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Sample records for length cubic pressure

  1. Some elements go cubic under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2007), s. 17-17 ISSN 0031-9228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ab initio * polonium * cubic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.133, year: 2007

  2. Ab initio pseudopotential studies of cubic BC2N under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zicheng; Sun Hong; Chen Changfeng

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic study of the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of various cubic BC 2 N phases under high pressure. Ab initio pseudopotential total-energy and phonon calculations have been carried out to examine the changes in the structural parameters, bonding behaviours, band structures, and dynamic instabilities caused by phonon softening in these phases. We find that an experimentally synthesized high-density phase of cubic BC 2 N exhibits outstanding stability in the structural and electronic properties up to very high pressures. On the other hand, another experimentally identified phase with lower density and lower symmetry undergoes a dramatic structural transformation with a volume and bond-length collapse and a concomitant semi-metal to semiconductor transition. A third phase is predicted to be favourable over the above-mentioned lower-density phase by the enthalpy calculations. However, the dynamic phonon calculations reveal that it develops imaginary phonon modes and, therefore, is unstable in the experimental pressure range. The calculations indicate that its synthesis may be achieved at reduced pressures. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for the high-pressure behaviour of the cubic BC 2 N phases and reveal their interesting properties that can be verified by experiments

  3. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of the cubic CaTiO{sub 3} under pressure: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saad, E-mail: saadigi@hotmail.com; Ahmed, Afaq; Tariq, Samar [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of Punjab, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Saad, Saher [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2015-07-15

    Using highly accurate FP-LAPW method with GGA approximation structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic CaTiO{sub 3} have been calculated from 0-120 GPa range of pressure. It is observed that lattice constant, bond length and anisotropy factor decrease with increase in pressure. Also the brittle nature and indirect band-gap of the compound become ductile and direct band-gap respectively at 120 GPa. Moduli of elasticity, density of the material, Debye temperature and wave elastic wave velocities increase with increase in pressure. Spin dependent DOS’s plots show invariant anti-ferromagnetic nature of the compound under pressure. Our calculated results are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results.

  4. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of the cubic CaTiO3 under pressure: A DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Tariq

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using highly accurate FP-LAPW method with GGA approximation structural, electronic and elastic properties of cubic CaTiO3 have been calculated from 0-120 GPa range of pressure. It is observed that lattice constant, bond length and anisotropy factor decrease with increase in pressure. Also the brittle nature and indirect band-gap of the compound become ductile and direct band-gap respectively at 120 GPa. Moduli of elasticity, density of the material, Debye temperature and wave elastic wave velocities increase with increase in pressure. Spin dependent DOS’s plots show invariant anti-ferromagnetic nature of the compound under pressure. Our calculated results are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Estimating cubic volume of small diameter tree-length logs from ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 351 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and 509 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) logs were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used formulas for estimating cubic volume. Smalian's formula, Bruce's formula, and Huber's formula were tested to determine which...

  6. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  7. Influence of a hydrostatic pressure on the diffusion in metals having a cubic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyeler, M.

    1969-01-01

    In view of obtaining informations on the structure of vacancies. We have determined, by diffusion experiments under high pressure, the activation volumes for self diffusion in different face centered cubic metals: silver, gold, copper, aluminium and in body centered cubic uranium (gamma phase). Activation volumes for noble metals diffusion in aluminium have also been investigated. The experimental results on gold, silver and copper are in good agreement with most of the theoretical models. The estimated activation volume for gamma uranium seems to indicate a vacancy mechanism.The results on aluminium for both self and impurity diffusion agree quite well with Friedel's theoretical predictions [fr

  8. High-temperature and high-pressure cubic zirconia anvil cell for Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyang; Zheng, Haifei; Xiao, Wansheng; Zeng, Yishan

    2003-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive cubic zirconia anvil cell has been developed for the performance of in situ Raman spectroscopy up to the conditions of 500 degrees C and 30 kbar pressure. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for Raman spectroscopy. Molybdenum heater wires wrapped around ceramic tubes encircling two cubic zirconia anvils are used to heat samples, and the temperatures are measured and controlled by a Pt-PtRh thermocouple adhered near the sample chamber and an intelligent digital control apparatus. With this cell, Raman spectroscopic measurements have been satisfactorily performed on water at 6000 bar pressure to 455 degrees C and on ice of room temperature to 24 kbar, in which the determinations of pressures make use of changes of the A1 Raman modes of quartz and the shift of the sharpline (R-line) luminescence of ruby, respectively.

  9. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cubic Rock-Salt AlN Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebga, Noudjoud; Daoud, Salah; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Latreche, Abdelhakim

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory, density functional perturbation theory, and the Debye model have been used to investigate the structural, elastic, sound velocity, and thermodynamic properties of AlN with cubic rock-salt structure under high pressure, yielding the equilibrium structural parameters, equation of state, and elastic constants of this interesting material. The isotropic shear modulus, Pugh ratio, and Poisson's ratio were also investigated carefully. In addition, the longitudinal, transverse, and average elastic wave velocities, phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity, and interesting thermodynamic properties were predicted and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the behavior of the elastic wave velocities under increasing hydrostatic pressure explains the hardening of the corresponding phonons. Based on the elastic stability criteria under pressure, it is found that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure is mechanically stable, even at pressures up to 100 GPa. Analysis of the Pugh ratio and Poisson's ratio revealed that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure behaves in brittle manner.

  10. High-pressure phase of the cubic spinel NiMn2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsbrink, S.; Waskowska, A.; Olsen, J. Staun

    1998-01-01

    experimental uncertainty, there is no volume change at the transition. The cia ratio of the tetragonal spinel is almost independent of pressure and equal to 0.91. The phase transition is attributed to the Jahn-Teller-type distortion and the ionic configurationcan be assumed as (Mn3+)(tetr)[Ni2+Mn3+](oct......It has been observed that the fee spinel NiMn2O4 transforms to a tetragonal structure at about 12 GPa. The tetragonal phase does not revert to the cubic phase upon decompression and its unit-cell constants at ambient pressure are a(0)=8.65(8) and c(0)=7.88(15) Angstrom (distorted fee). Within thr......). The bulk modulus of the cubic phase is 206(4) GPa....

  11. Integrated-fin gasket for palm cubic-anvil high pressure apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.-G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Matsubayashi, K.; Nagasaki, S.; Hisada, A.; Hirayama, T.; Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Hedo, M. [Faculty of Science, University of Ryukyus, Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kagi, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We described an integrated-fin gasket technique for the palm cubic-anvil apparatus specialized for the high-pressure and low-temperature measurements. By using such a gasket made from the semi-sintered MgO ceramics and the tungsten-carbide anvils of 2.5 mm square top, we successfully generate pressures over 16 GPa at both room and cryogenic temperatures down to 0.5 K. We observed a pressure self-increment for this specific configuration and further characterized the thermally induced pressure variation by monitoring the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of chromium up to 12 GPa. In addition to enlarge the pressure capacity, such a modified gasket also improves greatly the surviving rate of electrical leads hanging the sample inside a Teflon capsule filled with the liquid pressure-transmitting medium. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced extrusion of gasket materials during the initial compression.

  12. Chamber with punches made from polycrystal cubic boron nitrides for Moessbauer study at high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a high hydrostatic pressure chamber with polycrystallic boron nitride dies weakly absorbing gamma radiation with energies of more than 14 keV is described. The use of this material permits to investigate single- and polycrystal bodies using the Moessbauer effect when the geometry of the experiment remains unchanged and the hydrostatic pressure is up to 70 kbar. The basic units of the chamber are a teflon capsule placed in a container made of a pressed boron and epoxide resin mixture, electric inputs and a die of polycrystal cubic boron nitride. The pressure is transferred to the sample tested through a liquid (petrol or the 4 to 1 mixture of methanole and ethanole) which does not become solid at a pressure below 37 kbar. Basic dimensions of the chamber are given and the dependence of the pressure in the capsule on the force applied to the chamber is also presented

  13. Pressure-driven insulator-metal transition in cubic phase UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Werner, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the electronic properties of actinide oxides under pressure poses a great challenge for experimental and theoretical studies. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of cubic phase uranium dioxide at different volumes using a combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. The ab initio calculations predict an orbital-selective insulator-metal transition at a moderate pressure of ∼45 GPa. At this pressure the uranium's 5f 5/2 state becomes metallic, while the 5f 7/2 state remains insulating up to about 60 GPa. In the metallic state, we observe a rapid decrease of the 5f occupation and total angular momentum with pressure. Simultaneously, the so-called “Zhang-Rice state”, which is of predominantly 5f 5/2 character, quickly disappears after the transition into the metallic phase.

  14. Origin of the pressure-dependent Tc valley in superconducting simple cubic phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianxin; Jeschke, Harald O.; Di Sante, Domenico; von Rohr, Fabian O.; Cava, Robert J.; Thomale, Ronny

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we investigate the pressure-dependent electronic structure and electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling for simple cubic phosphorus by performing first-principles calculations within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. As a function of increasing pressure, our calculations show a valley feature in Tc, followed by an eventual decrease for higher pressures. We demonstrate that this Tc valley at low pressures is due to two nearby Lifshitz transitions, as we analyze the band-resolved contributions to the e-ph coupling. Below the first Lifshitz transition, the phonon hardening and shrinking of the γ Fermi surface with s -orbital character results in a decreased Tc with increasing pressure. After the second Lifshitz transition, the appearance of δ Fermi surfaces with 3 d -orbital character generate strong e-ph interband couplings in α δ and β δ channels, and hence lead to an increase of Tc. For higher pressures, the phonon hardening finally dominates, and Tc decreases again. Our study reveals that the intriguing Tc valley discovered in experiment can be attributed to Lifshitz transitions, while the plateau of Tc detected at intermediate pressures appears to be beyond the scope of our analysis. This strongly suggests that aside from e-ph coupling, electronic correlations along with plasmonic contributions may be relevant for simple cubic phosphorus. Our findings hint at the notion that increasing pressure can shift the low-energy orbital weight towards d character, and as such even trigger an enhanced importance of orbital-selective electronic correlations despite an increase of the overall bandwidth.

  15. Stability of cubic zirconia in a granitic system under high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Burakov, B. E.; Taylor, K. J.; Domracheva, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconia is a well known, highly durable material with potential uses as an actinide host phase in ceramic waste forms and inert matrix fuels and in containers for very deep borehole disposal of some highly radioactive wastes. To investigate the behaviour of this material under the conditions of possible use, a cube of ∼2.5 mm edge was made from a single crystal of Yttria stabilized cubic zirconia doped with 0.3 wt.% CeO 2 . The cube was enclosed in powdered granite within a gold capsule and a small amount of H 2 O added before sealing. The sealed capsule was held for 4 months in a cold-seal pressure vessel at a temperature of 780 deg. C and a pressure 150 MPa, simulating both the conditions of a deep borehole disposal involving partial melting of the host rock and the conditions under which the actinide waste form might be encapsulated in granite prior to disposal. At the end of the experiment the quenched, largely glassy, sample was cut into thin slices and studied by optical microscopy, EMPA, SEM and cathodoluminescence methods. The results show that no corrosion of the zirconia crystal or reaction with the granite melt occurred and that no detectable diffusion of elements, including Ce, in or out of the zirconia took place on the timescale of the experiment. Consequently, it appears that cubic zirconia could perform most satisfactorily as both an actinide host waste form for encapsulation in solid granite for very deep disposal and as a container material for deep borehole disposal of highly radioactive wastes (HLW), including spent fuel. (authors)

  16. Microstructure and spectroscopy studies on cubic boron nitride synthesized under high-pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, L C; Nistor, S V; Dinca, G; Georgeoni, P; Landuyt, J van; Manfredotti, C; Vittone, E

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies of the microstructure and specific defects in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) precursors and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) crystals made under high-pressure high-temperature conditions revealed the presence of half-nanotubes at the edges of the h-BN particles. Their sp 3 bonding tendency could strongly influence the nucleation rates of c-BN. The atomic resolution at extended dislocations was insufficient to allow us to determine the stacking fault energy in the c-BN crystals. Its mean value of 191 pm, 15 mJ m -2 is of the same order of magnitude as that of diamond. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance studies on c-BN single crystals have produced new data on the D1 centres associated with the boron species. Ion-beam-induced luminescence measurements have indicated that c-BN is a very interesting luminescent material, which is characterized by four luminescence bands and exhibits a better resistance to ionizing radiation than CVD diamond

  17. Microstructure and spectroscopy studies on cubic boron nitride synthesized under high-pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, L C [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Nistor, S V [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, G [Dacia Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania); Georgeoni, P [Dacia Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania); Landuyt, J van [University of Antwerpen - RUCA, EMAT, Antwerpen (Belgium); Manfredotti, C [Experimental Physics Department, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Vittone, E [Experimental Physics Department, University of Turin, Turin (Italy)

    2002-11-11

    High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies of the microstructure and specific defects in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) precursors and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) crystals made under high-pressure high-temperature conditions revealed the presence of half-nanotubes at the edges of the h-BN particles. Their sp{sup 3} bonding tendency could strongly influence the nucleation rates of c-BN. The atomic resolution at extended dislocations was insufficient to allow us to determine the stacking fault energy in the c-BN crystals. Its mean value of 191 pm, 15 mJ m{sup -2} is of the same order of magnitude as that of diamond. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance studies on c-BN single crystals have produced new data on the D1 centres associated with the boron species. Ion-beam-induced luminescence measurements have indicated that c-BN is a very interesting luminescent material, which is characterized by four luminescence bands and exhibits a better resistance to ionizing radiation than CVD diamond.

  18. High-pressure synthesis of fully occupied tetragonal and cubic tungsten bronze oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, Yuya; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Tassel, Cedric; Goto, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    A high-pressure reaction yielded the fully occupied tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub 3}W{sub 5}O{sub 15} (K{sub 0.6}WO{sub 3}). The terminal phase shows an unusual transport property featuring slightly negative temperature-dependence in resistivity (dρ/dT<0) and a large Wilson ratio of R{sub W}=3.2. Such anomalous metallic behavior possibly arises from the low-dimensional electronic structure with a van Hove singularity at the Fermi level and/or from enhanced magnetic fluctuations by geometrical frustration of the tungsten sublattice. The asymmetric nature of the tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub x}WO{sub 3}-K{sub 0.6-y}Ba{sub y}WO{sub 3} phase diagram implies that superconductivity for x≤0.45 originates from the lattice instability because of potassium deficiency. A cubic perovskite KWO{sub 3} phase was also identified as a line phase - in marked contrast to Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} and Li{sub x}WO{sub 3} with varying quantities of x (<1). This study presents a versatile method by which the solubility limit of tungsten bronze oxides can be extended. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  20. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali, E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.i [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, Matin [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  1. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Sedighi, Matin

    2010-01-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  2. Application of the cubic-plus-association equation of state to mixtures with polar chemicals and high pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    was given to low pressures and liquid-liquid equilibria. In this work, CPA is applied to two classes of mixtures containing polar chemicals for which high-pressure data are available: acetone-containing systems and dimethyl ether mixtures. They are of both scientific and industrial importance. Moreover, CPA......The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been previously applied to vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria of mixtures containing associating compounds (water, alcohols, glycols, acids, amines). Although some high-pressure applications have been presented, emphasis...... to conventional models such as MHV2. Very good results are also obtained for multicomponent vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures containing gases, water, and dimethyl ether. Finally, it is shown that high-pressure SLE can be predicted based on interaction parameters obtained from low-pressure SLE data....

  3. Microscopic insight into properties and electronic instabilities of impurities in cubic and lower symmetry insulators: the influence of pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Barriuso, M T [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Aramburu, J A [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); GarcIa-Fernandez, P [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); GarcIa-Lastra, J M [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-05-03

    This article reviews the microscopic origin of properties due to transition-metal (TM) impurities, M, in insulator materials. Particular attention is paid to the influence of pressure upon impurity properties. Basic concepts such as the electronic localization in an MX{sub N} complex, the electrostatic potential, V{sub R}, arising from the rest of the lattice ions or the elastic coupling of the complex to the host lattice are initially exposed. The dependence of optical and magnetic parameters on the impurity-ligand distance, R, in cubic lattices is discussed in a first step. Emphasis is put on the actual origin of the R dependence of 10Dq. Examples revealing that laws for strict cubic symmetry cannot in general be transferred to lower symmetries are later given. This relevant fact is shown to come from allowed hybridizations like nd-(n+1)s as well as the influence of V{sub R}. As a salient feature the different colour in ruby and emerald is stressed to arise from distinct V{sub R} potentials in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Be{sub 3}Si{sub 6}Al{sub 2}O{sub 18}. The last part of this review deals with electronic instabilities. The phenomena associated with the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect in cubic lattices, the origin of the energy barrier among equivalent minima and the existence of coherent tunnelling in systems like MgO:Cu{sup 2+} are discussed. An increase of elastic coupling is pointed out to favour a transition from an elongated to a compressed equilibrium conformation. Interestingly the equilibrium geometry of JT ions in non-cubic lattices is shown to be controlled by mechanisms different to those in cubic systems, V{sub R} playing again a key role. The relevance of first principles calculations for clarifying the subtle mechanisms behind off-centre instabilities is also pointed out. Examples concern monovalent and divalent TM impurities in lattices with the CaF{sub 2} structure. The instability due to the transition from the ground to an excited state is finally

  4. Microscopic insight into properties and electronic instabilities of impurities in cubic and lower symmetry insulators: the influence of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M; Barriuso, M T; Aramburu, J A; GarcIa-Fernandez, P; GarcIa-Lastra, J M

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the microscopic origin of properties due to transition-metal (TM) impurities, M, in insulator materials. Particular attention is paid to the influence of pressure upon impurity properties. Basic concepts such as the electronic localization in an MX N complex, the electrostatic potential, V R , arising from the rest of the lattice ions or the elastic coupling of the complex to the host lattice are initially exposed. The dependence of optical and magnetic parameters on the impurity-ligand distance, R, in cubic lattices is discussed in a first step. Emphasis is put on the actual origin of the R dependence of 10Dq. Examples revealing that laws for strict cubic symmetry cannot in general be transferred to lower symmetries are later given. This relevant fact is shown to come from allowed hybridizations like nd-(n+1)s as well as the influence of V R . As a salient feature the different colour in ruby and emerald is stressed to arise from distinct V R potentials in Al 2 O 3 and Be 3 Si 6 Al 2 O 18 . The last part of this review deals with electronic instabilities. The phenomena associated with the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect in cubic lattices, the origin of the energy barrier among equivalent minima and the existence of coherent tunnelling in systems like MgO:Cu 2+ are discussed. An increase of elastic coupling is pointed out to favour a transition from an elongated to a compressed equilibrium conformation. Interestingly the equilibrium geometry of JT ions in non-cubic lattices is shown to be controlled by mechanisms different to those in cubic systems, V R playing again a key role. The relevance of first principles calculations for clarifying the subtle mechanisms behind off-centre instabilities is also pointed out. Examples concern monovalent and divalent TM impurities in lattices with the CaF 2 structure. The instability due to the transition from the ground to an excited state is finally considered. For complexes with significant elastic coupling

  5. Microscopic insight into properties and electronic instabilities of impurities in cubic and lower symmetry insulators: the influence of pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M; Barriuso, M T; Aramburu, J A; García-Fernández, P; García-Lastra, J M

    2006-05-03

    This article reviews the microscopic origin of properties due to transition-metal (TM) impurities, M, in insulator materials. Particular attention is paid to the influence of pressure upon impurity properties. Basic concepts such as the electronic localization in an MX(N) complex, the electrostatic potential, V(R), arising from the rest of the lattice ions or the elastic coupling of the complex to the host lattice are initially exposed. The dependence of optical and magnetic parameters on the impurity-ligand distance, R, in cubic lattices is discussed in a first step. Emphasis is put on the actual origin of the R dependence of 10Dq. Examples revealing that laws for strict cubic symmetry cannot in general be transferred to lower symmetries are later given. This relevant fact is shown to come from allowed hybridizations like nd-(n+1)s as well as the influence of V(R). As a salient feature the different colour in ruby and emerald is stressed to arise from distinct V(R) potentials in Al(2)O(3) and Be(3)Si(6)Al(2)O(18). The last part of this review deals with electronic instabilities. The phenomena associated with the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect in cubic lattices, the origin of the energy barrier among equivalent minima and the existence of coherent tunnelling in systems like MgO:Cu(2+) are discussed. An increase of elastic coupling is pointed out to favour a transition from an elongated to a compressed equilibrium conformation. Interestingly the equilibrium geometry of JT ions in non-cubic lattices is shown to be controlled by mechanisms different to those in cubic systems, V(R) playing again a key role. The relevance of first principles calculations for clarifying the subtle mechanisms behind off-centre instabilities is also pointed out. Examples concern monovalent and divalent TM impurities in lattices with the CaF(2) structure. The instability due to the transition from the ground to an excited state is finally considered. For complexes with significant elastic coupling

  6. PbCl2-tuned inorganic cubic CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cells with enhanced electron lifetime, diffusion length and photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Luyuan; Yin, Longwei

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite is arousing great interest following after organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites, and is found as a good candidate for photovoltaic devices for its prominent photoelectric property and stability. Herein, we for the first time report on PbCl2-tuned inorganic Cl-doped CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cells with adjustable crystal structure and Cl doping for enhanced carrier lifetime, extraction rate and photovoltaic performance. The effect of PbCl2 on the morphologies, structures, optical, and photovoltaic performance of CsPbBr3 perovskite solar cells is investigated systemically. Compared with orthorhombic CsPbBr3, cubic CsPbBr3 demonstrates a significant improvement for electron lifetime (from 6.7 ns to 12.3 ns) and diffusion length (from 69 nm to 197 nm), as well as the enhanced electron extraction rate from CsPbBr3 to TiO2. More importantly, Cl doping benefits the further enhancement of carrier lifetime (14.3 ns) and diffusion length (208 nm). The Cl doped cubic CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cell exhibits a Jsc of 8.47 mA cm-2 and a PCE of 6.21%, superior to that of pure orthorhombic CsPbBr3 (6.22 mA cm-2 and 3.78%). The improvement of photovoltaic performance can be attributed to enhanced carrier lifetime, diffusion length and extraction rates, as well as suppressed nonradiative recombination.

  7. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of SnS2 with a Cubic Structure: The DFT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshayeshi, A.; Taghavi Mendi, R.; Majidiyan Sarmazdeh, M.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a cubic structure of polymorphic SnS2 has been synthesized experimentally, which is stable at room temperature. In this paper, we calculated some structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure based on the full potential-linearized augmented plane waves method. We also studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure. Structural results show that the compressibility of the cubic SnS2 phase is greater than its trigonal phase and the compressibility decreases with increasing pressure. Investigations of the electronic properties indicate that pressure changes the density of states and the energy band gap increases with increasing pressure. The variation of energy band gap versus pressure is almost linear. We concluded that cubic SnS2 is a semiconductor with an indirect energy band gap, like its trigonal phase. The optical calculations revealed that the dielectric constant decreases with increasing pressure, and the width of the forbidden energy interval increases for electromagnetic wave propagation. Moreover, plasmonic energy and refractive index are changed with increasing pressure.

  9. Full length channel Pressure Tube sagging under completely voided full length pressure tube of an Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Sujay, E-mail: negi.sujay@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mukopadhyay, D., E-mail: dmukho@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • At 16 kW/m input, thermal stability was attained at 595 °C, without PT-CT contact. • At 20 kW/m step input, PT-CT contact occurred at 637 °C near bottom-center of the tube. • PT integrity was maintained throughout the experiment. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was conducted to simulate the sagging behavior of a full length Pressure Tube of a channel of 220 MWe Indian PHWR. The investigation aimed to recreate a condition resembling Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) failure in a nuclear power plant. A full length channel assembly immersed in moderator was subjected to electrical resistance heating of Pressure Tube (PT) to simulate the residual heat after shutting down of reactor. The temperature of PT started rising and the contact between PT and CT was established at the center of the tube where average bottom temperature was 637 °C. The integrity of PT was maintained throughout the experiment and the PT heat up was arrested on contact with the CT due to transfer of heat to the moderator.

  10. XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cBN was synthesized by Li 3 N as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). • The film coated on the as-grown cBN crystals was studied by XPS. • The electronic structure variation in the film was investigated. • The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal was analyzed briefly. - Abstract: Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp 2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp 3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li 3 N in the film, it is possible that Li 3 N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li 3 BN 2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li 3 BN 2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li 3 BN 2

  11. Implementation of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT), generalized (G)SAFT+cubic, and cubic-plus-association (CPA) for modeling thermophysical properties of selected 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids in a wide pressure range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishuk, Ilya

    2013-03-14

    This study is the first comparative investigation of predicting the isochoric and the isobaric heat capacities, the isothermal and the isentropic compressibilities, the isobaric thermal expansibilities, the thermal pressure coefficients, and the sound velocities of ionic liquids by statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state (EoS) models and cubic-plus-association (CPA). It is demonstrated that, taking into account the high uncertainty of the literature data (excluding sound velocities), the generalized for heavy compounds version of SAFT+Cubic (GSAFT+Cubic) appears as a robust estimator of the auxiliary thermodynamic properties under consideration. In the case of the ionic liquids the performance of PC-SAFT seems to be less accurate in comparison to ordinary compounds. In particular, PC-SAFT substantially overestimates heat capacities and underestimates the temperature and pressure dependencies of sound velocities and compressibilities. An undesired phenomenon of predicting high fictitious critical temperatures of ionic liquids by PC-SAFT should be noticed as well. CPA is the less accurate estimator of the liquid phase properties, but it is advantageous in modeling vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids. At the same time, the preliminary results indicate that the inaccuracies in predicting the deep vacuum vapor pressures of ionic liquids do not influence modeling of phase equilibria in their mixtures at much higher pressures.

  12. Negative pressure driven valence instability of Eu in cubic Eu0.4La0.6Pd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the change in the valency of Eu-ions in the binary intermetallic cubic compound EuPd 3 induced by La doping at rare-earth sites. Doping of La generates negative chemical pressure in the lattice, resulting in a significant increase of the lattice parameter without altering the simple-cubic structure of the compound. Results of dc-magnetic measurements suggest that this increase in the lattice parameter is associated with the valence transition of Eu-ions from Eu 3+ to a mixed-valent state. As Eu 2+ -ions possess a large magnetic moment, this valence transition significantly modifies the magnetic behavior of the compound. In contrast to introducing boron at the vacant body center site of the unit cell to change the valency of Eu-ions, as in the case of EuPd 3 B, our results suggest it can also be altered by doping a rare-earth ion of larger size at the lattice site of Eu in EuPd 3 .

  13. Effect of pressure on the global and local properties of cubic perovskite crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik; Merad-Boudia, I; Bentalha, Z [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Departement de Physique. Ecole Preparatoire Sciences et Techniques, BP 230, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Baltache, H; Khenata, R, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)

    2011-08-01

    The influence of pressure on the structural, elastic, thermal and bonding properties of four perovskite-type oxides AMO{sub 3} is studied from the point of view of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Ab initio investigations are performed by means of the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method as implemented in the wien2k code. The integrated basin charges resulting from the topological analysis of electronic density provide a partition of the bulk modulus and compressibility into atomic contributions. Special attention is paid to the nonlinear behaviour of the local bonding properties.

  14. Thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaowei; Liu Zijiang; Chen Qifeng; Chu Yandong; Wang Chengwei

    2006-01-01

    The thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure were estimated by using the constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics technique with effective pair potentials which consist of the Coulomb, dispersion, and repulsion interaction at high pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the calculated thermodynamic parameters including linear thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are in good agreement with the available experimental data and the latest theoretical results. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, linear thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal bulk modus have also been predicted. The thermodynamic properties of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure are summarized in the pressure 0-150 GPa ranges and the temperature up to 3000 K

  15. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  16. Hydrostatic-pressure studies of confined transitions in cubic Zn1-xCdxSe/ZnSe strained-layer quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Chandrasekhar, H.R.; Chandrasekhar, M.; Samarth, N.; Luo, H.; Furdyna, J.

    1992-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of cubic Zn 0.82 Cd 0.18 Se quantum wells of widths 30, 60, and 200 A are studied as a function of hydrostatic pressure (0--60 kbar) at 80 K. The pressure coefficients of heavy-hole excitons are found to decrease with increasing well width. The photoluminescence energies of the ZnSe barrier and cap layers are also observed to shift as a function of hydrostatic pressure, providing a measure of the pressure coefficient of the direct gap in this material

  17. Method for estimating critical properties of heavy compounds suitable for cubic equations of state and its application to the prediction of vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Ioannis, Smirlis; Iakovos, Yakoumis

    1997-01-01

    S. The proposed scheme employs a recent group-contribution method (Constantinou et al. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1995, 103 (1), 11) for estimating the acentric factor. The two critical properties are estimated via a generalized correlation for the ratio T-c/P-c (with the van der Waals surface area) and the cubic Eo...... pressures for several nonpolar and slightly polar heavy compounds with very satisfactory results, essentially independent of the experimental point used. Furthermore, the method yields critical properties for heavy alkanes (N-c > 20) and other compounds which are in very good agreement with recent available......Cubic equations of state (EoS) are often used for correlating and predicting phase equilibria. Before extending any EoS to mixtures, reliable vapor-pressure prediction is essential. This requires experimental, if possible, critical temperatures T-c, pressures P-c, and acentric factor omega...

  18. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Keller, B.P.; Ramshorst, B. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of pressure ulcers following cardiothoracic surgery increases the length of hospitalisation. BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that a pressure ulcer extends the length of hospital stay. The impact of

  19. Performance of Cubic Eos At High Pressures Performance des équations d'état cubiques à hautes pressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamataki S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of cubic equations of state in the prediction of the phase behavior of hyperbaric mixtures. It points out a number of problems that should be resolved in a cooperative way. Items related to EoS parameter definitions such as interaction coefficients, critical properties of hydrocarbon compounds and volume translation are investigated. VLE experimental data, isothermal flash compositional and volumetric data up to 4000 bar as well as PVT data up to 2000 bar for binary mixtures and synthetic multicomponent systems have been considered in this study. Correlation and prediction results are presented with the translated and modified Peng-Robinson (t-mPR EoS. It is shown that serious problems are encountered at high pressure, when extrapolated interaction coefficients are used. Prediction of saturation pressures of gas condensates is more satisfactory when binary interaction parameters are obtained from high pressure dew point correlations. Compositional and volumetric predictions are remarkable under the assumption that definition of the EoS parameters is based on high pressure VLE binary data. Contradictory results are obtained with different methods for estimating the critical properties of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Generalized expressions for the volume translation appear to be very efficient even at very high temperatures and pressures (up to 2000 bar. Cet article présente une évaluation des performances des équations d'états (EoS cubiques pour la prévision des comportements de phases des mélanges hyperbares. Il met en évidence un certain nombre de problèmes auxquels il devrait être répondu d'une manière coopérative. Les points relatifs à la définition des paramètres des EoS, tels que les coefficients d'interaction, les propriétés critiques des composants hydrocarbonés et la translation de volume sont examinés. Plusieurs types d'informations ont été pris en compte

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Microscopic insight into properties and electronic instabilities of impurities in cubic and lower symmetry insulators: the influence of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; García-Fernández, P.; García-Lastra, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    This article reviews the microscopic origin of properties due to transition-metal (TM) impurities, M, in insulator materials. Particular attention is paid to the influence of pressure upon impurity properties. Basic concepts such as the electronic localization in an MXN complex, the electrostatic potential, VR, arising from the rest of the lattice ions or the elastic coupling of the complex to the host lattice are initially exposed. The dependence of optical and magnetic parameters on the impurity-ligand distance, R, in cubic lattices is discussed in a first step. Emphasis is put on the actual origin of the R dependence of 10Dq. Examples revealing that laws for strict cubic symmetry cannot in general be transferred to lower symmetries are later given. This relevant fact is shown to come from allowed hybridizations like nd-(n+1)s as well as the influence of VR. As a salient feature the different colour in ruby and emerald is stressed to arise from distinct VR potentials in Al2O3 and Be3Si6Al2O18. The last part of this review deals with electronic instabilities. The phenomena associated with the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect in cubic lattices, the origin of the energy barrier among equivalent minima and the existence of coherent tunnelling in systems like MgO:Cu2+ are discussed. An increase of elastic coupling is pointed out to favour a transition from an elongated to a compressed equilibrium conformation. Interestingly the equilibrium geometry of JT ions in non-cubic lattices is shown to be controlled by mechanisms different to those in cubic systems, VR playing again a key role. The relevance of first principles calculations for clarifying the subtle mechanisms behind off-centre instabilities is also pointed out. Examples concern monovalent and divalent TM impurities in lattices with the CaF2 structure. The instability due to the transition from the ground to an excited state is finally considered. For complexes with significant elastic coupling vibrational frequencies

  1. Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH{sub 3} under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net, E-mail: yachao.zhang@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: kong79@yeah.net, E-mail: yachao.zhang@pku.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China)

    2016-07-07

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH{sub 3} are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW{sub 0} or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn–Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH{sub 3} can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW{sub 0} and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G{sub 0}W{sub 0} calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH{sub 3} occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  3. Negative pressure driven valence instability of Eu in cubic Eu{sub 0.4}La{sub 0.6}Pd{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Abhishek [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India); Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)], E-mail: abhishek.phy@gmail.com, E-mail: chandan.mazumar@saha.ac.in

    2009-05-27

    We report the change in the valency of Eu-ions in the binary intermetallic cubic compound EuPd{sub 3} induced by La doping at rare-earth sites. Doping of La generates negative chemical pressure in the lattice, resulting in a significant increase of the lattice parameter without altering the simple-cubic structure of the compound. Results of dc-magnetic measurements suggest that this increase in the lattice parameter is associated with the valence transition of Eu-ions from Eu{sup 3+} to a mixed-valent state. As Eu{sup 2+}-ions possess a large magnetic moment, this valence transition significantly modifies the magnetic behavior of the compound. In contrast to introducing boron at the vacant body center site of the unit cell to change the valency of Eu-ions, as in the case of EuPd{sub 3}B, our results suggest it can also be altered by doping a rare-earth ion of larger size at the lattice site of Eu in EuPd{sub 3}.

  4. Numerical Study of Operating Pressure Effect on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate and Length Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD is one of the most popular methods for producing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs. The growth rate of CNTs based on CVD technique is investigated by using a numerical model based on finite volume method. Inlet gas mixture, including xylene as carbon source and mixture of argon and hydrogen as carrier gas enters into a horizontal CVD reactor at atmospheric pressure. In this article the operating pressure variations are studied as the effective parameter on CNT growth rate and length uniformity.

  5. Correlation of phase equilibria for water + hydrocarbon systems at high temperatures and pressures by cubic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruki, Masashi; Yahiro, Yukihito; Higashi, Hidenori; Iwai, Yoshio; Arai, Yasuhiko [Kyushu University, FUkuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-08-01

    A modified-Soave-Redlich-Kwong (MSRK) equation of state with an exponent-type mixing rule for the energy parameter and a conventional rule for the size parameter is applied to correlate the phase equilibria for four binary mixtures of water + hydrocarbon (benzene, hexane, decane, and dodecane) systems at high temperatures and pressures. It is noted that good correlation results are obtained by using the mixing rules with interaction parameters between unlike molecules. (author)

  6. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  7. Comparison of stethoscope bell and diaphragm, and of stethoscope tube length, for clinical blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant.

