WorldWideScience

Sample records for length body proportion

  1. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Varela-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia, sitting height (trunk length + head length and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature, or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100, among others are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness, coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.

  2. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-03-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature x 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.

  3. The association between social factors and body length proportions in Polish schoolchildren from Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies worldwide have shown that social factors are significantly associated with growth in childhood. However, very few researchers studied influence of social factors on body length proportions. The aim of the present study was the assessment how urbanization level, sibship size and parental education may affect body length proportions in schoolchildren. 325 boys and 335 girls aged 7-18 years were measured in schools in Wrocław, two small towns and villages around these towns. Height, sitting height, leg length , and lower leg length were measured in all children, then relative lengths (in relation to height were calculated: leg, femur, lower leg, estimated leg and lower leg length to leg length ratio. Height was standardized on age using LMS parameters for CDC 2002 year cohort. Other indices were standardized on age by using residuals variance derived from linear regressions. Four-way analysis of variance was used for height and each index, where independent variables were four social factors. Except for father’s education in boys, no other social factor was significant associated with height. Urbanization level significantly differed almost all indices, whereas father’s education level was significantly associated with relative leg length in girls and estimated leg length in both sexes. Our study has shown that the segments of lower limb seems to be more sensitive than height to the effect of social factors. In Lower Silesia, the level of urbanization is still related to differences in environmental conditions, enough to significantly affect growth of children, especially within the segments of lower limbs.

  4. Effects of Lower Limb Length and Body Proportions on the Energy Cost of Overground Walking in Older Persons

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    Federica Vannetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although walking has been extensively investigated in its biomechanical and physiological aspects, little is known on whether lower limb length and body proportions affect the energy cost of overground walking in older persons. Methods. We enrolled 50 men and 12 women aged 65 years and over, mean 69.1 ± SD 5.4, who at the end of their cardiac rehabilitation program performed the six-minute walk test while wearing a portable device for direct calorimetry and who walked a distance comparable to that of nondisabled community-dwelling older persons. Results. In the multivariable regression model (F = 12.75, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.278 the energy cost of overground walking, expressed as the net energy expenditure, in kg−1 sec−1, needed to provide own body mass with 1 joule kinetic energy, was inversely related to lower limb length and directly related to lower limb length to height ratio (β±SEβ = -3.72*10-3±0.74*10-3, P<0.001, and 6.61*10-3±2.14*10-3, P=0.003, resp.. Ancillary analyses also showed that, altogether, 1 cm increase in lower limb length reduced the energy cost of overground walking by 2.57% (95%CI 2.35–2.79. Conclusions. Lower limb length and body proportions actually affect the energy cost of overground walking in older persons.

  5. Leg length, proportion, health and beauty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2009-12-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (foot + tibia + femur), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions (for example the relative leg length in proportion to stature, and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/stature x 100], among others) are used as epidemiological markers of risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e. a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) is the first genomic region that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, in most cases research has been showing that environment is a more powerful force to shape leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. There are a variety of cosmetic, fashion, and surgical interventions to enhance perceived or actual leg length.

  6. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  7. Adaptive differences in the body proportions of large felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyea, W J

    1976-01-01

    Body proportions of eight species of large felids were studied and the relationship between their morphology, habitat structure and habitat utilization was analyzed. Both Panthera onca and Neofelis nebulosa are exclusive forest dwellers (found exclusively in high densly structured habitats). These felids have the relatively shortest anterior limbs and lumbar spine. In addition, P. onca has the relatively shortest posterior limbs of the large felids, while the posterior limbs of N. nebulosa are relatively long when compared with those of P. onca which seems to be an adaptation for jumping. All large fields use the anterior limbs to make primary contact with their prey. In addition, the prey taken by the forest fields can exceed their own body weight. On the other hand, the cheetah is found in low structured habitats (savanna), and it has the relatively longest limbs and lumbarspine of the large felids. But the cheetah's prey usually weigh less than its own body weight. The cheetah also employs a 'rapid pursuit phase' in hunting and is capable of overtaking its prey. The lion, however, was found to have the body proportions of a forest felid, yet it also resides in low structured habitats. It is postulated that the utilization of large prey by the lion limits the possibilities for morphological adaptations for speed. To increase hunting efficiency, reproductive success, and territorial defense on the plains, lions form prides.

