field of experimental psycholinguistics. Specifically, we demonstrate how the manually annotated Corpus of Serbian Language (Kostić, Đ. 2001 can be used for probability estimates of grammatical forms, which allow the control of independent variables in psycholinguistic experiments. We address the issue of processing Serbian inflected forms within two subparadigms of feminine nouns. In regression analysis, almost all processing variability of inflected forms has been accounted for by the amount of information (i.e. bits carried by the presented forms. In spite of the fact that probability distributions of inflected forms for the two paradigms differ, it was shown that the best prediction of processing variability is obtained by the probabilities derived from the predominant subparadigm which encompasses about 80% of feminine nouns. The relevance of annotated corpora in experimental psycholinguistics is discussed more in detail .

  10. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  11. Keeping it simple: Studying grammatical encoding with lexically-reduced item sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma eVeenstra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the large body of work on lexical access, little research has been done on grammatical encoding in language production. An exception is the generation of subject-verb agreement. Here, two key findings have been reported: (1 Speakers make more agreement errors when the head and local noun of a phrase mismatch in number than when they match (e.g., the key to the cabinet(s; and (2 this attraction effect is asymmetric, with stronger attraction for singular than for plural head nouns. Although these findings are robust, the cognitive processes leading to agreement errors and their significance for the generation of correct agreement are not fully understood. We propose that future studies of agreement, and grammatical encoding in general, may benefit from using paradigms that tightly control the variability of the lexical content of the material.We report two experiments illustrating this approach. In both of them, the experimental items featured combinations of four nouns, four color adjectives, and two prepositions. In Experiment 1, native speakers of Dutch described pictures in sentences such as the circle next to the stars is blue. In Experiment 2, they carried out a forced-choice task, where they read subject noun phrases (e.g., the circle next to the stars and selected the correct verb-phrase (is blue or are blue with a button press. Both experiments showed an attraction effect, with more errors after subject phrases with mismatching, compared to matching head and local nouns. This effect was stronger for singular than plural heads, replicating the attraction asymmetry. In contrast, the response times recorded in Experiment 2 showed similar attraction effects for singular and plural head nouns. These results demonstrate that critical agreement phenomena can be elicited reliably in lexically-reduced contexts. We discuss the theoretical implications of the findings and the potential and limitations of studies using lexically simple

  12. Sentence Repetition Test for Measurement of Grammatical Development in Farsi Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: valid identification, prevention, and treatment of language disorders are a high priority for the speech and language professionals. One method for studying language development is sentence repetition that is faster to implement and analysis than other procedures. The aim of this project was constructing sentence repetition test as a quick measure of grammatical potency in 2.5 to 4 year old children.Methods: Sentences appropriate for 2.5 to 4 year old children were selected during several stages by speech and language pathologist and linguists. The validity of sentences was assessed by professional masters in this theme. Subsequently, 41 sentences including those with 80% high validity were selected as the test sentences. Appropriate pictures were also provided with sentences. The test was administrated to 72 children in 3 groups (2.5-3, 3-3.5, and 3.5-4 year olds, gender matched. The reliability was administered with a test-retest design across a 2 weeks interval.Results: Content validity Index for this test was 80%. "Test-retest reliability” was used for reliability of this test. The Interclass correlation coefficient for this test was 0.95 and standard error measurement was 7.45. The average of scores for sentence repetition, between groups was significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p= 0.014.Conclusion: This sentence repetition test has the appropriate validity and reliability as well as the capability of proper and quick assessment (screening of grammatical development in 2.5 to 4 year old Persian speaking children.

  13. Full Length Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Out of the 320 male sheep examined, 87(27.2%) were infected, while 9(19.1%) of the 47 females examined were infected (Table 2). Infection varied from one abattoir to another. Age related distribution of P. cervi is shown in Table 3. Out of 356 adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 35. Full Length Research Article. 12 ...

  14. Do the Hard Things First: A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Effects of Exemplar Selection on Generalization Following Therapy for Grammatical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc; Curran, Maura

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Complexity-based approaches to treatment have been gaining popularity in domains such as phonology and aphasia but have not yet been tested in child morphological acquisition. In this study, we examined whether beginning treatment with easier-to-inflect (easy first) or harder-to-inflect (hard first) verbs led to greater progress in the production of regular past-tense –ed by children with developmental language disorder. Method Eighteen children with developmental language disorder (ages 4–10) participated in a randomized controlled trial (easy first, N = 10, hard first, N = 8). Verbs were selected on the basis of frequency, phonological complexity, and telicity (i.e., the completedness of the event). Progress was measured by the duration of therapy, number of verb lists trained to criterion, and pre/post gains in accuracy for trained and untrained verbs on structured probes. Results The hard-first group made greater gains in accuracy on both trained and untrained verbs but did not have fewer therapy visits or train to criterion on more verb lists than the easy-first group. Treatment fidelity, average recasts per session, and verbs learned did not differ across conditions. Conclusion When targeting grammatical morphemes, it may be most efficient for clinicians to select harder rather than easier exemplars of the target. PMID:28796874

  15. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Length of excitable knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, Fabian; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots. We also show that there is not a unique attractor within a given knot topology.

  17. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight and length-length relationships of freshwater wild catfish Mystus bleekeri from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan. ... Linear regression analysis was used, first to compute the degree of relationship between length and weight and then among total (TL), standard (SL) and fork lengths (FL). LWR exhibited a highly ...

  19. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  20. Relationship of Grammatical Context on Children's Recognition of s/z-Inflected Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratford, Meredith; McLean, Hannah Hodson; McCreery, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Access to aided high-frequency speech information is currently assessed behaviorally using recognition of plural monosyllabic words. Because of semantic and grammatical cues that support word+morpheme recognition in sentence materials, the contribution of high-frequency audibility to sentence recognition is less than that for isolated words. However, young children may not yet have the linguistic competence to take advantage of these cues. A low-predictability sentence recognition task that controls for language ability could be used to assess the impact of high-frequency audibility in a context that more closely represents how children learn language. To determine if differences exist in recognition of s/z-inflected monosyllabic words for children with normal hearing (CNH) and children who are hard of hearing (CHH) across stimuli context (presented in isolation versus embedded medially within a sentence that has low semantic and syntactic predictability) and varying levels of high-frequency audibility (4- and 8-kHz low-pass filtered for CNH and 8-kHz low-pass filtered for CHH). A prospective, cross-sectional design was used to analyze word+morpheme recognition in noise for stimuli varying in grammatical context and high-frequency audibility. Low-predictability sentence stimuli were created so that the target word+morpheme could not be predicted by semantic or syntactic cues. Electroacoustic measures of aided access to high-frequency speech sounds were used to predict individual differences in recognition for CHH. Thirty-five children, aged 5-12 yrs, were recruited to participate in the study; 24 CNH and 11 CHH (bilateral mild to severe hearing loss) who wore hearing aids (HAs). All children were native speakers of English. Monosyllabic word+morpheme recognition was measured in isolated and sentence-embedded conditions at a +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio using steady state, speech-shaped noise. Real-ear probe microphone measures of HAs were obtained for CHH. To

  1. Short cervical length dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhag, Anju; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. With research efforts, the rate of PTB decreased to 11.4% in 2013. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) cervical length (CL) screening predicts PTB. In asymptomatic singletons without prior spontaneous PTB (sPTB), TVU CL screening should be done. If the cervix is 20 mm or less, vaginal progesterone is indicated. In asymptomatic singletons with prior sPTB, serial CL screening is indicated. In multiple gestations, routine cervical screening is not indicated. In symptomatic women with preterm labor, TVU CL screening and fetal fibronectin testing is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  3. Primary length standard adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčík, Robert; Guttenová, Jana

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with problems and techniques connected with primary length standard adjusting, which includes disassembling of the device and by use of the secondary laser with collimated beam and diffraction laws successively reassembling of the laser. In the reassembling process the device was enhanced with substituting the thermal grease cooling of cold finger by copper socket cooler. This improved external cooling system enables more effective cooling of molecular iodine in the cell, which allows better pressure stability of iodine vapor and easier readjustment of the system.

  4. Unlimited Gender: The Discursive Construction of the Travesti Identity Through the Manipulation of the Grammatical Gender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borba

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Southern Brazilian traveestis’ manipulation of the Portuguese grammatical gender system. During field work, it was verified that feminine forms are the preferred choice in the group. However, ideological and bodily tensions that surround travestis seem to force them to make use of masculine forms in specific discursive contexts. Travestis use masculine forms 1 to produce narratives about the time before their body modifications took place; 2 to report speech produced by others when talking about transvestites; 3 to talk about themselves within their family relationships; and 4 to distinguish themselves from ‘other’ travestis they do not identify with. Thus, the study shows how Southern Brazilian travestis use the Brazilian Portuguese grammatical gender system as a resource to manipulate their identities and the identities of the community they belong to.

  5. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...

  6. Using Language Sample Analysis in Clinical Practice: Measures of Grammatical Accuracy for Identifying Language Impairment in Preschool and School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of two grammatical accuracy measures for differentiating children with and without language impairment (LI) at preschool and early school age based on language samples. The first measure, the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), is a narrow grammatical measure that computes children's overall accuracy of four verb tense morphemes. The second measure, percent grammatical utterances (PGU), is a broader grammatical measure that computes children's accuracy in producing grammatical utterances. The extant studies show that FVMC demonstrates acceptable (i.e., 80 to 89% accurate) to good (i.e., 90% accurate or higher) diagnostic accuracy for children between 4;0 (years;months) and 6;11 in conversational or narrative samples. In contrast, PGU yields acceptable to good diagnostic accuracy for children between 3;0 and 8;11 regardless of sample types. Given the diagnostic accuracy shown in the literature, we suggest that FVMC and PGU can be used as one piece of evidence for identifying children with LI in assessment when appropriate. However, FVMC or PGU should not be used as therapy goals directly. Instead, when children are low in FVMC or PGU, we suggest that follow-up analyses should be conducted to determine the verb tense morphemes or grammatical structures that children have difficulty with. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Avoiding Simplicity Is Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Eric

    It is a trivial observation that every decidable set has strings of length n with Kolmogorov complexity logn + O(1) if it has any strings of length n at all. Things become much more interesting when one asks whether a similar property holds when one considers resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. This is the question considered here: Can a feasible set A avoid accepting strings of low resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, while still accepting some (or many) strings of length n?

  8. Grammatical morphology in children learning English as a second language: implications of similarities with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the expressive language characteristics of typically developing (TD) children learning English as a second language (ESL) have similarities to the characteristics of the English that is spoken by monolingual children with specific language impairment (SLI), and whether this could result in the erroneous assessment of TD English-language learners (ELLs) as language impaired. Twenty-four TD language-minority children who had been learning ESL for an average of 9.5 months participated in the study. The children's accuracy and error types in production of the following grammatical morphemes were examined in spontaneous and elicited speech: third person singular [-s], past tense [-ed], irregular past tense, BE as a copula and auxiliary verb, DO as an auxiliary verb, progressive [-ing], prepositions in and on, plural [-s], and determiners a and the. The elicitation probes were part of a recently developed standardized test for identifying language impairment, the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI; M. Rice & K. Wexler, 2001). The ELLs' accuracy rates and error patterns with the grammatical morphemes were similar to those that have been reported for same-age monolingual children with SLI, in both spontaneous and elicited speech. In addition, the ELL's elicitation probe scores were compared to the criterion scores and group means from the sample of monolingual children used to develop the TEGI and their performance on the TEGI was in the range of the clinical population even though there is no reason to suspect that any of these children is language impaired. Both analyses point to the possibility that TD ELLs could be mistaken as language impaired. The results provide information that can be used to set appropriate expectations of error patterns and rate of grammatical development in the early stages of ESL learning. The results also emphasize how the use of English standardized tests with nonnative English-speakers is

  9. Sources of Grammatical Error: a Case Study on Intralingual, Interlingual, Context of Learning and Communication Strategies Factors

    OpenAIRE

    WICAKSONO, AGUNG

    2014-01-01

    Everyone who learns a language produce errors. The errors occurring in the process of learning a foreign language should be considered as natural process. This study aims at describing the sources of the grammatical errors made by the second year students of English Department at Faculty of Teaching Training and Education Nusantara PGRI University in writing subject focuses on using of expressing time and using past form. The closed ended questionnaire and structured interview were used to k...