  8. Charge dependence of the plasma travel length in atmospheric-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Masuda, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma plume is generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and foil electrode by applying AC high voltage under the atmosphere. The plasma plume is released into the atmosphere from inside of the quartz tube and is seen as the continuous movement of the plasma bullet. The travel length of plasma bullet is defined from plasma energy and force due to electric field. The drift velocity of plasma bullet has the upper limit under atmospheric-pressure because the drift velocity is determined from the balance between electric field and resistive force due to collisions between plasma and air. The plasma plume charge depends on the drift velocity. Consequently, in the laminar flow of helium gas flow state, the travel length of the plasma plume logarithmically depends on the plasma plume charge which changes with both the electric field and the resistive force.

  9. Charge dependence of the plasma travel length in atmospheric-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Masuda, Seiya [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Plasma plume is generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and foil electrode by applying AC high voltage under the atmosphere. The plasma plume is released into the atmosphere from inside of the quartz tube and is seen as the continuous movement of the plasma bullet. The travel length of plasma bullet is defined from plasma energy and force due to electric field. The drift velocity of plasma bullet has the upper limit under atmospheric-pressure because the drift velocity is determined from the balance between electric field and resistive force due to collisions between plasma and air. The plasma plume charge depends on the drift velocity. Consequently, in the laminar flow of helium gas flow state, the travel length of the plasma plume logarithmically depends on the plasma plume charge which changes with both the electric field and the resistive force.

  10. An experimental verification of the compensation of length change of line scales caused by ambient air pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akira; Miwa, Nobuharu

    2010-01-01

    Line scales are used as a working standard of length for the calibration of optical measuring instruments such as profile projectors, measuring microscopes and video measuring systems. The authors have developed a one-dimensional calibration system for line scales to obtain a lower uncertainty of measurement. The scale calibration system, named Standard Scale Calibrator SSC-05, employs a vacuum interferometer system for length measurement, a 633 nm iodine-stabilized He–Ne laser to calibrate the oscillating frequency of the interferometer laser light source and an Abbe's error compensation structure. To reduce the uncertainty of measurement, the uncertainty factors of the line scale and ambient conditions should not be neglected. Using the length calibration system, the expansion and contraction of a line scale due to changes in ambient air pressure were observed and the measured scale length was corrected into the length under standard atmospheric pressure, 1013.25 hPa. Utilizing a natural rapid change in the air pressure caused by a tropical storm (typhoon), we carried out an experiment on the length measurement of a 1000 mm long line scale made of glass ceramic with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Using a compensation formula for the length change caused by changes in ambient air pressure, the length change of the 1000 mm long line scale was compensated with a standard deviation of less than 1 nm

  11. Influence of circumferential flaw length on internal burst pressure of a wall-thinned pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masataka, E-mail: tsuji-m@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Meshii, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} was examined by experimental analysis and FEA. ► Here θ is the circumferential angle of a flaw, p{sub f} is the internal burst pressure. ► p{sub f} decreased as θ increased in some cases. ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} should be taken into consideration in evaluating p{sub f}. -- Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the circumferential angle of a flaw θ on the internal burst pressure p{sub f} of pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws. The effect of θ has conventionally been regarded as unimportant in the evaluation of the p{sub f} of wall-thinned straight pipes. Therefore, a burst pressure equation for an axial crack inside a cylinder (Fig. 1, left), such as Kiefner's equation (Kiefner et al., 1973), has been widely applied (ANSI/ASME B31.G., 1991; Hasegawa et al., 2011). However, the following implicit assumptions notably exist when applying the equation to planar flaws in situations with non-planar flaws. 1)The fracture mode of the non-planar flaw under consideration is identical to that of the crack. 2)The effect of θ on p{sub f}, which is not considered for an axial crack, is small or negligible. However, the experimental results from the systematic burst tests for carbon steel pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws examined in this paper showed that these implicit assumptions may be incorrect. In this paper the experimental results are evaluated in further detail. The purpose of the evaluation was to clarify the effect of θ on p{sub f}. Specifically, the significance of the flaw configuration (axial length δ{sub z} and wall-thinning ratio t{sub 1}/t) was studied for its effects on θ and p{sub f}. In addition, a simulation of this effect was conducted using a large strain elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. As observed from the experimental results, θ tended to affect p{sub f} in cases with large δ{sub z}, and t{sub 1}/t was also correlated with a decrease in p{sub f

  12. Fish wariness is a more sensitive indicator to changes in fishing pressure than abundance, length or biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Jordan S; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Claudet, Joachim; Langlois, Tim J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2017-06-01

    Identifying the most sensitive indicators to changes in fishing pressure is important for accurately detecting impacts. Biomass is thought to be more sensitive than abundance and length, while the wariness of fishes is emerging as a new metric. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) that involve the opening and closing of an area to fishing are the most common form of fisheries management in the western Pacific. The opening of PHCs to fishing provides a unique opportunity to compare the sensitivity of metrics, such as abundance, length, biomass and wariness, to changes in fishing pressure. Diver-operated stereo video (stereo-DOV) provides data on fish behavior (using a proxy for wariness, minimum approach distance) simultaneous to abundance and length estimates. We assessed the impact of PHC protection and harvesting on the abundance, length, biomass, and wariness of target species using stereo-DOVs. This allowed a comparison of the sensitivity of these metrics to changes in fishing pressure across four PHCs in Fiji, where spearfishing and fish drives are common. Before PHCs were opened to fishing they consistently decreased the wariness of targeted species but were less likely to increase abundance, length, or biomass. Pulse harvesting of PHCs resulted in a rapid increase in the wariness of fishes but inconsistent impacts across the other metrics. Our results suggest that fish wariness is the most sensitive indicator of fishing pressure, followed by biomass, length, and abundance. The collection of behavioral data simultaneously with abundance, length, and biomass estimates using stereo-DOVs offers a cost-effective indicator of protection or rapid increases in fishing pressure. Stereo-DOVs can rapidly provide large amounts of behavioral data from monitoring programs historically focused on estimating abundance and length of fishes, which is not feasible with visual methods. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Failure assessment and evaluation of critical crack length for a fresh Zr-2 pressure tube of an Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Suresh; Bhasin, Vivek; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture analysis of Zr-2 pressure tubes having through wall axial crack was done using finite element method. The analysis was done for tubes in as received condition. During reactor operation the mechanical properties of Zr-2 undergo changes. The analysis is valid for pressure tubes of newly commissioned reactors. The main aim of the study was to determine critical crack length of pressure tubes in normal operating conditions. Elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for different crack lengths to determine applied J-integral values. Tearing modulus instability concept was used to evaluate critical crack length. One of the important parameter studied was, the effect of crack face pressure, which leaking fluid exert on the crack faces/lips of through wall axial crack. Its effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. It increases the applied J-integral values. Approximate analytical solutions which takes into account the plasticity ahead of crack tip, are available and widely used. These formulae do not take into account the crack face pressure. Since, for the present situation the effect of crack face pressure is significant hence, detailed finite analysis was necessary. Detailed 3D finite element analysis gives an insight into the variation of J-integral values over the thickness of pressure tube. It was found that J values are maximum at the middle layer of the tube. A peak factor on J values was defined and evaluated as ratio of maximum J to average J across the thickness, crack opening area for each length was also evaluated. The knowledge of crack opening area is useful for leak before break studies. The failure assessment was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R-6 method considering the ductile tearing. The reserve factors (or safety margins) for different crack lengths was evaluated using R-6 method. (author). 30 refs., 21 figs., 34 tabs

  14. Chain-length-dependent intermolecular packing in polyphenylenes: a high pressure study

    CERN Document Server

    Heimel, G; Oehzelt, M; Hummer, K; Koppelhuber-Bitschnau, B; Porsch, F; Ambrosch-Draxl, C; Resel, R

    2003-01-01

    We report on pressure-induced structural changes in crystalline oligo(para-phenylenes) containing two to six phenyl rings. The results are discussed with particular emphasis put on the implications these changes in intermolecular distances and molecular arrangement have on important bulk properties of this class of materials, such as optical response and charge transport. We performed energy dispersive x-ray diffraction in a systematic study on polycrystalline powders of biphenyl, para-terphenyl, p-quaterphenyl, p-quinquephenyl and p-sexiphenyl under hydrostatic pressure up to 60 kbar. Revisiting the crystal structures at ambient conditions reveals details in the packing principle. A linear relationship between the density at ambient conditions and the number of phenyl rings is found. High pressure data not only yields pressure-dependent lattice parameters and hints towards pressure-induced changes in the molecular arrangement but also allows for an analysis of the equations of state of these substances as a ...

  15. Minimal knotted polygons in cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, E J Janse; Rechnitzer, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine numerically the properties of minimal length knotted lattice polygons in the simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic lattices by sieving minimal length polygons from a data stream of a Monte Carlo algorithm, implemented as described in Aragão de Carvalho and Caracciolo (1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635), Aragão de Carvalho et al (1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209) and Berg and Foester (1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323). The entropy, mean writhe, and mean curvature of minimal length polygons are computed (in some cases exactly). While the minimal length and mean curvature are found to be lattice dependent, the mean writhe is found to be only weakly dependent on the lattice type. Comparison of our results to numerical results for the writhe obtained elsewhere (see Janse van Rensburg et al 1999 Contributed to Ideal Knots (Series on Knots and Everything vol 19) ed Stasiak, Katritch and Kauffman (Singapore: World Scientific), Portillo et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 275004) shows that the mean writhe is also insensitive to the length of a knotted polygon. Thus, while these results for the mean writhe and mean absolute writhe at minimal length are not universal, our results demonstrate that these values are quite close the those of long polygons regardless of the underlying lattice and length

  16. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  17. Full length cluster level swell data at pressures from 2 to 40 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1987-11-01

    This paper gives results of level swell experiments at pressures up to 40 bar, performed at Winfrith in 1981 as described elsewhere. The results have been used by a number of workers to develop voidage correlations and to assess safety codes. The experiment and experimental rig used are described. The results are tabulated. (author)

  18. Influence of a hydrostatic pressure on the diffusion in metals having a cubic structure; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence de la pression hydrostatique sur la diffusion dans les metaux cubiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In view of obtaining informations on the structure of vacancies. We have determined, by diffusion experiments under high pressure, the activation volumes for self diffusion in different face centered cubic metals: silver, gold, copper, aluminium and in body centered cubic uranium (gamma phase). Activation volumes for noble metals diffusion in aluminium have also been investigated. The experimental results on gold, silver and copper are in good agreement with most of the theoretical models. The estimated activation volume for gamma uranium seems to indicate a vacancy mechanism.The results on aluminium for both self and impurity diffusion agree quite well with Friedel's theoretical predictions. [French] Pour preciser la structure des lacunes, on a, par des etudes de diffusion sous haute pression determine les volumes d'activation correspondant a l'autodiffusion dans des metaux de structure cubique face centree: argent, or, cuivre et aluminium et dans un metal de structure cubique centree: l'uranium gamma. On a egalement determine les volumes d'activation pour l'heterodiffusion des metaux nobles dans l'aluminium. Les resultats obtenus pour l'or, l'argent et le cuivre sont en accord avec la plupart des modeles theoriques classiques. Le volume d'activation d'autodiffusion evalue pour l'uranium gamma est compatible avec une diffusion par lacune. Les resultats concernant l'aluminium et l'heterediffusion des metaux nobles dans l'aluminium verifient assez bien les previsions theoriques de Friedel. (auteur)

  19. Estimation of Kubo number and correlation length of fluctuating magnetic fields and pressure in BOUT + + edge pedestal collapse simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Lee, W.-J.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaang, H. H.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2017-10-01

    Stochastic magnetic fields are thought to be as one of the possible mechanisms for anomalous transport of density, momentum and heat across the magnetic field lines. Kubo number and Chirikov parameter are quantifications of the stochasticity, and previous studies show that perpendicular transport strongly depends on the magnetic Kubo number (MKN). If MKN is smaller than one, diffusion process will follow Rechester-Rosenbluth model; whereas if it is larger than one, percolation theory dominates the diffusion process. Thus, estimation of Kubo number plays an important role to understand diffusion process caused by stochastic magnetic fields. However, spatially localized experimental measurement of fluctuating magnetic fields in a tokamak is difficult, and we attempt to estimate MKNs using BOUT + + simulation data with pedestal collapse. In addition, we calculate correlation length of fluctuating pressures and Chirikov parameters to investigate variation correlation lengths in the simulation. We, then, discuss how one may experimentally estimate MKNs.

  20. First-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of cubic InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} ternary alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattabi, I. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Lab. Synthese et Catalyse; Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Applied Materials Lab.; Moussa, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Physic Dept.; Hadji, K. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Science and Technology Dept.; Soyalp, F. [Yuezuencue Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Varshney, Dinesh [Devi Ahilya Univ., Indore (India). Materials Science Lab.; Syrotyuk, S.V. [National Univ. ' Lviv Polytechnic' , Lviv (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Khenata, R. [Mascara Univ. (Algeria). Lab. de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M)

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  1. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  2. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  3. Collapse of the magnetic moment under pressure of AFe{sub 2} (A=Y, Zr, Lu and Hf) in the cubic Laves phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxu, E-mail: xwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Wanli

    2016-04-15

    The electronic structures of four Laves phase iron compounds (e.g. YFe{sub 2}, ZrFe{sub 2}, LuFe{sub 2} and HfFe{sub 2}) have been calculated with a state-of-the-art full potential electronic structure code. Our theoretical work predicted that the magnetic moments collapse under hydrostatic pressure. This feature is found to be universal in these materials. Its electronic origin is provided by the sharp peaks in the density of states near the Fermi level. It is shown that a first order quantum phase transition can be expected under pressure in Y(Zr, or Lu)Fe{sub 2}, while a second order one in HfFe{sub 2}. The bonding characteristics are discussed to elucidate the equilibrium lattice constant variation. The large spontaneous volume magnetostriction gives one of the most important characteristics of these compounds. Invar anomalies in these compounds can be partly explained by the current work when the fast continuous magnetic moment decrease with the decrease of the lattice constant was properly considered. This work may be as a first insight into the rich world of quantum phase transition and Invar mechanism in these Laves phase compounds. - Highlights: • Magnetic moment of YFe{sub 2}, ZrFe{sub 2}, LuFe{sub 2} and HfFe{sub 2} collapses under pressure. • The transition in Y(Zr or Lu) Fe{sub 2} under pressure is first order. • The transition in HfFe{sub 2} under pressure is second order. • The Invar effects in the compounds can be put into the magnetostriction model.

  4. On q-power cycles in cubic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a conjecture of Erdos and Gyárfás, we consider, for any q ≥ 2, the existence of q-power cycles (i.e. with length a power of q) in cubic graphs. We exhibit constructions showing that, for every q ≥ 3, there exist arbitrarily large cubic graphs with no q-power cycles. Concerning...... the remaining case q = 2 (which corresponds to the conjecture of Erdos and Gyárfás), we show that there exist arbitrarily large cubic graphs whose only 2-power cycles have length 4 only, or 8 only....

  5. Effect of Hemodialysis on Eye Coats, Axial Length, and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate changes in eye coats, axial length, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP in hemodialysis (HD patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. Methods. We included HD patients who were diagnosed with CRF in our hospital from January to December 2015. Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria; all right eyes were used for observation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded to calculate OPP. Approximately 30 minutes before and after HD, we recorded multiple parameters, including lens thickness (LT, axial length of vitreous (VAL, axial length of eye (EAL, ciliary body thickness (CBT, choroidal thickness (CT, and retinal thickness (RT. Results. After HD, OPP significantly decreased (P<0.01, F=7.023 and CBT became significantly thinner (P<0.01, t=3.461. CT was significantly thinner and differed among measurement locations (P<0.01, t=6.240; P<0.01, t=6.169; P<0.01, t=3.405, respectively, fovea, nasal, and temporal side 1500 μm beside the fovea. Further, RT thickened and differed among measurement locations (P<0.05, t=−2.265; P<0.05, t=−2.624; P<0.05, t=−2.220, respectively, fovea, nasal, and temporal side 1500 μm beside fovea, whereas LT, VAL, and EAL significantly increased after HD (P<0.05, t=−2.076; P<0.01, t=−3.817; P<0.01, t=−4.010. Conclusions. HD impacts the thickness of the eye coats and VAL, particularly affecting CBT, CT, and RT. OPP transiently decreases during HD, which may contribute to an ischemic state.

  6. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  7. Influence of a hydrostatic pressure on the diffusion in metals having a cubic structure; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence de la pression hydrostatique sur la diffusion dans les metaux cubiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In view of obtaining informations on the structure of vacancies. We have determined, by diffusion experiments under high pressure, the activation volumes for self diffusion in different face centered cubic metals: silver, gold, copper, aluminium and in body centered cubic uranium (gamma phase). Activation volumes for noble metals diffusion in aluminium have also been investigated. The experimental results on gold, silver and copper are in good agreement with most of the theoretical models. The estimated activation volume for gamma uranium seems to indicate a vacancy mechanism.The results on aluminium for both self and impurity diffusion agree quite well with Friedel's theoretical predictions. [French] Pour preciser la structure des lacunes, on a, par des etudes de diffusion sous haute pression determine les volumes d'activation correspondant a l'autodiffusion dans des metaux de structure cubique face centree: argent, or, cuivre et aluminium et dans un metal de structure cubique centree: l'uranium gamma. On a egalement determine les volumes d'activation pour l'heterodiffusion des metaux nobles dans l'aluminium. Les resultats obtenus pour l'or, l'argent et le cuivre sont en accord avec la plupart des modeles theoriques classiques. Le volume d'activation d'autodiffusion evalue pour l'uranium gamma est compatible avec une diffusion par lacune. Les resultats concernant l'aluminium et l'heterediffusion des metaux nobles dans l'aluminium verifient assez bien les previsions theoriques de Friedel. (auteur)

  8. Interpolation of natural cubic spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From the result in [1] it follows that there is a unique quadratic spline which bounds the same area as that of the function. The matching of the area for the cubic spline does not follow from the corresponding result proved in [2]. We obtain cubic splines which preserve the area of the function.

  9. A new methodological approach to assess cardiac work by pressure-volume and stress-length relations in patients with aortic valve stenosis and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, P; Rupp, H; Rominger, M B; Klose, K J; Maisch, B

    2008-01-01

    In experimental animals, cardiac work is derived from pressure-volume area and analyzed further using stress-length relations. Lack of methods for determining accurately myocardial mass has until now prevented the use of stress-length relations in patients. We hypothesized, therefore, that not only pressure-volume loops but also stress-length diagrams can be derived from cardiac volume and cardiac mass as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and invasively measured pressure. Left ventricular (LV) volume and myocardial mass were assessed in seven patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS), eight with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and eight controls using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CMR. LV pressure was measured invasively. Pressure-volume curves were calculated based on ECG triggering. Stroke work was assessed as area within the pressure-volume loop. LV wall stress was calculated using a thick-wall sphere model. Similarly, stress-length loops were calculated to quantify stress-length-based work. Taking the LV geometry into account, the normalization with regard to ventricular circumference resulted in "myocardial work." Patients with AS (valve area 0.73+/-0.18 cm(2)) exhibited an increased LV myocardial mass when compared with controls (Pwork of AS was unchanged when compared with controls (0.539+/-0.272 vs 0.621+/-0.138 Nm, not significant), whereas DCM exhibited a significant depression (0.367+/-0.157 Nm, Pwork was significantly reduced in both AS and DCM when compared with controls (129.8+/-69.6, 200.6+/-80.1, 332.2+/-89.6 Nm/m(2), Pmethodological approach of using CMR and invasive pressure measurement. Myocardial work was reduced in patients with DCM and noteworthy also in AS, while stroke work was reduced in DCM only. Most likely, deterioration of myocardial work is crucial for the prognosis. It is suggested to include these basic physiological procedures in the clinical assessment of the pump function of the heart.

  10. Laminar burning velocity and Markstein length of nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures at normal, reduced and elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China); Institute of High Performance Computing, A-star (Singapore); Ji, Min; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Qian; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2009-04-15

    Flame propagation of premixed nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures was studied in a constant volume combustion bomb under various initial pressures. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained for the diluted stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures with different hydrogen fractions and diluent ratios under various initial pressures. The results showed that both unstretched flame speed and unstretched burning velocity are reduced with the increase in initial pressure (except when the hydrogen fraction is 80%) as well as diluent ratio. The velocity reduction rate due to diluent addition is determined mainly by hydrogen fraction and diluent ratio, and the effect of initial pressure is negligible. Flame stability was studied by analyzing Markstein length. It was found that the increase of initial pressure and hydrogen fraction decreases flame stability and the flame tends to be more stable with the addition of diluent gas. Generally speaking, Markstein length of a fuel with low hydrogen fraction is more sensitive to the change of initial pressure than that of a one with high hydrogen fraction. (author)

  11. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  12. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  13. Estimating the board foot to cubic foot ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P. Verrill; Victoria L. Herian; Henry N. Spelter

    2004-01-01

    Certain issues in recent softwood lumber trade negotiations have centered on the method for converting estimates of timber volumes reported in cubic meters to board feet. Such conversions depend on many factors; three of the most important of these are log length, diameter, and taper. Average log diameters vary by region and have declined in the western United States...

  14. On the number of longest and almost longest cycles in cubic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chia, Gek Ling; Thomassen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We consider the questions: How many longest cycles must a cubic graph have, and how many may it have? For each k >= 2 there are infinitely many p such that there is a cubic graph with p vertices and precisely one longest cycle of length p-k. On the other hand, if G is a graph with p vertices, all...

  15. The planar cubic Cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  16. Acoustic performance of low pressure axial fan rotors with different blade chord length and radial load distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolus, Thomas

    The paper examines the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of low-pressure axial fan rotors with a hub/tip ratio of 0.45. Six rotors were designed for the same working point by means of the well-known airfoil theory. The condition of an equilibrium between the static pressure gradient and the centrifugal forces is maintained. All rotors have unequally spaced blades to diminish tonal noise. The rotors are tested in a short cylindrical housing without guide vanes. All rotors show very similar flux-pressure difference characteristics. The peak efficiency and the noise performance is considerably influenced by the chosen blade design. The aerodynamically and acoustically optimal rotor is the one with the reduced load at the hub and increased load in the tip region under satisfied equilibrium conditions. It runs at the highest aerodynamic efficiency, and its noise spectrum is fairly smooth. The overall sound pressure level of this rotor is up to 8 dB (A) lower compared to the other rotors under consideration.

  17. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...

  18. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin, E-mail: taejin@kangwon.ac.kr

    2017-05-10

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  19. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  20. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-01-01

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  1. An Abel type cubic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider center conditions for plane polynomial systems of Abel type consisting of a linear center perturbed by the sum of 2 homogeneous polynomials of degrees n and 2n-1 where $n \\ge 2$. Using properties of Abel equations we obtain two general systems valid for arbitrary values on n. For the cubic n=2 systems we find several sets of new center conditions, some of which show that the results in a paper by Hill, Lloyd and Pearson which were conjectured to be complete are in fact not complete. We also present a particular system which appears to be a counterexample to a conjecture by Zoladek et al. regarding rational reversibility in cubic polynomial systems.

  2. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  3. Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate.

  4. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  5. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  6. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF CURVES SET BY CUBIC DISTRIBUTION OF CURVATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ustenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the geometric modeling of curvelinear contours of different objects based on the specified cubic curvature distribution and setpoints of curvature in the boundary points. Methodology. We investigate the flat section of the curvilinear contour generating under condition that cubic curvature distribution is set. Curve begins and ends at the given points, where angles of tangent slope and curvature are also determined. It was obtained the curvature equation of this curve, depending on the section length and coefficient c of cubic curvature distribution. The analysis of obtained equation was carried out. As well as, it was investigated the conditions, in which the inflection points of the curve are appearing. One should find such an interval of parameter change (depending on the input data and the section length, in order to place the inflection point of the curvature graph outside the curve section borders. It was determined the dependence of tangent slope of angle to the curve at its arbitrary point, as well as it was given the recommendations to solve a system of integral equations that allow finding the length of the curve section and the coefficient c of curvature cubic distribution. Findings. As the result of curves research, it is found that the criterion for their selection one can consider the absence of inflection points of the curvature on the observed section. Influence analysis of the parameter c on the graph of tangent slope angle to the curve showed that regardless of its value, it is provided the same rate of angle increase of tangent slope to the curve. Originality. It is improved the approach to geometric modeling of curves based on cubic curvature distribution with its given values at the boundary points by eliminating the inflection points from the observed section of curvilinear contours. Practical value. Curves obtained using the proposed method can be used for geometric modeling of curvilinear

  8. The effect of two different renal denervation strategies on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: Comparison of full-length versus proximal renal artery ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Ling, Zhiyu; Du, Huaan; Song, Wenxin; Xu, Yanping; Liu, Zengzhang; Su, Li; Xiao, Peilin; Yuan, Yuelong; Lu, Jiayi; Zhang, Jianhong; Li, Zhifeng; Shao, Jiang; Zhong, Bin; Zhou, Bei; Woo, Kamsang; Yin, Yuehui

    2016-11-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is used to manage blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (rHT), but effectiveness is still a concern, and key arterial portion for successful RDN is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of proximal versus full-length renal artery ablation in patients with resistant hypertension (rHT). Forty-seven patients with rHT were randomly assigned to receive full-length ablation (n = 23) or proximal ablation (n = 24) of the renal arteries. All lesions were treated with radiofrequency energy via a saline-irrigated catheter. Office BP was measured during 12 months of follow-up and ambulatory BP at baseline and 6 months (n = 15 in each group). Compared with full-length ablation, proximal ablation reduced the number of ablation points in both the right (6.1 ± 0.7 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6, P renal arteries (6.2 ± 0.7 vs. 3.3 ± 0.8, P  0.5). Similar office BPs was reduced by -39.4 ± 11.5/-20.9 ± 7.1 mm Hg at 6 months and -38.2 ± 10.3/-21.5 ± 5.8 mm Hg at 12 months in the full-length group (P efficacy and safety profile compared with full-length RDN, and propose the proximal artery as the key portion for RDN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  10. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In directed algebraic topology, directed irreversible (d)-paths and spaces consisting of d-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths...... are equipped with a natural arc length which moreover is shown to be invariant under directed homotopies. D-paths up to reparametrization (called traces) can thus be represented by arc length parametrized d-paths. Under weak additional conditions, it is shown that trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex...... are separable metric spaces which are locally contractible and locally compact. Moreover, they have the homotopy type of a CW-complex....

  11. Cubic metaplectic forms and theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Proskurin, Nikolai

    1998-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the theory of cubic metaplectic forms on the 3-dimensional hyperbolic space and the author's research on cubic metaplectic forms on special linear and symplectic groups of rank 2. The topics include: Kubota and Bass-Milnor-Serre homomorphisms, cubic metaplectic Eisenstein series, cubic theta functions, Whittaker functions. A special method is developed and applied to find Fourier coefficients of the Eisenstein series and cubic theta functions. The book is intended for readers, with beginning graduate-level background, interested in further research in the theory of metaplectic forms and in possible applications.

  12. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three optically active defects are detected in mono- and polycrystal cubic boron nitride (β-BN). Analysis of intensity of temperature dependences, halfwidth and energy shift of 1.76 eV narrow phononless line (center GC-1) makes it possible to interprete the observed cathodoluminescence spectra an optical analog of the Moessbaner effect. Comparison of the obtained results with the known data for diamond monocrystals makes it possible to suggest that the detected center GC-1 is a nitrogen vacancy . The conclusion, concerning the Moessbauer optical spectra application, is made to analyze structural perfection of β-BN crystal lattice

  13. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S.; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl2−. A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single na...

  14. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Pressure-induced melting of micellar crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.; Schwahn, D.; Janssen, S.

    1993-01-01

    that pressure improves the solvent quality of water, thus resulting in decomposition of the micelles and consequent melting of the micellar crystal. The combined pressure and temperature dependence reveals that in spite of the apparent increase of order on the 100 angstrom length scale upon increasing......Aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) aggregate at elevated temperatures into micelles which for polymer concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 20% make a hard sphere crystallization to a cubic micellar crystal. Structural studies show...... temperature (decreasing pressure) the overall entropy increases through the inverted micellar crystallization characteristic....

  16. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zaitsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of optically active defect were observed in single-crystal and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (β-BN). An analysis of the temperature dependences of the intensity, half-width, and energy shift of a narrow zero-phonon line at 1.76 eV (GC-1 center) made it possible to interpret the observed cathodoluminescence spectra as an optical analog of the Moessbauer effect. A comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the available data on diamond single crystals made it possible to identify the observed GC-1 center as a nitrogen vacancy. It was concluded that optical Moessbauer-type spectra can be used to analyze structure defects in the crystal lattice of β-BN

  17. Martensitic cubic → tetragonal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1983-01-01

    Indium-thallium alloys containing 14 to 30% At. Tl have a cubic face-centred beta phase wich changes into a tetragonal face-centred alpha martensite during solidification. The martensite contains twin crystals that are large enough to be seen by means of a light microscope. The phenomenological crystallographic martensite theory was used to calculate Miller's index of the habit plane, the formation of the surface relief, the orientation relations and the critical thickness ratio of the twins. In a beta monocrystal frequently only one of the 24 crystallographic possible habit planes are formed at one end of the sample and migrate through the whole crystal when the temperature drops. Externally applied tension and compression influence in different ways the direction in which the habit plane moves and can even destroy the twinned structure, i.e. they can modify the substructure of the martensite crystal. This induces superelasticity, an effect that has also been described quantitatively. (author)

  18. Topics in Cubic Special Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the sub-leading quantum perturbative corrections to N=2 cubic special Kaehler geometries. Imposing the invariance under axion-shifts, all such corrections (but the imaginary constant one) can be introduced or removed through suitable, lower unitriangular symplectic transformations, dubbed Peccei-Quinn (PQ) transformations. Since PQ transformations do not belong to the d=4 U-duality group G4, in symmetric cases they generally have a non-trivial action on the unique quartic invariant polynomial I4 of the charge representation R of G4. This leads to interesting phenomena in relation to theory of extremal black hole attractors; namely, the possibility to make transitions between different charge orbits of R, with corresponding change of the supersymmetry properties of the supported attractor solutions. Furthermore, a suitable action of PQ transformations can also set I4 to zero, or vice versa it can generate a non-vanishing I4: this corresponds to transitions between "large" and "small" charge orbit...

  19. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    The geometric models of Higher Dimensional Automata and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes, such ...... that the underlying geometry of an HDA may be quite complicated....

  20. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - Existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The geometric models of higher dimensional automata (HDA) and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes...... that the underlying geometry of an HDA may be quite complicated....

  1. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO2-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of three lines [P(20), 944.2 cm -1 ; P(14), 949.2 cm -1 ; and R(24), 978.5 cm -1 ] of the pulsed CO 2 laser (00 0 1--10 0 0 transition) by SiH 4 was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO 2 laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials

  2. Cubical sets as a classifying topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    Coquand’s cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. We show that the underlying cube category is the opposite of the Lawvere theory of De...... Morgan algebras. The topos of cubical sets itself classifies the theory of ‘free De Morgan algebras’. This provides us with a topos with an internal ‘interval’. Using this interval we construct a model of type theory following van den Berg and Garner. We are currently investigating the precise relation...

  3. Generalized Vaidya spacetime for cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Shan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We present a kind of generalized Vaidya solution of a new cubic gravity in five dimensions whose field equations in spherically symmetric spacetime are always second order like the Lovelock gravity. We also study the thermodynamics of its spherically symmetric apparent horizon and get its entropy expression and generalized Misner-Sharp energy. Finally, we present the first law and second law hold in this gravity. Although all the results are analogous to those in Lovelock gravity, we in fact introduce the contribution of a new cubic term in five dimensions where the cubic Lovelock term is just zero.

  4. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H C; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S; Xia, Younan

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl(2) (-). A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single nanoparticle spectroscopy. With their hollow and open structures, the Au nanoframes represent a novel class of substrates for applications including surface plasmonics and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  5. Cubic Pencils and Painlev\\'e Hamiltonians

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiwara, Kenji; Masuda, Tetsu; Noumi, Masatoshi; Ohta, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple heuristic method to derive the Painlev\\'e differential equations from the corresponding geometry of rational surafces. We also give a direct relationship between the cubic pencils and Seiberg-Witten curves.

  6. A Note on Cubic Convolution Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Meijering, E.; Unser, M.

    2003-01-01

    We establish a link between classical osculatory interpolation and modern convolution-based interpolation and use it to show that two well-known cubic convolution schemes are formally equivalent to two osculatory interpolation schemes proposed in the actuarial literature about a century ago. We also discuss computational differences and give examples of other cubic interpolation schemes not previously studied in signal and image processing.

  7. Cubical version of combinatorial differential forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The theory of combinatorial differential forms is usually presented in simplicial terms. We present here a cubical version; it depends on the possibility of forming affine combinations of mutual neighbour points in a manifold, in the context of synthetic differential geometry.......The theory of combinatorial differential forms is usually presented in simplicial terms. We present here a cubical version; it depends on the possibility of forming affine combinations of mutual neighbour points in a manifold, in the context of synthetic differential geometry....

  8. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  9. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  10. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long......-range order and local crystallographic structure of the recovered sample. Within uncertainty of these techniques (about 5%), all the crystallites are found to adopt the NaCl structure. From the analysis of XRD and XAS spectra, the cell volume per chemical formula unit is found to be 19.57(1) and 19...

  11. Method of forming an abrasive compact of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    This patent concerns an abrasive compact comprising diamond or cubic boron nitride or mixtures thereof held in a matrix of a refractory substance and a substance which dissolves the abrasive particle to at least a limited extent. The compact may be made by subjecting a powdered mixture of the ingredients to conditions of temperature and pressure at which the abrasive particle is crystallographically stable and the solvent substance acts to dissolve the abrasive particle. The refractory substance and solvent substance are preferably so chosen that during compact manufacture there is interaction resulting in the formation of a hard material

  12. Possible significance of cubic water-ice, H2O-Ic, in the atmospheric water cycle of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The possible formation and potential significance of the cubic ice polymorph on Mars is discussed. When water-ice crystallizes on Earth, the ambient conditions of temperature and pressure result in the formation of the hexagonal ice polymorph; however, on Mars, the much lower termperature and pressures may permit the crystallization of the cubic polymorph. Cubic ice has two properties of possible importance on Mars: it is an excellant nucleator of other volatiles (such as CO2), and it undergoes an exothermic transition to hexagonal ice at temperatures above 170 K. These properties may have significant implications for both martian cloud formation and the development of the seasonal polar caps.

  13. Comparison of telomere length in black and white teachers from South Africa: the sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Malan, Nico T; Hamer, Mark; Malan, Leoné

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk. The black South African population is witnessing a tremendous increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, part of which might be explained through urbanization. We compared telomere length between black South Africans and white South Africans and examined which biological and psychosocial variables played a role in ethnic difference in telomere length. We measured leukocyte telomere length in 161 black South African teachers and 180 white South African teachers aged 23 to 66 years without a history of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Age, sex, years having lived in the area, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hypertension, body mass index, dyslipidemia, hemoglobin A1c, C-reactive protein, smoking, physical activity, alcohol abuse, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and work stress were considered as covariates. Black participants had shorter (median, interquartile range) relative telomere length (0.79, 0.70-0.95) than did white participants (1.06, 0.87-1.21; p < .001), and this difference changed very little after adjusting for covariates. In fully adjusted models, age (p < .001), male sex (p = .011), and HIV positive status (p = .023) were associated with shorter telomere length. Ethnicity did not significantly interact with any covariates in determining telomere length, including psychosocial characteristics. Black South Africans showed markedly shorter telomeres than did white South African counterparts. Age, male sex, and HIV status were associated with shorter telomere length. No interactions between ethnicity and biomedical or psychosocial factors were found. Ethnic difference in telomere length might primarily be explained by genetic factors.