  8. Physical growth of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos: body size, proportion, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F E; Laughlin, W S; Harper, A B; Ensroth, A E

    1982-08-01

    Growth patterns of body size, proportion, and composition were analyzed in 57 male and 56 female Eskimos from St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, ranging in age from 1.23 through 19.82 years. Age-groups means for whites and blacks of the U.S. Health Examination Survey served as reference data. Relative to HES data, the Eskimo sample were shorter with lower values for leg length, while there were no differences from the reference values for sitting height. The Eskimos also had higher values of Quetelet's Index, the sitting height/height ratio, and the upper arm muscle circumference, while there were no differences in body weight or triceps skinfold thickness. Differences from the reference data were more pronounced in males than in females. The growth patterns for size and body proportion are in conformity with known relationships between morphology and climate.

  9. Proportional Smile Design: Using the Recurring Esthetic Dental Proportion to Correlate the Widths and Lengths of the Maxillary Anterior Teeth with the Size of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel H

    2015-07-01

    Proportional smile design is a useful tool for evaluating and designing smiles that are in harmony with the face. Although not always observed in nature, the recurring esthetic dental proportion is preferred by dentists surveyed to the width proportions observed in nature with normal-length teeth. The width/length ratio of the central incisor is a key determinant in providing a smile that is pleasing to dentists. Using the desired tooth length while maintaining the preferred 78% width/length ratio of the central incisor in conjunction with the recommended recurring esthetic dental proportion is a good method for designing a smile balanced with the face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body length and head growth in the first year of life in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalen, E. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Dietz, C.; Engeland, H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Data on the growth of the head in the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorders are inconsistent. We measured head circumference and body length during the first year of life, and determined whether the head grew in proportion to body length. This is a case-control study nested i

  11. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  12. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  13. The length and proportions of the thoracolumbar spine in children with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, L B; Miller, J A

    1981-01-01

    The length of the thoracolumbar spine was measured on standardized X-ray films from 274 children (6 1/2--18 1/2 years) with idiopathic scoliosis and 212 controls. Where possible, the height and width (traverse diameter) of two vertebral bodies (T-6 and L-4) were also measured. Although a tendency towards longer spines in the scoliotics could be found, there was no significant difference between children with idiopathic scoliosis and controls in this respect. In girls the pubertal growth-spurt of the spine was found to start about 1 year earlier than in the controls and the growth of the spine seemed to cease later in the scoliotics. The height and width of T-6 was significantly greater in the scoliotics than in the controls for girls under 13 years of age. In the older girls and in the boys no significant difference could be demonstrated. The height of L-4 tended to be greater in the scoliotic boys and younger girls, though the differences were not statistically significant. The index height/width was calculated for T-6 and L-4 in all groups of patients and higher values could be demonstrated in the scoliotics for all test groups. The greatest height of T-6 in scoliotics might indicate a longer thoracic spine in these children. The higher values of the height/width indices suggest that the thoracolumbar spine in children with idiopathic scoliosis has an increased slenderness compared with the spine in non-scoliotic children.

  14. Estimating head and body length in fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates for head and body length (HBL) of fossil rodents. We assembled HBL data and tooth row length data (LTR, UTR) for a large number of extant rodents, and calculated regression lines of HBL on LTR and UTR for all rodents together (all-rodents equation), and for separate taxonomic gr

  15. The Standard Error of a Proportion for Different Scores and Test Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Walker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Smith's (2003 proposed standard error of a proportion index..associated with the idea of reliability as sufficiency of information. A detailed table..indexing all of the standard error values affiliated with assessments that range from 5 to..100 items, where students scored as low as 50% correct and 50% incorrect to as high as..95% correct and 5% incorrect, calculated in increments of 1 percentage point, is..presented, along with distributional qualities. Examples using this measure for classroom..teachers and higher education instructors of assessment are provided.