  10. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  11. The Impact of Implicit Tasks on Improving the Learners’ Writing in Terms of Autonomy and Grammatical Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Nazari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners' ability to gain grammatical accuracy in their writing by noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. Recent literature in language acquisition has emphasized the role of implicit tasks in encouraging learners to develop autonomous language learning habits, so it is important to consider tasks, particularly implicit tasks, as an important part of language teaching. In this study 60 EFL students from two elementary English classes were chosen. The students of one class were engaged in an implicit task in which they compared the use of grammar in their own writing to the use of that grammar in a written text by a native speaker, and the other class received no such treatment. The results indicated that the subjects who had received the treatment performed much better on the post-test. The outcome of the delayed post-test also confirmed the superior performance of the learners in the experimental group showing that they had internalized the targeted structure. Thus such tasks are beneficial in terms of allowing learners to autonomously make improvements in terms of grammatical accuracy in their writings.

  12. Enseignement centré sur la forme et acquisition du genre grammatical en français L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Lyster

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article first describes two studies previously published in English (Lyster, 2004; Lyster & Izquierdo, 2009 and then synthesizes their results to discuss how research setting and participants' age interact to differentially influence the effects of different types of corrective feedback. Both studies investigated the effects of form-focused instruction delivered in tandem with different types of corrective feedback on the acquisition of grammatical gender by classroom learners of French as a second language. Participants in Study 1 were eight classes of 179 French immersion students in Grade 5, while participants in Study 2 were two classes of 25 undergraduate students enrolled in a post-secondary intermediate-level French course. In both studies, classroom teachers provided form-focused instruction designed to draw attention to selected noun endings that reliably predict grammatical gender and also provided two different feedback treatments (recasts or prompts. Analyses of pretest, immediate-posttest, and delayed-posttest results showed a significant increase in the ability of students in both studies exposed to form-focused instruction to correctly assign grammatical gender. In the classroom study, however, child learners in French immersion classes benefited more from prompts than recasts, whereas in the lab study, university-level adult learners benefited equally from both prompts and recasts.

  13. The effect of written corrective feedback on grammatical accuracy of EFL students: An improvement over previous unfocused designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Khanlarzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF in the improvement of language learners' grammatical accuracy has been a topic of interest in SLA studies for the past couple of decades. The present study reports the findings of a three-month study investigating the effect of direct unfocused WCF on the grammatical accuracy of elementary students in an EFL context. The researchers selected two intact classes totaling 33 students, and assigned each to a direct feedback group (n = 16 and a control group (n = 17. The students produced eight pieces of writing (a pretest, three writing tasks along with their revisions, and a posttest from which their grammatical accuracy was obtained. The results indicated that while the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in the revision of the three writing tasks, no significant difference was found when the two groups produced a new piece of writing after a one-month interval. The study concludes that accuracy improvement caused by unfocused WCF during the revision process does not extend to EFL learners' future writing when no feedback is available, at least at the elementary level.

  14. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Anneke P

    2016-05-20

    There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals' languages, regardless of input quantity. Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals' acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals' acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals' input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  15. Correcting students’ written grammatical errors: The effects of negotiated versus nonnegotiated feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nassaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2 written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate adult English as a second language classes. Three types of feedback were compared: nonnegotiated direct reformulation, feedback with limited negotiation (i.e., prompt + reformulation and feedback with negotiation. The linguistic targets chosen were the two most common grammatical errors in English: articles and prepositions. The effects of feedback were measured by means of learner-specific error identification/correction tasks administered three days, and again ten days, after the treatment. The results showed an overall advantage for feedback that involved negotiation. However, a comparison of data per error types showed that the differential effects of feedback types were mainly apparent for article errors rather than preposition errors. These results suggest that while negotiated feedback may play an important role in addressing L2 written errors, the degree of its effects may differ for different linguistic targets.

  16. The Retreat from Locative Overgeneralisation Errors: A Novel Verb Grammaticality Judgment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgood, Amy; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst some locative verbs alternate between the ground- and figure-locative constructions (e.g. Lisa sprayed the flowers with water/Lisa sprayed water onto the flowers), others are restricted to one construction or the other (e.g. *Lisa filled water into the cup/*Lisa poured the cup with water). The present study investigated two proposals for how learners (aged 5–6, 9–10 and adults) acquire this restriction, using a novel-verb-learning grammaticality-judgment paradigm. In support of the semantic verb class hypothesis, participants in all age groups used the semantic properties of novel verbs to determine the locative constructions (ground/figure/both) in which they could and could not appear. In support of the frequency hypothesis, participants' tolerance of overgeneralisation errors decreased with each increasing level of verb frequency (novel/low/high). These results underline the need to develop an integrated account of the roles of semantics and frequency in the retreat from argument structure overgeneralisation. PMID:24830412

  17. Investigating Lexico-grammaticality in Academic Abstracts and Their Full Research Papers from a Diachronic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeh Valipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of science and academic knowledge has led to changes in academic language and transfer of information and knowledge. In this regard, the present study is an attempt to investigate lexico-grammaticality in academic abstracts and their full research papers in Linguistics, Chemistry and Electrical engineering papers published during 1991-2015 in academic journals from a diachronic perspective through quantitative research design. The focus of this paper is on transitivity, mood and theme analysis in the corpus according to Halliday's (1994 systemic functional linguistics model. So, all the attempts are to find the changes in abstracts and research papers of these disciplines and how they are to be positioned in different linguistic contexts over time. The results revealed that research papers employ the spectrum of possible lexical realization quite differently as compared to general English, especially concerning the use of specific lexical items. Also, the results of chi-squares of each discipline showed that there are significant differences between papers over time at .05 level of significance (.000< .05 with regard to the transitivity, mood, and theme.

  18. The interaction of grammatical aspect and temporal distance in motion descriptions

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    Sarah eAnderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical aspect is known to shape event understanding. However, little is known about how it interacts with other important temporal information, such as recent and distant past. The current work uses computer-mouse tracking (Spivey, Grosjean, & Knoblich, 2005 to explore the interaction of aspect and temporal context. Participants in our experiment listened to past motion event descriptions that varied according to aspect (simple past, past progressive and temporal distance (recent past, distant past while viewing scenes with paths and implied destinations. Participants used a computer mouse to place characters into the scene to match event descriptions. Our results indicated that aspect and temporal context interact in interesting ways. When aspect placed emphasis on the ongoing details of the event and the temporal context was recent (thus, making fine details available in memory, this match between conditions elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements than when conditions mismatched. Likewise, when aspect placed emphasis on the less-detailed end state of the event and temporal context was in the distant past (thus making fine details less available, this match between conditions also elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements.

  19. Textisms, grammatical features and sentence types in the SMS and IM paragraphs of EFAL learners

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    Chaka, Chaka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the writing of short message service (SMS and instant message (IM paragraphs through mobile phones by 29 participants. The latter were Grade 8a English first additional language learners at a junior secondary school in Mthatha. Participants were assigned two topics – one on each paragraph mode - from which they had to produce the two specified modes of paragraphs. The two activities occurred outside of the normal school hours for a day each. Employing a case study design and using voluntary and criterion sampling techniques, the study had four research questions, two of which were: what is the length of SMS and IM paragraphs produced by participants on the two topics they are given to write about?; and what types of textisms will participants use in their SMS and IM paragraphs, and what will be the density of such textisms? Some of the findings of the study are as follows: participants’ SMS and IM paragraphs displayed linguistic and contextual textisms, and errors in varying degrees; SMS paragraphs had more contextual textisms than IM paragraphs, while the latter had more linguistic textisms than the former; the overall textism density for both paragraph modes was lower vis-à-vis the total word count in both cases; and IM paragraphs had more compound and complex sentences than SMS paragraphs.

  20. Predicting length of stay in specialist neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Whitney; Wressle, Alexandra; Bradley, Lloyd

    2018-03-01

    A retrospective case series was performed to determine which measures of complexity, dependency and function most accurately predict inpatient neurorehabilitation length of stay for individuals with post-acute neurological disorders. Sociodemographic, medical and functional variables were extracted from data submitted to the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative. Length of stay was calculated as the total number of inpatient days, functional status was measured using Barthel Index, rehabilitation complexity was measured using Extended Rehabilitation Complexity Scale, and nursing dependency was measured using the Northwick Park Dependency Scale. The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 70.9 days, with length of stay being 35.1 days higher in inpatients with acquired brain injury than inpatients with spinal cord injury. Diagnostic category, Barthel Index scores, Extended Rehabilitation Complexity Scale scores and Northwick Park Dependency Scale scores at admission independently predicted length of stay. Multiple regressions including diagnostic group, Barthel Index, Extended Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Northwick Park Dependency Scale statistically significantly predicted 37.9% of the variability in length of stay (p Scale on admission was most closely correlated with inpatient length of stay. In conclusion, inpatient length of stay is predicted by diagnostic category, Extended Rehabilitation Complexity Scale, Northwick Park Dependency Scale and Barthel Index. The most influential predictor of rehabilitation length of stay was Northwick Park Dependency Scale score at admission. These results may help facilitate rehabilitation resource planning and implementation of effective commissioning plans. Implications for Rehabilitation The most accurate predicting variable for length of stay in inpatient neurological rehabilitation was nursing need as measured by the Northwick Park Dependency Scale score on admission. Service users and commissioners can be

  1. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  2. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  3. The Effect of Study Abroad on Grammatical Accuracy of Indonesian Students’ Oral and Written Performance

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    Kristian Adi Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This  correlational  study investigates the  effect  of  study  abroad  of two  exchange  students (SA from  Indonesia  in  public  schools  in the United  States  on  their  grammatical  accuracy as  compared  to the oral and written performance of two first year college students through  formal  instruction (FI in  Indonesia  never  experiencing living  in  L2  environment.  Speech  samples  were  elicited  through interview via-Skype, while writing samples were obtained through writing task. The result of this study shows that in oral and written performance, SA participants used more accurate grammar than FI participants.  However,  SA  participants  were  more  accurate  in using  the  three  tenses  in  writing (90% than  in  speaking  (87%, while FI participants showed different result, i.e. their grammatical accuracy of speaking (78% was higher than that of writing (76%.Studi  korelasional  ini  meneliti  efek  studi  di  luar negeri  untuk dua siswa  Indonesia  program  pertukaran (SA di  sekolah  negeri Amerika Serikat  dalam  hal  ketepatan  gramatikal  yang dibandingkan dengan ketrampilan lesan dan tulis mahasiswa tahun pertama  melalui  instruksi  formal  (FI di  Indonesia  yang  belum pernah  tinggal  di  lingkungan  bahasa  kedua. Sampel  ketrampilan lesan dikumpulkan lewat wawancara via Skype, sedangkan sampel ketrampilan tulis  diperoleh  melalui  tugas  mengarang.  Hasil penelitian  ini  menunjukkan  bahwa dalam  ketrampilan lesan  dan tulis,  akurasi  gramatikal  peserta  SA  lebih  tinggi  daripada  peserta FI. Namun demikian, peserta SA lebih akurat dalam menggunakan tiga kala dalam mengarang (90% daripada penggunaan kala dalam berbicara  (87%,  sementara  peserta  FI menunjukkan  hasil  yang berbeda,  yaitu  akurasi  gramatikal  berbicara  (78%  lebih  tinggi daripada akurasi gramatikal mengarang (76%.