  14. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of quadratically cubic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, O V

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modified form of the well-known nonlinear dynamic equations with quadratic relations used to model a cubic nonlinearity. We show that such quadratically cubic equations sometimes allow exact solutions and sometimes make the original problem easier to analyze qualitatively. Occasionally, exact solutions provide a useful tool for studying new phenomena. Examples considered include nonlinear ordinary differential equations and Hopf, Burgers, Korteweg–de Vries, and nonlinear Schrödinger partial differential equations. Some problems are solved exactly in the space–time and spectral representations. Unsolved problems potentially solvable by the proposed approach are listed. (methodological notes)

  16. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. Phase stability, electronic structure and equation of state of cubic TcN from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.; Ma, Q.; Sun, X.W.; Liu, Z.J.; Fu, Z.J.; Wei, X.P.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The phase transition, electronic band structure, and equation of state (EOS) of cubic TcN are investigated by first-principles pseudopotential method based on density-functional theory. The calculated enthalpies show that TcN has a transformation between zincblende and rocksalt phases and the pressure determined by the relative enthalpy is 32 GPa. The calculated band structure indicates the metallic feature and it might make cubic TcN a better candidate for hard materials. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate EOSs using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. - Highlights: • The phase transition pressure and electronic band structure for cubic TcN are determined. • Particular attention is paid to investigate the equation of state parameters for cubic TcN. • The thermodynamic properties up to 80 GPa and 3000 K are successfully predicted.

  18. Dipaths and dihomotopies in a cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    In the geometric realization of a cubical complex without degeneracies, a $\\Box$-set, dipaths and dihomotopies may not be combinatorial, i.e., not geometric realizations of combinatorial dipaths and equivalences. When we want to use geometric/topological tools to classify dipaths on the 1-skeleton...

  19. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  20. Efficient LBM visual simulation on face-centered cubic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Kaloian; Qiu, Feng; Fan, Zhe; Kaufman, Arie E; Mueller, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for visual simulation of fluid flow generally employs cubic Cartesian (CC) lattices such as the D3Q13 and D3Q19 lattices for the particle transport. However, the CC lattices lead to suboptimal representation of the simulation space. We introduce the face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice, fD3Q13, for LBM simulations. Compared to the CC lattices, the fD3Q13 lattice creates a more isotropic sampling of the simulation domain and its single lattice speed (i.e., link length) simplifies the computations and data storage. Furthermore, the fD3Q13 lattice can be decomposed into two independent interleaved lattices, one of which can be discarded, which doubles the simulation speed. The resulting LBM simulation can be efficiently mapped to the GPU, further increasing the computational performance. We show the numerical advantages of the FCC lattice on channeled flow in 2D and the flow-past-a-sphere benchmark in 3D. In both cases, the comparison is against the corresponding CC lattices using the analytical solutions for the systems as well as velocity field visualizations. We also demonstrate the performance advantages of the fD3Q13 lattice for interactive simulation and rendering of hot smoke in an urban environment using thermal LBM.

  1. The bulk modulus of cubic spinel selenides: an experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that mainly the selenium sublattice determines the overall compressibility of the cubic spinel selenides, AB2Se4, and that the bulk modulus for these compounds is about 100GPa. The hypothesis is supported by experiments using high-pressure X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation...

  2. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanjun [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Huang, Huawei [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Yong, E-mail: yongpanyn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E{sub F} decrease. The cubic Pt{sub 3}Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure.

  3. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt3Al alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Huawei; Pan, Yong; Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt 3 Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt 3 Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt 3 Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt 3 Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E F decrease. The cubic Pt 3 Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure

  4. Integrable peakon equations with cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, Andrew N W; Wang, J P

    2008-01-01

    We present a new integrable partial differential equation found by Vladimir Novikov. Like the Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations, this new equation admits peaked soliton (peakon) solutions, but it has nonlinear terms that are cubic, rather than quadratic. We give a matrix Lax pair for V Novikov's equation, and show how it is related by a reciprocal transformation to a negative flow in the Sawada-Kotera hierarchy. Infinitely many conserved quantities are found, as well as a bi-Hamiltonian structure. The latter is used to obtain the Hamiltonian form of the finite-dimensional system for the interaction of N peakons, and the two-body dynamics (N = 2) is explicitly integrated. Finally, all of this is compared with some analogous results for another cubic peakon equation derived by Zhijun Qiao. (fast track communication)

  5. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  6. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, L.C.; Tendeloo, G. van; Dinca, G.

    2004-01-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, L.C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7 Magurele, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tendeloo, G. van [University of Antwerp, EMAT, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Dinca, G. [Dacia Synthetic Diamond Factory, Timisoara av. 5, P.O. Box 58-52, 077350 Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-09-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Nanodefects in ultrahard crystalline cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, S. V.; Stefan, M.; Goovaerts, E.; Schoemaker, D.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN), the second hardest known material after diamond, exhibits high thermal conductivity and an excellent ability to be n or p doped, which makes it a strong candidate for the next generation of high-temperature micro optical and micro electronic devices. According to recent studies, cBN exhibits a better resistance to radiation damage than diamond, which suggests potential applications in extreme radiation environments. Crystalline cBN powders of up to 0.5 mm linear size is obtained in a similar way as diamond, by catalytic conversion of hexagonal BN (hBN) to cBN at even higher pressures (> 5GPa) and temperatures (∼ 1900 K). Considering the essential role played by the nanodefects (point defects and impurities) in determining its physical properties, it is surprising how limited is the amount of published data concerning the properties of nanodefects in this material, especially by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the most powerful method for identification and characterization of nanodefects in both insulators and semiconductors. This seems to be due mainly to the absence of natural cBN gems and the extreme difficulties in producing even mm 3 sized synthetic crystals. We shall present our recent EPR studies on cBN crystalline powders, performed in a broad temperature range from room temperature (RT) down to 1.2 K on several sorts of large size cBN powder grits of yellow and amber color for industrial applications. Previous multifrequency (9.3 GHz and 95 GHz) EPR studies of brown to black cBN crystallites prepared with excess of boron, resulted in the discovery of two new types of paramagnetic point defects with different spectral properties, called the D1 and D2 centers. Our X(9.3 GHz)-band EPR investigations resulted in the observation in amber cBN crystalline powders of a spectrum with a strong temperature dependence of the lineshape. It was found that for high and low temperatures, respectively, the numerical

  9. Neutrosophic Cubic MCGDM Method Based on Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of neutrosophic cubic set is originated from the hybridization of the concept of neutrosophic set and interval valued neutrosophic set. We define similarity measure for neutrosophic cubic sets and prove some of its basic properties.

  10. Spinning solitons in cubic-quintic nonlinear media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spinning solitons in cubic-quintic nonlinear media ... features of families of bright vortex solitons (doughnuts, or 'spinning' solitons) in both conservative and dissipative cubic-quintic nonlinear media. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF LEAD SULFIDE CRYSTALS IN THE CUBIC PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Parashchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometric and thermodynamic parameters of cubic PbS crystals were obtained using the computer calculations of the thermodynamic parameters within density functional theory method DFT. Cluster models for the calculation based on the analysis of the crystal and electronic structure. Temperature dependence of energy ΔE and enthalpy ΔH, Gibbs free energy ΔG, heat capacity at constant pressure CP and constant volume CV, entropy ΔS were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations of the crystal structure of molecular clusters. Analytical expressions of temperature dependences of thermodynamic parameters which were approximated with quantum-chemical calculation points have been presented. Experimental results compared with theoretically calculated data.

  12. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  13. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....

  14. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Phenomena in Cubic Tank with Multiple Baffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-An Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase fluid flow model solving Navier-Stokes equations was employed in this paper to investigate liquid sloshing phenomena in cubic tank with horizontal baffle, perforated vertical baffle, and their combinatorial configurations under the harmonic motion excitation. Laboratory experiment of liquid sloshing in cubic tank with perforated vertical baffle was carried out to validate the present numerical model. Fairly good agreements were obtained from the comparisons between the present numerical results and the present experimental data, available numerical data. Liquid sloshing in cubic tank with multiple baffles was investigated numerically in detail under different external excitation frequencies. Power spectrum of the time series of free surface elevation was presented with the aid of fast Fourier transform technique. The dynamic impact pressures acting on the normal and parallel sidewalls were discussed in detail.

  15. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  16. Comparison of Path Length and Ranges of Movement of the Center of Pressure and Reaction Time and Between Paired-Play and Solo-Play of a Virtual Reality Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Hersch, Ayelet; Sofer, Tal; Tresser, Sarit

    2017-06-01

    To test whether paired-play will induce longer path length and ranges of movement of the center of pressure (COP), which reflects on balance performance and stability, compared to solo-play and to test the difference in the path length and ranges of movement of the COP while playing the virtual reality (VR) game with the dominant hand compared to playing it with the nondominant hand. In this cross-sectional study 20 children (age 6.1 ± 0.7 years old) played an arm movement controlled VR game alone and with a peer while each of them stood on a pressure measuring pad to track the path length and ranges of movement of the COP. The total COP path was significantly higher during the paired-play (median 295.8 cm) compared to the COP path during the solo-play (median 189.2 cm). No significant differences were found in the reaction time and the mediolateral and anterior-posterior COP ranges between solo-play and paired-play. No significant differences were found between the parameters extracted during paired-play with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our findings imply that the paired-play is advantageous compared to solo-play since it induces a greater movement for the child, during which, higher COP velocities are reached that may contribute to improving the balance control of the child. Apart from the positive social benefits of paired-play, this positive effect on the COP path length is a noteworthy added value in the clinical setting when treating children with balance disorder.

  17. Plasma deposition of cubic boron nitride films from non-toxic material at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M.Z.; Cameron, D.C.; Murphy, M.J.; Hashmi, M.S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Boron nitride has become the focus of a considerable amount of interest because of its properties which relate closely to those of carbon. In particular, the cubic nitride phase has extreme hardness and very high thermal conductivity similar to the properties of diamond. The conventional methods of synthesis use the highly toxic and inflammable gas diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as the reactant material. A study has been made of the deposition of thin films of boron nitride (BN) using non-toxic material by the plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The source material was borane-ammonia (BH 3 -NH 3 ) which is a crystalline solid at room temperature with a high vapour pressure. The BH 3 -NH 3 vapour was decomposed in a 13.56 MHz nitrogen plasma coupled either inductively or capacitively with the system. The composition of the films was assessed by measuring their IR absorption when deposited on silicon and KBr substrates. The hexagonal (graphitic) and cubic (diamond-like) allotropes can be distinguished by their characteristic absorption bands which occur at 1365 and 780 cm -1 (hexagonal) and 1070 cm -1 (cubic). We have deposited BN films consisting of a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phases; the relative content of the cubic phase was found to be directly dependent on r.f. power and substrate bias. (orig.)

  18. Effect of error in crack length measurement on maximum load fracture toughness of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Sunil, Saurav; Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-03-01

    Recently it was found that maximum load toughness (J max ) for Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material was practically unaffected by error in Δ a . To check the sensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a measurement, the J max was calculated assuming no crack growth up to the maximum load (P max ) for as received and hydrogen charged Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. For load up to the P max , the J values calculated assuming no crack growth (J NC ) were slightly higher than that calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique (JDCPD). In general, error in the J calculation found to be increased exponentially with Δ a . The error in J max calculation was increased with an increase in Δ a and a decrease in J max . Based on deformation theory of J, an analytic criterion was developed to check the insensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a . There was very good linear relation was found between the J max calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique and the J max calculated assuming no crack growth. This relation will be very useful to calculate J max without measuring the crack growth during fracture test especially for irradiated material. (author)

  19. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral......, range, 9-18 yrs) was tested twice using an EMED pedobarograph and a Vicon motion analysis system using the Oxford kinematic foot model to test the repeatability of the measurement methods and generate normal data. 8 children (4 girls, 4 boys, mean ± SD, 12 ± 2 yrs, range 8-15yr) with spastic CP...... forefoot mean plantar pressure and force in the children with gastrocnemius contracture, whilst the corresponding changes in foot kinematics were non-significant.   Introduction Foot deformity is common in CP and is often due to hypertonia and contracture in spastic muscles. The aim of this study...

  20. Potential change in flaw geometry of an initially shallow finite-length surface flaw during a pressurized-thermal-shock transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, D.K.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1993-09-01

    This study presents preliminary estimates on whether an shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during a postulated PTS transient. Analysis results obtained based on the assumptions of (1) linear-elastic material response, and (2) cladding with same toughness as the base metal, indicate that a nearly semicircular flaw would likely propagate in the axial direction followed by propagation into the wall of the vessel. Note that these results correspond to initiation within the lower-shelf fracture toughness temperature range, and that their general validity within the lower-transition temperature range remains to be determined. The sensitivity of the numerical results aid conclusions to the following analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) linear-elastic vs elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) base-material-only vs bimaterial cladding-base vessel-model assumption. The sensitivity evaluation indicates that the analysis results are very sensitive to the above assumptions

  1. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  2. Experimental evidence of body centered cubic iron in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, R.; Meng, Y.; Shen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is mainly composed of iron. While seismic evidence has shown a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, the crystalline nature of the solid iron at the core condition remains debated, largely due to the difficulties in experimental determination of exact polymorphs at corresponding pressure-temperature conditions. We have examined crystal structures of iron up to 220 GPa and 6000 K with x-ray diffraction using a double-sided laser heating system at HPCAT, Advanced Photon Source. The iron sample is confined in a small chamber surrounded by single crystal MgO. The laser power can be modulated together with temperature measurements. The modulated heating of iron in an MgO single crystal matrix allows for microstructure analysis during heating and after the sample is quenched. We present experimental evidence of a body-centered-cubic (BCC) iron from about 100 GPa and 3000 K to at least 220 GPa and 4000 K. The observed BCC phase may be consistent with a theoretically predicted BCC phase that is dynamically stable in similar pressure-temperature conditions [1]. We will discuss the stability region of the BCC phase and the melting curve of iron and their implications in the nature of the Earth's inner core. References: A. B. Belonoshko et al., Nat. Geosci., 1-6 (2017).

  3. Black holes in a cubic Galileon universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A.; Moskalets, T., E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: antoine.lehebel@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: tetiana.moskalets@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    We find and study the properties of black hole solutions for a subclass of Horndeski theory including the cubic Galileon term. The theory under study has shift symmetry but not reflection symmetry for the scalar field. The Galileon is assumed to have linear time dependence characterized by a velocity parameter. We give analytic 3-dimensional solutions that are akin to the BTZ solutions but with a non-trivial scalar field that modifies the effective cosmological constant. We then study the 4-dimensional asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions. The latter present three different branches according to their effective cosmological constant. For two of these branches, we find families of black hole solutions, parametrized by the velocity of the scalar field. These spherically symmetric solutions, obtained numerically, are different from GR solutions close to the black hole event horizon, while they have the same de-Sitter asymptotic behavior. The velocity parameter represents black hole primary hair.

  4. Cubic phase control of ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecseki, K.; Erdelyi, M.; Kovacs, A.P.; Szabo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The temporal shape of an ultrashort laser pulse may change upon propagating through a linear dispersive medium having a phase shift ψω. The change can be characterized by the Taylor-coefficients of the phase shift which are calculated around the central frequency ω 0 of the pulse. Measurements and independent control of the group delay dispersion (GDD, ψ'(ω 0 )) and the third order dispersion (TOD, ψ'(ω 0 )) are important in several research fields, particularly in the generation of ultrashort laser pulses by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and pulse shaping for molecular control. The GDD and the TOD of an ideal pulse compressor are equal to the negative of the corresponding dispersion coefficients of the medium. However, in the case of prism-pair and grating-pair compressor is different from the ratio of the coefficients of the medium to be compensated for. Therefore it is necessary to develop so-called cubic compressors that are able to control the TOD of the pulse, yet, do not affect the GDD. In this paper a new cubic compressor setup is investigated theoretically and experimentally, which resembles the set-up proposed by White, however, we control the GDD and the TOD by the position of a birefringent, semi-cylinder crystal place around the focal point of an achromatic lens. For the evaluation of the phase shift introduced by the proposed cubic compressor, a ray tracing program was written. The program allows optimizing the compressor parameters, such as the radius of the crystal, magnification of the lens etc. Calcite was applied because it is a strong birefringent material. Calculations showed that there is a trajectory, along which shifting the crystal the TOD can be tuned independently of the GDD. The value of the TOD changed in a relatively wide range between -3.15 x 10 5 fs 3 and -1.67 x 10 5 fs 3 . Although the defocus also affects the angular dispersion of the pulse leaving the compressor, if does not exceed

  5. Cubic martensite in high carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Xiao, Wenlong; Jiao, Kun; Ping, Dehai; Xu, Huibin; Zhao, Xinqing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2018-05-01

    A distinguished structural characteristic of martensite in Fe-C steels is its tetragonality originating from carbon atoms occupying only one set of the three available octahedral interstitial sites in the body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe lattice. Such a body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure is believed to be thermodynamically stable because of elastic interactions between the interstitial carbon atoms. For such phase stability, however, there has been a lack of direct experimental evidence despite extensive studies of phase transformations in steels over one century. In this Rapid Communication, we report that the martensite formed in a high carbon Fe-8Ni-1.26C (wt%) steel at room temperature induced by applied stress/strain has actually a bcc rather than a bct crystal structure. This finding not only challenges the existing theories on the stability of bcc vs bct martensite in high carbon steels, but also provides insights into the mechanism for martensitic transformation in ferrous alloys.

  6. Expansion into lattice harmonics in cubic symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrym-Sznajd, G.

    2018-05-01

    On the example of a few sets of sampling directions in the Brillouin zone, this work shows how important the choice of the cubic harmonics is on the quality of approximation of some quantities by a series of such harmonics. These studies led to the following questions: (1) In the case that for a given l there are several independent harmonics, can one use in the expansion only one harmonic with a given l?; (2) How should harmonics be ordered: according to l or, after writing them in terms of (x4 + y4 + z4)n (x2y2z2)m, according to their degree q = n + m? To enable practical applications of such harmonics, they are constructed in terms of the associated Legendre polynomials up to l = 26. It is shown that electron momentum densities, reconstructed from experimental data for ErGa3 and InGa3, are described much better by harmonics ordered with q.

  7. Electrical leakage phenomenon in heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Zielinski, Marcin; Bosi, Matteo; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Iacopi, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films on silicon substrates are of technological interest as enablers to integrate the excellent electrical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and epitaxial properties of bulk silicon carbide into well-established silicon technologies. One critical bottleneck of this integration is the establishment of a stable and reliable electronic junction at the heteroepitaxial interface of the n-type SiC with the silicon substrate. We have thus investigated in detail the electrical and transport properties of heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide films grown via different methods on low-doped and high-resistivity silicon substrates by using van der Pauw Hall and transfer length measurements as test vehicles. We have found that Si and C intermixing upon or after growth, particularly by the diffusion of carbon into the silicon matrix, creates extensive interstitial carbon traps and hampers the formation of a stable rectifying or insulating junction at the SiC/Si interface. Although a reliable p-n junction may not be realistic in the SiC/Si system, we can achieve, from a point of view of the electrical isolation of in-plane SiC structures, leakage suppression through the substrate by using a high-resistivity silicon substrate coupled with deep recess etching in between the SiC structures.

  8. Anisotropic cubic lattice potts ferromagnet: renormalisation group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Schwaccheim, G.; Silva, L.R. da; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal

    1983-01-01

    Within a real space renormalisation group framework, the criticality of the fully anisotropic (arbitrary J sub(x), J sub(y) and J sub(z)) q-state Potts ferromagnet in simple cubic lattice is discussed. Several already known exact results for the d=1 and d=2 particular cases are recovered. Furthermore it is obtained: (i) the q-dependence of the d=3 correlation length critical exponent ν 3 (in particular, if q→0, ν 3 (q) approximatelly ν 3 (0)+ν 3 '(0)q) where the present approximate values are ν 3 (0) or approx.= 1.105 and ν 3 '(0) or approx.=-0.66; (ii) the q-dependence d=2 d=3 crossover critical exponent phi 23 (in particular, phi 23 varies as 1/√q if q Q→0); (iii) through a convenient numerical extrapolation, a quite accurate proposal for the critical temperatures corresponding to arbitrary ratios J sub(y)/ J sub(x) and J sub(z) / J sub(x) and values of q. (Author) [pt

  9. Structural insights into the cubic-hexagonal phase transition kinetics of monoolein modulated by sucrose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Caleb W; Strango, Zachariah I; Dell, Zachary R; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harper, Paul E

    2015-04-14

    Using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), we measure the kinetics of the cubic-HII phase transition of monoolein in bulk sucrose solutions. We find that the transition temperature is dramatically lowered, with each 1 mol kg(-1) of sucrose concentration dropping the transition by 20 °C. The kinetics of this transition also slow greatly with increasing sucrose concentration. For low sucrose concentrations, the kinetics are asymmetric, with the cooling (HII-cubic) transition taking twice as long as the heating (cubic-HII) transition. This asymmetry in transition times is reduced for higher sucrose concentrations. The cooling transition exhibits Avrami exponents in the range of 2 to 2.5 and the heating transition shows Avrami exponents ranging from 1 to 3. A classical Avrami interpretation would be that these processes occur via a one or two dimensional pathway with variable nucleation rates. A non-classical perspective would suggest that these exponents reflect the time dependence of pore formation (cooling) and destruction (heating). New density measurements of monoolein show that the currently accepted value is about 5% too low; this has substantial implications for electron density modeling. Structural calculations indicate that the head group area and lipid length in the cubic-HII transition shrink by about 12% and 4% respectively; this reduction is practically the same as that seen in a lipid with a very different molecular structure (rac-di-12:0 β-GlcDAG) that makes the same transition. Thermodynamic considerations suggest there is a hydration shell about one water molecule thick in front of the lipid head groups in both the cubic and HII phases.

  10. Mesostructured germanium with cubic pore symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armatas, G S; Kanatzidis, M G [Michigan State Univ., Michigan (United States), Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-11-15

    Regular mesoporous oxide materials have been widely studied and have a range of potential applications, such as catalysis, absorption and separation. They are not generally considered for their optical and electronic properties. Elemental semiconductors with nanopores running through them represent a different form of framework material with physical characteristics contrasting with those of the more conventional bulk, thin film and nanocrystalline forms. Here we describe cubic meso structured germanium, MSU-Ge-l, with gyroidal channels containing surfactant molecules, separated by amorphous walls that lie on the gyroid (G) minimal surface as in the mesoporous silica MCM-48. Although Ge is a high-meltin covalent semiconductor that is difficult to prepare from solution polymerization, we succeeded in assembling a continuous Ge network using a suitable precursor for Ge{sup 4-} atoms. Our results indicate that elemental semiconductors from group 14 of the periodic table can be made to adopt meso structured forms such as MSU-Ge-1, which features two three-dimensional labyrinthine tunnels obeying la3d space group symmetry and separated by a continuous germanium minimal surface that is otherwise amorphous. A consequence of this new structure for germanium, which has walls only one nanometre thick, is a wider electronic energy bandgap (1.4 eV versus 0.66 eV) than has crystalline or amorphous Ge. Controlled oxidation of MSU-Ge-1 creates a range of germanium suboxides with continuously varying Ge:O ratio and a smoothly increasing energy gap. (author)

  11. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  12. Bifurcation of limit cycles for cubic reversible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the bifurcation of limit cycles of a class of cubic reversible system having a center at the origin. We prove that this system has at least four limit cycles produced by the period annulus around the center under cubic perturbations

  13. Kinks in systems with cubic and quartic anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheev, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    For a classical system of interacting particles with on-site cubic or quartic anharmonicity explicit analytic solutions of the d'Alembert equation are obtained in the form of kinks in the presence of dissipation (viscous or Rayleigh) and a constant force. These kinks will be asymptotically stable in the case of quartic anharmonicity and unstable in the case cubic anharmonicity

  14. Optical characterisation of cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.

    1998-09-01

    The varied properties of Silicon Carbide (SiC) are helping to launch the material into many new applications, particularly in the field of novel semiconductor devices. In this work, the cubic form of SiC is of interest as a basis for developing integrated optical components. Here, the formation of a suitable SiO 2 buried cladding layer has been achieved by high dose oxygen ion implantation. This layer is necessary for the optical confinement of propagating light, and hence optical waveguide fabrication. Results have shown that optical propagation losses of the order of 20 dB/cm are obtainable. Much of this loss can be attributed to mode leakage and volume scattering. Mode leakage is a function of the effective oxide thickness, and volume scattering related to the surface layer damage. These parameters have been shown to be controllable and so suggests that further reduction in the waveguide loss is feasible. Analysis of the layer growth mechanism by RBS, XTEM and XPS proves that SiO 2 is formed, and that the extent, of formation depends on implant dose and temperature. The excess carbon generated is believed to exit the oxide layer by a number of varying mechanisms. The result of this appears to be a number of stable Si-C-O intermediaries that, form regions to either depth extreme of the SiO 2 layer. Early furnace tests suggest a need to anneal at, temperatures approaching the melting point of the silicon substrate, and that the quality of the virgin material is crucial in controlling the resulting oxide growth. (author)

  15. Neutron Dose Measurement Using a Cubic Moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Mazor, T.; Cohen, Y.; Kadmon, Y.; Orion, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS), introduced In July 1960 by a research group from Rice University, Texas, is a major approach to neutron spectrum estimation. The BSS, also known as multi-sphere spectrometer, consists of a set of a different diameters polyethylene spheres, carrying a small LiI(Eu) scintillator in their center. What makes this spectrometry method such widely used, is its almost isotropic response, covering an extraordinary wide range of energies, from thermal up to even hundreds of MeVs. One of the most interesting and useful consequences of the above study is the 12'' sphere characteristics, as it turned out that the response curve of its energy dependence, have a similar shape compared with the neutron's dose equivalent as a function of energy. This inexplicable and happy circumstance makes it virtually the only monitoring device capable providing realistic neutron dose estimates over such a wide energy range. However, since the detection mechanism is not strictly related to radiation dose, one can expect substantial errors when applied to widely different source conditions. Although the original design of the BSS included a small 4mmx4mmO 6LiI(Eu) scintillator, other thermal neutron detectors has been used over the years: track detectors, activation foils, BF3 filled proportional counters, etc. In this study we chose a Boron loaded scintillator, EJ-254, as the thermal neutron detector. The neutron capture reaction on the boron has a Q value of 2.78 MeV of which 2.34 MeV is shared by the alpha and lithium particles. The high manufacturing costs, the encasement issue, the installation efficiency and the fabrication complexity, led us to the idea of replacing the sphere with a cubic moderator. This article describes the considerations, as well as the Monte-Carlo simulations done in order to examine the applicability of this idea

  16. On the modification of the Efimov spectrum in a finite cubic box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, S.; Hammer, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Three particles with large scattering length display a universal spectrum of three-body bound states called ''Efimov trimers''. We calculate the modification of the Efimov trimers of three identical bosons in a finite cubic box and compute the dependence of their energies on the box size using effective field theory. Previous calculations for positive scattering length that were perturbative in the finite-volume energy shift are extended to arbitrarily large shifts and negative scattering lengths. The renormalization of the effective field theory in the finite volume is explicitly verified. We investigate the effects of partial-wave mixing and study the behavior of shallow trimers near the dimer energy. Moreover, we provide numerical evidence for universal scaling of the finite-volume corrections. (orig.)

  17. Shape Preserving Interpolation Using C2 Rational Cubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the construction of new C2 rational cubic spline interpolant with cubic numerator and quadratic denominator. The idea has been extended to shape preserving interpolation for positive data using the constructed rational cubic spline interpolation. The rational cubic spline has three parameters αi, βi, and γi. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on one parameter γi while the other two parameters αi and βi are free parameters that can be used to change the final shape of the resulting interpolating curves. This will enable the user to produce many varieties of the positive interpolating curves. Cubic spline interpolation with C2 continuity is not able to preserve the shape of the positive data. Notably our scheme is easy to use and does not require knots insertion and C2 continuity can be achieved by solving tridiagonal systems of linear equations for the unknown first derivatives di, i=1,…,n-1. Comparisons with existing schemes also have been done in detail. From all presented numerical results the new C2 rational cubic spline gives very smooth interpolating curves compared to some established rational cubic schemes. An error analysis when the function to be interpolated is ft∈C3t0,tn is also investigated in detail.

  18. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  19. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghi, F.; Lenardi, C.; Podestà, A.; Milani, P., E-mail: pmilani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sogne, E. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), IFOM-IEO, Milano (Italy); Merlini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “Ardito Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Mangiagalli 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-07

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments.

  20. An EOQ model for weibull distribution deterioration with time-dependent cubic demand and backlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, G.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article we introduce an economic order quantity model with weibull deterioration and time dependent cubic demand rate where holding costs as a linear function of time. Shortages are allowed in the inventory system are partially and fully backlogging. The objective of this model is to minimize the total inventory cost by using the optimal order quantity and the cycle length. The proposed model is illustrated by numerical examples and the sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effect of changes in parameters on the optimum solutions.

  1. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, F.; Lenardi, C.; Podestà, A.; Milani, P.; Sogne, E.; Merlini, M.; Ducati, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments.

  2. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Borghi, F.; Sogne, Elisa; Lenardi, C.; Podestà , A.; Merlini, M.; Ducati, C.; Milani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments. Published by AIP Publishing.

  3. Cluster-assembled cubic zirconia films with tunable and stable nanoscale morphology against thermal annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Borghi, F.

    2016-08-05

    Nanostructured zirconium dioxide (zirconia) films are very promising for catalysis and biotechnological applications: a precise control of the interfacial properties of the material at different length scales and, in particular, at the nanoscale, is therefore necessary. Here, we present the characterization of cluster-assembled zirconia films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition possessing cubic structure at room temperature and controlled nanoscale morphology. We characterized the effect of thermal annealing in reducing and oxidizing conditions on the crystalline structure, grain dimensions, and topography. We highlight the mechanisms of film growth and phase transitions, which determine the observed interfacial morphological properties and their resilience against thermal treatments. Published by AIP Publishing.

  4. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  5. Plastic fluctuations in empty crystals formed by cubic wireframe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John M.; Avendaño, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of colloidal hard cubic frames, i.e., particles with nonconvex cubic wireframe geometry interacting purely by excluded volume. Despite the propensity of cubic wireframe particles to form cubic phases akin to their convex counterparts, these particles exhibit unusual plastic fluctuations in which a random and dynamic fraction of particles rotate around their lattice positions in the crystal lattice while the remainder of the particles remains fully ordered. We argue that this unexpected effect stems from the nonconvex geometry of the particles in which the faces of a particle can be penetrated by the vertices of the nearest neighbors even at high number densities.

  6. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles for oral delivery of Doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study explores the potential of bicontinous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) for improving therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. METHODS: Phytantriol based Dox-LCNPs were prepared using hydrotrope method, optimized for various formulation components, process...

  7. Spinor bose gases in cubic optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, Mohamed Saidan Sayed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the quantum simulation of condensed-matter physics problems has resulted from exciting experimental progress in the realm of ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices. In this thesis we analyze theoretically a spinor Bose gas loaded into a three-dimensional cubic optical lattice. In order to account for different superfluid phases of spin-1 bosons with a linear Zeeman effect, we work out a Ginzburg-Landau theory for the underlying spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model. To this end we add artificial symmetry-breaking currents to the spin-1 Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian in order to break the global U (1) symmetry. With this we determine a diagrammatic expansion of the grand-canonical free energy up to fourth order in the symmetry-breaking currents and up to the leading non-trivial order in the hopping strength which is of first order. As a cross-check we demonstrate that the resulting grand-canonical free energy allows to recover the mean-field theory. Applying a Legendre transformation to the grand-canonical free energy, where the symmetry-breaking currents are transformed to order parameters, we obtain the effective Ginzburg-Landau action. With this we calculate in detail at zero temperature the Mott insulator-superfluid quantum phase boundary as well as condensate and particle number density in the superfluid phase. We find that both mean-field and Ginzburg-Landau theory yield the same quantum phase transition between the Mott insulator and superfluid phases, but the range of validity of the mean-field theory turns out to be smaller than that of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Due to this finding we expect that the Ginzburg-Landau theory gives better results for the superfluid phase and, thus, we restrict ourselves to extremize only the effective Ginzburg-Landau action with respect to the order parameters. Without external magnetic field the superfluid phase is a polar (ferromagnetic) state for anti-ferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) interactions, i.e. only the

  8. The Combinatorial Rigidity Conjecture is False for Cubic Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995.......We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995....

  9. Interaction of dispersed cubic phases with blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, J C; Kuntsche, Judith; Funari, S S

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous nanoparticle dispersions, e.g. based on monoolein/poloxamer 407, with blood components is an important topic concerning especially the parenteral way of administration. Therefore, the influence of human and porcine plasma on dispersed cubic phases was investigated. Part...... activity of cubic phases based on monoolein and poloxamer 188, on soy phosphatidylcholine, glycerol dioleate and polysorbate 80 or the parenteral fat emulsion Lipofundin MCT 20%....

  10. Transdermal delivery of paeonol using cubic gel and microemulsion gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Maofu; Shen, Qi; Chen, Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations. Methods Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate. Results A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension. Conclusion Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel. PMID:21904450

  11. Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstead, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables

  12. Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstead, A.E.

    1980-03-12

    The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Methane hydrate dissociation using inverted five-spot water flooding method in cubic hydrate simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Li, Xiao-Sen; Li, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The combination forms of the hydrate dissociation methods in different well systems are divided into 6 main patterns. Dissociation processes of methane hydrate in porous media using the inverted five-spot water flooding method (Pattern 4) are investigated by the experimental observation and numerical simulation. In situ methane hydrate is synthesized in the Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS), a 5.832-L cubic reactor. A center vertical well is used as the hot water injection well, while the four vertical wells at the corner are the gas and water production wells. The gas production begins simultaneously with the hot water injection, while after approximately 20 min of compression, the water begins to be produced. One of the common characteristics of the inverted five-spot water flooding method is that both the gas and water production rates decrease with the reduction of the hydrate dissociation rate. The evaluation of the energy efficiency ratio might indicate the inverted five-spot water flooding as a promising gas producing method from the hydrate reservoir. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional 5.8-L cubic pressure vessel is developed. • Gas production of hydrate using inverted five-spot flooding method is studied. • Water/gas production rate and energy efficiency ratio are evaluated. • Temperature distributions of numerical simulation and experiment agree well. • Hydrate dissociation process is a moving boundary problem in this study

  14. Shear-induced anisotropic plastic flow from body-centred-cubic tantalum before melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christine J.; Söderlind, Per; Glosli, James N.; Klepeis, John E.

    2009-03-01

    There are many structural and optical similarities between a liquid and a plastic flow. Thus, it is non-trivial to distinguish between them at high pressures and temperatures, and a detailed description of the transformation between these phenomena is crucial to our understanding of the melting of metals at high pressures. Here we report a shear-induced, partially disordered viscous plastic flow from body-centred-cubic tantalum under heating before it melts into a liquid. This thermally activated structural transformation produces a unique, one-dimensional structure analogous to a liquid crystal with the rheological characteristics of Bingham plastics. This mechanism is not specific to Ta and is expected to hold more generally for other metals. Remarkably, this transition is fully consistent with the previously reported anomalously low-temperature melting curve and thus offers a plausible resolution to a long-standing controversy about melting of metals under high pressures.