  16. [Health behaviours in children and youth based on perception own's proportions of body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Kamila; Kochan, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is analyse perceptions, intentions and actions related with own proportions of body conections with assessment to actual weight and height proportions (BMI) children and youth from Polkowice. Material examination includes measurement from research conducted in autumn of 2008 of Polkowice (Lower Silesia). Refine material includes measurement and survey 816 pupils (362 boys and 454 girls) aged 10 - 15 of primary schools and secondary school. Body height and weight were measured and calculated on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI). According to the international standards--cut off points for overweight and obesity by Cole et al. (2000). Estimate the frequency of overweight and obesity among the examined population. Some information about self-body proportions and activities undertaken to change them was obtained from a survey titled Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The frequency of overweight among the examined population is more common by boys (17.7%) than by girls (12.8%). Obesity was observed among 4.7% of boys and 4.4% of girls. In the group of children and youth with overweight 42.2% boys and 67.2% girls correctly describes to actual weight and height proportions. Among the children and young people classified as overweight 88.9% boys and 75% girls perceived themselves as "too fat". Among the respondents with overweight and obesity 67.9% boys and 85.9% have declared trying to lose weight. The most popular methods used to regulating body weight are physical exercises and low-calories diet. Girls in comparing to boys they more often declare for lowering the body weight. The most popular method used to accomplish this aim is physical activity. One should explain to pupils of the appropriate body mass for the health and acquaint objective methods of estimation of the weight and height proportions and safe methods of their regulation.

  17. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone (GH

  18. Body proportions during long-term growth hormone treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); W.J. Gerver; R. de Bruin (Rob); Th. Stijnen (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); T.J. Cole (Trevor); A. van Teunenbroek (Arne); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTo assess body proportions in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment, height, sitting height (SH), hand (Hand) and foot (Foot) lengths, and biacromial (Biac) and biiliacal (Biil) diameters were measured in 68 girls with TS participatin

  19. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  20. Minimal length, maximal momentum and thermodynamics of black body radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shababi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study thermodynamics of black body radiation in the presence of quantum gravitational effects through a Generalized Uncertainty Principle that admits both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum. We focus on quantum gravity induced modifications of thermodynamical quantities in this framework. Some important issues such as the generalized Planck distribution, Wien s law and Dulong Petit law are studied in this setup with details.

  1. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The physiological period length of the human circadian clock in vivo is directly proportional to period in human fibroblasts.

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    Lucia Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diurnal behavior in humans is governed by the period length of a circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain hypothalamus. Nevertheless, the cell-intrinsic mechanism of this clock is present in most cells of the body. We have shown previously that for individuals of extreme chronotype ("larks" and "owls", clock properties measured in human fibroblasts correlated with extreme diurnal behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have measured circadian period in human primary fibroblasts taken from normal individuals and, for the first time, compared it directly with physiological period measured in vivo in the same subjects. Human physiological period length was estimated via the secretion pattern of the hormone melatonin in two different groups of sighted subjects and one group of totally blind subjects, each using different methods. Fibroblast period length was measured via cyclical expression of a lentivirally delivered circadian reporter. Within each group, a positive linear correlation was observed between circadian period length in physiology and in fibroblast gene expression. Interestingly, although blind individuals showed on average the same fibroblast clock properties as sighted ones, their physiological periods were significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the period of human circadian behaviour is mostly driven by cellular clock properties in normal individuals and can be approximated by measurement in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts. Based upon differences among sighted and blind subjects, we also speculate that period can be modified by prolonged unusual conditions such as the total light deprivation of blindness.