  4. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  5. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

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    Anneke P. Potgieter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives: To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1 occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2 in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method: Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results: The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion: As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  6. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure. PMID:27245133

  7. Types of Grammatical Metaphors in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

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    Nesa Nabifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical Metaphor (GM is one of the fresh language phenomena introduced by Halliday (1985 in the framework of functional grammar. Thompson (2004 states that the salient source of GM would be ‘Nominalization’ where a noun form attempts to represent a verb form or in other words, a verb form with its different process is represented in a noun form. He continues that any wording is ought to be either metaphorical or congruent wording. In this study the story of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was explored in search of GMs deployed throughout the first two chapters.  This study tended to identify the instances of nominalization types of GM in the first two chapters of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and offer the congruent wording.  As the next step, the congruent wordings were compared with metaphorical wording in order to find out the lexical density of each wording. The lexical density was obtained by Concordance software. The result of study illustrated , in a very crystal-clear way, the advantage of GM in adult writing which is stated to be one of the noticeable points regarding GM by Halliday (1985.The result obtained statistically revealed that  the deployment of GM increases the lexical density, which again was claimed by Halliday (2004 as one of the other salient points about GM. Based on the findings of this study, some implications can be drawn for academic writing and reading as well as for teachers involved in writing and reading pedagogy.

  8. Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Merry Shelly’s Frankenstein and its Cinematic Adaptation

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    Sholeh Seyedvalilu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within Systemic Functional Linguistics, Grammatical Metaphor (GM is a meaning-making resource lying at the experiential level that extends the meaning potential through cross-stratal re-mappings between the grammar and the semantics, boiling down, in one of its manifestations to expressing something that should have been a process (verb in terms of a thing (noun. This study is an attempt at seeing how the frequency of GM used in the novel ‘Frankenstein’ written by Mary Shelly plays out in its cinematic adaptation. It is an attempt at investigating possible differences in the use of GM in the novel as a type of literary prose fiction and in one of its cinematic adaptations, the respective frequencies, along with what implications these differences carry in terms of generic features and functions of GM. In the 4200-word corpus analyzed for the movie adaptation, there were 70 instances of GM emerging upon analysis. In the 4200-word purposively sampled excerpt of the novel, there were above 330 instances of GM emerging. So the frequency of instances of GM in the written version was much more than that in the cinematic adaptation. This significant difference carries many possible cognitive, semantic, discursive, generic and textual implications. A number of pedagogical implications accrue to this research, such as increasing the knowledge of teachers and English language instructors with regard to the role of GM in making metaphorical forms in different texts, increasing knowledge of how to approach the teaching of the skill of reading and writing in upper-intermediate and intermediate classes, deeper critical reading abilities for learners, etc.

  9. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.

  10. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success. PMID:27391085

  11. Full-Length Genome Analyses of Two New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV Strains from Mustached Monkeys (C. Cephus in Gabon Illustrate a Complex Evolutionary History among the SIVmus/mon/gsn Lineage

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    Florian Liégeois

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans.

  12. All giraffes have female-specific properties: influence of grammatical gender on deductive reasoning about sex-specific properties in German speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart; Saalbach, Henrik; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive inference in native German speakers. We compared German with Japanese speakers (a language without grammatical gender) when making inferences about sex-specific biological properties. We found that German speakers tended to erroneously draw inferences when the sex in the premise and grammatical gender of the target animal agreed. An over-generalization of the grammar-semantics mapping was found even when the sex of the target was explicitly indicated. However, these effects occurred only when gender-marking articles accompanied the nouns. These results suggest that German speakers project sex-specific biological properties onto gender-marking articles but not onto conceptual representations of animals per se. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. A novel method to infer the origin of polyploids from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism data reveals that the alpine polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) evolved mainly via autopolyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Manuela; Escobar García, Pedro; Gattringer, Andreas; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Hülber, Karl; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2017-09-01

    Despite its evolutionary and ecological relevance, the mode of polyploid origin has been notoriously difficult to be reconstructed from molecular data. Here, we present a method to identify the putative parents of polyploids and thus to infer the mode of their origin (auto- vs. allopolyploidy) from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. To this end, we use Cohen's d of distances between in silico polyploids, generated within a priori defined scenarios of origin from a priori delimited putative parental entities (e.g. taxa, genetic lineages), and natural polyploids. Simulations show that the discriminatory power of the proposed method increases mainly with increasing divergence between the lower-ploid putative ancestors and less so with increasing delay of polyploidization relative to the time of divergence. We apply the new method to the Senecio carniolicus aggregate, distributed in the European Alps and comprising two diploid, one tetraploid and one hexaploid species. In the eastern part of its distribution, the S. carniolicus aggregate was inferred to comprise an autopolyploid series, whereas for western populations of the tetraploid species, an allopolyploid origin involving the two diploid species was the most likely scenario. Although this suggests that the tetraploid species has two independent origins, other evidence (ribotype distribution, morphology) is consistent with the hypothesis of an autopolyploid origin with subsequent introgression by the second diploid species. Altogether, identifying the best among alternative scenarios using Cohen's d can be straightforward, but particular scenarios, such as allopolyploid origin vs. autopolyploid origin with subsequent introgression, remain difficult to be distinguished. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Grammatical morphology is not a sensitive marker of language impairment in Icelandic in children aged 4-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical morphology continues to be widely regarded as an area of extraordinary difficulty in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). A main argument for this view is the purported high diagnostic accuracy of morphological errors for the identification of SLI. However, findings are inconsistent across age groups and across languages. Studies show morphological difficulty to be far less pronounced in more highly inflected languages and the diagnostic accuracy of morphology in such languages is largely unknown. This study examines the morphological use of Icelandic children with and without SLI in a cross-sectional sample of children ranging from preschool age to adolescence and assesses the usefulness of morphology as a clinical marker to identify SLI. Participants were 57 monolingual Icelandic-speaking children age 4-14 years; 31 with SLI and 26 with typical language development (TD). Spontaneous language samples were coded for correct and incorrect use of grammatical morphology. The diversity of use of grammatical morphemes was documented for each group at different age and MLU levels. Individual accuracy scores were plotted against age as well as MLU and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. MLU and morphological accuracy increased with age for both children with SLI and TD, with the two groups gradually approaching each other. Morphological diversity and sequence of acquisition was similar across TD and SLI groups compared based on age or MLU. Morphological accuracy was overall high, but was somewhat lower in the SLI group, in particular at ages below 12 years and MLU levels below 6.0. However, overlap between the groups was important in all age groups, involving a greater tendency for errors in both groups at young ages and scores close to or at ceiling at older ages. Sensitivity rates as well as likelihood ratios for each morpheme were all below the range considered acceptable for clinical application, whereas better specificity rates in some age

  15. Academic Writing Development at the University Level: Phrasal and Clausal Complexity across Level of Study, Discipline, and Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Shelley; Egbert, Jesse; Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Using the British Academic Written English corpus, this study focuses on the use of grammatical complexity features in university level texts written by first language (L1) English writers to demonstrate knowledge and perform other specialized tasks required of advanced academic writers. While the primary focus of the analysis is on writing…

  16. Grey matter volume in the cerebellum is related to the processing of grammatical rules in a second language: a structural voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-02-01

    The experience of learning and using a second language (L2) has been shown to affect the grey matter (GM) structure of the brain. Importantly, GM density in several cortical and subcortical areas has been shown to be related to performance in L2 tasks. Here, we show that bilingualism can lead to increased GM volume in the cerebellum, a structure that has been related to the processing of grammatical rules. Additionally, the cerebellar GM volume of highly proficient L2 speakers is correlated to their performance in a task tapping on grammatical processing in an L2, demonstrating the importance of the cerebellum for the establishment and use of grammatical rules in an L2.

  17. First language acquisition differs from second language acquisition in prelingually deaf signers: evidence from sensitivity to grammaticality judgement in British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Kearsy; Schembri, Adam; Vinson, David; Orfanidou, Eleni

    2012-07-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of grammaticality judgement decreases as AoA increases, until around age 8, thus showing the unique effect of AoA on grammatical judgement in early learners. No such effects were found in those who acquired BSL after age 8. These late learners appear to have first language proficiency in English instead, which may have been used to scaffold learning of BSL as a second language later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure With Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Peña, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a) whether use and exposure to Spanish had an effect on the performance of bilingual children compared with monolingual Latino children and (b) whether dialectal differences within Latino English speakers might result in performance differences and a greater incidence of misclassifications for children from Caribbean English backgrounds. Method One hundred and eleven children (i.e., 59 children with typical language development and 52 children with LI) were sampled from the Southwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Southwestern children were of Mexican origin. Children from the Northeast were from Puerto Rican or Dominican backgrounds. Linear discriminant analyses evaluating group classifications on the basis of the E-MST were performed on exploratory and confirmatory data sets across 3 groups: Southwestern English-only proficient (SW EP) children, Southwestern English-dominant bilingual (SW EDB) children, and Northeastern (NE) children. Results Results of the exploratory discriminant analyses indicated good sensitivity for the SW EP children. The discriminant functions derived from the exploratory analysis were able to predict group membership in confirmatory discriminant analyses with fair sensitivity and good specificity for the SW EDB children and with fair sensitivity but poor specificity for the NE children. Children who were English-dominant bilingual were not more likely to be misclassified compared with their English-only proficient peers. However, nonmainstream English dialect differences appeared to affect classification accuracy and resulted in a greater number of misclassifications for the NE children with typical

  19. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word

  20. On the number of multiplications necessary to compute a length-2 exp n DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideman, M. T.; Burrus, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of multiplications necessary and sufficient to compute a length-2 exp n DFT is determined. The method of derivation is shown to apply to the multiplicative complexity results of Winograd (1980, 1981) for a length-p exp n DFT, for p an odd prime number. The multiplicative complexity of the one-dimensional DFT is summarized for many possible lengths.

  1. An Analysis on the Students' Grammatical Error in Writing Skill of Recoount Text at the Tenth Grade of SMA Muhammadiyah Rambah

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarni

    2016-01-01

    The artisle investigated about an analysis on the students' grammatical error in writing skill of recount text at the tenth grade of SMA Muhammadiyah Rambah. The purpose of this study was to know the grammatical error of the students in part of speech and tense in recount text writing. The indicators are: (a) error in sentence pattern, (b) error in tense, (c) error in pronoun, (d) error in preposition, (e) error in punctuation. From these indicators, the researcher would know the kinds of err...

  2. Comparative Study of the Passive Verb in Arabic and Persian Languages from the Perspective of Grammatical and Semantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Zarkoob

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Verb is one the important categories and main elements of sentence which is sometimes divided in similar types in Arabic and Persian. One of the main types of verb existed in both languages is passive verb. Although this appellation is apparently common in both languages, it seems passive verbs are completely equivalent in both languages but since passive verb in the Persian language has been discussed from different aspects compared with Arabic, in this article we are looking for some answers to these questions that if we can find other structures apart from passive structure which are accounted as passive in their meanings? Which kind of relationship is there between grammatical and semantic structures of passive verb in both languages? What are grammatical and semantic differences and similarities of passive verb in Persian and Arabic languages? The results of this survey decreased translation errors of students. We also state this example as a result of this research that, not only there is an auxiliary verb in both languages is investigated as a passive-maker but also, there are some planar verbs in both languages and also voice changes are occurred in addition to inflection changes.