  15. The influence of high hydrostatic pressure on lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.; Lukaszewicz, K.; Asbrink, S.

    1986-01-01

    The lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO 3 have been measured under high hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of a new design. The lattice becomes cubic at 2.08(8) GPa and stays cubic at higher pressures. The pressure dependence of the tetragonal-cubic transition temperature is estimated to be -46 K GPa -1 . (orig.)

  16. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  17. Pressure and gap length dependence of gap breakdown voltage and discharge current of discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser. Hoden reiki KrF laser no zetsuen hakai den prime atsu to reiki denryu no atsuryoku, gap cho izon sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukimura, K.; Kawakami, H. (Doshisha Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Hitomi, K. (Kyoto Polytechnic College, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-04-20

    On the gap destruction characteristics of UV-preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser (charge transfer type) and the electric characteristics of the excited discharge, studies were made by changing the pressure (1.5-3 atm) and the discharge gap length (14-21 mm) of the discharge medium. (1) Gap breakdown voltage and the maximum current of the excited discharge give a similarity by a product of pressure and the gap length at the charge volatge. (2) Insulation breakdown of the gap occurs at the wave front of the applied voltage and the breakdown time gets delayed by the decreasing voltage applied. By setting the ionization index at constant value 20, the gap breakdown voltage is estimated at the error within 10%. (3) The relation between the maximum current, pressure and the gap length product changes the characteristics by the charge voltage of the primary condenser. With the result combined with the standardization of voltage/current of the excited discharge, the electric characteristics at the specific pressure and gap length can be readily known. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  18. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-12-01

    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  19. Cubic interactions of Maxwell-like higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, Dario [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN,Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Monaco, Gabriele Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa,Piazza Fibonacci, 3, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Mkrtchyan, Karapet [Max Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam 14476 (Germany)

    2017-04-12

    We study the cubic vertices for Maxwell-like higher-spins in flat and (A)dS background spaces of any dimension. Reducibility of their free spectra implies that a single cubic vertex involving any three fields subsumes a number of couplings among different particles of various spins. The resulting vertices do not involve traces of the fields and in this sense are simpler than their Fronsdal counterparts. We propose an extension of both the free theory and of its cubic deformation to a more general class of partially reducible systems, that one can obtain from the original theory upon imposing trace constraints of various orders. The key to our results is a version of the Noether procedure allowing to systematically account for the deformations of the transversality conditions to be imposed on the gauge parameters at the free level.

  20. Theoretical investigations of the bulk modulus in the tetra-cubic transition of PbTiO3 material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan A. P. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulting from ion displacement in a solid under pressure, piezoelectricity is an electrical polarization that can be observed in perovskite-type electronic ceramics, such as PbTiO3, which present cubic and tetragonal symmetries at different pressures. The transition between these crystalline phases is determined theoretically through the bulk modulus from the relationship between material energy and volume. However, the change in the material molecular structure is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. In this study, density functional theory calculations using the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional were employed to investigate the structure and properties associated with the transition state of the tetragonal-cubic phase change in PbTiO3 material.

  1. Generalized Born-Infeld actions and projective cubic curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, S. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Porrati, M. [CCPP, Department of Physics, NYU, 4 Washington Pl., New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Sagnotti, A. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stora, R. [Department of Physics, CERN Theory Division, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique (LAPTH), F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France); Yeranyan, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89A, 00184, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We investigate U(1){sup n} supersymmetric Born-Infeld Lagrangians with a second non-linearly realized supersymmetry. The resulting non-linear structure is more complex than the square root present in the standard Born-Infeld action, and nonetheless the quadratic constraints determining these models can be solved exactly in all cases containing three vector multiplets. The corresponding models are classified by cubic holomorphic prepotentials. Their symmetry structures are associated to projective cubic varieties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  3. Eisenstein Series Identities Involving the Borweins' Cubic Theta Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest X. W. Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theories of Ramanujan's elliptic functions and the (p, k-parametrization of theta functions due to Alaca et al. (2006, 2007, 2006 we derive certain Eisenstein series identities involving the Borweins' cubic theta functions with the help of the computer. Some of these identities were proved by Liu based on the fundamental theory of elliptic functions and some of them may be new. One side of each identity involves Eisenstein series, the other products of the Borweins' cubic theta functions. As applications, we evaluate some convolution sums. These evaluations are different from the formulas given by Alaca et al.

  4. Regularizing cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovits, Nathan; Siegel, Warren

    2009-01-01

    After introducing non-minimal variables, the midpoint insertion of Y Y-bar in cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory can be replaced with an operator N ρ depending on a constant parameter ρ. As in cubic open superstring field theory using the pure spinor formalism, the operator N ρ is invertible and is equal to 1 up to a BRST-trivial quantity. So unlike the linearized equation of motion Y Y-bar QV = 0 which requires truncation of the Hilbert space in order to imply QV = 0, the linearized equation N ρ QV = 0 directly implies QV = 0.

  5. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  6. Total Positivity of the Cubic Trigonometric Bézier Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuli Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the general framework of Quasi Extended Chebyshev space, we prove that the cubic trigonometric Bézier basis with two shape parameters λ and μ given in Han et al. (2009 forms an optimal normalized totally positive basis for λ,μ∈(-2,1]. Moreover, we show that for λ=-2 or μ=-2 the basis is not suited for curve design from the blossom point of view. In order to compute the corresponding cubic trigonometric Bézier curves stably and efficiently, we also develop a new corner cutting algorithm.

  7. Bounds for the minimum step number of knots confined to slabs in the simple cubic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, K; Shimokawa, K; Scharein, R; Arsuaga, J; Vazquez, M; Diao, Y

    2012-01-01

    Volume confinement is a key determinant of the topology and geometry of a polymer. However, the direct relationship between the two is not fully understood. For instance, recent experimental studies have constructed P4 cosmids, i.e. P4 bacteriophages whose genome sequence and length have been artificially engineered and have shown that upon extraction their DNA knot distribution differs from that of wild-type bacteriophage P4. In particular, it was observed that the complexity of the knots decreases sharply with the length of the packed genome. This problem is the motivation of this paper. Here, a polymer is modeled as a self-avoiding polygon on the simple cubic lattice and the confining condition is such that the polygon is bounded between two parallel planes (i.e. bounded within a slab). We estimate the minimum length required for such a polygon to realize a knot type. Our numerical simulations show that in order to realize a prime knot (with up to ten crossings) in a 1-slab (i.e. a slab of height 1), one needs a polygon of length strictly longer than the minimum length needed to realize the same knot when there is no confining condition. In the case of the trefoil knot, we can in fact establish this result analytically by proving that the minimum length required to tie a trefoil in the 1-slab is 26, which is greater than 24, the known minimum length required to tie a trefoil without a confinement condition. Additionally, we find that in the 1-slab not all geometrical realizations of a given knot type are equivalent under BFACF moves. This suggests that in certain confined volumes, knowing the topology of a polymer is not enough to describe all its states. (paper)

  8. Intrinsic pinning in superconductors with extremely small coherence lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmele, L.; Kronmueller, H.; Teichler, H.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a Ginsburg-Landau-type theory which takes into account the discrete lattice structure the variation of the energy ('Peierls potential') of an isolated flux line is calculated when shifted relatively to the crystal lattice. In particular, a primitive cubic lattice is considered with a straight flux line, aligned parallel to a cubic axis. The resulting Peierls potential may lead to intrinsic pinning if the coherence length is smaller than about two nearest neighbour distances. The coherence lengths at low temperatures determined for the recently discovered high T c superconductors of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 class come very close to this value so that intrinsic pinning might possibly be relevant for these superconductors. (author)

  9. Specific heat of the simple-cubic Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an expression quantitatively describing the specific heat of the Ising model on the simple-cubic lattice in the critical region. This expression is based on finite-size scaling of numerical results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo method. It agrees satisfactorily with series expansions

  10. Higher-Order Approximation of Cubic-Quintic Duffing Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Babazadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply an Artificial Parameter Lindstedt-Poincaré Method (APL-PM) to find improved approximate solutions for strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillations with cubic-quintic nonlinear restoring force. This approach yields simple linear algebraic equations instead of nonlinear algebraic equations...

  11. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...

  12. Initial post dynamic buckling of a quadratic-cubic column ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, we determine the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect finite column resting on a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear elastic foundation trapped by an explicitly time dependent sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load .The resultant coefficients are dynamically slowly varying and the formulation contains ...

  13. Phonons in face-centred cubic calcium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1984-01-01

    The axially symmetric and unpaired forces are employed to analyse the phonon dispersion and elastic behaviour of face centred cubic calcium and strontium which have so far not been studied adequately. The model with three parameters predicts the results which agree marvellously with the recently measured data. (author)

  14. One billion cubic meters of gas produced in Kikinda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicicevic, M; Duric, N

    1969-10-01

    The Kikinda gas reservoir has just passed a milestone in producing one billion cubic meters of natural gas. The reservoir was discovered in 1962, and its present production amounts to 26 million cu m. One of the biggest problems was formation of hydrates, which has successfully been solved by using methanol. Four tables show production statistics by years and productive formations.

  15. Physical vapor deposition of cubic boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride was successfully deposited using physical vapor-deposition methods. RF-sputtering, magnetron sputtering, dual-ion-beam deposition, and ion-beam-assisted evaporation were all used. The ion-assisted evaporation, using boron evaporation and bombardment by nitrogen and argon ions, led to successful cubic boron nitride growth over the widest and most controllable range of conditions. It was found that two factors were important for c-BN growth: bombardment of the growing film and the presence of argon. A systematic study of the deposition conditions was carried out. It was found that the value of momentum transferred into the growing from by the bombarding ions was critical. There was a very narrow transition range in which mixed cubic and hexagonal phase films were prepared. Momentum-per-atom value took into account all the variables involved in ion-assisted deposition: deposition rate, ion energy, ion flux, and ion species. No other factor led to the same control of the process. The role of temperature was also studied; it was found that at low temperatures only mixed cubic and hexagonal material are deposited

  16. Particle Creation in Oscillating Cavities with Cubic and Cylindrical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setare, M. R.; Dinani, H. T.

    2008-04-01

    In the present paper we study the creation of massless scalar particles from the quantum vacuum due to the dynamical Casimir effect by oscillating cavities with cubic and cylindrical geometry. To the first order of the amplitude we derive the expressions for the number of the created particles.

  17. Global Well-Posedness for Cubic NLS with Nonlinear Damping

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2010-11-04

    We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, perturbed by (higher order) dissipative nonlinearities. We prove global in-time existence of solutions for general initial data in the energy space. In particular we treat the energy-critical case of a quintic dissipation in three space dimensions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  19. Exact solutions for the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiamin; Ma Zhengyi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is solved through the extended elliptic sub-equation method. As a consequence, many types of exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which including bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and singular solutions

  20. Temperature dependence of critical resolved shear stress for cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, M.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental measurements for critical resolved shear stress of various BCC and FCC metals have been explained by using Radiation Model. The temperature dependence of CRSS for different cubic metals is found to the first approximation, to upon the type of the crystal. A good agreement between experimental observations and predictions of the Radiation Model is found. (author)

  1. A Unified Approach to Teaching Quadratic and Cubic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a simple method for teaching the algebraic solution of cubic equations via completion of the cube. Shows that this method is readily accepted by students already familiar with completion of the square as a method for quadratic equations. (Author/KHR)

  2. Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William J.

    2009-01-01

    In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Language pathway tracking: comparing nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking with a cubic ROIs-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negwer, Chiara; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Kirschke, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) has been widely used in glioma surgery in recent years. It can provide helpful information about subcortical structures, especially in patients with eloquent space-occupying lesions. This study compared the newly developed navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-based DTI FT of language pathways with the most reproducible protocol for language pathway tractography, using cubic regions of interest (ROIs) for the arcuate fascicle. METHODS Thirty-seven patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions underwent language mapping by repetitive nTMS. DTI FT was performed using the cubic ROIs-based protocol and the authors' nTMS-based DTI FT approach. The same minimal fiber length and fractional anisotropy were chosen (50 mm and 0.2, respectively). Both protocols were performed with standard clinical tractography software. RESULTS Both methods visualized language-related fiber tracts (i.e., corticonuclear tract, arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, superior longitudinal fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fibers, commissural fibers, corticothalamic fibers, and frontooccipital fascicle) in all 37 patients. Using the cubic ROIs-based protocol, 39.9% of these language-related fiber tracts were detected in the examined patients, as opposed to 76.0% when performing nTMS-based DTI FT. For specifically tracking the arcuate fascicle, however, the cubic ROIs-based approach showed better results (97.3% vs 75.7% with nTMS-based DTI FT). CONCLUSIONS The cubic ROIs-based protocol was designed for arcuate fascicle tractography, and this study shows that it is still useful for this intention. However, superior results were obtained using the nTMS-based DTI FT for visualization of other language-related fiber tracts.

  4. Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure and Transfection Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2008-10-29

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  5. Cationic phospholipids forming cubic phases: lipoplex structure and transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; Macdonald, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 degrees C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 degrees C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  6. BFACF-style algorithms for polygons in the body-centered and face-centered cubic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z2, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    In this paper, the elementary moves of the BFACF-algorithm (Aragao de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635-45, Aragao de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209-48, Berg and Foester 1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323-6) for lattice polygons are generalized to elementary moves of BFACF-style algorithms for lattice polygons in the body-centered (BCC) and face-centered (FCC) cubic lattices. We prove that the ergodicity classes of these new elementary moves coincide with the knot types of unrooted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices and so expand a similar result for the cubic lattice (see Janse van Rensburg and Whittington (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 5553-67)). Implementations of these algorithms for knotted polygons using the GAS algorithm produce estimates of the minimal length of knotted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices.

  7. BFACF-style algorithms for polygons in the body-centered and face-centered cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Rechnitzer, A.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the elementary moves of the BFACF-algorithm (Aragão de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635-45, Aragão de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209-48, Berg and Foester 1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323-6) for lattice polygons are generalized to elementary moves of BFACF-style algorithms for lattice polygons in the body-centered (BCC) and face-centered (FCC) cubic lattices. We prove that the ergodicity classes of these new elementary moves coincide with the knot types of unrooted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices and so expand a similar result for the cubic lattice (see Janse van Rensburg and Whittington (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 5553-67)). Implementations of these algorithms for knotted polygons using the GAS algorithm produce estimates of the minimal length of knotted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices.

  8. BFACF-style algorithms for polygons in the body-centered and face-centered cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J; Rechnitzer, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the elementary moves of the BFACF-algorithm (Aragao de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Phys. Rev. B 27 1635-45, Aragao de Carvalho and Caracciolo 1983 Nucl. Phys. B 215 209-48, Berg and Foester 1981 Phys. Lett. B 106 323-6) for lattice polygons are generalized to elementary moves of BFACF-style algorithms for lattice polygons in the body-centered (BCC) and face-centered (FCC) cubic lattices. We prove that the ergodicity classes of these new elementary moves coincide with the knot types of unrooted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices and so expand a similar result for the cubic lattice (see Janse van Rensburg and Whittington (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 5553-67)). Implementations of these algorithms for knotted polygons using the GAS algorithm produce estimates of the minimal length of knotted polygons in the BCC and FCC lattices.

  9. Study of pressure variation effect on structural, opto-electronic, elastic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of SrLiF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erum, Nazia; Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar

    2017-11-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, optical and thermodynamic properties of cubic fluoroperovskite SrLiF3 at ambient and high-pressure are investigated by using first-principles total energy calculations within the framework of Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), combined with Quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phonon effects are considered. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-50 GPa, in which cubic stability of SrLiF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. The computed lattice parameters agree well with experimental and previous theoretical results. Decrease in lattice constant and bonds length is observed with the increase in pressure from 0 to 50 GPa. The effect of increase in pressure on electronic band structure calculations with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap. The influence of pressure on elastic constants and their related mechanical parameters have been discussed in detail. All the calculated optical properties such as the complex dielectric function Ԑ(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), energy loss function L(ω), absorption coefficient α(w), refractive index n (ω), reflectivity R (ω), and effective number of electrons neff, via sum rules shift towards the higher energies under the application of pressure. Moreover, important thermodynamic properties heat capacities (Cp and Cv), volume expansion coefficient (α), and Debye temperature (θD) are predicted successfully in the wide temperature and pressure ranges.

  10. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  11. Cubic-to-Tetragonal Phase Transitions in Ag-Cu Nano rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, F.; Mascia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the structural behavior of nano rods with square cross section. The nano rods consist of pure Ag and Cu phases or of three Ag and Cu domains in the sequence Ag-Cu-Ag or Cu-Ag-Cu. Ag and Cu domains are separated by coherent interfaces. Depending on the side length and the size of individual domains, Ag and Cu can undergo a transition from the usual face-centered cubic structure to a body-centered tetragonal one. Such transition can involve the whole nano rod, or only the Ag domains. In the latter case, the transition is accompanied by a loss of coherency at the Ag-Cu interfaces, with a consequent release of elastic energy. The observed behaviors are connected with the stresses developed at the nano rod surfaces.

  12. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  13. Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)

  14. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Polarization Change in Face-Centered Cubic Opal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christian; Romanov, Sergei; Küchenmeister, Jens; Peschel, Ulf; Busch, Kurt

    2011-10-01

    Artificial opals are a popular platform for investigating fundamental properties of Photonic Crystals (PhC). In this work, we provide a theoretical analysis of polarization-resolved transmission experiments through thin opal films. Despite the full cubic symmetry of the PhC, this system provides a very efficient mechanism for manipulating the polarization state of light. Based on band structure calculations and Bloch mode analysis, we find that this effect closely resembles classical birefringence. Due to the cubic symmetry, however, a description using tensorial quantities is not possible. This indicates fundamental limitations of effective material models for Photonic Crystals and demonstrates the importance of accurately modelling the microscopic geometry of such systems.

  16. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Cohen, Roy; Wang, Suntao; Bradbury, Michelle; Baird, Barbara; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  17. A local cubic smoothing in an adaptation mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikoussar, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to a local curve approximation and the smoothing is proposed. The relation between curve points is defined using a special cross-ratio weight functions. The coordinates of three curve points are used as parameters for both the weight functions and the tree-point cubic model (TPS). A very simple in computing and stable to random errors cubic smoother in an adaptation mode (LOCUS) is constructed. The free parameter of TPS is estimated independently of the fixed parameters by recursion with the effective error suppression and can be controlled by the cross-ratio parameters. Efficiency and the noise stability of the algorithm are confirmed by examples and by comparison with other known non-parametric smoothers

  18. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  19. Perfect 3-colorings of the cubic graphs of order 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alaeiyan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Perfect coloring is a generalization of the notion of completely regular codes, given by Delsarte. A perfect m-coloring of a graph G with m colors is a partition of the vertex set of G into m parts A_1, A_2, ..., A_m such that, for all $ i,j \\in \\lbrace 1, ... , m \\rbrace $, every vertex of A_i is adjacent to the same number of vertices, namely, a_{ij} vertices, of A_j. The matrix $A=(a_{ij}_{i,j\\in \\lbrace 1,... ,m\\rbrace }$, is called the parameter matrix. We study the perfect 3-colorings (also known as the equitable partitions into three parts of the cubic graphs of order 10. In particular, we classify all the realizable parameter matrices of perfect 3-colorings for the cubic graphs of order 10.

  20. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  1. Magnetic ground states in nanocuboids of cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, F.J., E-mail: fbonilla@cicenergigune.com; Lacroix, L.-M.; Blon, T., E-mail: thomas.blon@insa-toulouse.fr

    2017-04-15

    Flower and easy-axis vortex states are well-known magnetic configurations that can be stabilized in small particles. However, <111> vortex (V<111>), i.e. a vortex state with its core axis along the hard-axis direction, has been recently evidenced as a stable configuration in Fe nanocubes of intermediate sizes in the flower/vortex transition. In this context, we present here extensive micromagnetic simulations to determine the different magnetic ground states in ferromagnetic nanocuboids exhibiting cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA). Focusing our study in the single-domain/multidomain size range (10–50 nm), we showed that V<111> is only stable in nanocuboids exhibiting peculiar features, such as a specific size, shape and magnetic environment, contrarily to the classical flower and easy-axis vortex states. Thus, to track experimentally these V<111> states, one should focused on (i) nanocuboids exhibiting a nearly perfect cubic shape (size distorsion <12%) made of (ii) a material which combines a zero or positive MCA and a high saturation magnetization, such as Fe or FeCo; and (iii) a low magnetic field environment, V<111> being only observed in virgin or remanent states. - Highlights: • The <111> vortex is numerically determined in nanocubes of cubic anisotropy. • It constitutes an intermediate state in the single-domain limit. • Such a vortex can only be stabilized in perfect or slightly deformed nanocuboids. • It exists in nanocuboids made of materials with zero or positive cubic anisotropy. • The associated magnetization reversal is described by a rotation of the vortex axis.

  2. Orientational anharmonicity of interatomic interaction in cubic monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Vladimir N.; Tesleva, Elena P.

    2010-01-01

    Anharmonicity of interatomic interaction from a position of physical acoustics under the standard conditions is investigated. It is shown that the measure of anharmonicity of interatomic interaction (Grilneisen parameter) is explicitly expressed through velocities of sound. Calculation results of orientation anharmonicity are shown on the example of 116 cubic monocrystals with different lattice structural type and type of chemical bond. Two types of anharmonicity interatomic interaction anisotropy are determined. Keywords: acoustics, orientational anharmonicity, Gruneisen parameter, velocity of sound

  3. Light scattering by cubical particle in the WKB approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    redouane lamsoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we determined the analytical expressions of the form factor of a cubical particle in the WKB approximation. We adapted some variables (size parameter, refractive index, the scattering angle and found the form factor in the approximation of Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD, Anomalous Diffraction (AD, and determined the efficiency factor of the extinction. Finally, to illustrate our formalism, we analyzed some numerical examples

  4. Bifurcation of rupture path by linear and cubic damping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. C., C.; Chew X., Y.; Lee Y., C.

    2014-06-01

    Bifurcation of rupture path is studied for the effect of linear and cubic damping. Momentum equation with Rayleigh factor was transformed into ordinary differential form. Bernoulli differential equation was obtained and solved by the separation of variables. Analytical or exact solutions yielded the bifurcation was visible at imaginary part when the wave was non dispersive. For the dispersive wave, bifurcation of rupture path was invisible.

  5. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  6. Advantages and risks in increasing cyclone separator length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, AC; de Groot, M; Peng, W; Dries, HWA; Kater, J

    The effect of cyclone length on separation efficiency and pressure drop has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by varying the length of the cylindrical segment of a cylinder-on-cone cyclone. Experimental results based on cyclone lengths from 2.65 to 6.15 cyclone diameters showed a

  7. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  8. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Systems Containing Acetic Acid and Gaseous Components. Measurements and Calculations by a Cubic Equiation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Ari Jonas; Persson, Ole Hilding; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Isothermal pressure-composition VLE data have been measured for four systems containing acetic acid and a gaseous component. The gaseous components are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. The measurements were made in a static cell and the compositions of the gas and the liquid...... phases were measured by a gas chromatograph.A new model (ACE, Association + Cubic Equation of state) was developed. It is based on a cubic equation of state and a model for the dimerization of acetic acid. It was applied to correlate the experimental VLE data with good results....

  9. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature

  10. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  11. High dose effects in neutron irradiated face-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.

    1993-06-01

    During neutron irradiation, most face-centered cubic metals and alloys develop saturation or quasi-steady state microstructures. This, in turn, leads to saturation levels in mechanical properties and quasi-steady state rates of swelling and creep deformation. Swelling initially plays only a small role in determining these saturation states, but as swelling rises to higher levels, it exerts strong feedback on the microstructure and its response to environmental variables. The influence of swelling, either directly or indirectly via second order mechanisms, such as elemental segregation to void surfaces, eventually causes major changes, not only in irradiation creep and mechanical properties, but also on swelling itself. The feedback effects of swelling on irradiation creep are particularly complex and lead to problems in applying creep data derived from highly pressurized creep tubes to low stress situations, such as fuel pins in liquid metal reactors

  12. PEMANFAATAN DAN VALIDASI CONFORMAL-CUBIC ATMOSPHERIC MODEL (CCAM UNTUK PRAKIRAAN CUACA DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Kurniawan

    2014-05-01

    This research accomplished the weather forecast over Jakarta region in February 2008 using Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM to forecast weather up to 2 days with 3 hours interval. The ouput CCAM data was then compared to the synoptic data from the BMKG’s observation station in Jakarta. Validation and data analysis showed that correlation and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE of rainfall  was unfavourable. However, the occurance of the rainfall gave an accurate result. Parameter of sea surface pressure gave better correlation than the other parameter, the prediction of the first 12 hours has 0.5-0.8 in correlation. The CCAM result showed that the output was applicable to forecast the occurance of the rainfall at local scale, like in Jakarta city.

  13. Thermodynamics of face-centered-cubic silicon nucleation at the nanoscale from laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shengliang; Li Wuhong; Liu Wei; Dong Yingge; Cao Shirui; Yang Jinlong

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic nucleation and the phase transition of the face-centered-cubic structure of Si (fcc-Si) on the nanoscale are performed by taking the effect of nanosize-induced additional pressure on the fcc-Si formation under the conditions generated by laser ablation in liquid into account. The thermodynamic analyses showed that the formation of fcc-Si nanocrystals with sizes of 2-6 nm would take place prior to that of large fcc-Si nanocrystals, and the phase transition probability from diamond-like structure Si (d-Si) to fcc-Si is rather high, up to 10 -3 -10 -2 , under the conditions created by laser ablation of an Si target in water. These theoretical results suggest that laser ablation in liquid would be an effective industrial route to prepare ultrasmall fcc-Si nanocrystals.

  14. Low-temperature synthesis of homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qijin; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide films are fabricated by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition from feedstock gases silane and methane heavily diluted with hydrogen at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses show that homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films can be synthesized at an appropriate silane fraction X[100%xsilane flow(SCCM)/silane+methane flow(SCCM)] in the gas mixture. The achievement of homogeneous nanocrystalline 3C-SiC films at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C is a synergy of a low deposition pressure (22 mTorr), high inductive rf power (2000 W), heavy dilution of feedstock gases silane and methane with hydrogen, and appropriate silane fractions X (X≤33%) in the gas mixture employed in our experiments

  15. Partial regularity of weak solutions to a PDE system with cubic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xiangsheng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we investigate regularity properties of weak solutions to a PDE system that arises in the study of biological transport networks. The system consists of a possibly singular elliptic equation for the scalar pressure of the underlying biological network coupled to a diffusion equation for the conductance vector of the network. There are several different types of nonlinearities in the system. Of particular mathematical interest is a term that is a polynomial function of solutions and their partial derivatives and this polynomial function has degree three. That is, the system contains a cubic nonlinearity. Only weak solutions to the system have been shown to exist. The regularity theory for the system remains fundamentally incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether or not weak solutions develop singularities. In this paper we obtain a partial regularity theorem, which gives an estimate for the parabolic Hausdorff dimension of the set of possible singular points.

  16. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Preparation of high-pressure phase boron nitride films by physical vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, P W; Zhao, Y N; Li, D M; Liu, H W; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure phases boron nitride films together with cubic, wurtzic, and explosive high-pressure phases, were successfully deposited on the metal alloy substrates by tuned substrate radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The percentage of cubic boron nitride phase in the film was about 50% as calculated by Fourier transform infrared measurements. Infrared peak position of cubic boron nitride at 1006.3 cm sup - sup 1 , which is close to the stressless state, indicates that the film has very low internal stress. Transition electron microscope micrograph shows that pure cubic boron nitride phase exits on the surface of the film. The growth mechanism of the BN films was also discussed.

  19. Structure evolution upon chemical and physical pressure in (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiittanen, T.; Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2017-02-15

    Here we demonstrate the gradual structural transformation from the monoclinic I2/m to tetragonal I4/m, cubic Fm-3m and hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc structure upon the isovalent larger-for-smaller A-site cation substitution in the B-site ordered double-perovskite system (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6}. This is the same transformation sequence previously observed up to Fm-3m upon heating the parent Sr{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} phase to high temperatures. High-pressure treatment, on the other hand, transforms the hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc structure of the other end member Ba{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} back to the cubic Fm-3m structure. Hence we may conclude that chemical pressure, physical pressure and decreasing temperature all work towards the same direction in the (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} system. Also shown is that with increasing Ba-for-Sr substitution level, i.e. with decreasing chemical pressure effect, the degree-of-order among the B-site cations, Fe and Sb, decreases. - Graphical abstract: In the (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} double-perovskite system the gradual structural transformation from the monoclinic I2/m to tetragonal I4/m, cubic Fm-3m and hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc structure is seen upon the isovalent larger-for-smaller A-site cation substitution. High-pressure treatment under 4 GPa extends stability of the cubic Fm-3m structure within a wider substitution range of x. - Highlights: • Gradual structural transitions upon A-cation substitution in (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6.} • With increasing x structure changes from I2/m to I4/m, Fm-3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc. • Degree of B-site order decreases with increasing x and A-site cation radius. • High-pressure treatment extends cubic Fm-3m phase stability for wider x range. • High-pressure treatment affects bond lengths mostly around the A-cation.

  20. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malen, K

    1974-10-15

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  1. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, M.; Eisert, J.; Illuminati, F.

    2004-01-01

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices

  2. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F

    2004-11-05

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.

  3. Universal centers in the cubic trigonometric Abel equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Giné

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the center problem for the trigonometric Abel equation $d \\rho/ d \\theta= a_1 (\\theta \\rho^2 + a_2(\\theta \\rho^3,$ where $a_1(\\theta$ and $a_2(\\theta$ are cubic trigonometric polynomials in $\\theta$. This problem is closely connected with the classical Poincaré center problem for planar polynomial vector fields. A particular class of centers, the so-called universal centers or composition centers, is taken into account. An example of non-universal center and a characterization of all the universal centers for such equation are provided.

  4. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-15

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  5. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-01

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  6. Topological Characterization of Carbon Graphite and Crystal Cubic Carbon Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Wei Gao Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Rehman, Najma Abdul

    2017-09-07

    Graph theory is used for modeling, designing, analysis and understanding chemical structures or chemical networks and their properties. The molecular graph is a graph consisting of atoms called vertices and the chemical bond between atoms called edges. In this article, we study the chemical graphs of carbon graphite and crystal structure of cubic carbon. Moreover, we compute and give closed formulas of degree based additive topological indices, namely hyper-Zagreb index, first multiple and second multiple Zagreb indices, and first and second Zagreb polynomials.

  7. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  8. Multi-dimensional cubic interpolation for ICF hydrodynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Yabe, Takashi.

    1991-04-01

    A new interpolation method is proposed to solve the multi-dimensional hyperbolic equations which appear in describing the hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion. The advection phase of the cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) is greatly improved, by assuming the continuities of the second and the third spatial derivatives in addition to the physical value and the first derivative. These derivatives are derived from the given physical equation. In order to evaluate the new method, Zalesak's example is tested, and we obtain successfully good results. (author)

  9. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in......-built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas...

  10. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  11. Soliton interaction in quadratic and cubic bulk media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of how and to what extend the cubic nonlinearity affects beam propagation and spatial soliton formation in quadratic media is of vital importance in fundamental and applied nonlinear physics. We consider beam propagation under type-I SHG conditions...... in lossless bulk second order nonlinear optical materials with a nonvanishing third order nonlinearity. It is known that in pure second order systems a single soliton can never collapse whereas in systems with both nonlinearities and that stable single soliton propagation can only in some circumstances...

  12. Bistable Helmholtz solitons in cubic-quintic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear Helmholtz equation for modeling the evolution of broad optical beams in media with a cubic-quintic intensity-dependent refractive index. This type of nonlinearity is appropriate for some semiconductor materials, glasses, and polymers. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented that describe self-trapped nonparaxial beams propagating at any angle with respect to the reference direction. These spatially symmetric solutions are, to the best of our knowledge, the first bistable Helmholtz solitons to be derived. Accompanying conservation laws (both integral and particular forms) are also reported. Numerical simulations investigate the stability of the solitons, which appear to be remarkably robust against perturbations

  13. Compressibility and thermal expansion of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lindelov, H.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    The compressibility and thermal expansion of the cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4) phase have been investigated by performing in situ x-ray powder-diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation, complemented with computer simulations by means of first-principles calculations. The bulk...... compressibility of the c-Si3N4 phase originates from the average of both Si-N tetrahedral and octahedral compressibilities where the octahedral polyhedra are less compressible than the tetrahedral ones. The origin of the unit cell expansion is revealed to be due to the increase of the octahedral Si-N and N-N bond...

  14. New extremal binary self-dual codes of lengths 64 and 66 from bicubic planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Abidin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, connected cubic planar bipartite graphs and related binary self-dual codes are studied. Binary self-dual codes of length 16 are obtained by face-vertex incidence matrices of these graphs. By considering their lifts to the ring R_2 new extremal binary self-dual codes of lengths 64 are constructed as Gray images. More precisely, we construct 15 new codes of length 64. Moreover, 10 new codes of length 66 were obtained by applying a building-up construction to the binary codes. Code...

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction with pseudo-cubic equation of state for binary mixtures containing hydrogen, helium, or neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, H. (Nihon Univ.,Fukushima, (Japan). Faculty of Enineering)

    1990-03-01

    As an equation of state of vapor-liquid equilibrium, an original pseudo-cubic equation of state was previously proposed by the authors of this report and its study is continued. In the present study, new effective critical values of hydrogen, helium and neon were determined empirically from vapor-liquid equilibrium data of literature values against their critical temperatures, critical pressures and critical volumes. The vapor-liquid equilibrium relations of binary system quantum gas mixtures were predicted combining the conventinal pseudo-cubic equation of state and the new effective critical values, and without using binary heteromolecular interaction parameter. The predicted values of hydrogen-ethylene, helium-propane and neon-oxygen systems were compared with literature values. As a result, it was indicated that the vapor-liquid relations of binary system mixtures containing hydrogen, helium and neon can be predicted with favorable accuracy combining the effective critical values and the three parameter pseudo-cubic equation of state. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Plastic deformation of cubic zirconia single crystals at 1400 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufeld, B.; Baither, D.; Bartsch, M.; Messerschmidt, U.

    1998-01-01

    Cubic zirconia single crystals stabilized with 11 mol% yttria were deformed in air at 1400 C and around 1200 C at different strain rates along [1 anti 12] and [100] compression directions. The strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress was determined by strain rate cycling and stress relaxation tests. The microstructure of the deformed specimens was investigated by transmission high-voltage electron microscopy, including contrast extinction analysis for determining the Burgers vectors as well as stereo pairs and wide-angle tilting experiments to find the active slip planes. At deformation along [1 anti 12], the primary and secondary slip planes are of {100} type. Previous experiments had shown that the dislocations move easily on these planes in an athermal way. During deformation along [100], mainly dislocations on {100} planes are activated, which move in a viscous way by the aid of thermal activation. The discussion of the different deformation behaviours during deformation along [1 anti 12] and [100] is based on the different dynamic properties of dislocations and the fact that recovery is an essential feature of the deformation of cubic zirconia at 1400 C. The results on the shape of the deformation curve and the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress are partly at variance with those of previous authors. (orig.)