  3. Impact of work performance on body proportions in Blacksmiths: A somatometric analysis

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    AjitPal Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Traditional Occupation' is the one, which a person acquires or inherits from his parents and passes it on to the next generation. Gross body size and other morphological characteristics of a person involved in such type of occupations provide clues regarding the developmental adaptations these people have undergone in response to variety of work factors or stresses. Present study has been conducted on one of the traditional occupational group of Punjab, the Blacksmiths. A total of 200 adult males ranging in age from 30 to 40 years were measured for various anthropometric measurements of upper limb, lower limb and trunk region on both right as well as left sides of the body with a view to assess their proportionality profiles and body asymmetry. Findings of the study indicate that Blacksmiths have balanced endomorph type (4.55-3.39-2.99 of body physique and shows maximum bilateral asymmetry in the upper region of the body and direction of asymmetry is towards right side.

  4. Trade-offs in relative limb length among Peruvian children: extending the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447 we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia and autopod (hand and foot lengths. RESULTS: Highland children (exposed to greater stress had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that

  5. Trade-offs in relative limb length among Peruvian children: extending the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447) we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia) and autopod (hand and foot) lengths. Highland children (exposed to greater stress) had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head) may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that certain elements of limb growth may be sacrificed under tough

  6. Estimating a child's age from an image using whole body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Teghan; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-02-23

    The use and distribution of child pornography is an increasing problem. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to estimate a child's age from a photograph. Previous studies have attempted to estimate the age of children from photographs using ratios of the face. Here, we propose to include body measurement ratios into age estimates. A total of 1603 boys and 1833 girls aged 5-16 years were measured over a 10-year period. They are 'Cape Coloured' children from South Africa. Their age was regressed on ratios derived from anthropometric measurements of the head as well as the body. Multiple regression equations including four ratios for each sex (head height to shoulder and hip width, knee width, leg length and trunk length) have a standard error of 1.6-1.7 years. The error is of the same order as variation of differences between biological and chronological ages of the children. Thus, the error cannot be minimised any further as it is a direct reflection of a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  7. The low prevalence of weight-for-height deficits in Brazilian children is related to body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, C L; Victora, C G

    2001-04-01

    Compared with children from other regions, Latin American children living in poverty have much lower prevalences of weight-for-height deficits than would be expected given the observed rates of stunting. This study was aimed at investigating whether variations in body proportions, particularly abdominal circumference, could explain this paradoxical finding. In a cross-sectional study, children aged 12-35 mo (n = 197) were studied in Southern Brazil. Half of these children were from a high socioeconomic status (SES) group whose growth closely resembled that of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference; the other half were from low income families. The following 11 anthropometric measurements were collected: weight, height, sitting height/crown-rump length, head, chest, upper arm and abdominal circumference, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds. These measures were compared between the two groups of children and with values for North American children [mostly from Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II)]. For nearly all measures, low SES Brazilian children tended to be smaller than both high SES and North American children. However, when body proportionality was assessed by dividing the measurements by the child's height, these differences tended to disappear or even to change direction, as was the case for head, chest and abdominal circumferences. Mean abdominal circumference was virtually identical between low and high SES children, and the former had larger abdomens for a given height. Despite slight differences in measuring techniques, Brazilian children had larger abdomens than North Americans. These findings may explain in part why deprived Latin American children have higher weights for their height compared with the NCHS/WHO reference.

  8. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  9. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  10. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  11. Somatotype, body composition and proportionality in polish top greco-roman wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Zarów, Ryszard T

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (psomatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0-6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also be observed. Higher sport experience with lower endomorphy (tendencies for lower fat content) and Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio are interrelated with higher competition level presented by wrestlers.