  3. Comparative Study of the Passive Verb in Arabic and Persian Languages from the Perspective of Grammatical and Semantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Zarkoob

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Verb is one the important categories and main elements of sentence which is sometimes divided in similar types in Arabic and Persian. One of the main types of verb existed in both languages is passive verb. Although this appellation is apparently common in both languages, it seems passive verbs are completely equivalent in both languages but since passive verb in the Persian language has been discussed from different aspects compared with Arabic, in this article we are looking for some answers to these questions that if we can find other structures apart from passive structure which are accounted as passive in their meanings? Which kind of relationship is there between grammatical and semantic structures of passive verb in both languages? What are grammatical and semantic differences and similarities of passive verb in Persian and Arabic languages? The results of this survey decreased translation errors of students. We also state this example as a result of this research that, not only there is an auxiliary verb in both languages is investigated as a passive-maker but also, there are some planar verbs in both languages and also voice changes are occurred in addition to inflection changes. Â

  4. The Comparison of Typed and Handwritten Essays of Iranian EFL Students in terms of Length, Spelling, and Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Sarbakhshian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to compare typed and handwritten essays of Iranian EFL students in terms of length, spelling, and grammar. To administer the study, the researchers utilized Alice Touch Typing Tutor software to select 15 upper intermediate students with higher ability to write two essays: one typed and the other handwritten. The students were both males and females between the ages of 22 to 35. The analyses of the students’ scores in the three mentioned criteria through three paired samples t-tests indicate that typed essays are significantly better than handwritten ones in terms of length of texts and grammatical mistakes, but not significantly different in spelling mistakes. Positive effects of typing can provide a logical reason for students, especially TOEFL applicants, to spend more time on acquiring typing skill and also for teachers to encourage their students with higher typing ability to choose typed format in their essays.

  5. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Length-weight measurements were taken from well-preserved fish specimens from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as index of relative importance. The length-frequency analysis showed a size distribution with a ...

  6. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  7. Comparative studies of variation in the use of grammatical gender in the Danish and Dutch DP in the speech of youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Gregersen, Frans; Blom, Elma; Cornips, Leonie; Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on a cross-linguistic study on speech data produced by monolingual and bilingual Dutch and Danish teenagers. The prediction that both monolingual and bilingual Danish youngsters show less variation in grammatical gender due to more morphological input cues for gender in Danish than

  8. Comment faire de la grammaire sans trahir le discours: Le cas des exercices grammaticaux (How to Teach Grammar without Betraying Discourse: The Case of Grammatical Exercises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calve, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the various functions of grammar in second-language (SL) education, and examines the relationship between discourse and grammar in SL education. Two problems are then examined concerning the relationship between discourse and grammar within grammatical exercises, and with the help of concrete examples, suggestions are offered to better…

  9. The Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of AWE Feedback on ESL Students' Development of Grammatical Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Feng, Hui-Hsien; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2017-01-01

    This classroom-based study employs a mixed-methods approach to exploring both short-term and long-term effects of Criterion feedback on ESL students' development of grammatical accuracy. The results of multilevel growth modeling indicate that Criterion feedback helps students in both intermediate-high and advanced-low levels reduce errors in eight…

  10. Sampling Utterances and Grammatical Analysis Revised (SUGAR): New Normative Values for Language Sample Analysis Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document whether mean length of utterance (MLU[subscript S]), total number of words (TNW), clauses per sentence (CPS), and/or words per sentence (WPS) demonstrated age-related changes in children with typical language and to document the average time to collect, transcribe, and analyze conversational…

  11. ‘Right now, Sophie *swims in the pool?!’: Brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique eFlecken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing resemble semantic or morpho-syntactic processing, or whether they instead are characterized by an entirely distinct pattern in the same individuals. We studied aspect from the perspective of agreement between the temporal information in the context (temporal adverbials, e.g., Right now and a morpho-syntactic marker of grammatical aspect (e.g., progressive is swimming. Participants read questions providing a temporal context that was progressive (What is Sophie doing in the pool right now? or habitual (What does Sophie do in the pool every Monday?. Following a lead-in sentence context such as Right now, Sophie…, we measured ERPs time-locked to verb phrases in four different conditions, e.g., (a is swimming (control; (b *is cooking (semantic violation; (c *are swimming (morpho-syntactic violation; or (d?swims (aspect mismatch; …in the pool. The collected ERPs show typical N400 and P600 effects for semantics and morpho-syntax, while aspect processing elicited an Early Negativity (250-350 ms. The aspect-related Negativity was short-lived and had a central scalp distribution with an anterior onset. This differentiates it not only from the semantic N400 effect, but also from the typical (LAN (Left Anterior Negativity, that is frequently reported for various types of agreement processing. Moreover, aspect processing was not accompanied by a clear P600 modulation.We argue that the specific context for each item in this experiment provided a trigger for agreement checking with temporal information encoded on the verb, i.e., morphological aspect marking. The aspect-related Negativity obtained for aspect agreement mismatches reflects a violated expectation concerning verbal inflection (in the example above, the expected verb phrase was Sophie is X-ing rather than Sophie X-s in condition d. The absence of an additional P600 for aspect processing suggests that the mismatch did not

  12. Complex Predicates and Event Structure: An Integrated Analysis of Serial Verb Constructions in the Mabia Languages of West Africa. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodomo, Adams B.

    An integrated analysis of the syntax and semantics of serial verb constructions (SVCs) in a group of West African languages is presented. With data from Dagaare and closest relatives, a structural definition for SVCs is developed (two or more lexical verbs that share grammatical categories within a clause), establishing SVCs as complex predicates.…

  13. The Effectiveness of Guided Induction versus Deductive Instruction on the Development of Complex Spanish "Gustar" Structures: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Caras, Allison; Leow, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic research suggests an edge of explicit over implicit instruction for the development of complex L2 grammatical structures, but the jury is still out as to which type of explicit instruction--"deductive" or "inductive," where rules are respectively provided or elicited--proves more effective. Avoiding this…

  14. Language Sample Analysis and Elicitation Technique Effects in Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the language sample elicitation technique (i.e., storytelling and story-retelling tasks with pictorial support) affects lexical diversity (D), grammaticality (grammatical errors per communication unit [GE/CU]), sentence length (mean length of utterance in words [MLUw]), and sentence complexity (subordination…

  15. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of liquids and solvation, protein folding and aggregation and phase transitions, nucleation and self- assembly. 1. Introduction. An understanding of the diverse range of structures and dynamical processes seen in chemical systems is necessary in order to comprehend many phenom- ena in physics, chemistry and biology.

  16. Disentangling early language development: modeling lexical and grammatical acquisition using an extension of case-study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B F; Mervis, C B

    1998-03-01

    The early lexical and grammatical development of 1 male child is examined with growth curves and dynamic-systems modeling procedures. Lexical-development described a pattern of logistic growth (R2 = .98). Lexical and plural development shared the following characteristics: Plural growth began only after a threshold was reached in vocabulary size; lexical growth slowed as plural growth increased. As plural use reached full mastery, lexical growth began again to increase. It was hypothesized that a precursor model (P. van Geert, 1991) would fit these data. Subsequent testing indicated that the precursor model, modified to incorporate brief yet intensive plural growth, provided a suitable fit. The value of the modified precursor model for the explication of processes implicated in language development is discussed.

  17. The development of grammatical case distinctions in the use of personal pronouns by Spanish-speaking preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R T

    1998-04-01

    Data on personal pronoun development in Spanish-speaking children was obtained in this study. Forty monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 3;11 participated in the investigation. Two tasks were designed to obligate production of nominative and object pronouns in both reflexive and non-reflexive forms. Productive use and error analysis data were obtained and compared to previous data on pronoun development in English. By contrast with the order of productive use of grammatical case distinctions reported in the literature for English-speaking children, the children in the present study demonstrated a pattern in which nominative pronoun use preceded object case use. Implications of these findings for developmental theories that have been presented to explain pronoun development are discussed.

  18. A Balanced Accuracy Fitness Function Leads to Robust Analysis using Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks in the Case of Class Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Nicholas E; Fanelli, Theresa J; Dudek, Scott M; Reif, David M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2008-01-01

    Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks (GENN) is a computational method designed to detect gene-gene interactions in genetic epidemiology, but has so far only been evaluated in situations with balanced numbers of cases and controls. Real data, however, rarely has such perfectly balanced classes. In the current study, we test the power of GENN to detect interactions in data with a range of class imbalance using two fitness functions (classification error and balanced error), as well as data re-sampling. We show that when using classification error, class imbalance greatly decreases the power of GENN. Re-sampling methods demonstrated improved power, but using balanced accuracy resulted in the highest power. Based on the results of this study, balanced error has replaced classification error in the GENN algorithm.

  19. A Comparison of the Grammatical Production of Child Heritage Speakers of Spanish across Language and Grade: Kindergarten and Grade 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elicited grammatical forms (oral production from a group of child heritage speakers of Spanish (N = 45 in English and Spanish, using the morphosyntax subtest of the Bilingual English–Spanish Assessment (BESA, (Peña et al. 2014. A cross-sectional design was used with 25 participants in kindergarten and 20 in first grade. All children spoke Spanish at home and attended English rural schools. We controlled for L2 class environment and socio-economic status. Research findings indicated children produced more target structures in L1 Spanish. This project supports the view that sequential bilingualism and continuous exposure to the heritage language may assist heritage speakers to maintain some L1 structures (Miller and Cuza 2013; Pascual y Cabo and Gómez Soler 2015. Patterns of L2 development are also addressed.

  20. Acquisition of english grammatical morphology by native mandarin-speaking children and adolescents: age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gisela; Fuse, Akiko

    2007-10-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the acquisition of 6 English grammatical morphemes (i.e., regular and irregular past tense, 3rd person singular, progressive aspect -ing, copula BE, and auxiliary DO) by 10 native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents in the United States (arrived in the United States between 5 and 16 years of age). The goals were to chart and compare the acquisition trajectories and levels of mastery across the morphemes, identify when age-related differences emerged and which forms they took. Morphological proficiency was measured by the accuracy of these morphemes in obligatory contexts during spontaneous speech. The morphemes were mastered by different numbers of participants and showed different growth trajectories. Performance variance was partially predicted by age of arrival (AoAr) in the United States, with early arrivals achieving greater proficiency than late arrivals. However, such AoAr effects took several years to occur and only existed for 2 of the 6 morphemes (i.e., 3rd person singular and regular past tense). Growth curve analysis revealed that language environment was a stronger predictor of individual differences than AoAr. Results did not uncover age-related differences in the acquisition of tense versus non-tense-related morphemes, nor in regular versus irregular morphemes, nor in the error types. Findings support an Environmental account for age-related differences in 2nd language (L2) morphological acquisition. Results also indicate that the acquisition of some grammatical morphemes by school-aged immigrants takes several years to complete. As L2 learners exhibit some error types and difficulties similar to monolingual children with specific language impairment, caution needs to be taken when interpreting and using morphological errors as indicators of speech/language learning problems in this population.

  1. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  2. Determining multiple length scales in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Qiao; Ryu, Seungoh; Sen, Pabitra N.

    2000-07-01

    Carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East are believed to contain about half of the world's oil. The processes of sedimentation and diagenesis produce in carbonate rocks microporous grains and a wide range of pore sizes, resulting in a complex spatial distribution of pores and pore connectivity. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to determine by conventional techniques the characteristic pore-length scales, which control fluid transport properties. Here we present a bulk-measurement technique that is non-destructive and capable of extracting multiple length scales from carbonate rocks. The technique uses nuclear magnetic resonance to exploit the spatially varying magnetic field inside the pore space itself-a `fingerprint' of the pore structure. We found three primary length scales (1-100µm) in the Middle-East carbonate rocks and determined that the pores are well connected and spatially mixed. Such information is critical for reliably estimating the amount of capillary-bound water in the rock, which is important for efficient oil production. This method might also be used to complement other techniques for the study of shaly sand reservoirs and compartmentalization in cells and tissues.

  3. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  4. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  5. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  6. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  7. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  8. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  9. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Shipp TD, Bromley B, Mascola M, Benacerraf B. Variation in fetal femur length with respect to maternal race. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:141‑4. 25. Deter RL, Harrist RB, Birnholz JC, Hadlock FP. Quantitative Obstetrical. Ultrasonography. New York: Wiley; 1986. 26. Yeh MN, Bracero L, Reilly KB, Murtha L, ...