  17. Defect ordering in aliovalently doped cubic zirconia from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogicevic, A.; Wolverton, C.; Crosbie, G.M.; Stechel, E.B.

    2001-01-01

    Defect ordering in aliovalently doped cubic-stabilized zirconia is studied using gradient corrected density-functional calculations. Intra- and intersublattice ordering interactions are investigated for both cation (Zr and dopant ions) and anion (oxygen ions and vacancies) species. For yttria-stabilized zirconia, the crystal structure of the experimentally identified, ordered compound δ-Zr 3 Y 4 O 12 is established, and we predict metastable zirconia-rich ordered phases. Anion vacancies repel each other at short separations, but show an energetic tendency to align as third-nearest neighbors along directions. Calculations with divalent (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and trivalent (Y, Sc, B, Al, Ga, In) oxides show that anion vacancies prefer to be close to the smaller of the cations (Zr or dopant ion). When the dopant cation is close in size to Zr, the vacancies show no particular preference, and are thus less prone to be bound preferentially to any particular cation type when the vacancies traverse such oxides. This ordering tendency offers insight into the observed high conductivity of Y 2 O 3 - and Sc 2 O 3 -stabilized zirconia, as well as recent results using, e.g., lanthanide oxides. The calculations point to In 2 O 3 as a particularly promising stabilizer for high ionic conductivity. Thus we are able to directly link (thermodynamic) defect ordering to (kinetic) ionic conductivity in cubic-stabilized zirconia using first-principles atomistic calculations

  18. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  1. Metal–insulator transition in the high pressure cubic CaF2-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... (FM) is quenched at 65 GPa. However, they have not ... transition from m-CrO2 to c-CrO2 was detected at 88.8 GPa. They demonstrated that .... below the Fermi level (EF), while the unoccupied t2g bands are pushed above EF ...

  2. Structural phase transitions in Zn(CN)2 under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poswal, H.K.; Tyagi, A.K.; Lausi, Andrea; Deb, S.K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2009-01-01

    High pressure behavior of zinc cyanide (Zn(CN) 2 ) has been investigated with the help of synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements. Our studies reveal that under pressure this compound undergoes phase transformations and the structures of the new phases depend on whether the pressure is hydrostatic or not. Under hydrostatic conditions, Zn(CN) 2 transforms from cubic to orthorhombic to cubic-II to amorphous phases. In contrast, the non-hydrostatic pressure conditions drive the ambient cubic phase to a partially disordered crystalline phase, which eventually evolves to a substantially disordered phase. The final disordered phase in the latter case is distinct from the amorphous phase observed under the hydrostatic pressures. - Graphical abstract: High pressure X-ray diffraction investigations on Zn(CN) 2 show three phase transformations i.e., cubic→orthorhombic→cubic-II→amorphous. However, the results strongly depend upon the nature of stress

  3. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  4. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  5. The time-dependence of the defective nature of ice Ic (cubic ice) and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Christian; Koza, Michael M.; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2010-05-01

    flat low-indexed crystal faces. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004) Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds. Science 303, 516-520. [3] T Peter, C Marcolli, P Spichtinger, T Corti, MC Baker & T Koop (2006) When dry air is too humid. Science 314, 1399-1402. [4] JE Shilling, MA Tolbert, OB Toon, EJ Jensen, BJ Murray & AK Bertram (2006) Measurements of the vapor pressure of cubic ice and their implications for atmospheric ice clouds. Geophys.Res.Lett. 33, 026671. [5] TC Hansen, MM Koza & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: I Modelling of stacking faults. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285104. [6] TC Hansen, MM Koza, P Lindner & WF Kuhs (2008) Formation and annealing of cubic ice: II. Kinetic study. J.Phys.Cond.Matt. 20, 285105. [7] WF Kuhs, G Genov, DK Staykova & AN Salamatin, T Hansen (2004) Ice perfection and the onset of anomalous preservation of gas hydrates. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 6, 4917-4920. [8] BJ Murray, DA Knopf & AK Bertram (2005) The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere. Nature 434, 292-205.

  6. Hairy black holes in cubic quasi-topological gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykaar, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, McGill University,3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-05-09

    We construct a class of five dimensional black hole solutions to cubic quasi-topological gravity with conformal scalar hair and study their thermodynamics. We find these black holes provide the second example of black hole λ-lines: a line of second order (continuous) phase transitions, akin to the fluid/superfluid transition of {sup 4}He. Examples of isolated critical points are found for spherical black holes, marking the first in the literature to date. We also find various novel and interesting phase structures, including an isolated critical point occurring in conjunction with a double reentrant phase transition. The AdS vacua of the theory are studied, finding ghost-free configurations where the scalar field takes on a non-zero constant value, in notable contrast to the five dimensional Lovelock case.

  7. Bifurcation diagram of a cubic three-parameter autonomous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Barakova

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the cubic three-parameter autonomous planar system $$displaylines{ dot x_1 = k_1 + k_2x_1 - x_1^3 - x_2,cr dot x_2 = k_3 x_1 - x_2, }$$ where $k_2, k_3$ are greater than 0. Our goal is to obtain a bifurcation diagram; i.e., to divide the parameter space into regions within which the system has topologically equivalent phase portraits and to describe how these portraits are transformed at the bifurcation boundaries. Results may be applied to the macroeconomical model IS-LM with Kaldor's assumptions. In this model existence of a stable limit cycles has already been studied (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. We present the whole bifurcation diagram and among others, we prove existence of more difficult bifurcations and existence of unstable cycles.

  8. Supersymmetry breaking and Nambu-Goldstone fermions with cubic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Noriaki; Katsura, Hosho; Nakayama, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a lattice fermion model in one spatial dimension with supersymmetry (SUSY) but without particle number conservation. The Hamiltonian is defined as the anticommutator of two nilpotent supercharges Q and Q†. Each supercharge is built solely from spinless fermion operators and depends on a parameter g . The system is strongly interacting for small g , and in the extreme limit g =0 , the number of zero-energy ground states grows exponentially with the system size. By contrast, in the large-g limit, the system is noninteracting and SUSY is broken spontaneously. We study the model for modest values of g and show that under certain conditions spontaneous SUSY breaking occurs in both finite and infinite chains. We analyze the low-energy excitations both analytically and numerically. Our analysis suggests that the Nambu-Goldstone fermions accompanying the spontaneous SUSY breaking have cubic dispersion at low energies.

  9. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  10. A cubic autocatalytic reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubu, Aisha Aliyu; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    In the present study, the dynamics of the cubic autocatalytic reaction model in a continuous stirred tank reactor with linear autocatalyst decay is studied. This model describes the behavior of two chemicals (reactant and autocatalyst) flowing into the tank reactor. The behavior of the model is studied analytically and numerically. The steady state solutions are obtained for two cases, i.e. with the presence of an autocatalyst and its absence in the inflow. In the case with an autocatalyst, the model has a stable steady state. While in the case without an autocatalyst, the model exhibits three steady states, where one of the steady state is stable, the second is a saddle point while the last is spiral node. The last steady state losses stability through Hopf bifurcation and the location is determined. The physical interpretations of the results are also presented.

  11. The electric field of a uniformly charged cubic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Greenside, Henry

    2018-01-01

    As an integrative and insightful example for undergraduates learning about electrostatics, we discuss how to use symmetry, Coulomb's law, superposition, Gauss's law, and visualization to understand the electric field E (x ,y ,z ) produced by a uniformly charged cubic shell. We first discuss how to deduce qualitatively, using freshman-level physics, the perhaps surprising fact that the interior electric field is nonzero and has a complex structure, pointing inwards from the middle of each face of the shell and pointing outwards towards each edge and corner. We then discuss how to understand the quantitative features of the electric field by plotting an analytical expression for E along symmetry lines and on symmetry surfaces of the shell.

  12. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P., E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Belfaqih, Idrus H., E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, State University of Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

  13. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system

  14. Quantum corrections for the cubic Galileon in the covariant language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D. [Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitagliano, Vincenzo, E-mail: isaltas@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: vincenzo.vitagliano@ist.utl.pt [Multidisciplinary Center for Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-01

    We present for the first time an explicit exposition of quantum corrections within the cubic Galileon theory including the effect of quantum gravity, in a background- and gauge-invariant manner, employing the field-reparametrisation approach of the covariant effective action at 1-loop. We show that the consideration of gravitational effects in combination with the non-linear derivative structure of the theory reveals new interactions at the perturbative level, which manifest themselves as higher-operators in the associated effective action, which' relevance is controlled by appropriate ratios of the cosmological vacuum and the Galileon mass scale. The significance and concept of the covariant approach in this context is discussed, while all calculations are explicitly presented.

  15. Explosive attractor solutions to a universal cubic delay equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Orozco, D.; Berk, H. L.

    2017-05-01

    New explosive attractor solutions have been found in a universal cubic delay equation that has been studied in both the plasma and the fluid mechanics literature. Through computational simulations and analytic approximations, it is found that the oscillatory component of the explosive mode amplitude solutions are described through multi-frequency Fourier expansions with respect to a pseudo-time variable. The spectral dependence of these solutions as a function of a system parameter, ϕ , is studied. The mode amplitude that is described in the explosive regime has two main features: a well-known envelope ( t 0 - t ) - 5 / 2 , with t0 the blow-up time of the amplitude, and a spectrum of discrete oscillations with ever-increasing frequencies, which may give experimental information about the properties of a system's equilibrium.

  16. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  17. Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Nanna; Bindzus, Niels; Bjerg, Lasse

    as well as experimental result. The redistribution of electron density will, if not accounted for, result in increased thermal parameters. It is estimated that 1.7-2 electrons is transferred from boron to nitrogen. [1]: N. Bindzus, T. Straasø, N. Wahlberg, J. Becker, L. Bjerg, N. Lock, A.-C. Dippel, and B......Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride Nanna Wahlberg*, Niels Bindzus*, Lasse Bjerg*, Jacob Becker*, and Bo B. Iversen* *Aarhus University, Department of Chemistry, CMC, Langelandsgade 140, 8000 Århus, Denmark The resent progress in powder diffraction provides data of quality...... obtained. The displacement parameters reported here are significantly lower than those previously reported, stressing the importance of an adequate description of the core density. The charge transfer from boron to nitrogen clearly affects the inner electron density, which is evident from theoretical...

  18. Electron–soliton dynamics in chains with cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, M O; Moura, F A B F de

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we consider the problem of electronic transport mediated by coupling with solitonic elastic waves. We study the electronic transport in a 1D unharmonic lattice with a cubic interaction between nearest neighboring sites. The electron-lattice interaction was considered as a linear function of the distance between neighboring atoms in our study. We numerically solve the dynamics equations for the electron and lattice and compute the dynamics of an initially localized electronic wave-packet. Our results suggest that the solitonic waves that exist within this nonlinear lattice can control the electron dynamics along the chain. Moreover, we demonstrate that the existence of a mobile electron–soliton pair exhibits a counter-intuitive dependence with the value of the electron-lattice coupling. (paper)

  19. Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states

  20. Point defects in cubic boron nitride after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atobe, Kozo; Honda, Makoto; Ide, Munetoshi; Yamaji, Hiromichi; Matsukawa, Tokuo; Fukuoka, Noboru; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo.

    1993-01-01

    The production of point defects induced by reactor neutrons and the thermal behavior of defects in sintered cubic boron nitride are investigated using the optical absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. A strong structureless absorption over the visible region was observed after fast neutron irradiation to a dose of 5.3 x 10 16 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 25 K. This specimen also shows an ESR signal with g-value 2.006 ± 0.001, which can be tentatively identified as an electron trapped in a nitrogen vacancy. On examination of the thermal decay of the signal, the activation energy for recovery of the defects was determined to be about 1.79 eV. (author)

  1. Spatial 't Hooft loop to cubic order in hot QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannangeli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial 't Hooft loops of strength k measure the qualitative change in the behaviour of electric colour flux in confined and deconfined phase of SU (N) gauge theory. They show an area law in the deconfined phase, known analytica lly to two loop order with a ``k-scaling'' law k(N-k). In this paper we comput e the O(g^3) correction to the tension. It is due to neutral gluon fields that get their mass through interaction with the wall. The simple k-scaling is lost in cubic order. The generic problem of non-convexity shows up in this order an d the cure is provided. The result for large N is explicitely given. We show tha t nonperturbative effects appear at O(g^5).

  2. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  3. G2 cubic transition between two circles with shape control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zulfiqar; Sakai, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method for joining two circles with an S-shaped or with a broken back C-shaped transition curve, composed of at most two spiral segments. In highway and railway route design or car-like robot path planning, it is often desirable to have such a transition. It is shown that a single cubic curve can be used for blending or for a transition curve preserving G2 continuity with local shape control parameter and more flexible constraints. Provision of the shape parameter and flexibility provide freedom to modify the shape in a stable manner which is an advantage over previous work by Meek, Walton, Sakai and Habib.

  4. Dynamic Displacement Disorder of Cubic BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Kulda, J.; Leoni, S.; Hlinka, J.

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity of BaTiO3 has been recorded in a synchrotron experiment and simultaneously computed using molecular dynamics simulations of a shell model. Together, these have allowed the details of the disorder in paraelectric BaTiO3 to be clarified. The narrow sheets of diffuse scattering, related to the famous anisotropic longitudinal correlations of Ti ions, are shown to be caused by the overdamped anharmonic soft phonon branch. This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of narrow sheets of diffuse scattering agrees with a displacive picture of the cubic phase of this textbook ferroelectric material. The presented methodology allows one to go beyond the harmonic approximation in the analysis of phonons and phonon-related scattering.

  5. Principal spectra describing magnetooptic permittivity tensor in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.

  6. Structure and energetics of nanotwins in cubic boron nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Shijian, E-mail: sjzheng@imr.ac.cn, E-mail: zrf@buaa.edu.cn; Ma, Xiuliang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Ruifeng, E-mail: sjzheng@imr.ac.cn, E-mail: zrf@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Rong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ikuhara, Yuichi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Recently, nanotwinned cubic boron nitrides (NT c-BN) have demonstrated extraordinary leaps in hardness. However, an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that enable nanotwins to give orders of magnitude increases in material hardness is still lacking. Here, using transmission electron microscopy, we report that the defect density of twin boundaries depends on nanotwin thickness, becoming defect-free, and hence more stable, as it decreases below 5 nm. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations, we reveal that the Shockley partials, which may dominate plastic deformation in c-BNs, show a high energetic barrier. We also report that the c-BN twin boundary has an asymmetrically charged electronic structure that would resist migration of the twin boundary under stress. These results provide important insight into possible nanotwin hardening mechanisms in c-BN, as well as how to design these nanostructured materials to reach their full potential in hardness and strength.

  7. Multilayer gyroid cubic membrane organization in green alga Zygnema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ting; Lv, Wenhua; Deng, Yuru

    2017-09-01

    Biological cubic membranes (CM), which are fluid membranes draped onto the 3D periodic parallel surface geometries with cubic symmetry, have been observed within subcellular organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and thylakoids. CM transition tends to occur under various stress conditions; however, multilayer CM organizations often appear associated with light stress conditions. This report is about the characterization of a projected gyroid CM in a transmission electron microscopy study of the chloroplast membranes within green alga Zygnema (LB923) whose lamellar form of thylakoid membrane started to fold into multilayer gyroid CM in the culture at the end of log phase of cell growth. Using the techniques of computer simulation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a direct template matching method, we show that these CM are based on the gyroid parallel surfaces. The single, double, and multilayer gyroid CM morphologies are observed in which space is continuously divided into two, three, and more subvolumes by either one, two, or several parallel membranes. The gyroid CM are continuous with varying amount of pseudo-grana with lamellar-like morphology. The relative amount and order of these two membrane morphologies seem to vary with the age of cell culture and are insensitive to ambient light condition. In addition, thylakoid gyroid CM continuously interpenetrates the pyrenoid body through stalk, bundle-like, morphologies. Inside the pyrenoid body, the membranes re-folded into gyroid CM. The appearance of these CM rearrangements due to the consequence of Zygnema cell response to various types of environmental stresses will be discussed. These stresses include nutrient limitation, temperature fluctuation, and ultraviolet (UV) exposure.

  8. Cubic phase nanoparticles for sustained release of ibuprofen: formulation, characterization, and enhanced bioavailability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dian, Linghui; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Feng; Wang, Zhouhua; Pan, Xin; Peng, Xinsheng; Huang, Xintian; Guo, Zhefei; Quan, Guilan; Shi, Xuan; Chen, Bao; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the oral bioavailability of ibuprofen, ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles were prepared as a delivery system for aqueous formulations. The cubic inner structure was verified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. With an encapsulation efficiency greater than 85%, the ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution around a mean size of 238 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction determined that ibuprofen was in an amorphous and molecular form within the lipid matrix. The in vitro release of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles was greater than 80% at 24 hours, showing sustained characteristics. The pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles compared to that of pure ibuprofen, with evidence of a longer half-life and a relative oral bioavailability of 222% (P ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles provide a promising carrier candidate with an efficient drug delivery for therapeutic treatment. PMID:23468008

  9. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  10. Effect of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.S.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.B.; Zheng, X.J.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of extrapolation length on the phase transformation of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films on dissimilar cubic substrates have been studied on the basis of the mean-field Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory by taking an uneven distribution of the interior stress with thickness into account. It was found that the polarization of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films is strongly dependent on the extrapolation length of films. The physical origin of the extrapolation length during the phase transformation from paraelectric to ferroelectric was revealed in the case of ferroelectric thin films

  11. Production and characterization of monocrystals of the cubic Laves phases Se-Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyss, M.; Uelhoff, W.; Fattah, A.

    1977-04-01

    The monocrystals of the cubic Laves phases Se-Al 2 have been produced for special measurements. Low-temperature anomalies were measured which were influenced by doping with foreign atoms. These anomalies, also called Kondo effect, were detected in some physical quantities like electric resistance, magnetic resistance, susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric force. For diffuse magnetic neutron scattering, monocrystals with the dimensions 10 mm diameter and 70 mm length were produced. The materials used were La Al 2 , (La Ce) Al 2 , Ce Al 2 , Y Al 2 , and (Y Ce) Al 2 . The monocrystals had to have an exactly cylindrical cross-section which was obtained by stripping by means of spark erosion machines. The measurements were carried out at the reactor of the Laue-Langevin Institute at Grenoble. In the experiments the magnetic behavior was measured by neutron scattering on monocrystals in the temperature range from 2.5 K to 300 K, the energy spectra having been registered. (orig.) [de

  12. Different phases of a system of hard rods on three dimensional cubic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwar, N.; Dhar, Deepak; Rajesh, R.

    2017-11-01

    We study the different phases of a system of monodispersed hard rods of length k on a cubic lattice, using an efficient cluster algorithm able to simulate densities close to the fully-packed limit. For k≤slant 4 , the system is disordered at all densities. For k=5, 6 , we find a single density-driven transition, from a disordered phase to high density layered-disordered phase, in which the density of rods of one orientation is strongly suppressed, breaking the system into weakly coupled layers. Within a layer, the system is disordered. For k ≥slant 7 , three density-driven transitions are observed numerically: isotropic to nematic to layered-nematic to layered-disordered. In the layered-nematic phase, the system breaks up into layers, with nematic order in each layer, but very weak correlation between the ordering directions of different layers. We argue that the layered-nematic phase is a finite-size effect, and in the thermodynamic limit, the nematic phase will have higher entropy per site. We expect the systems of rods in four and higher dimensions will have a qualitatively similar phase diagram.

  13. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge

  14. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J.; Górnicki, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in "5"7Fe have been collected at room temperature by using "5"7Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V_z_z = +1.61(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2 for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the "5"7Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the "5"7Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V_z_z = +1.92(4) × 10"1"9 Vm"−"2. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge for ab initio calculations

  15. Characterization, Microstructure, and Dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore structural ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2013-05-01

    The (BMN) bulk materials were sintered at 1050°C, 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C by the conventional ceramic process, and their microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including the X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM) and dielectric impedance analyzer. We systematically investigated the structure, dielectric properties and voltage tunable property of the ceramics prepared at different sintering temperatures. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the synthesized BMN solid solutions had cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure when sintered at 1050°C or higher, and the lattice parameter (a) of the unit cell in BMN solid solution was calculated to be about 10.56Å. The vibrational peaks observed in the Raman spectra of BMN solid solutions also confirmed the cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure of the synthesized BMN. According to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Additionally, it was shown that the densities of the BMN ceramic tablets vary with sintering temperature. The calculated theoretical density for the BMN ceramic tablets sintered at different temperatures is about 6.7521 . The density of the respective measured tablets is usually amounting more than 91% and 5 approaching a maximum value of 96.5% for sintering temperature of 1150°C. The microstructure was investigated by using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Combined with the results obtained from the STEM and XRD, the impact of sintering temperature on the macroscopic and microscopic structure was discussed. The relative dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) of the BMN solid solutions were measured to be 161-200 and (at room temperature and 100Hz-1MHz), respectively. The BMN solid

  16. Cubic-quintic solitons in the checkerboard potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driben, Rodislav; Zyss, Joseph; Malomed, Boris A.; Gubeskys, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a two-dimensional (2D) model which combines a checkerboard potential, alias the Kronig-Penney (KP) lattice, with the self-focusing cubic and self-defocusing quintic nonlinear terms. The beam-splitting mechanism and soliton multistability are explored in this setting, following the recently considered 1D version of the model. Families of single- and multi-peak solitons (in particular, five- and nine-peak species naturally emerge in the 2D setting) are found in the semi-infinite gap, with both branches of bistable families being robust against perturbations. For single-peak solitons, the variational approximation (VA) is developed, providing for a qualitatively correct description of the transition from monostability to the bistability. 2D solitons found in finite band gaps are unstable. Also constructed are two different species of stable vortex solitons, arranged as four-peak patterns ('oblique' and 'straight' ones). Unlike them, compact 'crater-shaped' vortices are unstable, transforming themselves into randomly walking fundamental beams

  17. Tunable surface configuration of skyrmion lattices in cubic helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuejin; Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2018-06-01

    In bulk helimagnets, the presence of magnetic skyrmion lattices is always accompanied by a periodic stress field due to the intrinsic magnetoelastic coupling. The release of this nontrivial stress field at the surface causes a periodic displacement field, which characterizes a novel particle-like property of skyrmion: its surface configuration. Here, we derive the analytical solution of this displacement field for semi-infinite cubic helimagnet with the skyrmion magnetization approximated by the triple-Q representation. For MnSi, we show that the skyrmion lattices have a bumpy surface configuration characterized by periodically arranged peaks with a characteristic height of about 10‑13 m. The pattern of the peaks can be controlled by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, we prove that the surface configuration varies together with the motion and deformation of the skyrmion lattices. As a result, the surface configuration can be tuned by application of electric current, mechanical loads, as well as any other effective external fields for skyrmion lattices.

  18. Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.

  19. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2015-12-01

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  20. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using 111 In probes, which decay through electron capture to 111 Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 degree C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around V zz =0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions

  1. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1990-01-15

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using {sup 111}In probes, which decay through electron capture to {sup 111}Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 {degree}C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around {ital V}{sub {ital zz}}=0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions.

  2. Cubic Interactions of Massless Bosonic Fields in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Karapet

    2018-06-01

    In this Letter, we take the first step towards construction of nontrivial Lagrangian theories of higher-spin gravity in a metriclike formulation in three dimensions. The crucial feature of a metriclike formulation is that it is known how to incorporate matter interactions into the description. We derive a complete classification of cubic interactions for arbitrary triples s1 , s2 , s3 of massless fields, which are the building blocks of any interacting theory with massless higher spins. We find that there is, at most, one vertex for any given triple of spins in 3D (with one exception, s1=s2=s3=1 , which allows for two vertices). Remarkably, there are no vertices for spin values that do not respect strict triangle inequalities and contain at least two spins greater than one. This translates into selection rules for three-point functions of higher-spin conserved currents in two dimensional conformal field theory. Furthermore, universal coupling to gravity for any spin is derived. Last, we argue that this classification persists in arbitrary Einstein backgrounds.

  3. STROPHOIDS, A FAMILY OF CUBIC CURVES WITH REMARKABLE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STACHEL Hellmuth

    2015-06-01

    On each strophoid there is a symmetric relation of points, so-called ‘associated’ points, with a series of properties: The lines connecting associated points P and P’ are tangent of the negative pedal curve. Tangents at associated points intersect at a point which again lies on the cubic. For all pairs (P, P’ of associated points, the midpoints lie on a line through the node N. For any two pairs (P, P’ and (Q, Q’ of associated points, the points of intersection between the lines PQ and P’Q’ as well as between PQ’ and P’Q are again placed on the strophoid and mutually associated. The lines PQ and PQ’ are symmetric with respect to the line connecting P with the node. Thus, strophoids generalize Apollonian circles: For given non-collinear points A, A’ and N the locus of points X such that one angle bisector of the lines XA and XA’ passes through N is a strophoid.

  4. Research of Cubic Bezier Curve NC Interpolation Signal Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Ji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation technology is the core of the computer numerical control (CNC system, and the precision and stability of the interpolation algorithm directly affect the machining precision and speed of CNC system. Most of the existing numerical control interpolation technology can only achieve circular arc interpolation, linear interpolation or parabola interpolation, but for the numerical control (NC machining of parts with complicated surface, it needs to establish the mathematical model and generate the curved line and curved surface outline of parts and then discrete the generated parts outline into a large amount of straight line or arc to carry on the processing, which creates the complex program and a large amount of code, so it inevitably introduce into the approximation error. All these factors affect the machining accuracy, surface roughness and machining efficiency. The stepless interpolation of cubic Bezier curve controlled by analog signal is studied in this paper, the tool motion trajectory of Bezier curve can be directly planned out in CNC system by adjusting control points, and then these data were put into the control motor which can complete the precise feeding of Bezier curve. This method realized the improvement of CNC trajectory controlled ability from the simple linear and circular arc to the complex project curve, and it provides a new way for economy realizing the curve surface parts with high quality and high efficiency machining.

  5. Nature and strength of defect interactions in cubic stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogicevic, A.; Wolverton, C.

    2003-01-01

    The intrinsic ordering tendencies that limit ionic conduction in doped zirconia electrolytes are fully elucidated using first-principles calculations. A detailed analysis of nearly 300 yttria- and scandia-stabilized cubic-zirconia-ordered vacancy compounds reveals a delicate balance between competing elastic and electrostatic interactions. These results explain several outstanding experimental observations and provide substantial insight needed for improving ionic conduction and enabling low-temperature operation of zirconia-based electrolytes. We show that the surprising vacancy ordering in dilute solid solutions is a consequence of repulsive electrostatic and attractive elastic interactions that balance at third-neighbor vacancy separations. In contrast, repulsive elastic vacancy-dopant interactions prevail over electrostatic attraction at all probed defect separations in YSZ and lead to very weak ordering preferences in ScSZ. The total electronic contribution to the defect interactions is shown to be strongly dominated by simple point-charge electrostatics, leaving speciation of defect ordering for a given class of aliovalent dopants to the elastic term. Thus, ion size becomes a critical parameter in controlling the ionic conductivity of doped oxide electrolytes

  6. Cubic mesoporous Ag@CN: a high performance humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Vijay K; Thangaraj, Nishanthi; Gahlot, Sweta; Kailasam, Kamalakannan

    2016-12-01

    The fabrication of highly responsive, rapid response/recovery and durable relative humidity (%RH) sensors that can precisely monitor humidity levels still remains a considerable challenge for realizing the next generation humidity sensing applications. Herein, we report a remarkably sensitive and rapid %RH sensor having a reversible response using a nanocasting route for synthesizing mesoporous g-CN (commonly known as g-C 3 N 4 ). The 3D replicated cubic mesostructure provides a high surface area thereby increasing the adsorption, transmission of charge carriers and desorption of water molecules across the sensor surfaces. Owing to its unique structure, the mesoporous g-CN functionalized with well dispersed catalytic Ag nanoparticles exhibits excellent sensitivity in the 11-98% RH range while retaining high stability, negligible hysteresis and superior real time %RH detection performances. Compared to conventional resistive sensors based on metal oxides, a rapid response time (3 s) and recovery time (1.4 s) were observed in the 11-98% RH range. Such impressive features originate from the planar morphology of g-CN as well as unique physical affinity and favourable electronic band positions of this material that facilitate water adsorption and charge transportation. Mesoporous g-CN with Ag nanoparticles is demonstrated to provide an effective strategy in designing high performance %RH sensors and show great promise for utilization of mesoporous 2D layered materials in the Internet of Things and next generation humidity sensing applications.

  7. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A J; Buseck, Peter R

    2015-12-16

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  8. Defect structure of cubic solid solutions of alkaline earth and rare earth fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenHartog, HW

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will consider the disorder in some cubic solid solutions consisting of one of the alkaline earth fluorides and one of the rare earth fluorides. This is an attractive group of model materials, because these materials have a rather simple overall cubic structure. We will discuss the

  9. Eliminating cubic terms in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-05-01

    It is well recognized that there exist additional cubic terms of velocity in the lattice Boltzmann (LB) model based on the standard lattice. In this work, elimination of these cubic terms in the pseudopotential LB model for multiphase flow is investigated, where the force term and density gradient are considered. By retaining high-order (≥3 ) Hermite terms in the equilibrium distribution function and the discrete force term, as well as introducing correction terms in the LB equation, the additional cubic terms of velocity are entirely eliminated. With this technique, the computational simplicity of the pseudopotential LB model is well maintained. Numerical tests, including stationary and moving flat and circular interface problems, are carried out to show the effects of such cubic terms on the simulation of multiphase flow. It is found that the elimination of additional cubic terms is beneficial to reduce the numerical error, especially when the velocity is relatively large. Numerical results also suggest that these cubic terms mainly take effect in the interfacial region and that the density-gradient-related cubic terms are more important than the other cubic terms for multiphase flow.

  10. Cubic Invariant Spherical Surface Harmonics in Conjunction With Diffraction Strain Pole-Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four kinds of cubic invariant spherical surface harmonics are introduced. It has been shown previously that these harmonics occur in the equations relating measured diffraction (line-shift) elastic strain and macro-stresses generating these strains for the case of textured cubic materials. As a

  11. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    phase, both with and without SDS, was established by NMR self-diffusion. In addition H-2 NMR relaxation experiments have demonstrated that the micelles in the cubic phase are non-spherical, having grown and changed shape upon formation of the cubic phase from the micellar solution. Small angle...... associated with the micellar cubic phase, Pm3n and Fd3m. The micellar volumes calculated for these space groups are similar and are consistent with a change in micellar geometry from spherical to prolate.......The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...

  12. Size effects on negative thermal expansion in cubic ScF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. G.; Zhang, K. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tong, P., E-mail: tongpeng@issp.ac.cn; Lin, J. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Lin, S.; Xu, W.; Song, W. H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, P. C. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Y. P., E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-07-11

    Scandium trifluoride (ScF{sub 3}), adopting a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure at ambient pressure, undergoes a pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide range of temperatures (10 K–1100 K). Here, we report the size effects on the NTE properties of ScF{sub 3}. The magnitude of NTE is reduced with diminishing the crystal size. As revealed by the specific heat measurement, the low-energy phonon vibrations which account for the NTE behavior are stiffened as the crystal size decreases. With decreasing the crystal size, the peaks in high-energy X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) become broad, which cannot be illuminated by local symmetry breaking. Instead, the broadened PDF peaks are strongly indicative of enhanced atomic displacements which are suggested to be responsible for the stiffening of NTE-related lattice vibrations. The present study suggests that the NTE properties of ReO{sub 3}-type and other open-framework materials can be effectively adjusted by controlling the crystal size.

  13. Experimental results from a reactor monitoring experiment with a cubic meter scale antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors can stably and no intrusively monitor both plutonium content and reactor power at the few percent level, at a standoff of a few tens of meters. Our Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratories collaboration has deployed a detector to demonstrate this capability at a 3 GWt pressurized water reactor in Southern California, operating 25 meters from the core center, and acquiring data over an approximate one year period. Such monitoring may be useful for tracking power output and plutonium buildup in nuclear reactors, constraining the fissile content and providing the earliest possible measurement of the amount of plutonium in the reactor core. We present our antineutrino event sample, and show that the observed change in antineutrino rate recorded in our detector over the reactor cycle correlates with plutonium ingrowth according to predictions. We present our current precision and estimate the attainable precision of the method, and discuss the benefits this technology may have for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other safeguards regimes

  14. Tailoring band structure and band filling in a simple cubic (IV, III)-VI superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, M.; Kamitani, M.; Koretsune, T.; Arita, R.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Superconductivity and its underlying mechanisms are one of the most active research fields in condensed-matter physics. An important question is how to enhance the transition temperature Tc of a superconductor. In this respect, the possibly positive role of valence-skipping elements in the pairing mechanism has been attracting considerable interest. Here we follow this pathway and successfully enhance Tc up to almost 6 K in the simple chalcogenide SnTe known as a topological crystalline insulator by doping the valence-skipping element In substitutionally for the Sn site and codoping Se for the Te site. A high-pressure synthesis method enabled us to form single-phase solid solutions Sn1 -xInxTe1 -ySey over a wide composition range while keeping the cubic structure necessary for the superconductivity. Our experimental results are supported by density-functional theory calculations which suggest that even higher Tc values would be possible if the required doping range was experimentally accessible.

  15. Phenomenological Equations Relating Various Critical Anomalies above a Cubic-to-Tetragonal Phase Transition Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Katsumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke

    1980-01-01

    Phenomenological equations are derived which interrelate the anomalies in various thermodynamic quantities above the transition point of a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition caused by an instability of a triply degenerate soft mode. The anomalous part of the Gibbs free energy is assumed to be a simple sum of the three parts which represent the contributions from the three fluctuation components. A cylindrical approximation is adopted to each of the three contributions by taking into account the symmetry of the fluctuations. The theory predicts that the adiabatic elastic compliances, s11s, s12s, and also s11s-s12s should exhibit anomalies proportional to the anomaly in the specific heat at constant pressure. This is in marked contrast with the result of the generalized Pippard equations derived by Garland, and by Janovec. The new equations are successfully tested for KMnF3, CsPbCl3, and CsPbBr3. The β-γ transition of NH4Br is also discussed.

  16. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Length-weight and length-length relationship of three species of snakehead fish, Channa diplogramma, C. marulius and C. striata from the riverine reaches of Lake Vembanad, Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationships (LLR of three snakehead fishes, Channa diplogramma, C. marulius and C. striata, exploited by small-scale fishers in the riverine reaches of Lake Vembanad, Kerala were studied using the allometric growth equation Y = aXb. Our analysis shows that the LWR of C. diplogramma and C. marulius is nonisometric with exponents much smaller than the cubic value (b = 3, while that of C. striata is isometric. Channa marulius showed a definite change in LWR with size, with smaller fish growing with positive allometric exponents (b greater than 3 and larger individuals having negative allometric relationship (b less than 3, indicating a possible age-related change in growth pattern. In the case of LLR, all three snakehead species showed non-isometric growth patterns. The caudal fin did not grow substantially with increasing fish length.