  12. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  13. Proportion of neonatal readmission attributed to length of stay for childbirth: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy; Mathai, Matthews; Liu, Shiliang; Leon, Juan Andres; Joseph, K S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Most literature on length of stay (LOS) for childbirth focuses on ‘early’ discharge as opposed to ‘optimal’ time of discharge and has conflicting results due to heterogeneous definitions of ‘early’ discharge and differing eligibility criteria for these programmes. We aimed to determine the LOS associated with the lowest neonatal readmission rate following childbirth by examining the incidence pattern of neonatal readmission for different LOS using the Kitagawa decomposition. Design Retrospective cohort study using administrative hospitalisation data. Setting Canada (excluding Quebec) from 2003 to 2010. Patients Term, singleton live births without congenital anomalies. Interventions LOS for childbirth. Main outcome measure Neonatal readmissions within 30 days of birth. Results 1 875 322 live births were included. Neonatal LOS peaked at day 1 (47.3%) after vaginal birth and day 3 (49.3%) following caesarean section; 4.2% of infants were readmitted following vaginal birth and 2.2% after caesarean section. In 2008–2010, most readmissions occurred among infants discharged in the first 2 days (83.8%) following a vaginal birth and among infants discharged in the first 3 days (81.7%) following a caesarean birth. Readmissions increased from 4.1% in 2003–2005 to 4.6% in 2008–2010 among vaginal births and from 2.0% to 2.4% among caesarean births and occurred mostly due to changes in the day-specific readmission rates and not due to reductions in LOS. Conclusions Patterns of readmission suggest that readmission rates are lowest following a 1–2-day stay following a vaginal birth and a 2–4-day stay following a caesarean birth given the outpatient support in the community. PMID:27630070

  14. Gestation length, metabolic rate, and body and brain weights in primates: epigenetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B B

    1989-10-01

    The relationship of brain and body weights can be expressed in log-log regression: log (brain weight) = log (A) + B log (body weight). To investigate further the weights' similarity, gestation length and brain and body weights were determined from the literature for 46 primate genera. The results of allometric and path regression analyses suggest that the relationship between brain and body weights may not be mainly pleiotropic in the order Primates. The correlation between brain and body weights appears to be due to epigenetic factors in hyperplastic growth related to time constraint by gestation length and to energy utilization limitations imposed by metabolic rate.

  15. C. elegans feeding defective mutants have shorter body lengths and increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörck, Catarina; Pilon, Marc

    2006-08-03

    Mutations that cause feeding defects in the nematode C. elegans are known to increase life span. Here we show that feeding defective mutants also have a second general trait in common, namely that they are small. Our measurements of the body lengths of a variety of feeding defective mutants, or of a variety of double mutants affecting other pathways that regulate body length in C. elegans, i.e. the DBL-1/TGFbeta, TAX-6/calcineurin and the SMA-1/betaH-spectrin pathways, indicate that food uptake acts as a separate pathway regulating body length. In early stages, before eating begins, feeding defective worms have no defect in body length or, in some cases, have only slightly smaller body length compared to wild-type. A significant difference in body length is first noticeable at later larval stages, a difference that probably correlates with increasing starvation. We also show that autophagy is induced and that the quantity of fat is decreased in starved worms. Our results indicate that the long-term starvation seen in feeding-defective C. elegans mutants activates autophagy, and leads to depletion of fat deposits, small cell size and small body size.

  16. C. elegans feeding defective mutants have shorter body lengths and increased autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilon Marc

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that cause feeding defects in the nematode C. elegans are known to increase life span. Here we show that feeding defective mutants also have a second general trait in common, namely that they are small. Results Our measurements of the body lengths of a variety of feeding defective mutants, or of a variety of double mutants affecting other pathways that regulate body length in C. elegans, i.e. the DBL-1/TGFβ, TAX-6/calcineurin and the SMA-1/βH-spectrin pathways, indicate that food uptake acts as a separate pathway regulating body length. In early stages, before eating begins, feeding defective worms have no defect in body length or, in some cases, have only slightly smaller body length compared to wild-type. A significant difference in body length is first noticeable at later larval stages, a difference that probably correlates with increasing starvation. We also show that autophagy is induced and that the quantity of fat is decreased in starved worms. Conclusion Our results indicate that the long-term starvation seen in feeding-defective C. elegans mutants activates autophagy, and leads to depletion of fat deposits, small cell size and small body size.