  10. Interface between Linguistic Noticing and Fossilization of Grammatical, Lexical, and Cohesive Features among Advanced EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossilization has become the focus of many L2 studies since its introduction in 1972 as many learners fail to achieve native-speaker competence. Researchers have tried to unravel the causes of fossilization, among which noticing has been claimed to be of great importance. This  study  aimed  to  explore  the  effect  of  noticing  on  fossilization.  To  achieve  this  aim,  a mixed-methods approach was utilized. Sixty advanced L1 Persian learners of English studying in  Iran  were  chosen  to  perform  two  written  and  three  spoken  tasks  twice.  Qualitative  data included the content analysis of the participants’ performance on the written and spoken tasks while  the  quantitative  data  included  percentages  of  noticed  errors  and  recurrent  erroneous forms.  The  errors  observed  in  both  performances  were  counted  and  classified.  Three  main categories named Grammatical Errors, Lexical Errors, and Cohesive Errors were identified. The observed errors were further classified into 36 subcategories. When learners’ ability in noticing their errors was investigated, it was found that they could notice 37.4% of the 3,796 fossilized forms  they  had  produced.  Most  of  the  errors  observed  were  categorized  in  the  category  of grammatical errors. Noticing affected the number of errors produced. It can be concluded that becoming aware of ones fossilized forms, one will produce fewer fossilized forms. The results of  the  current  study  have  implications  for  English  language  teachers  and  learners.  By  being informed of the errors learners make while learning a language and how their noticing affects fossilization, teachers can improve their teaching practice which in turn enhances learning.   ارتباط بین توجه زبانی و فسیل­شدگی جنبه ­های دستوری، واژگانی، و پیوستگی زبانی در

  11. Effects of task complexity, glossing and working memory on L2 reading and L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, J.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, task-based language teaching has inspired and propelled much research into how task complexity affects second language (L2) learners’ performance and development. To date, however, the task-based approach has mainly been researched in connection with learners’ oral and written production, while its applicability to L2 reading has largely been unattended to. In addition, only a few studies exist that have examined the effects of glossing on L2 grammatical constructio...

  12. [Mean length utterance (MLU) as a measure of language development of children with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Suelen Fernanda; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the mean length utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and words (MLU-w) produced by children with Down syndrome (DS), and to verify the effectiveness of using EME-w as a measure of general language development of children with DS. Participants were 15 children with ages between 5 and 12 years, who were submitted to a free interaction situation. They were divided into three groups, according to chronological and mental age, as established by the results of the Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. The first 100 utterances were analyzed considering: number of grammatical morphemes (GM) for articles, nouns and verbs (GM-1), and pronouns, prepositions and conjunctions (GM-2); mean length utterance for morphemes (MLU-m) and words (MLU-w). The between-groups comparison showed that the MLU averages were higher for older groups, and differences were found for all variables, except for GM-2. The same results were obtained in the within-group comparison, for all variables. There was a strong correlation between MLU-m and MLU-w. MLU-w can be used as an identification measure of general linguistic development. However, it is emphasized that the use of all MLU variables provides more efficacy in the characterization of linguistic development and the analysis of language impairments.

  13. The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther

    This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a

  14. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  15. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving......Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...

  16. Validation of a novel ultrasound measurement of achilles tendon length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Riecke, Anja Falk; Boesen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: A clinically applicable and accurate method for measuring Achilles tendon length is needed to investigate the influence of elongation of the Achilles tendon after acute rupture. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultrasonographic (US) length measurement...... of the Achilles tendon-aponeurosis complex. METHODS: Both legs of 19 non-injured subjects were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US. The length from calcaneus to the medial head of m. Gastrocnemius was measured by three independent US examiners. Repeated US measurements were performed and compared...... to be further assessed in the setting of acute Achilles tendon rupture. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This new ultrasound measurement might allow for length measurement of ruptured Achilles tendons in the acute and chronic state after rupture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  17. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  18. Grammatical Morphology in Monolingual and Bilingual Children With and Without Language Impairment: The Case of Dutch Plurals and Past Participles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Wijnen, Frank; Leseman, Paul; Blom, Elma

    2017-07-12

    Grammatical morphology is often a locus of difficulty for both children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children. In contrast to previous research that mainly focused on verbal tense and agreement markings, the present study investigated whether plural and past participle formation can disentangle the effects of LI and bilingualism and, in addition, can point to weaknesses of LI that hold across monolingual and bilingual contexts. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (n = 33 per group) were tested at 2 waves with a word formation task that elicited Dutch noun plurals and past participles. The quantity and quality of errors as well as children's development over time were examined. The plural formation task discriminated between monolingual children with and without LI, but a less differentiated picture emerged in the bilingual group. Moreover, plural accuracy showed fully overlapping language profiles of monolinguals with LI and bilinguals without LI, in contrast to accuracy scores on the past participle formation task. Error analyses suggested that frequent omission of participial affixes may be indicative of LI, irrespective of lingual status. The elicited production of past participles may support a reliable diagnosis of LI in monolingual and bilingual learning contexts. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5165689.

  19. Power of grammatical evolution neural networks to detect gene-gene interactions in the presence of error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Anna C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of increasingly efficient means to obtain genetic information, a great insurgence of data has resulted, leading to the need for methods for analyzing this data beyond that of traditional parametric statistical approaches. Recently we introduced Grammatical Evolution Neural Network (GENN, a machine-learning approach to detect gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, also known as epistasis, in high dimensional genetic epidemiological data. GENN has been shown to be highly successful in a range of simulated data, but the impact of error common to real data is unknown. In the current study, we examine the power of GENN to detect interesting interactions in the presence of noise due to genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity. Additionally, we compare the performance of GENN to that of another computational method – Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR. Findings GENN is extremely robust to missing data and genotyping error. Phenocopy in a dataset reduces the power of both GENN and MDR. GENN is reasonably robust to genetic heterogeneity and find that in some cases GENN has substantially higher power than MDR to detect functional loci in the presence of genetic heterogeneity. Conclusion GENN is a promising method to detect gene-gene interaction, even in the presence of common types of error found in real data.

  20. Power of grammatical evolution neural networks to detect gene-gene interactions in the presence of error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Fanelli, Theresa J; Davis, Anna C; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2008-08-13

    With the advent of increasingly efficient means to obtain genetic information, a great insurgence of data has resulted, leading to the need for methods for analyzing this data beyond that of traditional parametric statistical approaches. Recently we introduced Grammatical Evolution Neural Network (GENN), a machine-learning approach to detect gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, also known as epistasis, in high dimensional genetic epidemiological data. GENN has been shown to be highly successful in a range of simulated data, but the impact of error common to real data is unknown. In the current study, we examine the power of GENN to detect interesting interactions in the presence of noise due to genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity. Additionally, we compare the performance of GENN to that of another computational method - Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR). GENN is extremely robust to missing data and genotyping error. Phenocopy in a dataset reduces the power of both GENN and MDR. GENN is reasonably robust to genetic heterogeneity and find that in some cases GENN has substantially higher power than MDR to detect functional loci in the presence of genetic heterogeneity. GENN is a promising method to detect gene-gene interaction, even in the presence of common types of error found in real data.

  1. THE REPERCUSSION OF GRAMMATICAL AND CULTURAL CULPABILITY OF THE HOLY QUR’AN TRANSLATION TO RELIGIOUS HARMONY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muta'ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, among the sources of Islamic radicalization in Indonesia is the interpretation of certain terminology in the holy Qur’an. In a relatively long period, religious understanding of Indonesian society is shaped by the official Translation of the Holy Qur’an by Ministry of Religious Affairs. However, this translation contains several mistakes, including mistakes in translating key terms relating to the issue of warfare, non-Muslims and killing. This eventually contributes to radicalization of some element of Muslim society in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to analyze error translation of The Holy Qur’an verses. Content analysis theory is applied in this research with grammatical and cultural approach against the Holy Qur’an translation by Ministry of Religious Affairs of Indonesia (MORA. The research shows that 90 fatal errors in translation of The Holy Qur’an verses regarding infidels and polytheists are confirmed. The errors might be play role in the increasing religious disharmony in Indonesia. Furthermore, they arguably have fueled Islam-based terrorism acts.

  2. The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Recasts on the Grammatical Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the effects of explicit and implicit recasts on Iranian EFL learners' acquisition of English relative clauses. For this purpose, 64 participants were selected out of 94 intermediate level EFL learners at Falagh language Institute, Rasht, Iran. To have homogenized groups, the researcher administered a language proficiency test (TOEFL. Then, the researchers assigned them randomly to the explicit recast group, implicit recast group, and control group. They carried out some information gap tasks within four sessions. One group received explicit recast, the other group received implicit recast and the control one got no corrective feedback, for the target linguistic errors during the task performance. A grammatical judgment test was applied as the pretest and immediate posttest. The results of a paired-samples t-test and analyses of variance (ANOVA showed that the scores of all three groups improved significantly overtime. However, the explicit recast group did significantly better than both the control group and the implicit recast group. The results of the study were elaborated in terms of counterbalance hypothesis and noticing hypothesis. The superiority of explicit recast implied a beneficial role for negative evidence in SLA and that explicit recast was a better choice than implicit recast in the L2 classroom.

  3. Chain length effect on dynamical structure of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The formation of complexes and effect of PVP chain length on the molecular dynamics, chain flexibility and stretching of PEG molecules in PVP–PEG mixtures were explored from the comparative values of dielectric relaxation time. Further, relaxation time values in dioxane and benzene solvent confirm the viscosity ...

  4. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West ...

  5. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Background: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. Materials and Methods: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile‑Ife, South West Nigeria, free of ...

  6. Punctured Parallel Viterbi Decoding Of Long Constraint Length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers puncturing applied to the parallel Viterbi decoding of long constraint length convolutional codes involving partitioning of the basic code. It is shown that the combination of the two techniques of parallel Viterbi decoding and puncturing provides a considerable reduction in decoding complexity, which ...

  7. From iconic handshapes to grammatical contrasts: Longitudinal evidence from a child homesigner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eCoppola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many sign languages display crosslinguistic consistencies in the use of two iconic aspects of handshape, handshape type and finger group complexity. Handshape type is used systematically in form-meaning pairings (morphology: Handling handshapes (Handling-HSs, representing how objects are handled, express events with an agent (hand-as-hand iconicity, and Object handshapes (Object-HSs, representing an object's size/shape, are used to express events without an agent (hand-as-object iconicity. Second, in the distribution of meaningless properties of form (morphophonology, Object-HSs display higher finger group complexity than Handling-HSs. Some adult homesigners, who have not acquired spoken or signed language and instead use a self-generated gesture system, exhibit these two properties as well. We examined both structures over time in one child homesigner, Julio, age 7;4 (years; months to 12;8. We elicited descriptions of events with and without agents to determine whether morphophonology and morphosyntax can develop without linguistic input during childhood, and their relative timing. Within this period: 1 Julio used handshapes differently in his responses to vignettes with and without an agent; however, his pattern differed from that seen in signers, adult homesigners, or gesturers: while he tended to use a Handling-HS for events with an agent (82%, he was less likely to use an Object-HS for non-agentive events (49%; 2 his Object-HSs showed higher finger group complexity than his Handling-HSs, as in previously studied signers and adult homesigners; and 3 these two levels of structure developed independently, with phonological structure showing a sign-like pattern at an earlier age than morphosyntactic structure. We conclude that iconicity alone is insufficient to explain the development of linguistic contrasts in homesign. These findings also highlight the importance of considering the distribution of forms within an emerging linguistic system.