  17. Atomistic simulation of fatigue in face centred cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhengxuan

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the major damage mechanisms of metals. It is characterized by strong environmental effects and wide lifetime dispersions which must be better understood. Different face centred cubic metals, al, Cu, Ni, and Ag are analyzed. The mechanical behaviour of surface steps naturally created by the glide of dislocations subjected to cyclic loading is examined using molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum and in air for Cu and Ni. an atomistic reconstruction phenomenon is observed at these surface steps which can induce strong irreversibility. Three different mechanisms of reconstruction are defined. Surface slip irreversibility under cyclic loading is analyzed. all surface steps are intrinsically irreversible under usual fatigue laboratory loading amplitude without the arrival of opposite sign dislocations on direct neighbor plane.With opposite sign dislocations on non direct neighbour planes, irreversibility cumulates cycle by cycle and a micro-notch is produced whose depth gradually increases.Oxygen environment affects the surface (first stage of oxidation) but does not lead to higher irreversibility as it has no major influence on the different mechanisms linked to surface relief evolution.a rough estimation of surface irreversibility is carried out for pure edge dislocations in persistent slip bands in so-called wavy materials. It gives an irreversibility fraction between 0.5 and 0.75 in copper in vacuum and in air, in agreement with recent atomic force microscopy measurements.Crack propagation mechanisms are simulated in inert environment. Cracks can propagate owing to the irreversibility of generated dislocations because of their mutual interactions up to the formation of dislocation junctions. (author) [fr

  18. Role of Adsorption Phenomena in Cubic Tricalcium Aluminate Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rupert J; Geng, Guoqing; Li, Jiaqi; Rodríguez, Erich D; Ha, Juyoung; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Sposito, Garrison; Lammers, Laura N; Kirchheim, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2017-01-10

    The workability of fresh Portland cement (PC) concrete critically depends on the reaction of the cubic tricalcium aluminate (C 3 A) phase in Ca- and S-rich pH >12 aqueous solution, yet its rate-controlling mechanism is poorly understood. In this article, the role of adsorption phenomena in C 3 A dissolution in aqueous Ca-, S-, and polynaphthalene sulfonate (PNS)-containing solutions is analyzed. The zeta potential and pH results are consistent with the isoelectric point of C 3 A occurring at pH ∼12 and do not show an inversion of its electric double layer potential as a function of S or Ca concentration, and PNS adsorbs onto C 3 A, reducing its zeta potential to negative values at pH >12. The S and Ca K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data obtained do not indicate the structural incorporation or specific adsorption of SO 4 2- on the partially dissolved C 3 A solids analyzed. Together with supporting X-ray ptychography and scanning electron microscopy results, a model for C 3 A dissolution inhibition in hydrated PC systems is proposed whereby the formation of an Al-rich leached layer and the complexation of Ca-S ion pairs onto this leached layer provide the key inhibiting effect(s). This model reconciles the results obtained here with the existing literature, including the inhibiting action of macromolecules such as PNS and polyphosphonic acids upon C 3 A dissolution. Therefore, this article advances the understanding of the rate-controlling mechanism in hydrated C 3 A and thus PC systems, which is important to better controlling the workability of fresh PC concrete.

  19. Bond-order potential for magnetic body-centered-cubic iron and its transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Shen; Mrovec, M.; Vitek, V.

    2016-06-01

    We derived and thoroughly tested a bond-order potential (BOP) for body-centered-cubic (bcc) magnetic iron that can be employed in atomistic calculations of a broad variety of crystal defects that control structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of this technologically important metal. The constructed BOP reflects correctly the mixed nearly free electron and covalent bonding arising from the partially filled d band as well as the ferromagnetism that is actually responsible for the stability of the bcc structure of iron at low temperatures. The covalent part of the cohesive energy is determined within the tight-binding bond model with the Green's function of the Schrödinger equation determined using the method of continued fractions terminated at a sufficient level of the moments of the density of states. This makes the BOP an O (N ) method usable for very large numbers of particles. Only d d bonds are included explicitly, but the effect of s electrons on the covalent energy is included via their screening of the corresponding d d bonds. The magnetic part of the cohesive energy is included using the Stoner model of itinerant magnetism. The repulsive part of the cohesive energy is represented, as in any tight-binding scheme, by an empirical formula. Its functional form is physically justified by studies of the repulsion in face-centered-cubic (fcc) solid argon under very high pressure where the repulsion originates from overlapping s and p closed-shell electrons just as it does from closed-shell s electrons in transition metals squeezed into the ion core under the influence of the large covalent d bonding. Testing of the transferability of the developed BOP to environments significantly different from those of the ideal bcc lattice was carried out by studying crystal structures and magnetic states alternative to the ferromagnetic bcc lattice, vacancies, divacancies, self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), paths continuously transforming the bcc structure to

  20. Properties of heavy alkali metals under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, T.M.; Zarochentsev, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    Zero isotherms, polymorphic phase body-centered cubic (BCC)-faced-centered cubic (FCC) transitions and K, Rb and Cs phonon spectra have been calculated within the framework of a pseudopotential model added with a short-range repulsion of frames in the Born-Mayer form. It is shown that taking into account Esub(SR) zero isotherms and phonon frequencies change insignificantly; microscopic Grueneisen parameters change by 10-20 % and BCC-FCC transition pressure decreases several times. The agreement of theoretic and experimentally observed characteristics of the transition in Cs and K and Rb phonon spectra is quite satisfactory

  1. Calculations of and evidence for chain packing stress in inverse lyotropic bicontinuous cubic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Gemma C; Khoo, Bee J; Motherwell, Mary-Lynn; Brakke, Kenneth A; Ces, Oscar; Conn, Charlotte E; Seddon, John M; Templer, Richard H

    2007-06-19

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic lyotropic phases are a complex solution to the dilemma faced by all self-assembled water-amphiphile systems: how to satisfy the incompatible requirements for uniform interfacial curvature and uniform molecular packing. The solution reached in this case is for the water-amphiphile interfaces to deform hyperbolically onto triply periodic minimal surfaces. We have previously suggested that although the molecular packing in these structures is rather uniform the relative phase behavior of the gyroid, double diamond, and primitive inverse bicontinuous cubic phases can be understood in terms of subtle differences in packing frustration. In this work, we have calculated the packing frustration for these cubics under the constraint that their interfaces have constant mean curvature. We find that the relative packing stress does indeed differ between phases. The gyroid cubic has the least packing stress, and at low water volume fraction, the primitive cubic has the greatest packing stress. However, at very high water volume fraction, the double diamond cubic becomes the structure with the greatest packing stress. We have tested the model in two ways. For a system with a double diamond cubic phase in excess water, the addition of a hydrophobe may release packing frustration and preferentially stabilize the primitive cubic, since this has previously been shown to have lower curvature elastic energy. We have confirmed this prediction by adding the long chain alkane tricosane to 1-monoolein in excess water. The model also predicts that if one were able to hydrate the double diamond cubic to high water volume fractions, one should destabilize the phase with respect to the primitive cubic. We have found that such highly swollen metastable bicontinuous cubic phases can be formed within onion vesicles. Data from monoelaidin in excess water display a well-defined transition, with the primitive cubic appearing above a water volume fraction of 0.75. Both of

  2. Spectra and energy levels of Eu{sup 3+} in cubic phase Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Eric R. [Kratos Defense and Security Solutions, Inc., 5030 Bradford Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Gruber, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249-0697 (United States); Wellenius, Patrick; Muth, John F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In pulsed laser deposition of the sesquioxide semiconductor Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, adjusting the chamber oxygen pressure controls the crystalline structure of the host. This technique was used to deposit thin films of nominally 1.6% by weight europium-doped, cubic phase Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} using 50 mTorr of oxygen. Structural measurements using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction confirm the films were polycrystalline, cubic phase Eu:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The spectroscopic assignment of emission lines to specific radiative transitions within the trivalent Eu ion is confirmed by theoretical analysis of the appropriate crystal field Hamiltonian. Detailed crystal-field splittings are presented for the {sup 5}D{sub J=0-2} and {sup 7}F{sub J=0-5} multiplet manifolds of Eu{sup 3+} in this host material. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Reservoir simulation with the cubic plus (cross-) association equation of state for water, CO2, hydrocarbons, and tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    This work presents an efficient reservoir simulation framework for multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flow, based on the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EOS). CPA is an accurate EOS for mixtures that contain non-polar hydrocarbons, self-associating polar water, and cross-associating molecules like methane, ethane, unsaturated hydrocarbons, CO2, and H2S. While CPA is accurate, its mathematical formulation is highly non-linear, resulting in excessive computational costs that have made the EOS unfeasible for large scale reservoir simulations. This work presents algorithms that overcome these bottlenecks and achieve an efficiency comparable to the much simpler cubic EOS approach. The main applications that require such accurate phase behavior modeling are 1) the study of methane leakage from high-pressure production wells and its potential impact on groundwater resources, 2) modeling of geological CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers when one is interested in more than the CO2 and H2O components, e.g. methane, other light hydrocarbons, and various tracers, and 3) enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in reservoirs that have previously been waterflooded or contain connate water. We present numerical examples of all those scenarios, extensive validation of the CPA EOS with experimental data, and analyses of the efficiency of our proposed numerical schemes. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the presented phase split computations pave the way to more widespread adoption of CPA in reservoir simulators.

  4. Synthesis of nano-scale fast ion conducting cubic Li7La3Zr2O12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeff; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Kim, Hyunjoung; Kim, Yunsung; Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2013-10-25

    A solution-based process was investigated for synthesizing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), which is known to exhibit the unprecedented combination of fast ionic conductivity, and stability in air and against Li. Sol-gel chemistry was developed to prepare solid metal-oxide networks consisting of 10 nm cross-links that formed the cubic LLZO phase at 600 ° C. Sol-gel LLZO powders were sintered into 96% dense pellets using an induction hot press that applied pressure while heating. After sintering, the average LLZO grain size was 260 nm, which is 13 times smaller compared to LLZO prepared using a solid-state technique. The total ionic conductivity was 0.4 mS cm(-1) at 298 K, which is the same as solid-state synthesized LLZO. Interestingly, despite the same room temperature conductivity, the sol-gel LLZO total activation energy is 0.41 eV, which 1.6 times higher than that observed in solid-state LLZO (0.26 eV). We believe the nano-scale grain boundaries give rise to unique transport phenomena that are more sensitive to temperature when compared to the conventional solid-state LLZO.

  5. The effects of Na on high pressure phases of CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2 from ab initio calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluengphon, P; Bovornratanaraks, T; Pinsook, U; Vannarat, S

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Na atoms on high pressure structural phase transitions of CuIn 0.5 Ga 0.5 Se 2 (CIGS) were studied by an ab initio method using density functional theory. At ambient pressure, CIGS is known to have chalcopyrite (I 4-bar 2 d) structure. The high pressure phase transitions of CIGS were proposed to be the same as the order in the CuInSe 2 phase transitions which are I 4-bar 2 d→F m 3-bar m→C m c m structures. By using the mixture atoms method, the Na concentration in CIGS was studied at 0.1, 1.0 and 6.25%. The positive mixing enthalpy of Na at In/Ga sites (Na InGa ) is higher than that of Na at Cu sites (Na Cu ). It confirmed previous studies that Na preferably substitutes on the Cu sites more than the (In, Ga) sites. From the energy-volume curves, we found that the effect of the Na substitutes is to reduce the hardness of CIGS under high pressure. The most significant effects occur at 6.25% Na. We also found that the electronic density of states of CIGS near the valence band maximum is increased noticeably in the chalcopyrite phase. The band gap is close in the cubic and orthorhombic phases. Also, the Na Cu -Se bond length in the chalcopyrite phase is significantly reduced at 6.25% Na, compared with the pure Cu-Se bond length. Consequently, the energy band gap in this phase is wider than in pure CIGS, and the gap increased at the rate of 31 meV GPa -1 under pressure. The Na has a small effect on the transition pressure. The path of transformation from the cubic to orthorhombic phase was derived. The Cu-Se plane in the cubic phase displaced relatively parallel to the (In, Ga)-Se plane by 18% in order to transform to the Cmcm phase. The enthalpy barrier is 0.020 eV/atom, which is equivalent to a thermal energy of 248 K. We predicted that F m 3-bar m and Cmcm can coexist in some pressure range. (paper)

  6. Pressure drops in low pressure local boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, Michel; Schleisiek, Karl

    1969-01-01

    For prediction of flow reduction in nuclear research reactors, it was necessary to establish a correlation giving the pressure drop in subcooled boiling for rectangular channels. Measurements of pressure drop on rectangular channel 60 and 90 cm long and with a coolant gap of 1,8 and 3,6 mm were performed in the following range of parameters. -) 3 < pressure at the outlet < 11 bars abs; -) 25 < inlet temperature < 70 deg. C; -) 200 < heat flux < 700 W/cm 2 . It appeared that the usual parameter, relative length in subcooled boiling, was not sufficient to correlate experimental pressure losses on the subcooled boiling length and that there was a supplementary influence of pressure, heat flux and subcooling. With an a dimensional parameter including these terms a correlation was established with an error band of ±10%. With a computer code it was possible to derive the relation giving the overall pressure drop along the channel and to determine the local gradients of pressure drop. These local gradients were then correlated with the above parameter calculated in local conditions. 95 % of the experimental points were computed with an accuracy of ±10% with this correlation of gradients which can be used for non-uniform heated channels. (authors) [fr

  7. A novel pressure variation study on electronic structure, mechanical stability and thermodynamic properties of potassium based fluoroperovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    The effect of pressure variation on stability, structural parameters, elastic constants, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of cubic SrKF3 fluoroperovskite have been investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method combined with Quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phonon effects are considered. The calculated lattice parameters show a prominent decrease in lattice constant and bonds length with the increase in pressure. The application of pressure from 0 to 25 GPa reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The influence of pressure on elastic constants and their related mechanical parameters have been discussed in detail. Apart of linear dependence of elastic coefficients, transition from brittle to ductile behavior is also observed at elevated pressure ranges. We have successfully computed variation of lattice constant, volume expansion, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat capacities at pressure and temperature in the range of 0-25 GPa and 0-600 K.

  8. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  9. Radiation response of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Ayelén; Alurralde, Martín; Luca, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    The radiation response has been studied of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films having different boron contents prepared using the block copolymer template Brij 58 and the dip coating technique. The degree of pore ordering of the films was analysed using low-angle X-ray diffraction and film thickness measured by X-ray reflectivity. For films calcined at 350 °C, the incorporation of boron resulted in a reproducible oscillatory variation in the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflection as a function of boron content. A clear peak was observed in the d-spacing at 5-10 mol% boron incorporation. For borosilicate films of a given composition an overall suppression of d-spacing was observed as a function of aging time relative to films that did not contain boron. This was ascribed to a slow condensation process. The films were irradiated in pile with neutrons and with iodine ions at energies of 180 keV and 70 MeV. Neutron irradiation of the silicate thin films for periods up to 30 days and aged for 400 days resulted in little reduction in either d-spacing or intensity of the primary low-angle X-ray reflection indicating that the films retained their mesopore ordering. In contrast borosilicate films for which the B (n, α) reaction was expected to result in enhanced displacement damage showed much larger variations in X-ray parameters. For these films short irradiation times resulted in a reduction of the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflections considerably beyond that observed through aging. It is concluded that prolonged neutron irradiation and internal α irradiation have only a small, although measurable, impact on mesoporous borosilicate thin films increasing the degree of condensation and increasing unit cell contraction. When these borosilicate films were irradiated with iodine ions, more profound changes occurred. The pore ordering of the films was significantly degraded when low energy ions were used. In some cases the degree

  10. Study of the cubic - to - monoclinic transformation in magnesia partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of the cubic phase to the stable monoclinic phase in ZrO 2 : 3%MgO quenched from 1450 0 C to RT has been studied by X-ray diffractometry in order to explain the thermal hysteresis in the electrical conductivity. The monoclinic-to-cubic ratio has been measured for samples annealed in the 500 0 C-1000 0 C temperature range. The results show that the decrease in the cubic phase content is the main responsible for the thermal hysteresis in the electrical conductivity of the magnesia partially stabilized zirconia solid electrolytes. (author) [pt

  11. P-union and P-intersection of neutrosophic cubic sets

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Smarandache; Chang Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Conditions for the P-intersection and P-intersection of falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be an falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth- external) neutrosophic cubic set are provided. Conditions for the P-union and the P-intersection of two truth-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and falsity-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be a truth-internal (resp. indeterminacy-internal and falsity-internal) neutrosoph...

  12. Structural study on cubic-tetragonal transition of CH3NH3PbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yukihiko; Mashiyama, Hiroyuki; Hasebe, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    The cubic-tetragonal phase transition of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystal structure was refined at five temperatures in the tetragonal phase. The PbI 6 octahedron rotates around the c-axis alternatively to construct the SrTiO 3 -type tetragonal structure. A methylammonium ion is partially ordered; 24 disordered states in the cubic phase are reduced to 8. With decreasing temperature, the rotation angle of the octahedron increases monotonically, which indicates it is an order parameter of the cubic-tetragonal transition. (author)

  13. d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Sztucki, J.

    1993-03-01

    A procedure for qp-quantizing a crystal-field potential V with an arbitrary symmetry G is developed. Such a procedure is applied to the case where V involves cubic components (G=0) of the degrees 4 and 6. This case corresponds to d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical potential. It is shown that the qp-quantization of the considered cubical potential is equivalent to a symmetry breaking of type O→D 4 . A general conjecture about this symmetry breaking phenomenon is given. (author) 21 refs

  14. Electronic properties and bulk moduli of novel boron nitride polymorphs: hyperdiamond B12N12 and the simple cubic B24N24, B12N12 fulborenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrivnyj, V.V.; Bekenev, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    Equation of states, energy band structure, electronic density of states, and bulk moduli of the boron nitride fulborenite crystals: B 12 N 12 with a diamond lattice and B 24 N 24 , B 12 N 12 with a simple cubic lattice have been calculated for the first time by FLAPW method. Calculated parameters of these compounds are as follows: equilibrium lattice parameter, the length of B-N bond, the number of atoms per conventional cell, density, bulk modulus, band gap. Hyperdiamond B 12 N 12 is shown to have the record bulk modulus B 0 = 658 GPa [ru

  15. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid−Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Behrens, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied in this work to mixtures containing acetic acid and water. A previously developed modification of the model, the so-called CPA-Huron−Vidal (CPA-HV), is used. New CPA parameters have been estimated based on the vapor pressure, liquid...... density, enthalpy of vaporization, and vapor-phase compressibility factor data. The CPA-HV parameters have been fitted to, among others, experimental vapor compressibility factor data and experimental relative volatility data at different temperature ranges. The purpose of the work was to investigate...... that satisfactory results are overall obtained, but if an excellent match is needed over the whole temperature range, then different interaction parameters need to be used at the various temperature ranges....

  16. Prediction of Gas Injection Effect on Asphaltene Precipitation Onset Using the Cubic and Cubic-Plus-Association Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Gas injection is a proven enhanced oil recovery technique. The gas injection changes the reservoir oil composition, temperature, and pressure conditions, which may result in asphaltene precipitation. In this work, we have used a modeling approach from the literature in order to predict asphaltene...

  17. Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John A.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important crystal structures adopted by metals is characterized by the "abcabc"...stacking of close-packed layers. This structure is commonly referred to in textbooks as the cubic close-packed (ccp) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, since the entire lattice can be generated by replication of a face-centered cubic unit cell…

  18. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  19. Plasma synthesis and HPHT consolidation of BN nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nanotubes to produce nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Christopher

    Plasma methods offer a variety of advantages to nanomaterials synthesis. The process is robust, allowing varying particle sizes and phases to be generated simply by modifying key parameters. The work here demonstrates a novel approach to nanopowder synthesis using inductively-coupled plasma to decompose precursor, which are then quenched to produce a variety of boron nitride (BN)-phase nanoparticles, including cubic phase, along with short-range-order nanospheres (e.g., nano-onions) and BN nanotubes. Cubic BN (c-BN) powders can be generated through direct deposition onto a chilled substrate. The extremely-high pyrolysis temperatures afforded by the equilibrium plasma offer a unique particle growth environment, accommodating long deposition times while exposing resulting powders to temperatures in excess of 5000K without any additional particle nucleation and growth. Such conditions can yield short-range ordered amorphous BN structures in the form of 20nm diameter nanospheres. Finally, when introducing a rapid-quenching counter-flow gas against the plasma jet, high aspect ratio nanotubes are synthesized, which are collected on substrate situated radially. The benefits of these morphologies are also evident in high-pressure/high-temperature consolidation experiments, where nanoparticle phases can offer a favorable conversion route to super-hard c-BN while maintaining nanocrystallinity. Experiments using these morphologies are shown to begin to yield c-BN conversion at conditions as low as 2.0 GPa and 1500°C when using micron sized c-BN seeding to create localized regions of high pressures due to Hertzian forces acting on the nanoparticles.

  20. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention

  1. Modeling the dispersion of atmospheric pollution using cubic splines and chapeau functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D W; Kern, C D; Long, P E

    1979-01-01

    Two methods that can be used to solve complex, three-dimensional, advection-diffusion transport equations are investigated. A quasi-Lagrangian cubic spline method and a chapeau function method are compared in advecting a passive scalar. The methods are simple to use, computationally fast, and reasonably accurate. Little numerical dissipation is manifested by the schemes. In simple advection tests with equal mesh spacing, the chapeau function method maintains slightly more accurate peak values than the cubic spline method. In tests with unequal mesh spacing, the cubic spline method has less noise, but slightly more damping than the standard chapeau method has. Both cubic splines and chapeau functions can be used to solve the three-dimensional problem of gaseous emissions dispersion without excessive programing complexity or storage requirements. (10 diagrams, 39 references, 2 tables)

  2. Unified treatment of coupled optical and acoustic phonons in piezoelectric cubic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    A unified treatment of coupled optical and acoustic phonons in piezoelectric cubic materials is presented whereby the lattice displacement vector and the internal ionic displacement vector are found simultaneously. It is shown that phonon couplings exist in pairs only; either between the electric...... piezoelectricity in a cubic structured material slab. First, it is shown that isolated optical phonon modes generally cannot exist in piezoelectric cubic slabs. Second, we prove that confined acousto-optical phonon modes only exist for a discrete set of in-plane wave numbers in piezoelectric cubic slabs. Third...... potential and the lattice displacement coordinate perpendicular to the phonon wave vector or between the two other lattice displacement components. The former leads to coupled acousto-optical phonons by virtue of the piezoelectric effect. We then establish three new conjectures that entirely stem from...

  3. Physics and Technology of Transparent Ceramic Armor: Sintered Al2O3 vs Cubic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krell, Andreas; Hutzler, Thomas; Klimke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Sintered sub-micrometer alumina (alpha-Al2O3) is the hardest transparent armor. However, its trigonal structure gives rise to a strong thickness effect that makes thicker components translucent. Cubic ceramics (no birefringence...

  4. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumeyer, Stefan; Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing–Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system......, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude–frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi...

  5. Energy landscape of defects in body-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The structural materials in nuclear reactors are subjected to severe irradiation conditions, leading to changes in their mechanical properties. The aging of these materials raises important issues such as those related to the safety of existing plants and future reactors. In many cases, materials with body-centered cubic bcc crystal structure are used with iron, tungsten, vanadium and tantalum as base metal. Collisions between irradiating particles and atoms constituting materials generate point defects whose migration leads to the formation of clusters responsible for aging. In this thesis, we studied the energetic properties of point defects in the bcc metals mentioned above at the atomic scale. Modeling point defects at the atomic scale can be achieved with different methods that differ only in the quality of the description of the interaction between atoms. Studies using accurate atomic interactions such ab initio calculations are computationally costly making it impossible to directly study clusters of large sizes. The modeling of atomic interactions using semi-empirical potentials reduces the reliability of predictive calculations but allow calculations for large-sized clusters. In this thesis we have developed a unique energy model for dislocation loops as well as for three-dimensional interstitial cluster of type C15. The resulting model has no size limit and can be set entirely by ab initio calculations. To test its robustness for large sizes of clusters we also set this model with semi-empirical potentials calculations and compared the predictions of the model to atomic simulations. With our development we have determined: (i) The relative stability of interstitial dislocation loops according to their Burgers vectors. (ii) The stability of the clusters C15 compared to the type of cluster loop. We showed that the C15 type clusters are more stable when they involve less than 41 interstitials in iron. (iii) In Ta we were able to show the same stability till

  6. Cubic and quartic planar differential systems with exact algebraic limit cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bendjeddou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct cubic and quartic polynomial planar differential systems with exact limit cycles that are ovals of algebraic real curves of degree four. The result obtained for the cubic case generalizes a proposition of [9]. For the quartic case, we deduce for the first time a class of systems with four algebraic limit cycles and another for which nested configurations of limit cycles occur.

  7. Forbidden transitions in the EPR spectrum of the ferric ion cubic symmetry in magesium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Biasi, R S [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais

    1979-03-01

    The spectrum of the ..delta..m /sub s/=2 transitions of Fe/sup 3 +/ in cubic symmetry sites in MgO has been measured at 9.25GHz. The orientation dependence of the transitions is found to be consistent with a spin Hamiltonian of cubic symmetry with g=2.0037(isotropic), a=0.0205/sup +/-0.00005 cm/sup -1/.

  8. Investigation of Room Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoclusters Dispersed on Cubic MCM-48 Mesoporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar Budhi; Chia-Ming Wu; Dan Zhao; Ranjit T. Koodali

    2015-01-01

    Titania containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials were synthesized successfully at room temperature by a modified Stöber method. The integrity of the cubic mesoporous phase was retained even at relatively high loadings of titania. The TiO2-MCM-48 materials were extensively characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The physico-chemical characterization indicate that Ti4+ ions can be substituted in framework tetrahedral positions. The relative amount of Ti4+ ions in tetrahe...

  9. On Application of Non-cubic EoS to Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Compositional reservoir simulation uses almost exclusively cubic equations of state (EoS) such as the SRK EoS and the PR EoS. This is in contrast with process simulation in the downstream industry where more recent and advanced thermodynamic models are quickly adopted. Many of these models are non-cubic...... EoS, such as the PC-SAFT EoS. A major reason for the use of the conventional cubic EoS in reservoir simulation is the concern over computation time. Flash computation is the most time consuming part in compositional reservoir simulation, and the extra complexity of the non-cubic EoS may significantly...... increase the time consumption. In addition to this, the non-cubic EoS also needs a C7+ characterization. The main advantage of the non-cubic EoS is that it provides for a more accurate descrition of fluid properties, and it is therefore of interest to investigate the computational aspects of using...

  10. Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostela, J.; Elmgren, M.; Almgren, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N'-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)-water (and brine)-cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E 0 -values in the cubic samples were more negative (-0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (-0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase

  11. High-pressure phases of uranium monophosphide studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Gerward, Leif; Benedict, U.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on UP powder for pressures up to 51 GPa using synchrotron radiation and a diamond-anvil cell. At ambient pressure UP has the rocksalt structure. The bulk modulus has been determined to B0=102(4) GPa and its pressure derivative to B0’=4.0(8). The cubic...

  12. Point defects and oxidation mechanism in cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshin, A.P.; Shvajko-Shvajkovskij, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the defect formation in boron nitride by the Schottky mechanism within the framework of the quasi-chemical approximation method is carried out. On the base of solution of the disordering equations at different conditions of electroneutrality are obtained the dependences of defect concentrations in β-BN on the partial nitrogen pressure in equilibrium conditions. Experimental checking of the theoretical analysis proposed confirms the hypothesis on the presence of defects of nonstoichiometric origin in the β-BN anion sublattice

  13. Structural phase transition of BaZrO3 under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Huafang; Jiang, Shuqing; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We studied the phase transition behavior of cubic BaZrO 3 perovskite by in situ high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments up to 46.4 GPa at room temperature. The phase transition from cubic phase to tetragonal phase was observed in BaZrO 3 for the first time, which takes place at 17.2 GPa. A bulk modulus 189 (26) GPa for cubic BaZrO 3 is derived from the pressure–volume data. Upon decompression, the high pressure phase transforms into the initial cubic phase. It is suggested that the unstable phonon mode caused by the rotation of oxygen octahedra plays a crucial role in the high pressure phase transition behavior of BaZrO 3

  14. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  15. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  16. On the mechanical stability of the body-centered cubic phase and the emergence of a metastable cI16 phase in classical hard sphere solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim B.; Ford, David M.; Monson, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid phase of classical hard spheres is of intrinsic interest and is also relevant to the development of perturbation theories for bcc solids of other model systems. Using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo, we simulated systems initialized in a perfect bcc lattice at various densities in the solid region. We observed that the systems rapidly evolved into one of four structures that then persisted for the duration of the simulation. Remarkably, one of these structures was identified as cI16, a cubic crystalline structure with 16 particles in the unit cell, which has recently been observed experimentally in lithium and sodium solids at high pressures. The other three structures do not exhibit crystalline order but are characterized by common patterns in the radial distribution function and bond-orientational order parameter distribution; we refer to them as bcc-di, with i ranging from 1 to 3. We found similar outcomes when employing any of the three single occupancy cell (SOC) restrictions commonly used in the literature. We also ran long constant-pressure simulations with box shape fluctuations initiated from bcc and cI16 initial configurations. At lower pressures, all the systems evolved to defective face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. At higher pressures, most of the systems initiated as bcc evolved to cI16 with some evolving to defective fcc/hcp. High pressure systems initiated from cI16 remained in that structure. We computed the chemical potential of cI16 using the Einstein crystal reference method and found that it is higher than that of fcc by ˜0.5kT-2.5kT over the pressure range studied, with the difference increasing with pressure. We find that the undistorted bcc solid, even with constant-volume and SOC restrictions applied, is so mechanically unstable that it is unsuitable for consideration as a metastable phase or as a reference system for studying bcc phases of other systems

  17. Comparison of critical circumferential through-wall-crack-lengths in welds between pieces of straight pipes to welds between straigth pipes and bends with and without internal pressure at force- and displacement-controlled bending load; Vergleich kritischer Umfangsdurchrisslaengen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken mit Schweissnaehten an Rohrbogen-Geradrohrverbindungen mit und ohne Innendruck bei kraft- und wegkontrollierter Biegebelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbuch, R [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Reutlingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    1998-11-01

    Methods for calculation of critical, circumferential through-wall crack lengths in pipes have been developed and verified by several research projects. In applications during the last few years it has been found that the force or displacement-controlled loads have to be considered separately, and this approach was integrated into the recent methods. Methods so far assumed cracks to be located in welds joining straight pipes. But this approach starts from an incomplete picture of reality, as with today`s technology, circumferential welds are less frequent in straight pipes and much more frequent in pipework of other geometry, as for instance in welds joining straight pipes and bends, or bends with longer legs, nozzles, or T-pieces. The non-linear FEM parameter study presented in the paper, covering cases with internal pressure of pipes and one-dimensional bending loads, is based on current geometries of pipework in the primary and secondary loops of industrial plants and compares the conditions induced by circumferential through-wall cracks in welds joining only straight pipes and in those joining bended and straight pipes. At the relevant, displacement-controlled bending loads due to hampered thermal expansion of the pipe system, the critical through-wall cracks lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are of about the same size and importance as those in pipe-to-pipe welds. As for the case of force-controlled loads, the technical codes calculate more serious effects and require lower bending load limits. Within the range of admissible loads given in the codes, the critical through-wall crack lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are similar in size to those in straight pipe welds. It is therefore a conservative or realistic approach to apply the values determined for critical through-wall crack lengths in pipe-to-pipe joints also to pipe-to-bend welds. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Verfahren zur Berechnung kritischer Umfangdurchrisslaengen in Rohrleitungen wurden in

  18. Solvation pressure as real pressure: I. Ethanol and starch under negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Uden, N W A V; Faux, D A; Tanczos, A C; Howlin, B; Dunstan, D J

    2003-01-01

    The reality of the solvation pressure generated by the cohesive energy density of liquids is demonstrated by three methods. Firstly, the Raman spectrum of ethanol as a function of cohesive energy density (solvation pressure) in ethanol-water and ethanol-chloroform mixtures is compared with the Raman spectrum of pure ethanol under external hydrostatic pressure and the solvation pressure and hydrostatic pressure are found to be equivalent for some transitions. Secondly, the bond lengths of ethanol are calculated by molecular dynamics modelling for liquid ethanol under pressure and for ethanol vapour. The difference in bond lengths between vapour and liquid are found to be equivalent to the solvation pressure for the C-H sub 3 , C-H sub 2 and O-H bond lengths, with discrepancies for the C-C and C-O bond lengths. Thirdly, the pressure-induced gelation of potato starch is measured in pure water and in mixtures of water and ethanol. The phase transition pressure varies in accordance with the change in solvation pre...

  19. Experimental and computational study on the phase stability of Al-containing cubic transition metal nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovere, Florian; Mayrhofer, Paul H; Music, Denis; Ershov, Sergey; Baben, Moritz to; Schneider, Jochen M; Fuss, Hans-Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The phase stability of Al-containing cubic transition metal (TM) nitrides, where Al substitutes for TM (i.e. TM 1-x Al x N), is studied as a function of the TM valence electron concentration (VEC). X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses data of magnetron sputtered Ti 1-x Al x N, V 1-x Al x N and Cr 1-x Al x N films indicate increasing phase stability of cubic TM 1-x Al x N at larger Al contents and higher temperatures with increasing TM VEC. These experimental findings can be understood based on first principle investigations of ternary cubic TM 1-x Al x N with TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr and Nb where the TM VEC and the lattice strain are systematically varied. However, our experimental data indicate that, in addition to the decomposition energetics (cubic TM 1-x Al x N → cubic TMN + hexagonal AlN), future stability models have to include nitrogen release as one of the mechanisms that critically determine the overall phase stability of TM 1-x Al x N.

  20. Phase transformation of metastable cubic γ-phase in U-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Dey, G.K.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable efforts have been put by many fuel designers to develop low enriched uranium (LEU 235 ) base U-Mo alloy as a potential fuel for core conversion of existing research and test reactors which are running on high enriched uranium (HEU > 85%U 235 ) fuel and also for the upcoming new reactors. U-Mo alloy with minimum 8 wt% molybdenum shows excellent metastability with cubic γ-phase in cast condition. However, it is important to characterize the decomposition behaviour of metastable cubic γ-uranium in its equilibrium products for in reactor fuel performance point of view. The present paper describes the phase transformation behaviour of cubic γ-uranium phase in U-Mo alloys with three different molybdenum compositions (i.e. 8 wt%, 9 wt% and 10 wt%). U-Mo alloys were prepared in an induction melting furnace and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method for phase determination. Microstructures were developed for samples in as cast condition. The alloys were hot rolled in cubic γ-phase to break the cast structure and then they were aged at 500 o C for 68 h and 240 h, so that metastable cubic γ-uranium will undergo eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and body centered tetragonal U 2 Mo intermetallic compound. U-Mo alloy samples with different ageing history were then characterized by XRD for phase and development of microstructure.

  1. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  2. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  3. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  4. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  5. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  6. Prediction of Length of Postoperative Ventilation in CDH Survivors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol. 6, No 3, July 2010, PP 131-135. Original Article. Prediction of Length of Postoperative Ventilation in CDH Survivors; ... reduced with no increase in the mean airway pressure. (MAWP) ... included X-ray assessment of contra-lateral lung size.