  17. Changes in Mammalian Body Length over 175 Years - Adaptations to a Fragmented Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Martin Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential consequences of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on species diversity and extinction have drawn considerable attention in recent decades. In many cases, traditional island biogeography theory has been applied to explain the observed patterns. Here, we propose that habitat fragmentation as a selective force can be traced in mammalian body length changes. By exploring historical sources, we are able to show that the body length of Danish mammals has altered over a period of 175 years, possibly in response to increasing habitat fragmentation. The rate of body length change was generally lowest in medium-sized mammals, and increased with both smaller and larger body mass. Small mammals have generally increased, whereas large mammals have decreased in length. In addition to habitat fragmentation, some species may experience other selective forces, such as traffic, and may be trapped in an evolutionary tug-of-war, where the selective forces pull in opposite directions.

  18. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (males, in November

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in November 2009.November is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  19. Study Regarding the Correlation between Body Mass and Spur Length in Hunting Pheasant (Males, in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenie Grigoroiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the correlation between body mass and spur length in October 2009.October is the month when the pheasant hunting begins. The structure per ages of pheasant cocks is not well known, but we may consider that over 80% are pheasants eclosed during the current year, from the first, second or the third mating, so that the body mass and spur length were different according to age.

  20. Comparison of the Results of Cox Proportional Hazards Model and Parametric Models in the Study of Length of Stay in A Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zare

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is a set of methods used for analysis of the data which exist until the occurrence of an event. This study aimed to compare the results of the use of the semi-parametric Cox model with parametric models to determine the factors influencing the length of stay of patients in the inpatient units of Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study all 3421 charts of the patients admitted to Obstetrics, Surgery and Oncology units in 2008 were reviewed and the required patient data such as medical insurance coverage types, admission months, days and times, inpatient units, final diagnoses, the number of diagnostic tests, admission types were collected. The patient length of stay in hospitals leading to recoverys was considered as a survival variable. To compare the semi-parametric Cox model and parametric (including exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, log-normal, log-logistic and gamma models and find the best model fitted to studied data, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC and Cox-Snell residual were used. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. AIC and Cox-Snell residual graph showed that the gamma model had the lowest AIC (4288.598 and the closest graph to the bisector. The results of the gamma model showed that factors affecting the patient length of stay were admission day, inpatient unit, related physician specialty, emergent admission, final diagnosis and the number of laboratory tests, radiographies and sonographies (P<0.05. The results showed that the gamma model provided a better fit to the studied data than the Cox proportional hazards model. Therefore, it is better for researchers of healthcare field to consider this model in their researches about the patient length of stay (LOS if the assumption of proportional hazards is not fulfilled.

  1. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason' ...

  2. [DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF BODY LENGTH AND MASS IN RURAL SCHOOLCHILDREN IN NIZHNIY NOVGOROD REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmichyov, Yu G; Kaliuzhniy, Ye A; Mikhailova, S V; Bogomolova, Ye S; Lavrov, A N; Zhulin, N V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the total body size of 4619 rural schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-17 years, in Nizhniy Novgorod region, examined using the generalizing method for standardized anthropometric techniques that included measurement of body length and mass. It was found that during 1946-2012 period, there had been significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the relationship of body length and mass in rural schoolchildren, with the convergence of the mean values with those found the pupils of the regional center, and acceleration in the rate of physical development by 2-3 years.

  3. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  4. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level.

  5. Three-body recombination in heteronuclear systems at finite temperature with a large positive scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    For an ultracold heteronuclear mixture with a large positive interspecies scattering length and negligible intraspecies scattering length, we determine the three-body recombination rate as a function of collision energy using universal functions of a single scaling variable. We use the zero-range approximation and the Skorniakov -Ter-Martirosian equation to calculate these scaling functions for a range of collision energies. Further, we explore the effects that a nonzero temperature has on three-body recombination, as well as the effects of the formation of deep dimers, for experimentally relevant heteronuclear gases such as the 6Li-133Cs mixture. NSF Grant Nos. PHY-1516077 and PHY-1555030.