  8. From iconic handshapes to grammatical contrasts: longitudinal evidence from a child homesigner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Marie; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Many sign languages display crosslinguistic consistencies in the use of two iconic aspects of handshape, handshape type and finger group complexity. Handshape type is used systematically in form-meaning pairings (morphology): Handling handshapes (Handling-HSs), representing how objects are handled, tend to be used to express events with an agent ("hand-as-hand" iconicity), and Object handshapes (Object-HSs), representing an object's size/shape, are used more often to express events without an agent ("hand-as-object" iconicity). Second, in the distribution of meaningless properties of form (morphophonology), Object-HSs display higher finger group complexity than Handling-HSs. Some adult homesigners, who have not acquired a signed or spoken language and instead use a self-generated gesture system, exhibit these two properties as well. This study illuminates the development over time of both phenomena for one child homesigner, "Julio," age 7;4 (years; months) to 12;8. We elicited descriptions of events with and without agents to determine whether morphophonology and morphosyntax can develop without linguistic input during childhood, and whether these structures develop together or independently. Within the time period studied: (1) Julio used handshape type differently in his responses to vignettes with and without an agent; however, he did not exhibit the same pattern that was found previously in signers, adult homesigners, or gesturers: while he was highly likely to use a Handling-HS for events with an agent (82%), he was less likely to use an Object-HS for non-agentive events (49%); i.e., his productions were heavily biased toward Handling-HSs; (2) Julio exhibited higher finger group complexity in Object- than in Handling-HSs, as in the sign language and adult homesigner groups previously studied; and (3) these two dimensions of language developed independently, with phonological structure showing a sign language-like pattern at an earlier age than morphosyntactic

  9. Children's assignment of grammatical roles in the online processing of Mandarin passive sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Ting; Zheng, Xiaobei; Meng, Xiangzhi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-11-01

    Children's difficulty understanding passives in English has been attributed to the syntactic complexity, overall frequency, cue reliability, and/or incremental processing of this construction. To understand the role of these factors, we used the visual-world paradigm to examine comprehension in Mandarin Chinese where passives are infrequent but signaled by a highly valid marker (BEI). Eye-movements during sentences indicated that these markers triggered incremental role assignments in adults and 5-year-olds. Actions after sentences indicated that passives were often misinterpreted as actives when markers appeared after the referential noun (" Seal BEI it eat " → The seal is eaten by it). However, they were more likely to be interpreted correctly when markers appeared before (" It BEI seal eat " → It is eaten by the seal). The actions and the eye-movements suggest that for both adults and children, interpretations of passive are easier when they do not require revision of an earlier role assignment.

  10. Mean length utterance in Brazilian children: a comparative study between Down syndrome, specific language impairment, and typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Angela Maria de Amorim; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria; Limongi, Suelly Cecília Olivan

    2014-01-01

    To describe the linguistic performance of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children with Down syndrome by analyzing their Mean Length Utterance; to compare their performance to that of children with Specific Language Impairment and Typical Development; and to verify whether children with Down syndrome present developmental language delay or disorder. Participants were 25 children with Down syndrome (Research Group), matched by mental age to a Control Group of typically developing children, and to a Control Group of children with Specific Language Impairment. Participants were divided into subgroups, according to age range (three, four and five years). Speech samples were collected for the Research Group, and the Mean Length Utterance was analyzed for morphemes and words. Differences were observed between the performance of the Research Group and both Control Groups, and the former presented inferior Mean Length Utterance values for all age ranges, characterizing a delay in grammar and general language development. The description of the linguistic abilities of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children with Down syndrome indicated important grammatical deficits, especially regarding the use of functional words.

  11. Smart Photonic Carbon Brush: FBG Length as Sensing Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, O. G.; Nureev, I. I.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Artemiev, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with problem of carbon brush’s length measurements. There are many applications where regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the brush’s length to calculate it’s wear rate, while the component is in operation or without removing of the component from its operational position. We propose a novel method for characterization of carbon brush’s length. This method based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBGs and FBG arrays: spectral parameters depend on several aspects, such as grating’s period, refractive index, it’s physical length and so on. We are the first, in our point of view, who proposed to use third parameter for sensing application and prospectively all three parameters for complex measurement: the change of FBG’s length is used to measure length of the brush and it’s wear rate, grating’s central wavelength shift for temperature (due to refractive index change) and mechanical stress (due to grating’s period variations) measurements. The results of modelling and experiments are presented.

  12. The prediction of organelle-targeting peptides in eukaryotic proteins with Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indio, Valentina; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Savojardo, Castrense; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2013-04-15

    Targeting peptides are the most important signal controlling the import of nuclear encoded proteins into mitochondria and plastids. In the lack of experimental information, their prediction is an essential step when proteomes are annotated for inferring both the localization and the sequence of mature proteins. We developed TPpred a new predictor of organelle-targeting peptides based on Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields. TPpred is trained on a non-redundant dataset of proteins where the presence of a target peptide was experimentally validated, comprising 297 sequences. When tested on the 297 positive and some other 8010 negative examples, TPpred outperformed available methods in both accuracy and Matthews correlation index (96% and 0.58, respectively). Given its very low-false-positive rate (3.0%), TPpred is, therefore, well suited for large-scale analyses at the proteome level. We predicted that from ∼4 to 9% of the sequences of human, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast proteomes contain targeting peptides and are, therefore, likely to be localized in mitochondria and plastids. TPpred predictions correlate to a good extent with the experimental annotation of the subcellular localization, when available. TPpred was also trained and tested to predict the cleavage site of the organelle-targeting peptide: on this task, the average error of TPpred on mitochondrial and plastidic proteins is 7 and 15 residues, respectively. This value is lower than the error reported by other methods currently available. The TPpred datasets are available at http://biocomp.unibo.it/valentina/TPpred/. TPpred is available on request from the authors. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Music analysis and Kolmogorov complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    to be explained. The theory of Kolmogorov complexity suggests that the length of such a program can be used as a measure of the complexity of the analysis that it represents. The analyst therefore needs a way to measure the length of a program so that this length reflects the quality of the analysis...... is proposed that overcomes some but not all of these problems. It is suggested that the solutions to the remaining problems may lie either in the field of concrete Kolmogorov complexity or in the design of languages specialized for expressing musical structure....

  14. Patient length of stay and mortality prediction: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James

    2017-05-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increased interest in data mining and machine learning methods to improve hospital performance, in particular hospitals want to improve their intensive care unit statistics by reducing the number of patients dying inside the intensive care unit. Research has focused on prediction of measurable outcomes, including risk of complications, mortality and length of hospital stay. The length of stay is an important metric both for healthcare providers and patients, influenced by numerous factors. In particular, the length of stay in critical care is of great significance, both to patient experience and the cost of care, and is influenced by factors specific to the highly complex environment of the intensive care unit. The length of stay is often used as a surrogate for other outcomes, where those outcomes cannot be measured; for example as a surrogate for hospital or intensive care unit mortality. The length of stay is also a parameter, which has been used to identify the severity of illnesses and healthcare resource utilisation. This paper examines a range of length of stay and mortality prediction applications in acute medicine and the critical care unit. It also focuses on the methods of analysing length of stay and mortality prediction. Moreover, the paper provides a classification and evaluation for the analytical methods of the length of stay and mortality prediction associated with a grouping of relevant research papers published in the years 1984 to 2016 related to the domain of survival analysis. In addition, the paper highlights some of the gaps and challenges of the domain.

  15. The Grammatical Universe and the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Thermodynamics, formalized by the UNCRS regress, so as to become (as UNCRS rewrites already published at CASYS), firstly the Quantum Laws of Physics in the form of the generalized Dirac equation and later at higher stages of QCE ensemble complexity, the Laws of Life in the form of Nature's (DNA / RNA genetic) Code and then subsequently those of Intelligence and Consciousness (Nature's Rules).

  16. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  17. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  18. Time complexity and gate complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN SPEECH AT THE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM OF MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF METRO ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Dwi Sondiana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are to find out the types of grammatical errors in English students’ speech; to find out the percentage of grammatical errors in English students’ speech; to find out the factors influencing English students’ grammatical errors in their speech. Based on the data, the students have problem in producing verb group, errors in subject-verb agreement, errors in the use of articles, errors in the use of prepositions, errors in noun pluralization, errors in the use of pronouns, and errors in the use of conjunctions. It shows that Anisa made eleven sentences in 2 minutes 28 seconds. She made eight errors. Dewi made seven sentences in 1 minutes 57 seconds. She made five errors. Fatika made sixteen sentences in 4 minutes 14 seconds. She made eight errors. Fitri made sixteen sentences in 4 minutes 23 seconds. She made seven errors. Ibnu  made  ten sentences in 2 minutes 18 seconds. He made eight errors. Linda made fiveteen sentences in 3 minutes 7 seconds. She made eight errors. Musli made fourteen sentences in 2 minutes 39 seconds. She made six errors. Nyoman made twelve sentences in 3 minutes 43 seconds. He made nine errors. Pera made ten sentences in 2 minutes 23 seconds. She made seven errors. Sri made fourteen sentences in 6 minutes 34 seconds. She made eleven errors. And about the percentages of errors, here is the data; Anisa: 72,73% of errors; Dewi: 71,4% of errors; Fatika: 50% of errors; Fitri: 43,75% of errors; Ibnu: 80% of errors; Linda: 53,3% of errors; Musli: 42,8% of errors; Nyoman: 75% of errors; Pera: 70% of errors; Sri: 78,57% of errors. Based on interview, it shows it can be concluded the factors influence of English students’ grammatical errors in their speech when their speak using grammar rule. The internal factors are; The first, the students are still difficult to make feeling, for example; confident, feel scary, when they are speaking in public. The second, the students are not mastered in

  20. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...... images for modality fusion. First, the region of interest (ROI) is extracted, after which SURF features are extracted, and finally two different approaches for creating fixed length feature vectors are applied. SURF performance on the ROI is comparable to the PolyU database reported in the literature...... the complexity of the SURF matching scheme, a reduction in run-time of 75%–80% has been achieved, with only minimal precision loss; EER increases from 0.74% to 1%. The complexity of the matching can be reduced from O(n2) to constant time, but at a higher precision cost and resulting in an EER of 16.51%....

  1. The frequency and significance of the word length effect in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Stefan; Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Adams, Michaela; Leonhardt, Eva; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-06-01

    Neglect patients often omit or misread initial letters of single words, a phenomenon termed neglect dyslexia (ND). Omissions of whole words on the contralesional side of the page during paragraph reading are generally considered as egocentric or space-based errors, whereas misreading of the left part of a word can be viewed as a type of stimulus-centred or word-based, neglect-related error. The research of the last decades shed light on several effects of word features (such as written word frequency, grammatical class or concreteness) that modulate the severity of ND. Nevertheless, almost all studies about those modulating factors were case studies and some of them have not been replicated yet. Therefore, to date we do not know how relevant such effects of different word stimuli are for a population of ND patients. Knowing their incidence would improve our theoretical understanding of ND and promote the development of standardized ND assessments, which are lacking so far. In particular, case studies have shown that ND error frequency increases systematically with word length (word length effect, WLE) while other single case studies found contrary results. Hence, the existence of the WLE in ND is unsettled and its incidence and significance in stroke patients is unknown. To clarify this issue we evaluated the relation between word length and the extent (number) of neglected or substituted letters within single words in ND (neglect dyslexia extent, NDE) in a group of 19 consecutive ND patients with right hemisphere lesions. We found a clear WLE in 79% (15 of 19) of our ND patients, as indicated by significant correlations between word length and NDE. Concurrent visual field defects had no effect on the WLE in our sample, thus showing no influence of early visual cortical processing stages on the WLE in neglect dyslexia. In conclusion, our results suggest a clear relationship between word length and reading errors in ND and show that the WLE is a frequent phenomenon

  2. THE STUDY OF GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL ERRORS RESULTING FROM L1 INTERFERENCE FOUND IN ENGLISH COMPOSITIONS MADE BY EIGHT GRADERS OF SMP NEGERI 13 MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida Yuniswati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to find out the kinds of lexical and grammatical errors caused by L1 interference or negative transfer of the mother tongue in writing compositions made by eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 13 Malang and the frequency of occurrence of errors. The focus of this study was identifying, describing, and classifying grammatical and lexical errors in students writing. Therefore, descriptive qualitative was considered appropriate for the design of the study. The subjects were 39 eighth grade students in 8A Class in the second semester of 2008-2009 academic years. The instrument used to collect the data was the students‘ writing tasks. The errors found were classified based on the error classification scheme developed by Kwary and Sugiri (2004. The result shows that there 586 errors resulting from L1 interference were found from 78 compositions. Some categories of errors in Kwary and Sugiri (2004 cannot be applied to the data, that is, if clause, embedded question, comparison, conjunction, and word class. No sentences containing those categories of errors found in the data. However, the researcher developed another category of errors that are not mentioned in the classification scheme by Kwary and Sugiri, that is, clause without subject that makes up 2.56% of all errors.