  7. Estimating thermodynamic properties by molecular dynamics simulations: The properties of fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, D.G.; Refson, K.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular dynamics calculations reported above give calculated P-V-T properties for H 2 O up to 1500 K and 100 GPa, which agree remarkably well with the available experimental data. We also observe the phase transition to a crystalline, orientationally disordered cubic ice structure. No account was taken of molecular flexibility in these calculations nor of potential dissociation at high pressures as suggested by Hamman (1981). However, we note that the closest next-nearest-neighbour O-H approach remains significantly greater than the TIP4P fixed O-H bond length within the water molecule for all pressures studied. The equation of state proposed here should be useful for estimating the properties of H 2 O at up to 1500 K and 100 G Pa (1 Mbar) and is much easier to use in practice than modified Redlich Kwong equations. Extension of these methods to the studies of other fluids and of fluid mixtures at high temperatures and pressures will require good potential models for the species involved, and this is likely to involve a combination of good ab initio work and semiempirical modelling. Once developed, these models should allow robust predictions of thermodynamic properties beyond the range of the experimental data on the basis of fundamental molecular information

  8. Genetic association of telomere length with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Yu, Chengxiao; Huang, Mingtao; Du, Fangzhi; Song, Ci; Ma, Zijian; Zhai, Xiangjun; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Jibin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Jia, Weihua; Jin, Guangfu; Li, Shengping; Zhou, Weiping; Liu, Jianjun; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-10-01

    Observational studies show an association between telomere length and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the relationship is controversial. Particularly, it remains unclear whether the association is due to confounding or biases inherent in conventional epidemiological studies. Here, we applied Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate whether telomere length is causally associated with HCC risk. Individual-level data were from HBV-related HCC Genome-wide association studies (1,538 HBV positive HCC patients and 1,465 HBV positive controls). Genetic risk score, as proxy for actual measured telomere length, derived from nine telomere length-associated genetic variants was used to evaluate the effect of telomere length on HCC risk. We observed a significant risk signal between genetically increased telomere length and HBV-related HCC risk (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.31, P=0.002). Furthermore, a U-shaped curve was fitted by the restricted cubic spline curve, which indicated that either short or long telomere length would increase HCC risk (P=0.0022 for non-linearity test). Subgroup analysis did not reveal significant heterogeneity between different age, gender, smoking status and drinking status groups. Our results indicated that a genetic background that favors longer or shorter telomere length may increase HBV-related HCC risk-a U-shaped association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  10. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  11. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  12. Orientation dependence of the dislocation microstructure in compressed body-centered cubic molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Wang, M.P.; Chen, C.; Xiao, Z.; Jia, Y.L.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z.X.

    2014-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure has been investigated in commercial pure molybdenum. After deformation, the dislocation boundaries of compressed molybdenum can be classified, similar to that in face-centered cubic metals, into three types: dislocation cells (Type 2), and extended planar boundaries parallel to (Type 1) or not parallel to (Type 3) a (110) trace. However, it shows a reciprocal relationship between face-centered cubic metals and body-centered cubic metals on the orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure. The higher the strain, the finer the microstructure is and the smaller the inclination angle between extended planar boundaries and the compression axis is. - Highlights: • A reciprocal relationship between FCC metals and BCC metals is confirmed. • The dislocation boundaries can be classified into three types in compressed Mo. • The dislocation characteristic of different dislocation boundaries is different

  13. Growth of cubic InN on r-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimalla, V.; Pezoldt, J.; Ecke, G.; Kosiba, R.; Ambacher, O.; Spiess, L.; Teichert, G.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    InN has been grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction investigations have shown that the InN layers consist of a predominant zinc blende (cubic) structure along with a fraction of the wurtzite (hexagonal) phase which content increases with proceeding growth. The lattice constant for zinc blende InN was found to be a=4.986 A. For this unusual growth of a metastable cubic phase on a noncubic substrate an epitaxial relationship was proposed where the metastable zinc blende phase grows directly on the r-plane sapphire while the wurtzite phase arises as the special case of twinning in the cubic structure

  14. Testing a generalized cubic Galileon gravity model with the Coma Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okabe, Nobuhiro [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Matsushita, Kyoko; Sasaki, Toru, E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: okabe@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matusita@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: j1213703@ed.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    We obtain a constraint on the parameters of a generalized cubic Galileon gravity model exhibiting the Vainshtein mechanism by using multi-wavelength observations of the Coma Cluster. The generalized cubic Galileon model is characterized by three parameters of the turning scale associated with the Vainshtein mechanism, and the amplitude of modifying a gravitational potential and a lensing potential. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of the intra-cluster medium are sensitive to the gravitational potential, while the weak-lensing (WL) measurement is specified by the lensing potential. A joint fit of a complementary multi-wavelength dataset of X-ray, SZ and WL measurements enables us to simultaneously constrain these three parameters of the generalized cubic Galileon model for the first time. We also find a degeneracy between the cluster mass parameters and the gravitational modification parameters, which is influential in the limit of the weak screening of the fifth force.

  15. Vibrational effects on surface energies and band gaps in hexagonal and cubic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Edgar A.; Needs, Richard J.; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    Surface energies of hexagonal and cubic water ice are calculated using first-principles quantum mechanical methods, including an accurate description of anharmonic nuclear vibrations. We consider two proton-orderings of the hexagonal and cubic ice basal surfaces and three proton-orderings of hexagonal ice prism surfaces, finding that vibrations reduce the surface energies by more than 10%. We compare our vibrational densities of states to recent sum frequency generation absorption measurements and identify surface proton-orderings of experimental ice samples and the origins of characteristic absorption peaks. We also calculate zero point quantum vibrational corrections to the surface electronic band gaps, which range from −1.2 eV for the cubic ice basal surface up to −1.4 eV for the hexagonal ice prism surface. The vibrational corrections to the surface band gaps are up to 12% smaller than for bulk ice.

  16. Conformal Interpolating Algorithm Based on Cubic NURBS in Aspheric Ultra-Precision Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C G; Zhang, Q R; Cao, C G; Zhao, S L

    2006-01-01

    Numeric control machining and on-line compensation for aspheric surface are key techniques in ultra-precision machining. In this paper, conformal cubic NURBS interpolating curve is applied to fit the character curve of aspheric surface. Its algorithm and process are also proposed and imitated by Matlab7.0 software. To evaluate the performance of the conformal cubic NURBS interpolation, we compare it with the linear interpolations. The result verifies this method can ensure smoothness of interpolating spline curve and preserve original shape characters. The surface quality interpolated by cubic NURBS is higher than by line. The algorithm is benefit to increasing the surface form precision of workpieces in ultra-precision machining

  17. Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Tainaka, Kazuki; Perrin, Dimitri; Yukinaga, Hiroko; Kuno, Akihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a protocol for advanced CUBIC (Clear, Unobstructed Brain/Body Imaging Cocktails and Computational analysis). The CUBIC protocol enables simple and efficient organ clearing, rapid imaging by light-sheet microscopy and quantitative imaging analysis of multiple samples. The organ or body is cleared by immersion for 1-14 d, with the exact time required dependent on the sample type and the experimental purposes. A single imaging set can be completed in 30-60 min. Image processing and analysis can take whole-brain neural activities at single-cell resolution using Arc-dVenus transgenic (Tg) mice. CUBIC informatics calculated the Venus signal subtraction, comparing different brains at a whole-organ scale. These protocols provide a platform for organism-level systems biology by comprehensively detecting cells in a whole organ or body.

  18. Mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2018-05-01

    We perform the stability analysis of Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole in the Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity. It shows that the Ricci tensor perturbations exhibit unstable modes for small black holes. We call this the mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole because the instability of small black holes arises from the massiveness in the linearized Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity, but not a feature of higher-order derivative theory giving ghost states. Also, we point out that the correlated stability conjecture holds for the SAdS black hole by computing the Wald entropy of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity.

  19. On melting of boron phosphide under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Solozhenko, Vladimir; Mukhanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Melting of cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied at pressures to 9 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that above 2.6 GPa BP melts congruently, and the melting curve exhibits negative slope (–60 ± 7 K/GPa), which is indicative of a higher density of the melt as compared to the solid phase.

  20. Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostela, J. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: johan.kostela@fki.uu.se; Elmgren, M. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Almgren, M. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N'-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)-water (and brine)-cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E {sup 0}-values in the cubic samples were more negative (-0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (-0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase.

  1. Changing the cubic ferrimagnetic domain structure in temperature region of spin flip transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuraev, D.R.; Niyazov, L.N.; Saidov, K.S.; Sokolov, B.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The transformation of cubic ferrimagnetic Tb 0.2 Y 2.8 Fe 5 O 12 domain structure has been studied by magneto optic method in the temperature region of spontaneous spin flip phase transition (SPT). It has been found that SPT occurs in a finite temperature interval where the coexistence of low- and high- temperature magnetic phase domains has observed. A character of domain structure evolution in temperature region of spin flip essentially depends on the presence of mechanical stresses in crystal. Interpretation of experimental results has been carried out within the framework of SPT theory for a cubic crystal. (authors)

  2. Limit cycles from a cubic reversible system via the third-order averaging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the bifurcation of limit cycles from a cubic integrable and non-Hamiltonian system. By using the averaging theory of the first and second orders, we show that under any small cubic homogeneous perturbation, at most two limit cycles bifurcate from the period annulus of the unperturbed system, and this upper bound is sharp. By using the averaging theory of the third order, we show that two is also the maximal number of limit cycles emerging from the period annulus of the unperturbed system.

  3. Cubic systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Suba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the planar cubic differential systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven. We classify these system according to their geometric properties encoded in the configurations of invariant straight lines. We show that there are only 17 different topological phase portraits in the Poincar\\'e disc associated to this family of cubic systems up to a reversal of the sense of their orbits, and we provide representatives of every class modulo an affine change of variables and rescaling of the time variable.

  4. Lattice vibrations and cubic to tetragonal phase transition in ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negita, K.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of analyses of phonon modes in ZrO 2 , it is suggested that condensation of a phonon X 2 - at the cubic Brillouin zone boundary X point, (0, 0, 2 π/a), is associated with the cubic to tetragonal phase transition in ZrO 2 . Free energy consideration shows that spontaneous volume and shear strains, e Alg = (e 1 +e 2 +e 3 ) and e Eg = (2e 3 - e 1 - e 2 )/ Λ3, are induced in the tetragonal phase as a result of indirect couplings of the X 2 - mode to homogeneous elastic strains; the tetragonal phase is improper ferroelastic

  5. Exact optical solitons in (n + 1)-dimensions with anti-cubic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Muhammad; Shahid, Iram; Anbreen, Sumaira; Rizvi, Syed Tahir Raza

    2018-02-01

    The paper studies the propagation of optical solitons in (n + 1)-dimensions under anti-cubic law of nonlinearity. The bright, dark and singular optical solitons are extracted using the extended trial equation method. The constraint conditions, for the existence of these solitons, are also listed. Additionally, a couple of other solutions known as singular periodic and Jacobi elliptic solutions, fall out as a by-product of this scheme. The obtained results are new and reported first time in (n + 1)-dimensions with anti-cubic law of nonlinearity.

  6. On the structure of critical energy levels for the cubic focusing NLS on star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, Riccardo; Noja, Diego; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    We provide information on a non-trivial structure of phase space of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) on a three-edge star graph. We prove that, in contrast to the case of the standard NLS on the line, the energy associated with the cubic focusing Schrödinger equation on the three-edge star graph with a free (Kirchhoff) vertex does not attain a minimum value on any sphere of constant L 2 -norm. We moreover show that the only stationary state with prescribed L 2 -norm is indeed a saddle point. (fast track communication)

  7. Elastic properties of cubic perovskite BaRuO{sub 3} from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Deming; Liu Xiaojuan; Lv Shuhui; Li Hongping [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-08-01

    We present first-principles investigations on the structural and elastic properties of the cubic perovskite BaRuO{sub 3} using density-functional theory within both local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Basic physical properties, such as lattice constant, shear modulus, elastic constants (C{sub ij}) are calculated. The calculated energy band structures show that the cubic perovskite BaRuO{sub 3} is metallic. We have also predicted the Young's modulus (Y), Poisson's ratio ({upsilon}), and Anisotropy factor (A).

  8. Curvature and bottlenecks control molecular transport in inverse bicontinuous cubic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, Salvatore; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2018-02-01

    We perform a simulation study of the diffusion of small solutes in the confined domains imposed by inverse bicontinuous cubic phases for the primitive, diamond, and gyroid symmetries common to many lipid/water mesophase systems employed in experiments. For large diffusing domains, the long-time diffusion coefficient shows universal features when the size of the confining domain is renormalized by the Gaussian curvature of the triply periodic minimal surface. When bottlenecks are widely present, they become the most relevant factor for transport, regardless of the connectivity of the cubic phase.

  9. AdS5/CFT4 four-point functions of chiral primary operators: Cubic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangmin

    1999-01-01

    We study the exchange diagrams in the computation of four-point functions of all chiral primary operators in D=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills using AdS/CFT correspondence. We identify all supergravity fields that can be exchanged and compute the cubic couplings. As a byproduct, we also rederive the normalization of the quadratic action of the exchanged fields. The cubic couplings computed in this paper and the propagators studied extensively in the literature can be used to compute almost all the exchange diagrams explicitly. Some issues in computing the complete four-point function in the 'massless sector' are discussed

  10. Efficient Algorithms for gcd and Cubic Residuosity in the Ring of Eisenstein Integers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2003-01-01

    We present simple and efficient algorithms for computing gcd and cubic residuosity in the ring of Eisenstein integers, bf Z[ ]i.e. the integers extended with , a complex primitive third root of unity. The algorithms are similar and may be seen as generalisations of the binary integer gcd and deri......We present simple and efficient algorithms for computing gcd and cubic residuosity in the ring of Eisenstein integers, bf Z[ ]i.e. the integers extended with , a complex primitive third root of unity. The algorithms are similar and may be seen as generalisations of the binary integer gcd...

  11. The n-component cubic model and flows: subgraph break-collapse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, J.W.; Magalhaes, A.C.N. de.

    1988-01-01

    We generalise to the n-component cubic model the subgraph break-collapse method which we previously developed for the Potts model. The relations used are based on expressions which we recently derived for the Z(λ) model in terms of mod-λ flows. Our recursive algorithm is similar, for n = 2, to the break-collapse method for the Z(4) model proposed by Mariz and coworkers. It allows the exact calculation for the partition function and correlation functions for n-component cubic clusters with n as a variable, without the need to examine all of the spin configurations. (author) [pt

  12. Cubic interaction in extended theories of massless higher-spin fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A

    1987-08-17

    A cubic interaction of all massless higher-spin fields with s greater than or equal to 1 is constructed, based on the extended higher-spin superalgebras suggested previously by one of us (M.V.). This interaction incorporates gravitational and Yang-Mills interactions of massless higher-spin fields, which turn out to be consistent in the cubic order. An essential novel feature of the gravitational higher-spin interaction is its non-analyticity in the cosmological constant. An explicit form is found for deformed higher-spin gauge transformations leaving the action invariant.

  13. Analysis of moderately thin-walled beam cross-sections by cubic isoparametric elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    In technical beam theory the six equilibrium states associated with homogeneous tension, bending, shear and torsion are treated as individual load cases. This enables the formulation of weak form equations governing the warping from shear and torsion. These weak form equations are solved...... numerically by introducing a cubic-linear two-dimensional isoparametric element. The cubic interpolation of this element accurately represents quadratic shear stress variations along cross-section walls, and thus moderately thin-walled cross-sections are effectively discretized by these elements. The ability...

  14. The influence of a cubic building on a roof mounted wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, D.; Sant, Tonio; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine located above a cubic building is not well understood. This issue is of fundamental importance for the design of small scale wind turbines. One variable which is of particular importance in this respect is the turbine height above roof level. In this work, the power performance of a small wind turbine is assessed as a function of the height above the roof of a generic cubic building. A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a 10m x 10m x 10m building is use...

  15. Preconditioning cubic spline collocation method by FEM and FDM for elliptic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Dong [KyungPook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    In this talk we discuss the finite element and finite difference technique for the cubic spline collocation method. For this purpose, we consider the uniformly elliptic operator A defined by Au := -{Delta}u + a{sub 1}u{sub x} + a{sub 2}u{sub y} + a{sub 0}u in {Omega} (the unit square) with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions and its discretization based on Hermite cubic spline spaces and collocation at the Gauss points. Using an interpolatory basis with support on the Gauss points one obtains the matrix A{sub N} (h = 1/N).

  16. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  18. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  19. Effect of pressure variation on structural, elastic, mechanical, optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties of SrNaF3 fluoroperovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    The effect of pressure variation on structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical, optical and thermodynamic characteristics of cubic SrNaF3 fluoroperovskite have been investigated by employing first-principles method within the framework of gradient approximation (GGA). For the total energy calculations, we have used the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. Thermodynamic properties are computed in terms of quasi-harmonic Debye model. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-25 GPa, in which mechanical stability of SrNaF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. A prominent decrease in lattice constant and bonds length is observed with the increase in pressure from 0 to 25 GPa. The effect of increase in pressure on band structure calculations with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap. The influence of pressure on set of isotropic elastic parameters and their related properties are numerically estimated for SrNaF3 polycrystalline aggregate. Apart of linear dependence of elastic coefficients, transition from brittle to ductile behavior is observed as pressure is increased from 0 to 25 GPa. We have successfully obtained variation of lattice constant, volume expansion, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat capacities with pressure and temperature in the range of 0-25 GPa and 0-600 K. All the calculated optical properties such as the complex dielectric function ɛ(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), energy loss function L(ω), absorption coefficient α(w), refractive index n(ω), reflectivity R(ω), and effective number of electrons n eff, via sum rules shift towards the higher energies under the application of pressure.

  20. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  1. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the diffusion of fission products Cs and Ag through the SiC layer of TRISO particles is of particular interest for the progress and improvement of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies. Although the SiC layer acts as a barrier for fission products, there is experimental evidence of Cs and Ag diffusion through this layer. Previous considerations of Ag and Cs in SiC have focused on the element interacting with SiC, but have not considered the possibility of co-incorporation with another species. This paper presents a ab initio study on the co-incorporation of Cs and Ag with an anion (Iodine (I) or Oxygen (O)) into SiC as an alternative incorporation mechanism. It is found that for crystalline SiC, Ag co-incorporation with Iodine (I) and Oxygen (O) into SiC is not energetically favorable, while Cs co-incorporation with O is a preferred mechanism under some oxygen partial pressures of interest. However, Cs-O co-incorporation into the crystalline portion of SiC is not sufficiently strong to enable a Cs solubility that accounts for the Cs release observed in some experiments. Formation energies are a function of the chemical potential of Si and C. Calculations in this paper are performed for Si-rich and C-rich conditions, which constitute the boundaries for which the formation energies are allowed to vary. Calculation of the electronic potential shift is required in order to ensure that the Fermi level in a defected cell is defined with respect to the same valence band level in the undefected cell [21,23]. The potential shift is calculated by aligning low energy levels in the total density of states (DOS) [24]. Spurious interactions between images of the charged defects make it necessary to correct for unphysical electrostatic interactions. Both the monopole-monopole and monopole-quadrupole Makov Payne corrections are used for this purpose. However, strain and incompletely corrected electrostatic interactions can still lead to significant

  2. Mixing and phase separation at supercritical and transcritical pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickel, S.; Matheis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamically consistent and tuning-parameter-free two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vaporliquid equilibrium calculations. It can represent the

  3. Studying magnetic structure of Bi doped Co2MnO4 cubic spinel by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeevan, N.E.; Kaushik, S.D.; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we studied effect of Bi doped spinel Bi x Co 2-x MnO 4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) samples on their crystal as well as magnetic structure by employing neutron diffraction of wavelength 1.48 A using focusing crystal diffractometer of UGC-DAECSR Mumbai Centre at Dhruva, Trombay, Mumbai, India. The analysis of the neutron diffraction using Fullprof program reveals that crystal structure due to Bi doping remains intact and all the samples have been formed in the cubic spinel structure with Fd3m (space group no. 227). The lattice parameter shows the positive thermal expansion upon Bi doping across the temperature range. In order to understand the implication on the spin structure and magnetism in the detail, temperature dependent neutron diffraction study is carried out on some of the samples (x = 0, 0.1) in the series. The ND pattern of x = 0.1 at 2.9K is shown. The experimental finding in terms of modified magnetic structure upon Bi doping are discussed which are understood in terms of variation in the ferroelectric properties, bond lengths and their effect on the CoO 6 polyhedra. Furthermore, Bi substitution in Co 2 MnO 4 spinel brings in the balance of structural distortion, which affects both ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity

  4. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    segment and is trapped by the flange on the top dome segment when these components are bolted together with high-strength bolts. The pressure dome has several unique features. It is made (to ASME Pressure Vessel guidelines) in a high-strength aluminum alloy with the strength of stainless steel and the weight benefits of aluminum. The flange of the upper dome portion contains specially machined flats for mounting the dome, and other flats dedicated to the special feedthroughs for electrical connections. A pressure dome can be increased in length to house larger stacks (more cells) of the same diameter with the simple addition of a cylindrical segment. To aid in dome assembly, two stainless steel rings are employed. One is used beneath the heads of the high-strength bolts in lieu of individual hardened washers, and another is used instead of individual nuts. Like electrolyzers could be operated at low or high pressures simply by operating the electrolyzer outside or inside a pressurized dome.

  5. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  6. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  7. Determination of asphaltene onset conditions using the cubic plus association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; von Solms, Nicolas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) has already been proven to be a successful model for phase equilibrium calculations for systems containing associating components and has already been applied for asphaltene modeling by few researchers. In the present work, we apply the CPA...

  8. A modified linear algebraic approach to electron scattering using cubic splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modified linear algebraic approach to the solution of the Schrodiner equation for low-energy electron scattering is presented. The method uses a piecewise cubic-spline approximation of the wavefunction. Results in the static-potential and the static-exchange approximations for e - +H s-wave scattering are compared with unmodified linear algebraic and variational linear algebraic methods. (author)

  9. On the dynamic Stability of a quadratic-cubic elastic model structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main substance of this investigation is the determination of the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect quadratic-cubic elastic model structure , which ,in itself, is a Mathematical generalization of some of the many physical structures normally encountered in engineering practice and allied fields. The load function in ...

  10. Darboux integrability and rational reversibility in cubic systems with two invariant straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cozma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find conditions for a singular point O(0,0 of a center or a focus type to be a center, in a cubic differential system with two distinct invariant straight lines. The presence of a center at O(0,0 is proved by using the method of Darboux integrability and the rational reversibility.

  11. New association schemes for mono-ethylene glycol: Cubic-Plus-Association parameterization and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Francois; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Accurate thermodynamic predictions for systems containing glycols are essential for the design and commissioning of novel subsea natural gas dehydration units. Previously it has been shown that the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state can be used to model VLE, SLE and LLE for mixtures...

  12. Qualitative analysis on a cubic predator-prey system with diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunyi Bie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a cubic predator-prey model with diffusion. We first establish the global stability of the trivial and nontrivial constant steady states for the reaction diffusion system, and then prove the existence and non-existence results concerning non-constant positive stationary solutions by using topological argument and the energy method, respectively.

  13. Limit cycles bifurcating from the periodic annulus of cubic homogeneous polynomial centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Llibre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an explicit polynomial whose simple positive real roots provide the limit cycles which bifurcate from the periodic orbits of any cubic homogeneous polynomial center when it is perturbed inside the class of all polynomial differential systems of degree n.

  14. Analytic smoothing effect for the cubic hyperbolic Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Hoshino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic hyperbolic Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions. We prove existence of analytic global solutions for sufficiently small and exponential decaying data. The method of proof depends on the generalized Leibniz rule for the generator of pseudo-conformal transform acting on pseudo-conformally invariant nonlinearity.

  15. Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation from Crude Oil with the Cubic Plus Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different modeling approaches using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) are developed to calculate the asphaltene precipitation onset condition and asphaltene yield from degassed crude oil during the addition of n-paraffin. A single model parameter is fitted...

  16. Neutron diffraction study of cubic titanium carbohydride at the homogeneity lower limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Mirzaev, B.B.; Mukhtarova, N.N.

    2004-01-01

    Cubic carbohydride TiC 0.47H0.22 was prepared by means of quenching from 1200 deg.C followed by the heat treatment using special regime for preventing the hydrogen yield out the lattice. It is shown that at the lower limit of homogeneity range of the cubic carbohydride, hydrogen atoms occupy the tetrahedral interstices 8(c) of the disordered cubic structure with space group of Fm3m. It is found that carbon and hydrogen atoms are partially ordered by annealing at 900-700 deg.C. The ordered structure is face-centred cubic lattice with the parameter a ≅2a 0 , where a 0 is the lattice parameter in disordered structure. The crystal structure of the disordered phase is described within the framework of space group Fd3m, where the carbon atoms occupy mainly (70%) octahedral interstices 16(c) and another ones of carbon and all hydrogen atoms occupy the octahedral interstices 16(d). (author)

  17. CENTER CONDITIONS AND CYCLICITY FOR A FAMILY OF CUBIC SYSTEMS: COMPUTER ALGEBRA APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferčec, Brigita; Mahdi, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Using methods of computational algebra we obtain an upper bound for the cyclicity of a family of cubic systems. We overcame the problem of nonradicality of the associated Bautin ideal by moving from the ring of polynomials to a coordinate ring. Finally, we determine the number of limit cycles bifurcating from each component of the center variety.

  18. Diamond cubic phase of monoolein and water as an amphiphilic matrix for electrophoresis of oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Nils; Winge, Ann-Sofie; Engström, Sven; Akerman, Björn

    2005-10-06

    We used a cubic liquid crystal formed by the nonionic monoglyceride monoolein and water as a porous matrix for the electrophoresis of oligonucleotides. The diamond cubic phase is thermodynamically stable when in contact with a water-rich phase, which we exploit to run the electrophoresis in the useful submarine mode. Oligonucleotides are separated according to size and secondary structure by migration through the space-filling aqueous nanometer pores of the regular liquid crystal, but the comparatively slow migration means the cubic phase will not be a replacement for the conventional DNA gels. However, our demonstration that the cubic phase can be used in submarine electrophoresis opens up the possibility for a new matrix for electrophoresis of amphiphilic molecules. From this perspective, the results on the oligonucleotides show that water-soluble particles of nanometer size, typical for the hydrophilic parts of membrane-bound proteins, may be a useful separation motif. A charged contamination in the commercial sample of monoolein, most likely oleic acid that arises from its hydrolysis, restricts useful buffer conditions to a pH below 5.6.

  19. Effective-medium theory for nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic granular alloys: cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, Alexander B.; Kuzmichov, Michail V.; Clerc, J.-P.; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2003-01-01

    We propose a simple effective-medium approach for calculating the effective dielectric function of a magnetic metal-insulator granular alloy in which there is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and electric field E for both constituent materials of the form D i =ε i (0) E i +χ i (3) |E i | 2 E i . We assume that linear ε i (0) and cubic nonlinear χ i (3) dielectric functions are diagonal and linear with magnetization non-diagonal components. For such metal-insulator composite magneto-optical effects depend on a light intensity and the effective cubic dielectric function χ eff (3) can be significantly greater (up to 10 3 times) than that for constituent materials. The calculation scheme is based on the Bergman and Stroud-Hui theory of nonlinear optical properties of granular matter. The giant cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity is found for composites with metallic volume fraction close to the percolation threshold and at a resonance of optical conductivity. It is shown that a composite may exhibit nonlinear magneto-optics even when both constituent materials have no cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity

  20. Effective-medium theory for nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic granular alloys: cubic nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, Alexander B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Kuzmichov, Michail V.; Clerc, J.-P.; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2003-03-01

    We propose a simple effective-medium approach for calculating the effective dielectric function of a magnetic metal-insulator granular alloy in which there is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and electric field E for both constituent materials of the form D{sub i}={epsilon}{sub i}{sup (0)}E{sub i} +{chi}{sub i}{sup (3)}|E{sub i}|{sup 2}E{sub i}. We assume that linear {epsilon}{sub i}{sup (0)} and cubic nonlinear {chi}{sub i}{sup (3)} dielectric functions are diagonal and linear with magnetization non-diagonal components. For such metal-insulator composite magneto-optical effects depend on a light intensity and the effective cubic dielectric function {chi}{sub eff}{sup (3)} can be significantly greater (up to 10{sup 3} times) than that for constituent materials. The calculation scheme is based on the Bergman and Stroud-Hui theory of nonlinear optical properties of granular matter. The giant cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity is found for composites with metallic volume fraction close to the percolation threshold and at a resonance of optical conductivity. It is shown that a composite may exhibit nonlinear magneto-optics even when both constituent materials have no cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity.

  1. On the reflection of solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical study on the interesting phenomenon of soliton reflection of solid walls. We consider the 2D cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as the underlying mathematical model, and we use an implicit-explicit type Crank

  2. Surface relaxation and surface energy of face –centered Cubic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Surface relaxation and surface energy of face –centered Cubic metals. 1AGHEMENLO H E; *2IYAYI, S E; 3AVWIRI ,G O. 1, 3 Department of Physics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. 2 Department of Physics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 3 Department of Physics, University of Port Harcourt, PH, Nigeria.

  3. Direct Visualisation of the Structural Transformation between the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Lamellar and Bicontinuous Cubic Mesophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhiem; Zhai, Jiali; Conn, Charlotte E; Mulet, Xavier; Waddington, Lynne J; Drummond, Calum J

    2018-05-29

    The transition between the lyotropic liquid crystalline lamellar and the bicontinuous cubic mesophase drives multiple fundamental cellular processes involving changes in cell membrane topology including endocytosis and membrane budding. While several theoretical models have been proposed to explain this dynamic transformation, experimental validation of these models has been challenging due to the short lived nature of the intermediates present during the phase transition. Herein, we report the direct observation of a lamellar to bicontinuous cubic phase transition in nanoscale dispersions using a combination of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and static small angle X-ray scattering. The results represent the first experimental confirmation of a theoretical model which proposed that the bicontinuous cubic phase originates from the centre of a lamellar vesicle, then propagates outward via the formation of inter-lamellar attachments and stalks. The observation was possible due to the precise control of the lipid composition to place the dispersion systems at the phase boundary of a lamellar and a cubic phase, allowing for the creation of long-lived structural intermediates. By surveying the nanoparticles using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, a complete phase transition sequence was established.

  4. Least square fitting of low resolution gamma ray spectra with cubic B-spline basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Menghua; Liu Lianggang; Qi Dongxu; You Zhong; Xu Aoao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the least square fitting method with the cubic B-spline basis functions is derived to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations in the gamma ray spectra. The derived procedure is simple and automatic. The results show that this method is better than the convolution method with a sufficient reduction of statistical fluctuation. (authors)

  5. Localized Pd Overgrowth on Cubic Pt Nanocrystals for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Formic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Habas, S.E.; Somorjai, G.A.; Yang, P.

    2008-03-20

    Binary Pt/Pd nanoparticles were synthesized by localized overgrowth of Pd on cubic Pt seeds for the investigation of electrocatalytic formic acid oxidation. The binary particles exhibited much less self-poisoning and a lower activation energy relative to Pt nanocubes, consistent with the single crystal study.

  6. Critical temperature of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices at arbitrary integer fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases.

  7. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.; Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator

  8. Extension of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Mads Kristian; Derawi, Samer; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2005-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been extended to modeling mixtures containing amines. Special focus was given to primary and secondary amines, which are known to self-associate, thus forming hydrogen bonds in mixtures with alkanes. Pure-compound parameters have been determi...

  9. New cubic perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting using the computational materials repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Landis, David; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2012-01-01

    screening of around 19 000 oxides, oxynitrides, oxysulfides, oxyfluorides, and oxyfluoronitrides in the cubic perovskite structure with PEC applications in mind. We address three main applications: light absorbers for one- and two-photon water splitting and high-stability transparent shields to protect...

  10. Calculated Pourbaix Diagrams of Cubic Perovskites for Water Splitting: Stability Against Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2014-01-01

    We use density functional theory calculations to investigate the stability of cubic perovskites for photo-electrochemical water splitting taking both materials in their bulk crystal structure and dissolved phases into account. The method is validated through a detailed comparison of the calculated...

  11. Effect of shear on cubic phases in gels of a diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamley, I.W.; Pople, J.A.; Fairclough, J.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of shear on the orientation of cubic micellar phases formed by a poly(oxyethylene)poly(oxybutylene) diblock copolymer in aqueous solution has been investigated using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). SAXS was performed on samples oriented in...

  12. Robustness of Multiple High Speed TCP CUBIC Connections Under Severe Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2015-01-01

    We study the adaptation capabilities and robustness of the high-speed TCP CUBIC algorithm. For this purpose we consider a network environment with variable and high random packet loss and a large Bandwidth-Delay product, shared by multiple heterogeneous TCP connections. The analysis is based on a...

  13. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  14. Pore direction in relation to anisotropy of mechanical strength in a cubic starch compact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Stokroos, Ietse; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between preferential direction of pores and mechanical strength of cubic starch compacts. The preferential pore direction was quantified in SEM images of cross sections of starch compacts using a previously described algorithm for

  15. Criticality of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Tsallis, C.; Santos, R.R. dos.

    1984-01-01

    Within a Real Space Renormalization group framework, the criticality (phase diagram, and critical thermal and crossover exponents) of the spin 1/2 - anisotropic quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice is studied. The results obtained are in satisfactory agreement with known results whenever available. (Author) [pt

  16. Criticality of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model on a simple cubic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.; Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Santos, Raimundo R. dos.

    1984-11-01

    Within a Real Space Renormalization Group Framework, the criticality (phase diagram, and critical thermal and crossover exponents) of the spin 1/2 - anisotropic quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice is studied. The results obtained are in antisfactory agreement with known results whenever available. (Author) [pt

  17. The influence of a cubic building on a roof mounted wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Sant, Tonio; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine located above a cubic building is not well understood. This issue is of fundamental importance for the design of small scale wind turbines. One variable which is of particular importance in this respect is the turbine height above roof level. In this work, the

  18. Face-centered-cubic Nb-Si solid solutions produced by picosecond pulsed laser quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.K.; Spaepen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Face-centered-cubic Nb/sub 100-x/Si/sub x/ solid solutions (10 2 . The lattice parameters of these solutions suggest that the solute atoms can be interstitial or substitutional, probably as a result of a change in the quenching conditions

  19. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  20. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  1. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  2. An explicit approximate solution to the Duffing-harmonic oscillator by a cubication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Mendez, D.I.; Fernandez, E.; Marini, S.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a Duffing-harmonic oscillator are investigated by an approximated method based on the 'cubication' of the initial nonlinear differential equation. In this cubication method the restoring force is expanded in Chebyshev polynomials and the original nonlinear differential equation is approximated by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain explicit approximate formulas for the frequency and the solution as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the Jacobi elliptic function, respectively. These explicit formulas are valid for all values of the initial amplitude and we conclude this cubication method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes. Excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones is demonstrated and discussed and the relative error for the approximate frequency is as low as 0.071%. Unlike other approximate methods applied to this oscillator, which are not capable to reproduce exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency when A tends to zero, the cubication method used in this Letter predicts exactly the behaviour of the approximate frequency not only when A tends to infinity, but also when A tends to zero. Finally, a closed-form expression for the approximate frequency is obtained in terms of elementary functions. To do this, the relationship between the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and the arithmetic-geometric mean as well as Legendre's formula to approximately obtain this mean are used.