  6. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well...... understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  7. Increased Body Mass Index, Elevated C-reactive Protein, and Short Telomere Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Weischer, Maren;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity is associated with short telomere length. The cause of this association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that genetically increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with telomere length shortening and that low-grade inflammation might contribute through elevated C......-reactive protein. SETTING AND DESIGN: We studied 45,069 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study with measurements of leukocyte telomere length, BMI, and C-reactive protein in a Mendelian randomization study. Using the three obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and TMEM......18 rs6548238, and the CRP promoter polymorphism rs3091244 in instrumental variable analyses, we estimated the associations between genetically increased BMI and telomere length and between genetically increased C-reactive protein and telomere length. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted observational...

  8. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pchange comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance.

  9. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun

    2012-08-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  10. The Relationship of Body Length and Ratio Pappilla with Sex in Gobi Fish (Sicyopterus macrostetholepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Taula Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex in goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. has been done at Animal Structure and Developmental Laboratory, Biologi Department, Faculty of Matematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang, which purposed to analyse the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex of goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr.. The samples were taken in wild stream area at Batangkuranji river, Padang City. This research used descriptive method and data were analyzed by qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of investigation showed that in several goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. with different sex had the same of body length and the same of ratio papilla. So, there was not relationship between of body length and ratio papilla with sex.  Goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. it belongs to the hermaphrodite protogini, which the androgynous young females, while in adulthood, it would change sex to male. The results of this study are expected to add to the treasures of knowledge and information about reproductive gobies (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. in the preservation and development of fish farming.   

  11. MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; Fechner, K. P.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

  12. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  13. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  14. EFFECT OF MUSIC EXPOSURE ON THE WEIGHT AND BODY-LENGTH OF RAT-LITTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is related to stress reduction and increased levels of growth hormone. In rats, music exposure since prenatal period was found to increase body weight of 7-days-old litters and brain cells. Somatic growth was primarily influenced by growth hormone and supported by psycho-physic condition. The objective of this study was to analyze whether music exposure since prenatal until 35 days post-natal period could affect the weight and body-length of the rat-pups. Four pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to one hour classic music (Mozart every 17.30 pm since gestation period day one until the 22 litters were 35 days old. Controls were 5 pregnant rats and their 36 litters caged in a different room with no music. Weighing and measuring the body-length (the most anterior point of the nasal septum to the base of the tail were conducted at day 7, 25, and 35. Data were analyzed using Multivariate General-Linear-Modem (α = 0.05. It was revealed that the mean weight of the experimental litters was significantly higher than those of the controls either at day 7 (p = 0.00, day 25 (p = 0.012 or 35 (p = 0.006. Difference of the body-length of the experiment and control animals only significant at day 25 (p = 0.012. Conclusion: Music exposure since prenatal period has significant influences on the weight of the rat-litters aged 7, 25 and 35 days and on the body-length of the 25-days-old litters.

  15. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (Peffect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  16. Estimate of the lower-limb-specific muscle parameters during bipedal walking for humans, apes and early hominids with the implications for the evolution of body proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijie

    2007-01-01

    Modern human has different body proportion from early hominids and great apes. Comparing with others, in general, modern human adults have relatively long lower limb and heavier body weight. Since the lower limbs provide support to the whole body and play an important role in walking, it is proposed that the ratio of the lower limb to the whole body for modern human could be beneficial to bipedal walking. This study tried to estimate the muscle parameters of the lower limb in walking for the subjects with various body proportions. Using a simplified musculoskeletal model, some muscle parameters of the lower limb, e.g. muscle force, stress, work and power, were estimated for modern human adult, child, AL 288-1 (the fossil specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million years old) and apes. The results show that with the body proportion modern human adult spends less muscle work and power in walking than other subjects. The results imply that using the cost of transport (i.e. the muscle work of the lower limb per unit of displacement) as the criteria, the early hominids, if their body proportions were structurally similar to AL 288-1, could evolve towards what modern human adult looks like, in order to save energy during bipedal walking.