  3. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  4. Lexical and Grammatical Aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Angeliek; Lidz, Jeffrey; Snyder, William; Pater, Joe

    The temporality of a given situation ‘out there in the world’ can be described in many ways. Tense and aspect offer the essential parameters. Lexical aspect characterizes event descriptions; a situation with a sleeping child can be referred to as a state of affairs (be asleep) or as a happening

  5. Puzzles on grammatical gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, J.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the link between the notion of "neuter" gender and default in Dutch, a language that does not make the familiar distinction between masculine and feminine nouns, but opposes non-neuter nouns to neuter nouns. In trying to extend to Dutch the analysis of "neuter" as a default

  6. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    OpenAIRE

    Osama S Alothmani; Lara T Friedlander; Nicholas P Chandler

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected ...

  7. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when......This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...

  8. EFL SPEAKING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY: GRAMMATICAL COMPLEXITY AND WEIGHTED LEXICAL DENSITY IN THE ORAL PRODUCTION OF BEGINNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GICELE VERGINE e RAQUEL D’ELY

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo expande a investigação de Fontanini, Weissheimer, Bergsleithner, Perucci and D’Ely (2005 utilizando parte dos dados dessa pesquisa para examinar a relação entre capacidade de memória de trabalho, medida pelo teste de amplitude oral e pelo teste de amplitude geral, e o uso de fala gramaticalmente complexa e lexicalmente densa de doze alunos iniciantes ao elaborarem uma descrição de gravura em Inglês como L2. Adicionando aos resultados obtidos por Fontanini et al (2005, não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entres as medidas de memória de trabalho e a fala complexa e lexicalmente densa dos aprendizes. Portanto, os resultados corroboram a existência de efeito de troca de recursos atencionais (trade-off effects entre variáveis da produção oral como uma função de diferenças individuais na capacidade de memória de trabalho.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: produção oral, complexidade, densidade lexical, capacidade de memória de trabalho, efeito de troca de recursos atencionais.

  9. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  10. 7 CFR 29.3037 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.3037 Section 29.3037 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... Length, as an element of quality, does not apply to tobacco in strip form. (See Elements of quality.) [24...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6024 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.6024 Section 29.6024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6024 Length. The linear measurement of cured tobacco leaves from the...

  12. Local gauge invariant QED with fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevsky, V.G.; Mateev, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A local gauge theory of electromagnetic interactions with the fundamental length l as a new universal scale is worked out. The Lagrangian contains new extra terms in which the coupling constant is proportional to the fundamental length. The theory has an elegant geometrical basis: in momentum representation one faces de Sitter momentum space with curvature radius 1/l [ru

  13. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  14. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  15. On the homology length spectrum of surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel; Parlier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    On a surface with a Finsler metric, we investigate the asymptotic growth of the number of closed geodesics of length less than L which minimize length among all geodesic multicurves in the same homology class. An important class of surfaces which are of interest to us are hyperbolic surfaces.

  16. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  17. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  18. Cephalometric assessment of maxillary length in Serbian children with skeletal class III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikolić, Predrag; Nikodijević, Angelina; Milić, Jasmina; Stojanović, Branislav

    2013-07-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex irregularity of sagittal inter-jaw relationship, which is due to irregularities of sagittal position of one or both of the jaw bones, which is often associated with disproportionate ratio of their length. The aim of this study was to determine whether the length of the jaw of children with skeletal class III in the period of mixed dentition was changed. Fifty children with skeletal class III and the same number of those with skeletal class I, of both sexes, have been selected on the basis of cephalometric analysis of profile tele-x-ray of the head. All the children aged 6-12 had mixed dentition, and were divided according to sex and age into three subgroups within each group. The length of maxilla, mandible and cranial base were measured. Proportions among the lengths measured within each group were found and difference significance in the measured lengths and their proportions among groups and subgroups were evaluated. The children with skeletal class III, compared with the findings in the control group, had significantly lower values of maxillary length, total maxillary length, as well as lower values of their lengths in proportion to lengths of the front or the total length of cranial base and in proportion to mandibular lengths (p children with skeletal class III have significantly shorter maxilla than those with skeletal class I.

  19. Radiographic assessment of endodontic working length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama S Alothmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiographs for working length determination is usual practice in endodontics. Exposing radiographs following the principles of the paralleling technique allows more accurate length determination compared to the bisecting-angle method. However, it has been reported that up to 28.5% of cases can have the file tip extending beyond the confines of the root canals despite an acceptable radiographic appearance. The accuracy of radiographic working length determination could be affected by the location of the apical foramen, tooth type, canal curvature and superimposition of surrounding structures. Variations among observers by virtue of training and experience may also influence the accuracy of the procedure. The interpretation of radiographs could be affected by film speed and viewing conditions, with the superiority of digital imaging over conventional radiography for working length determination remaining debatable. The combination of several methods is recommended for acquiring the most accurate working length.

  20. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  1. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  2. Length Variation Effect of the Impulse Response Model of a Secondary Path in Embedded Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents theoretical and experimental investigation on the length variation effect of the impulse response function (IRF for the secondary path model in active noise control using an embedded control board. A narrowband sweep noise was the disturbance for control in a duct with the length of 1800 mm. The IRF model incorporated into an adaptive feedforward filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm was then analyzed in the variation of its length in terms of the mean square error, computation complexity, stability requirement, and attenuation performance before and after control. The FxLMS algorithm with various IRF lengths was implemented in a dSPACE DS1104 embedded control board for the real-time control. Finally the most reasonable IRF length, considering the computation complexity and performance, can be determined through the systematic investigation. The results in this study can be used for practical active noise control systems.

  3. "HYVAT, PAHAT JA TARKAT": Mita Kielenoppijoiden kieliopillista hyvaksyttavyytta koskevat arviot ja niiden nopeus kertovat heidan kielitaidostaan (Speed and Accuracy of Grammatical Acceptability Judgments in the First and Second Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Riika

    Grammaticality judgments are a metalinguistic task type frequently used in second language research. With the addition of response time measurement, often called reaction time measurement, a measure of metalinguistic performance is achieved that can be used to investigate the degree of automatization of linguistic knowledge in language users. This…

  4. The count-mass distinction in typically developing and grammatically specifically language impaired children: new evidence on the role of syntax and semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froud, Karen; van der Lely, Heather K J

    2008-01-01

    By the age of three, typically developing children can draw conceptual distinctions between "kinds of individual" and "kinds of stuff" on the basis of syntactic structures. They differ from adults only in the extent to which syntactic knowledge can be over-ridden by semantic properties of the referent. However, the relative roles of syntax and semantics in determining the nature of the count-mass distinction in language acquisition are still not well-understood. This paper contributes to this debate by studying novel noun acquisition in a subgroup of children, aged 8-15 years, with specific language impairment, whose core deficits are limited to within the grammatical system (G-SLI), We conducted two experiments: a production task and a word extension task. Such children might be expected to rely to a greater extent than their age-matched peers on semantic properties of referents in order to assign noun interpretations, since by hypothesis they have greater difficulty in accessing and utilizing syntactic category distinctions than typically developing children. In the production task, the Children with G-SLI demonstrated rigid over-application of a pluralization rule which masked even basic knowledge of semantic information about individuated objects versus non-individuated substances. Age-matched control children only performed in this way when all syntactic and conceptual/perceptual cues were neutralized. In the word extension task, which required a non-verbal response, the Children with G-SLI showed evidence of only very limited abilities to use syntactic or semantic information for word-learning. Thus, developmental deficits in the grammatical system can be seen to impact on lexical acquisition as well as syntactic development. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) describe how syntactic (grammatical) impairment affects the ability to use syntactic cues for lexical acquisition, resulting in difficulties representing the structure of even

  5. Nonmonotonic DNA-length-dependent mobility in pluronic gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seungyong; Wei, Ling; Shanbhag, Sachin; Van Winkle, David H.

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the mobility of DNA fragments in micellar gels of pluronic F127 (E O100P O70E O100 ) and pluronic P123 (E O20P O70E O20 ) . The 20-3500 base pair DNA fragments were separated by size first in agarose gels, and then in pluronic gels at room temperature. In agarose gels, the DNA mobility decreases monotonically with increasing DNA length. In pluronic gels, however, the mobility varies nonmonotonically according to fragment lengths that are strongly correlated with the diameter of the spherical micelles. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations with short-ranged intra-DNA hydrodynamic interactions were performed to numerically calculate the length-dependent mobility in pluronic lattices. The rising and falling trends, as well as the oscillations of mobility, were captured by the coarse-grained BD simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations in pluronic F127, with explicitly modeled micelle coronas, justified that the hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the complex fluid of hydrated poly(ethylene oxide) are a possible reason for the initial rise of mobility with DNA length.

  6. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  7. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  8. Nature vs nurture: interplay between the genetic control of telomere length and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Yaniv; Romano, Gal-Hagit; Ungar, Lior; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes, thus protecting their stability and integrity. They play important roles in DNA replication and repair and are central to our understanding of aging and cancer development. In rapidly dividing cells, telomere length is maintained by the activity of telomerase. About 400 TLM (telomere length maintenance) genes have been identified in yeast, as participants of an intricate homeostasis network that keeps telomere length constant. Two papers have recently shown that despite this extremely complex control, telomere length can be manipulated by external stimuli. These results have profound implications for our understanding of cellular homeostatic systems in general and of telomere length maintenance in particular. In addition, they point to the possibility of developing aging and cancer therapies based on telomere length manipulation.

  9. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  10. TEXT COMPLEXITY IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani Aldila Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks have been considered to play a key role in the processes of education by researchers and educators, and the need to explore the language of textbooks has become increasingly recognized. However, although textbooks are an important learning tool, textbook language and composition have not been widely explored especially from textual perspectives. The purpose of the present study is to investigate text complexity progression in the reading texts of English textbooks published for senior high school students in Indonesia. The nature and rate of that progression are addressed within the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Being largely qualitative, this study examines three consecutive textbooks issued by the Ministry of Education, which are available online for classroom use. Data were collected and sampled from the reading texts found in the textbooks and were analyzed with regard to lexical density, lexical variation and grammatical intricacy in order to find the complexity of the texts. The results of the analyses show that regardless of the inconsistent progression of text complexity within each textbook, there is a consistent pattern of text complexity progression across grade levels. In other words, the lexical density, lexical variation and grammatical intricacy across the textbooks were found to have consistent progression from one grade level to another of which the direction is positive. It could be concluded that in general the language used in the texts becomes increasingly sophisticated, especially at lexical level, in accordance with grade level progression to cater for students’ intellectual development.

  11. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  12. FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE Adamu & Babatunde (2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE. Adamu & Babatunde (2008) SWJ:21-25. Comparative Studies On the Dying rate Migration. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DYEING RATE MIGRATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF AZO DYES. DERIVED FROM 2-AMINOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES ON ACETATE FABRICS.

  13. Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments linked to soybean mosaic virus resistance gene in Glycine soja and conversion to a sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid selection.

  14. Martian Length of Day Measurements from Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Bills, B.

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the Martian Length of Day (LOD) can be determined at a scientifically use level by a combination of regular (but not necessarily frequent) range and Doppler measurements from Earth and dead reckoning in a Kalman filter.

  15. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  16. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic distance with heterosis in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) SL Krishnamurthy, A Mohan Rao, K Madhavi Reddy, S Ramesh, Shailaja Hittalmani, Rao M. Gopinath ...

  17. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  18. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  19. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  20. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  1. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Derived length for arbitrary topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jayanthan

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of derived length is as old as that of ordinal numbers itself. It is also known as the Cantor-Bendixon length. It is defined only for dispersed (that is scattered spaces. In this paper this notion has been extended in a natural way for all topological spaces such that all its pleasing properties are retained. In this process we solve a problem posed by V. Kannan. ([1] Page 158.