  3. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  4. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  5. Comparative first-principles calculations of the electronic, optical, elastic and thermodynamic properties of XCaF{sub 3} (X = K, Rb, Cs) cubic perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Wang, Y.-J. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2 Chongwen Road, Nan' an District, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Liu, D.-X.; Ma, C.-G. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2 Chongwen Road, Nan' an District, Chongqing 400065 (China); Brik, M.G., E-mail: mikhail.brik@ut.ee [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2 Chongwen Road, Nan' an District, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwald Str. 1, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Długosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Częstochowa (Poland); Suchocki, A. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2 Chongwen Road, Nan' an District, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Weyssenhoffa 11, 85-072 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Długosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Częstochowa (Poland); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies – Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    Three fluoroperovskites with the general formula XCaF{sub 3} (X = K, Rb, Cs) have been systematically studied using the first-principles methods. The structural, electronic, optical, elastic and thermodynamic properties of these three compounds were calculated at the ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure. Variation of all these properties with pressure was analyzed; it was shown that the structural and elastic constants change linearly with increased pressure, whereas the calculated band gaps follow the quadratic dependence on pressure. Influence of the first cation variation (K – Rb – Cs) on these properties was discussed. Elastic anisotropy (directional dependence of the Young moduli) of these compounds was modeled and analyzed for the first time. - Highlights: • Three cubic perovskites XCaF{sub 3} (X = K, Rb, Cs) were studied by ab initio methods. • Systematic variation of physical properties with the first cation change was traced. • Pressure effects on physical properties were calculated and modeled. • Debye temperature and Grüneisen constant for all materials were calculated for the first time. • Elastic anisotropy was visualized by plotting Young moduli directional dependences.

  6. Electronic properties and bulk moduli of new boron nitride polymorphs, i.e., hyperdiamond B12N12 and simple cubic B24N24, B12N12 fulborenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokropivny, V. V.; Bekenev, V. L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy-band structure, density of states, electron density distribution, equation of state, and bulk moduli of three boron-nitride fulborenite crystals, i.e., B 12 N 12 with diamond lattice and B 24 N 24 , B 12 N 12 with simple cubic lattice, whose sites contain fulborene B 12 N 12 and B 24 N 24 molecules, are calculated for the first time using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The following hyperdiamond B 12 N 12 parameters were obtained: the equilibrium lattice parameter a = 1.1191 nm, the B-N bond length a BN = 0.1405 nm, the number of atoms per unit cell Z = 192, the density ρ = 2.823 g/cm 3 , the bulk modulus B 0 = 658 GPa, and the band gap ΔE g = 3.05 eV. This is a previously unknown unique light superhard semiconductor faujasite with a recorded bulk modulus higher than that of diamond. There are reasons to assume that it is a E phase. The characteristics of B 24 N 24 with simple cubic lattice are as follows: the equilibrium lattice parameter a = 0.7346 nm, the B-N bond length a BN = 0.1521 nm, the number of atoms per unit cell Z = 48, the density ρ = 2.495 g/cm 3 , the bulk modulus B 0 = 367 GPa, and the band gap ΔE g = 3.76 eV. This material is a heteropolar semiconductor or insulator with a bulk modulus comparable with that of cubic boron nitride, as well as a new boron-nitride zeolite with channel diameter of 0.46 nm. B 12 N 12 with simple cubic lattice is a molecular semimetal

  7. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  8. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Characterization Methods for Sigma=3 Twin Defects in Cubic Semiconductor (100) Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Kim, Hyun Jung (Inventor); Skuza, Jonathan R. (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An X-ray defraction (XRD) characterization method for sigma=3 twin defects in cubic semiconductor (100) wafers includes a concentration measurement method and a wafer mapping method for any cubic tetrahedral semiconductor wafers including GaAs (100) wafers and Si (100) wafers. The methods use the cubic semiconductor's (004) pole figure in order to detect sigma=3/{111} twin defects. The XRD methods are applicable to any (100) wafers of tetrahedral cubic semiconductors in the diamond structure (Si, Ge, C) and cubic zinc-blend structure (InP, InGaAs, CdTe, ZnSe, and so on) with various growth methods such as Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth, Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), Czochralski growth and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) growth.

  9. Numerical solutions of magnetohydrodynamic stability of axisymmetric toroidal plasmas using cubic B-spline finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1988-12-01

    A nonvariational ideal MHD stability code (NOVA) has been developed. In a general flux coordinate (/psi/, θ, /zeta/) system with an arbitrary Jacobian, the NOVA code employs Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle θ and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with these variational ideal MHD codes show that the NOVA code converges faster and gives more accurate results. An extended version of NOVA is developed to integrate non-Hermitian eigenmode equations due to energetic particles. The set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations is numerically solved by the NOVA-K code. We have studied the problems of the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes by hot particle pressure and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes by resonating with the energetic particle magnetic drift frequency. Comparisons with analytical solutions show that the values of the critical β/sub h/ from the analytical theory can be an order of magnitude different from those computed by the NOVA-K code. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  10. Numerical solutions of magnetohydrodynamic stability of axisymmetric toroidal plasmas using cubic B-spline finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1988-12-01

    A nonvariational ideal MHD stability code (NOVA) has been developed. In a general flux coordinate (/psi/, theta, /zeta/) system with an arbitrary Jacobian, the NOVA code employs Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle theta and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with these variational ideal MHD codes show that the NOVA code converges faster and gives more accurate results. An extended version of NOVA is developed to integrate non-Hermitian eigenmode equations due to energetic particles. The set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations is numerically solved by the NOVA-K code. We have studied the problems of the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes by hot particle pressure and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes by resonating with the energetic particle magnetic drift frequency. Comparisons with analytical solutions show that the values of the critical ..beta../sub h/ from the analytical theory can be an order of magnitude different from those computed by the NOVA-K code. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hexagonal close packed to face centered cubic polymorphic transformation in nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, S.; Manna, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports a reversible hexagonal close packed (hcp) to face centered cubic (fcc) polymorphic phase transformation in four different nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium binary alloys in the course of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill. This transformation is monitored at appropriate stages by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Lattice parameter of the nanocrystalline fcc phase is a function of the alloy composition. For a given alloy, the lattice parameter and hence volume per atom increase with increase in milling time under comparable conditions. On the other hand, crystallite size, measured from X-ray peak broadening, significantly decreases with the progress of milling. It is suggested that structural instability due to plastic strain, increasing lattice expansion, and negative (from core to boundary) hydrostatic pressure is responsible for this hcp → fcc polymorphic transformation. The said transformation seems reversible as isothermal annealing at 1000 deg. C for 1 h or melting the powder mass leads to partial or complete transformation of the milled product from single phase fcc to hcp

  12. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  13. The phase space of the focused cubic Schroedinger equation: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlakov, Yuri O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    In a paper of 1988 [41] on statistical mechanics of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, it was observed that a Gibbs canonical ensemble associated with the nonlinear Schroedinger equation exhibits behavior reminiscent of a phase transition in classical statistical mechanics. The existence of a phase transition in the canonical ensemble of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation would be very interesting and would have important implications for the role of this equation in modeling physical phenomena; it would also have an important bearing on the theory of weak solutions of nonlinear wave equations. The cubic Schroedinger equation, as will be shown later, is equivalent to the self-induction approximation for vortices, which is a widely used equation of motion for a thin vortex filament in classical and superfluid mechanics. The existence of a phase transition in such a system would be very interesting and actually very surprising for the following reasons: in classical fluid mechanics it is believed that the turbulent regime is dominated by strong vortex stretching, while the vortex system described by the cubic Schroedinger equation does not allow for stretching. In superfluid mechanics the self-induction approximation and its modifications have been used to describe the motion of thin superfluid vortices, which exhibit a phase transition; however, more recently some authors concluded that these equations do not adequately describe superfluid turbulence, and the absence of a phase transition in the cubic Schroedinger equation would strengthen their argument. The self-induction approximation for vortices takes into account only very localized interactions, and the existence of a phase transition in such a simplified system would be very unexpected. In this thesis the authors present a numerical study of the phase transition type phenomena observed in [41]; in particular, they find that these phenomena are strongly related to the splitting of the phase space into

  14. Nonlinear bias compensation of ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery with cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinshan; Fu, Jianhong; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2017-11-01

    Like many high-resolution satellites such as the ALOS, MOMS-2P, QuickBird, and ZiYuan1-02C satellites, the ZiYuan-3 satellite suffers from different levels of attitude oscillations. As a result of such oscillations, the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) obtained using a terrain-independent scenario often have nonlinear biases. In the sensor orientation of ZiYuan-3 imagery based on a rational function model (RFM), these nonlinear biases cannot be effectively compensated by an affine transformation. The sensor orientation accuracy is thereby worse than expected. In order to eliminate the influence of attitude oscillations on the RFM-based sensor orientation, a feasible nonlinear bias compensation approach for ZiYuan-3 imagery with cubic splines is proposed. In this approach, no actual ground control points (GCPs) are required to determine the cubic splines. First, the RPCs are calculated using a three-dimensional virtual control grid generated based on a physical sensor model. Second, one cubic spline is used to model the residual errors of the virtual control points in the row direction and another cubic spline is used to model the residual errors in the column direction. Then, the estimated cubic splines are used to compensate the nonlinear biases in the RPCs. Finally, the affine transformation parameters are used to compensate the residual biases in the RPCs. Three ZiYuan-3 images were tested. The experimental results showed that before the nonlinear bias compensation, the residual errors of the independent check points were nonlinearly biased. Even if the number of GCPs used to determine the affine transformation parameters was increased from 4 to 16, these nonlinear biases could not be effectively compensated. After the nonlinear bias compensation with the estimated cubic splines, the influence of the attitude oscillations could be eliminated. The RFM-based sensor orientation accuracies of the three ZiYuan-3 images reached 0.981 pixels, 0.890 pixels, and 1

  15. Fluid transport properties of rock fractures at high pressure and temperature. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelder, T.; Scholz, C.

    1980-04-01

    Flow rates and thus permeability were measured for a variety of effective pressures on artificially prepared joints in Cheshire quartzite. Permeabilities calculated from constant head tests compare with permeabilities calculated from pulse decay tests. Measurement of the change in aperture with effective pressure shows that at effective pressures of less than 20 MPa changes in confining pressure have a larger influence on the aperture than changes in pore pressure. Joint permeability changes with aperture; thus changes in confining pressure are more influential on permeability than changes in pore pressure. Although a cubic law model for flow along a joint gives a rough estimate of joint permeability, measurements of the changes in flow rate with aperture suggest that the cubic law is inadequate for smooth joints at high pressure. This is so because the effective cross section available for flow changes with pressure in a nonlinear manner.

  16. Effects of High Pressure on Internally Self-Assembled Lipid Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V; Yaghmur, Anan; Steinhart, Milos

    2016-01-01

    We present the first report on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on colloidally stabilized lipid nanoparticles enveloping inverse nonlamellar self-assemblies in their interiors. These internal self-assemblies were systematically tuned into bicontinuous cubic (Pn3m and Im3m), micellar cubic (Fd3...... the tolerance of lipid nanoparticles [cubosomes, hexosomes, micellar cubosomes, and emulsified microemulsions (EMEs)] for high pressures, confirming their robustness for various technological applications.......We present the first report on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on colloidally stabilized lipid nanoparticles enveloping inverse nonlamellar self-assemblies in their interiors. These internal self-assemblies were systematically tuned into bicontinuous cubic (Pn3m and Im3m), micellar cubic (Fd3m......), hexagonal (H2), and inverse micellar (L2) phases by regulating the lipid/oil ratio as the hydrostatic pressure was varied from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar and back to atmospheric pressure. The effects of pressure on these lipid nanoparticles were compared with those on their equilibrium bulk...

  17. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  18. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  19. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  20. Analytic cubic and quartic force fields using density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringholm, Magnus; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jonsson, Dan [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); High Performance Computing Group, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Bast, Radovan [Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden and PDC Center for High Performance Computing, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-01-21

    We present the first analytic implementation of cubic and quartic force constants at the level of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory. The implementation is based on an open-ended formalism for the evaluation of energy derivatives in an atomic-orbital basis. The implementation relies on the availability of open-ended codes for evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals differentiated with respect to nuclear displacements as well as automatic differentiation of the exchange–correlation kernels. We use generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and Hartree–Fock results. The Hartree–Fock anharmonic corrections agree well with the B3LYP corrections when calculated at the B3LYP geometry and from B3LYP normal coordinates, suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

  1. Polarization contrast linear spectroscopies for cubic semiconductors under stress: macro- and micro-reflectance difference spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Castro-Garcia, R.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Chavira-Rodriguez, M. [Departamento de Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The technique to measure optical anisotropies (OA) in cubic semiconductors is termed either reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) or reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). In this paper we report on the application of RDS/RAS to a number of cubic semiconductors. We discuss RD spectra of GaAs, Si, CdTe, GaP, InP and GaSb (001) surfaces, induced by an uniaxial stress applied along [110] crystal directions. We show that all RD spectra can be explained in terms of a phenomenological model based on a perturbative Hamiltonian. We further report on measurements of spatial-resolved RDS measurements of GaAs employing a newly developed micro-RD spectrometer with a spatial resolution of 5 {mu}m. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Discrete exterior calculus approach for discretizing Maxwell's equations on face-centered cubic grids for FDTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Mahbod; Potter, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Maxwell's equations are discretized on a Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) lattice instead of a simple cubic as an alternative to the standard Yee method for improvements in numerical dispersion characteristics and grid isotropy of the method. Explicit update equations and numerical dispersion expressions, and the stability criteria are derived. Also, several tools available to the standard Yee method such as PEC/PMC boundary conditions, absorbing boundary conditions, and scattered field formulation are extended to this method as well. A comparison between the FCC and the Yee formulations is made, showing that the FCC method exhibits better dispersion compared to its Yee counterpart. Simulations are provided to demonstrate both the accuracy and grid isotropy improvement of the method.

  3. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF. The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm.

  4. Nanosize stabilization of cubic and tetragonal phases in reactive plasma synthesized zirconia powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, S., E-mail: sjayakumar.physics@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Department of Physics, Pollachi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi 642 205 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Thiyagarajan, T.K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Perumal, K. [Vision for Wisdom, Temple of Consciousness, Aliyar 642 101 (India); Mishra, S.C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engg, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008 (India); Suresh, G. [Department of Physics, Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 659 (India); Su, L.T.; Tok, A.I.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engg, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)

    2013-06-15

    Pure zirconium oxide powders with particle size 2–33 nm are synthesized by reactive plasma processing. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of these particles revealed size dependent behavior for their phase stabilization. The monoclinic phase is found to be stable when particle size is ≥20 nm; Tetragonal is found to be stabilized in the range of 7–20 nm and as the particle size decreases to 6 nm and less, the cubic phase is stabilized. - Highlights: ► Direct conversion of micron-sized zirconium hydride powder to single crystal ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Size dependent stabilization of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases in the reactive plasma synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Transmission electron microscopic investigation to identify particles of different sizes and their corresponding phase structure.

  5. Numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion systems by modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.C.; Rohila, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have applied modified cubic B-spline based differential quadrature method to get numerical solutions of one dimensional reaction-diffusion systems such as linear reaction-diffusion system, Brusselator system, Isothermal system and Gray-Scott system. The models represented by these systems have important applications in different areas of science and engineering. The most striking and interesting part of the work is the solution patterns obtained for Gray Scott model, reminiscent of which are often seen in nature. We have used cubic B-spline functions for space discretization to get a system of ordinary differential equations. This system of ODE’s is solved by highly stable SSP-RK43 method to get solution at the knots. The computed results are very accurate and shown to be better than those available in the literature. Method is easy and simple to apply and gives solutions with less computational efforts.

  6. An empirical analysis of the quantitative effect of data when fitting quadratic and cubic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavos, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study is made of the extent to which the size of the sample affects the accuracy of a quadratic or a cubic polynomial approximation of an experimentally observed quantity, and the trend with regard to improvement in the accuracy of the approximation as a function of sample size is established. The task is made possible through a simulated analysis carried out by the Monte Carlo method in which data are simulated by using several transcendental or algebraic functions as models. Contaminated data of varying amounts are fitted to either quadratic or cubic polynomials, and the behavior of the mean-squared error of the residual variance is determined as a function of sample size. Results indicate that the effect of the size of the sample is significant only for relatively small sizes and diminishes drastically for moderate and large amounts of experimental data.

  7. pH-responsive lyotropic liquid crystals for the preparation of pure cubic zirconia nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei Yan; Liu, Jin Rong; He, Zhang; Cao, Zhen Zhu; Li, Cai Hong; Gao, Yan Fang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Hohhot (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a lyotropic liquid crystal system consisting of SDS/Triton X-100/water at 25 C. This system is respond to pH variations with a phase switch. When pH is altered from alkaline (pH 13) to acidic (pH 2) conditions, phase change occurs from a bicontinuous hexagonal phase to a partially hexagonal phase until it disappears. The hexagonal phase under alkaline conditions is stable. Thus, this system is an ideal candidate for the preparation of pure cubic ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that the as-synthesized powder is composed of pure cubic ZrO{sub 2}. These nanoparticles also exhibit a thermal stability of up to 800 C. The size and morphological characteristics of the nanoparticles are greatly affected by ZrOCl{sub 2} concentration. The mechanism of zirconia nanoparticle synthesis in a lyotropic hexagonal phase was proposed. (orig.)

  8. Correction of Sample-Time Error for Time-Interleaved Sampling System Using Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guo-jie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sample-time errors can greatly degrade the dynamic range of a time-interleaved sampling system. In this paper, a novel correction technique employing a cubic spline interpolation is proposed for inter-channel sample-time error compensation. The cubic spline interpolation compensation filter is developed in the form of a finite-impulse response (FIR filter structure. The correction method of the interpolation compensation filter coefficients is deduced. A 4GS/s two-channel, time-interleaved ADC prototype system has been implemented to evaluate the performance of the technique. The experimental results showed that the correction technique is effective to attenuate the spurious spurs and improve the dynamic performance of the system.

  9. Cubic Zig-Zag Enrichment of the Classical Kirchhoff Kinematics for Laminated and Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed anaylsis and examples are presented that show how to enrich the kinematics of classical Kirchhoff plate theory by appending them with a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions. This analysis is used to obtain functions that contain the effects of laminate heterogeneity and asymmetry on the variations of the inplane displacements and transverse shearing stresses, for use with a {3, 0} plate theory in which these distributions are specified apriori. The functions used for the enrichment are based on the improved zig-zag plate theory presented recently by Tessler, Di Scuva, and Gherlone. With the approach presented herein, the inplane displacements are represented by a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions, and the transverse shearing stresses and strains are represented by a set of piecewise-quadratic functions that are discontinuous at the ply interfaces.

  10. Rotated domain network in graphene on cubic-SiC(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaika, Alexander N; Aristov, Victor Y; Molodtsova, Olga V; Zakharov, Alexei A; Marchenko, Dmitry; Sánchez-Barriga, Jaime; Varykhalov, Andrei; Babenkov, Sergey V; Portail, Marc; Zielinski, Marcin; Murphy, Barry E; Krasnikov, Sergey A; Lübben, Olaf; Shvets, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The atomic structure of the cubic-SiC(001) surface during ultra-high vacuum graphene synthesis has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction. Atomically resolved STM studies prove the synthesis of a uniform, millimeter-scale graphene overlayer consisting of nanodomains rotated by ±13.5° relative to the 〈110〉-directed boundaries. The preferential directions of the domain boundaries coincide with the directions of carbon atomic chains on the SiC(001)-c(2 × 2) reconstruction, fabricated prior to graphene synthesis. The presented data show the correlation between the atomic structures of the SiC(001)-c(2 × 2) surface and the graphene/SiC(001) rotated domain network and pave the way for optimizing large-area graphene synthesis on low-cost cubic-SiC(001)/Si(001) wafers. (paper)

  11. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  12. The influence of a cubic building on a roof mounted wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micallef, Daniel; Sant, Tonio; Ferreira, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine located above a cubic building is not well understood. This issue is of fundamental importance for the design of small scale wind turbines. One variable which is of particular importance in this respect is the turbine height above roof level. In this work, the power performance of a small wind turbine is assessed as a function of the height above the roof of a generic cubic building. A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a 10m x 10m x 10m building is used with the turbine modelled as an actuator disc. Results have shown an improvement in the average power coefficient even in cases where the rotor is partially located within the roof separation zone. This goes against current notions of small wind turbine power production. This study can be of particular importance to guide the turbine installation height on building roof tops. (paper)

  13. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2009-02-26

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  14. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.; Fernà ndez-Altable, V.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Dal Molin, D. C. C.; Casanova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  15. Single-particle And Collective Effects Of Cubic Nonlinearity In The Beam Dynamics Of Proton Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tran Hy, J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes some new studies of the effects of cubic nonlinearities arising from image-charge forces and octupole magnets on the transverse beam dynamics of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, and also a study of the damping of coherent oscillations using a feed-back damper. In the latter case, various corrective algorithms were modeled using linear one-turn maps. Kicks of fixed amplitude but appropriate sign were shown to provide linear damping and no coherent tune shift, though the rate predicted analytically was somewhat higher than that observed in simulations. This algorithm gave much faster damping (for equal power) than conventional proportional kicks, which damp exponentially. Two single-particle effects of the image-change force were investigated: distortion of the momentum dispersion function and amplitude dependence of the betatron tunes (resulting in tune spread). The former is calculated using transfer maps and the method of undetermined coefficients, the latter by solving the cubic ...

  16. Enzymatic biofuel cell based on electrodes modified with lipid liquid-crystalline cubic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruk, Ewa; Smoliński, Sławomir; Swatko-Ossor, Marta; Ginalska, Grażyna; Fiedurek, Jan; Rogalski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    Two glassy carbon electrodes modified with enzymes embedded in lyotropic liquid-crystalline cubic phase were used for the biofuel cell construction. The monoolein liquid-crystalline film allowed to avoid separators in the biofuel cell. Glucose and oxygen as fuels, and glucose oxidase and laccase as anode and cathode biocatalysts, respectively were used. The biofuel cell parameters were examined in McIlvaine buffer, pH 7 solution containing 15 mM of glucose and saturated with dioxygen. A series of mediators were tested taking into account their formal potentials, stability in the cubic phase and efficiency of mediation. Most stable was the biofuel cell based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as anode and cathode mediators, respectively. The open-circuit voltage was equal to 450 ± 40 mV. The power densities and current densities were measured for all the systems studied.

  17. Application of PC-SAFT and cubic equations of state for the correlation of solubility of some pharmaceutical and statin drugs in SC-CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah El Hadj. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the solubilities of some anti-inflammatory (nabumetone, phenylbutazone and salicylamide and statin drugs (fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin were correlated using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT with one-parameter mixing rule and commonly used cubic equations of state Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK combining with van-der Waals-1 parameter (VDW1 and van-der Waals-2 parameters (VDW2 mixing rules. The experimental data for studied compounds were taken from literature at temperature and pressure in ranges (308-348 K and (100-360 bar respectively. The critical properties required for the correlation with PR and SRK were estimated using Gani and Noonalol contribution group methods whereas, PC-SAFT pure-component parameters; segment number (m, segment diameter (σ and energy parameter (ε/k have been estimated by tihic’s group contribution method for nabumetone. For phenylbutazone and salicylamide those parameters were determined using a linear correlation. For statin drugs, PC-SAFT parameters were fitted to solubility data, and binary interaction parameters (kij and lij have been obtained by fitting the experimental data. The result was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data and showed that PC-SAFT approach can be used to model solid-SCF equilibrium with better correlation accuracy than cubic equations of state.

  18. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  19. Theoretical study on recoilless fractions of simple cubic monatomic nanocrystalline particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianping; Wang Luya

    2002-01-01

    Recoilless fractions of simple cubic monatomic nanocrystalline particles are calculated by using displacement-displacement Green's function. The numerical results show that the recoilless fractions on the surface of monatomic nanocrystalline particles are smaller than those in the inner, and they decrease when the particle size increase, the recoilless fractions of whole monatomic nanocrystalline particles increase when the particle size increase. These effects are more evident when the temperature is higher

  20. Inelastic collision of two solitons for generalized BBM equation with cubic nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingdong Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the inelastic collision of two solitary waves of different velocities for the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM equation with cubic nonlinearity. It shows that one solitary wave is smaller than the other one in the H^1(R energy space. We explore the sharp estimates of the nonzero residue due to the collision, and prove the inelastic collision of two solitary waves and nonexistence of a pure 2-soliton solution.

  1. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  2. Cubic spline numerical solution of an ablation problem with convective backface cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Wang, P.; Kahawita, R.

    1984-08-01

    An implicit numerical technique using cubic splines is presented for solving an ablation problem on a thin wall with convective cooling. A non-uniform computational mesh with 6 grid points has been used for the numerical integration. The method has been found to be computationally efficient, providing for the care under consideration of an overall error of about 1 percent. The results obtained indicate that the convective cooling is an important factor in reducing the ablation thickness.

  3. A splitting algorithm for the wavelet transform of cubic splines on a nonuniform grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimanov, Z. M.; Shumilov, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    For cubic splines with nonuniform nodes, splitting with respect to the even and odd nodes is used to obtain a wavelet expansion algorithm in the form of the solution to a three-diagonal system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients. Computations by hand are used to investigate the application of this algorithm for numerical differentiation. The results are illustrated by solving a prediction problem.

  4. On the accurate fast evaluation of finite Fourier integrals using cubic splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, N.

    1993-01-01

    Finite Fourier integrals based on a cubic-splines fit to equidistant data are shown to be evaluated fast and accurately. Good performance, especially on computational speed, is achieved by the optimization of the spline fit and the internal use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm for complex data. The present procedure provides high accuracy with much shorter CPU time than a trapezoidal FFT. (author)

  5. Deformation behaviour of body centered cubic Fe nanowires under tensile and compressive loading

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath, G.; Choudhary, B. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate the deformation behaviour of /{111} body centered cubic (BCC) Fe nanowires under tensile and compressive loading. An embedded atom method (EAM) potential was used to describe the interatomic interactions. The simulations were carried out at 10 K with a constant strain rate of $1\\times10^{8}$ $s^{-1}$. The results indicate a significant differences in deformation mechanisms under tensile and compressive loading. Under ten...

  6. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  7. Ion-induced stress relaxation during the growth of cubic boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abendroth, B.E.

    2004-08-01

    in this thesis the deposition of cubic boron nitride films by magnetron sputtering is described. The deposition process is analyzed by Langmuir-probe measurement and energy resolved mass spectroscopy. the films are studied by stress measurement, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Discussed are the stress relaxation and the microstructure and bonding characteristics together with the effects of ion bombardement. (HSI)

  8. Solutions to the equations describing materials with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Na, Zhao; Ji, Lin; Zi-Shuang, Tong

    2009-01-01

    The Lie group theoretical method is used to study the equations describing materials with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The equations share some of the nice properties of soliton equations. From the elliptic functions expansion method, we obtain large families of analytical solutions, in special cases, we have the periodic, kink and solitary solutions of the equations. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of these solutions under the perturbation of amplitude noises by numerical simulation

  9. Frustrated Heisenberg Antiferromagnets on Cubic Lattices: Magnetic Structures, Exchange Gaps, and Non-Conventional Critical Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatenko, A. N.; Irkhin, V. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the Heisenberg antiferromagnets characterized by the magnetic structures with the periods being two times larger than the lattice period. We have considered all the types of the Bravais lattices (simple cubic, bcc and fcc) and divided all these antiferromagnets into 7 classes i.e. 3 plus 4 classes denoted with symbols A and B correspondingly. The order parameter characterizing the degeneracies of the magnetic structures is an ordinary Neel vector for A classes and so-called 4-...

  10. On the reflection of solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, we perform a numerical study on the interesting phenomenon of soliton reflection of solid walls. We consider the 2D cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as the underlying mathematical model, and we use an implicit-explicit type Crank-Nicolson finite element scheme for its numerical solution. After verifying the perfect reflection of the solitons on a vertical wall, we present the imperfect reflection of a dark soliton on a diagonal wall.

  11. Nano- and microsized cubic gel particles from cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuki; Ishiwata, Takumi; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2012-10-15

    Sweet cube o' mine: Bottom-up control of gel particles has been regarded as a great challenge. By employing internal cross-linking of cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks, cubic sugar gels were formed with sharp edges that reflect the shape of the crystals. This enabled the fabrication of shape- and size-controlled polymer gels from porous crystals (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Criticality of the bond-diluted Ising ferromagnet in a semi-infinite simple cubic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.R. da; Tsallis, C.; Sarmento, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and universality classes of the quenched bond-diluted spin 1/2 Ising ferromagnetic in a semi-infinite simple cubic lattice with a (0,0,1) free surface. We observe that surface ferromagnetism persists below the d=2 percolation threshold p c 2D = 1/2, in fact down to pc∼0,42. (M.W.O.) [pt

  13. Curvelet-domain multiple matching method combined with cubic B-spline function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Wang, Deli; Tian, Mi; Hu, Bin; Liu, Chengming

    2018-05-01

    Since the large amount of surface-related multiple existed in the marine data would influence the results of data processing and interpretation seriously, many researchers had attempted to develop effective methods to remove them. The most successful surface-related multiple elimination method was proposed based on data-driven theory. However, the elimination effect was unsatisfactory due to the existence of amplitude and phase errors. Although the subsequent curvelet-domain multiple-primary separation method achieved better results, poor computational efficiency prevented its application. In this paper, we adopt the cubic B-spline function to improve the traditional curvelet multiple matching method. First, select a little number of unknowns as the basis points of the matching coefficient; second, apply the cubic B-spline function on these basis points to reconstruct the matching array; third, build constraint solving equation based on the relationships of predicted multiple, matching coefficients, and actual data; finally, use the BFGS algorithm to iterate and realize the fast-solving sparse constraint of multiple matching algorithm. Moreover, the soft-threshold method is used to make the method perform better. With the cubic B-spline function, the differences between predicted multiple and original data diminish, which results in less processing time to obtain optimal solutions and fewer iterative loops in the solving procedure based on the L1 norm constraint. The applications to synthetic and field-derived data both validate the practicability and validity of the method.

  14. First-principles cluster variation calculations of tetragonal-cubic transition in ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Tetsuo; Chen, Ying; Kiyokane, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cluster variation method is extended to study displacive transition. ► Electronic structure total energy calculations are performed on ZrO2. ► Tetragonal-cubic transition is studied within the framework of order -disorder transition. -- Abstract: It is attempted to extend the basic idea of continuous displacement cluster variation method (CDCVM) to the study of a displacive phase transition. As a preliminary study, we focus on cubic to tetragonal transition in ZrO 2 in which oxygen atoms on the cubic lattice are displaced alternatively in the opposite direction (upward and downward) along the tetragonal axis. Within the CDCVM, displaced atoms are regarded as different atomic species, and two distinguished atoms, A-oxygen (upward shifting) and B-oxygen (downward shifting), are introduced in the description of the free energy. FLAPW electronic structure total energy calculations are performed to extract effective interaction energies among displaced oxygen atoms, and by combing them with CDCVM, the transition temperature is calculated from the first-principles

  15. On the magnetization process and the associated probability in anisotropic cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedr, D.M., E-mail: doaamohammed88@gmail.com [Department of Basic Science, Modern Academy of Engineering and Technology at Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, Samy H.; Shabara, Reham M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at Damietta, University of Damietta, Damietta (Egypt); Yehia, Sherif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at Helwan, University of Helwan, Helwan (Egypt)

    2017-05-15

    We present a theoretical method to calculate specific magnetic properties, e.g. magnetization curves, magnetic susceptibility and probability landscapes along the [100], [110] and [111] crystallographic directions of a crystal of cubic symmetry. The probability landscape displays the evolution of the most probable angular orientation of the magnetization vector, for selected temperatures and magnetic fields. Our method is based on the premises of classical statistical mechanics. The energy density, used in the partition function, is the sum of magnetic anisotropy and Zeeman energies, however no other energies e.g. elastic or magnetoelastic terms are considered in the present work. Model cubic systems of diverse anisotropies are analyzed first, and subsequently material magnetic systems of cubic symmetry; namely iron, nickel and Co{sub x} Fe{sub 100−x} compounds, are discussed. We highlight a correlation between magnetization curves and the associated probability landscapes. In addition, determination of easiest axes of magnetization, using energy consideration, is done and compared with the results of the present method.

  16. The influence of coordinated defects on inhomogeneous broadening in cubic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, P. L., E-mail: phil.matheson@uvu.edu; Sullivan, Francis P.; Evenson, William E. [Utah Valley University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The joint probability distribution function (JPDF) of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components in cubic materials is dominated by coordinated pairings of defects in shells near probe nuclei. The contributions from these inner shell combinations and their surrounding structures contain the essential physics that determine the PAC-relevant quantities derived from them. The JPDF can be used to predict the nature of inhomogeneous broadening (IHB) in perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments by modeling the G{sub 2} spectrum and finding expectation values for V{sub zz} and η. The ease with which this can be done depends upon the representation of the JPDF. Expanding on an earlier work by Czjzek et al. (Hyperfine Interact. 14, 189–194, 1983), Evenson et al. (Hyperfine Interact. 237, 119, 2016) provide a set of coordinates constructed from the EFG tensor invariants they named W{sub 1} and W{sub 2}. Using this parameterization, the JPDF in cubic structures was constructed using a point charge model in which a single trapped defect (TD) is the nearest neighbor to a probe nucleus. Individual defects on nearby lattice sites pair with the TD to provide a locus of points in the W{sub 1}−W{sub 2} plane around which an amorphous-like distribution of probability density grows. Interestingly, however, marginal, separable PDFs appear adequate to model IHB relevant cases. We present cases from simulations in cubic materials illustrating the importance of these near-shell coordinations.

  17. Particle linear theory on a self-gravitating perturbed cubic Bravais lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, B.

    2008-01-01

    Discreteness effects are a source of uncontrolled systematic errors of N-body simulations, which are used to compute the evolution of a self-gravitating fluid. We have already developed the so-called ''particle linear theory''(PLT), which describes the evolution of the position of self-gravitating particles located on a perturbed simple cubic lattice. It is the discrete analogue of the well-known (Lagrangian) linear theory of a self-gravitating fluid. Comparing both theories permits us to quantify precisely discreteness effects in the linear regime. It is useful to develop the PLT also for other perturbed lattices because they represent different discretizations of the same continuous system. In this paper we detail how to implement the PLT for perturbed cubic Bravais lattices (simple, body, and face-centered) in a cubic simulation box. As an application, we will study the discreteness effects--in the linear regime--of N-body simulations for which initial conditions have been set up using these different lattices.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO₂templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Tang, Peisong; Ge, Mingyuan; Xu, Xiaobin; Cao, Feng; Jiang, J Z

    2011-04-15

    Size-tunable GeO₂ nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO₂ nanocomposites were prepared at pH ≈ 7 and 80 °C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO₂ nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO₂ cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO₂ nanocubes and Au/GeO₂ nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO2 templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Tang, Peisong; Ge, Mingyuan; Xu, Xiaobin; Cao, Feng; Jiang, J. Z.

    2011-04-01

    Size-tunable GeO2 nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO2 nanocomposites were prepared at pH ≈ 7 and 80 °C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO2 nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO2 cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO2 nanocubes and Au/GeO2 nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO2 templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cen; Ge Mingyuan; Xu Xiaobin; Jiang, J Z; Tang Peisong; Cao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Size-tunable GeO 2 nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO 2 nanocomposites were prepared at pH ∼ 7 and 80 deg. C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO 2 nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO 2 cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO 2 nanocubes and Au/GeO 2 nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.