  3. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  4. Tourism and fashion: factors affecting trip length

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón García, María Haydeé; G. Gallarza, Martina; Fayos Gardó, Teresa; O'Sullivan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism and shopping are closely related, and the influence of fashion shopping on a tourist's decision to travel is especially significant. The concept of cognitive and hedonic involvement enables us to relate the importance given to shopping by consumers of fashion products and of tourism services. This research analyses whether tourist involvement in fashion shopping has an impact on the length of their stay in a destination. In addition, it examines whether trip length is conditioned by t...

  5. A Balanced Accuracy Fitness Function Leads to Robust Analysis Using Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks in the Case of Class Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and characterization of genetic and environmental factors that predict common, complex disease is a major goal of human genetics. The ubiquitous nature of epistatic interaction in the underlying genetic etiology of such disease presents a difficult analytical ...

  6. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  7. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  8. Ultrasound Assessment of Cervical Length in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  9. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  10. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  11. Significance of axial length monitoring in children with congenital cataract and update of measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiao; Lin, Haotian; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2013-06-01

    Congenital cataract is the main cause of blindness in children, with significantly varying treatment effects. The development of axial length is an important factor that affects the prognosis of these children. However, when compared with the eyes of normal children, the mechanism of growth of the axial length is so complicated that the reported findings differ significantly in terms of the measuring apparatus, assessment methods, and statistical outcome, making the rule of axial length development still unclear. In this paper, we first review the process of axial length development in normal healthy children and compare different hypotheses about certain factors that could affect the development of axial length. The results of some current research about the characteristics of axial length development in congenital cataract children are then reviewed. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of current axial length measurements methods are compared and analyzed. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the complexity and importance of axial length development and to suggest better use of axial length monitoring measurements in congenital cataract children for pediatric ophthalmologists, with the hope of offering assistance that will enhance long-term therapeutic effects for these children.

  12. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  13. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment.......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... with known values, the accuracy of the soVBGF parameter estimation was evaluated. The results indicate that both optimisation approaches are capable of finding high scoring solutions, yet settings regarding the initial restructuring process for LFQ bin scoring (i.e. "moving average,") and the fixing...

  14. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  15. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  16. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  17. Morphometric analysis of the stylohyoid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Sladjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Radovanović, Zoran; Pešić, Zoran; Vučković, Ivica; Stojković, Nikola; Petrović, Filip

    2017-05-01

    Stylohyoid complex is anatomical structure predisposed to numerous individual variations. These may result in its extreme elongation, medial deviation and finally Eagle's syndrome occurrence. The aim of this study was to measure the length, angulation, evaluate morphological variations of stylohyoid complex by computed tomography and, subsequently, relate obtained data to the gender and the age of the evaluated cases. The material included CT scans of stylohyoid complexes of 282 individuals. The entire length, maximal thickness, and angulation of the stylohyoid complexes in the coronal, transverse, and sagittal planes were measured. According to their morphology, orientation and length, stylohyoid complexes were classified into six morphological types. Elongated, bent, segmented, and segmented with attached stylohyoid ligament for the lesser horns of the hyoid bone stylohyoid complex types were characterized by significantly greater length, while pseudoarticulated type was characterized by significantly lower length in relation to normal stylohyoid complex type. The elongated type was additionally significantly thicker and with significantly lower value of medial angle in transverse plain than the normal stylohyoid complex type. Elongated, bent, and segmented types were significantly more frequent in males than in females. Furthermore, the frequency of the elongated stylohyoid complex type increased, whereas normal and pseudoarticulated types decreased with age. In conclusion, elongated and more medially deviated stylohyoid complexes are more frequent in males than in females. Their more frequent presence in the older age groups indirectly connects this phenomenon with the aging process.

  18. New plasma diagnosis by coherence length spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poolyarat, N.; Kim, Y.W.

    2008-01-01

    A new methodology and instrumentation have been developed for diagnosis of dense high temperature plasmas. In a plasma medium, collision processes shorten the optical coherence length at a given emission wavelength. By measuring the coherence length, the rate of collisions a radiating particle experiences can be determined. A map of the collision rates throughout the plasma can speak volumes about the atomic and thermal state of the plasma. Both the time-integrated and time-resolved interference fringes are obtained using emissions due to the transition between 3s 2 3p 5 ( 2 P o 3/2 )4p and 3s 2 3p 5 ( 2 P o 3/2 )7d. We have observed that the coherence length indeed decreases with increasing collision rate, and in addition, as a function of time as a result of cumulative collisions. The coherence length was found to be 4200±800 nm at 50 torr where the collision frequency is 2.14x10 11 s -1 , and 2400±130 nm at 140 torr where the collision frequency is 8.13x10 11 s -1 . We have also discovered that the coherence length varies with the direction of the viewing line of sight into the discharge plasma. The anisotropy results from the non-uniform structure in the discharge current, and this is further investigated by intentionally deforming the tip of the cathode. A photographic examination of both the cathode and the anode disc confirms the non-axis-symmetric structure of the plasma, which leads to the asymmetry in the plasma, in agreement with the angular dependence of the coherence length. (author)

  19. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  20. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  1. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2001-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  2. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  3. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  4. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  5. How chain length and charge affect surfactant denaturation of acyl coenzyme a binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, equilibria and kinetics of unfolding of acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) have been investigated in sodium alkyl sulfate surfactants of different chain length (8-16 carbon atoms) and with different proportions of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl...... maltoside (DDM). The aim has been to determine how surfactant chain length and micellar charge affect the denaturation mechanism. ACBP denatures in two steps irrespective of surfactant chain length, but with increasing chain length, the potency of the denaturant rises more rapidly than the critical micelle...... constants increases linearly with denaturant concentration below the cmc but declines at higher concentrations. Both shortening chain length and decreasing micellar charge reduce the overall kinetics of unfolding and makes the dependence of unfolding rate constants on surfactant concentration more complex...

  6. Cephalometric assessment of maxillary length in Serbian children with skeletal class III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex irregularity of sagittal inter-jaw relationship, which is due to irregularities of sagittal position of one or both of the jaw bones, which is often associated with disproportionate ratio of their length. The aim of this study was to determine whether the length of the jaw of children with skeletal class III in the period of mixed dentition was changed. Methods. Fifty children with skeletal class III and the same number of those with skeletal class I, of both sexes, have been selected on the basis of cephalometric analysis of profile tele-x-ray of the head. All the children aged 6-12 had mixed dentition, and were divided according to sex and age into three subgroups within each group. The length of maxilla, mandible and cranial base were measured. Proportions among the lengths measured within each group were found and difference significance in the measured lengths and their proportions among groups and subgroups were evaluated. Results. The children with skeletal class III, compared with the findings in the control group, had significantly lower values of maxillary length, total maxillary length, as well as lower values of their lengths in proportion to lengths of the front or the total length of cranial base and in proportion to mandibular lengths (p < 0.05. Among the patients of different sexes, both in the test and the control group, a significant difference in the values of the measured lengths was found. Conclusion. The children with skeletal class III have significantly shorter maxilla than those with skeletal class I.

  7. Durer-pentagon-based complex network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel Durer-pentagon-based complex network was constructed by adding a centre node. The properties of the complex network including the average degree, clustering coefficient, average path length, and fractal dimension were determined. The proposed complex network is small-world and fractal.

  8. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4... Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  9. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  10. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  11. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca

  12. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  13. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  14. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  15. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technology was used to analyze ... that 9 of the studied expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are related to protein modification, 12 ESTs are involved in the .... primers were used during the first strand synthesis of our cDNA synthesis ...

  16. Fetal Umbilical Cord Length and Associated Intrapatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoulder dystocia, hand prolapse in a transverse lying fetus, abruptio placentae and prolonged second stage of labour had shorter cords while fetal distress, cord prolapse and mecunium stained liquor had longer cords when compared with the mean umbilical cord length of the study population. Conclusion: Umbilical cord ...

  17. Topographical length scales of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, P.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India); Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.; Badyal, J.P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Science Laboratories, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England (United Kingdom); Sarkar, S., E-mail: sarkar@iitrpr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic CF{sub 4} plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using AFM. • Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano topographies generated by altering plasma power and duration. • Dynamic scaling theory and FFT analysis used to characterize these surfaces quantitatively. • Roughnesses are different for different length scales of the surfaces considered. • Highest local roughness obtained from scaling analysis for shorter length scales of about 500 nm explains the superhydrophobicity for the Micro + Nano surface. - Abstract: The morphology of hydrophobic CF{sub 4} plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Judicious choice of the plasma power and exposure duration leads to formation of three different surface morphologies (Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano). Scaling theory analysis shows that for all three surface topographies, there is an initial increase in roughness with length scale followed by a levelling-off to a saturation level. At length scales around 500 nm, it is found that the roughness is very similar for all three types of surfaces, and the saturation roughness value for the Micro + Nano morphology is found to be intermediate between those for the Micro and Nano surfaces. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has shown that the Micro + Nano topography comprises a hierarchical superposition of Micro and Nano morphologies. Furthermore, the Micro + Nano surfaces display the highest local roughness (roughness exponent α = 0.42 for length scales shorter than ∼500 nm), which helps to explain their superhydrophobic behaviour (large water contact angle (>170°) and low hysteresis (<1°))

  18. On the ratios of Arc lengths to chord lengths in real Banach spaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two new moduli are introduced to study the ratios of arc lengths to chord lengths in Banach spaces. Basic properties of those two moduli and the relation between them are studied. The relation between those two moduli and some geometric properties, including uniform convexity, uniform nonsquareness, and uniform ...

  19. Chromosome length influences replication-induced topological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Andreas; Betts-Lindroos, Hanna; Kanno, Takaharu; Jeppsson, Kristian; Ström, Lena; Katou, Yuki; Itoh, Takehiko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Sjögren, Camilla

    2011-03-17

    During chromosome duplication the parental DNA molecule becomes overwound, or positively supercoiled, in the region ahead of the advancing replication fork. To allow fork progression, this superhelical tension has to be removed by topoisomerases, which operate by introducing transient DNA breaks. Positive supercoiling can also be diminished if the advancing fork rotates along the DNA helix, but then sister chromatid intertwinings form in its wake. Despite these insights it remains largely unknown how replication-induced superhelical stress is dealt with on linear, eukaryotic chromosomes. Here we show that this stress increases with the length of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes. This highlights the possibility that superhelical tension is handled on a chromosome scale and not only within topologically closed chromosomal domains as the current view predicts. We found that inhibition of type I topoisomerases leads to a late replication delay of longer, but not shorter, chromosomes. This phenotype is also displayed by cells expressing mutated versions of the cohesin- and condensin-related Smc5/6 complex. The frequency of chromosomal association sites of the Smc5/6 complex increases in response to chromosome lengthening, chromosome circularization, or inactivation of topoisomerase 2, all having the potential to increase the number of sister chromatid intertwinings. Furthermore, non-functional Smc6 reduces the accumulation of intertwined sister plasmids after one round of replication in the absence of topoisomerase 2 function. Our results demonstrate that the length of a chromosome influences the need of superhelical tension release in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and allow us to propose a model where the Smc5/6 complex facilitates fork rotation by sequestering nascent chromatid intertwinings that form behind the replication machinery.

  20. A Near-Optimal Algorithm to Count Occurrences of Subsequences of a Given Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Jimenez, Jose; Izquierdo-Marquez, Idelfonso; Ramirez-Acuna, Daniel; Peralta, Rene

    2017-06-01

    For k ∈ ℤ + , define Σ k as the set of integers {0, 1, …, k - 1}. Given an integer n and a string t of length m ≥ n over Σ k , we count the number of times that each one of the k n distinct strings of length n over Σ k occurs as a subsequence of t . Our algorithm makes only one scan of t and solves the problem in time complexity mk n -1 and space complexity m + k n . These are very close to best possible.