  17. Length of activity season drives geographic variation in body size of a widely distributed lizard

    OpenAIRE

    Horváthová, Terézia; Cooney, Christopher R.; Fitze, Patrick S; Oksanen, Tuula; Jelic, Dusan; Ghira, Ioan; Uller, Tobias; Jandzik, David

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors that drive geographic variation in life history is an important challenge in evolutionary ecology. Here, we analyze what predicts geographic variation in life-history traits of the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara, which has the globally largest distribution range of all terrestrial reptile species. Variation in body size was predicted by differences in the length of activity season, while we found no effects of environmental temperature per se. Females experiencing r...

  18. An actuator line model simulation with optimal body force projection length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tossas, Luis; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    In recent work (Martínez-Tossas et al. "Optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades", preprint), an optimal body force projection length-scale for an actuator line model has been obtained. This optimization is based on 2-D aerodynamics and is done by comparing an analytical solution of inviscid linearized flow over a Gaussian body force to the potential flow solution of flow over a Joukowski airfoil. The optimization provides a non-dimensional optimal scale ɛ / c for different Joukowski airfoils, where ɛ is the width of the Gaussian kernel and c is the chord. A Gaussian kernel with different widths in the chord and thickness directions can further reduce the error. The 2-D theory developed is extended by simulating a full scale rotor using the optimal body force projection length scales. Using these values, the tip losses are captured by the LES and thus, no additional explicit tip-loss correction is needed for the actuator line model. The simulation with the optimal values provides excellent agreement with Blade Element Momentum Theory. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  19. Maternal body composition, HIV infection and other predictors of gestation length and birth size in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, Exnevia; Nyazema, Norman; Ndhlovu, Patricia; Krarup, Henrik; Kaestel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2004-11-01

    The role of maternal infections, nutritional status and obstetric history in low birth weight is not clear. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal HIV infection, nutritional status and obstetric history, and season of birth on gestation length and birth size. The study population was 1669 antenatal care attendees in Harare, Zimbabwe. A prospective cohort study was conducted as part of a randomised, controlled trial. Maternal anthropometry, age, gravidity, and HIV status and load were assessed in 22nd-35th weeks gestation. Outcomes were gestation length and birth size. Birth data were available from 1106 (66.3%) women, of which 360 (32.5%) had HIV infection. Mean gestation length was 39.1 weeks with 16.6% Gestation length increased with age in primigravidae, but not multigravidae (interaction, P=0.005), and birth in the early dry season, low arm fat area, multiple pregnancies and maternal HIV load were negative predictors. Birth weight increased with maternal height, and birth in the late rainy and early dry season; primi-secundigravidity, low arm fat area, HIV load, multiple pregnancies and female sex were negative predictors. In conclusion, gestation length and birth weight decline with increasing maternal HIV load. In addition, season of birth, gravidity, maternal height and body fat mass, and infant sex are predictors of birth weight.

  20. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

    1999-12-01

    1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains

  1. Interaction-Induced Characteristic Length in Strongly Many-Body Localized Systems

    CERN Document Server

    He, Rong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a numerical method for explicitly constructing a complete set of local integrals of motion (LIOM) and definitely show the existence of LIOM for strongly many-body localized systems. The method starts with a complete set of maximally localized guessed LIOM, gradually deforms it into a complete set of true LIOM. By using this method we find that for strongly disordered and weakly interacting systems, there are two characteristic lengths in the LIOM. The first one is governed by disorder and is of Anderson-localization nature. The second one is induced by interaction but independent of the strength of interaction, showing a nonperturbative nature. We prove that the entanglement and correlation in any eigenstate extend not longer than twice the second length.

  2. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank–Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (ktr; which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K+ contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the ktr was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of ktr in rat muscle at optimal length (Lopt) and 90% of optimal length (L90) revealed that ktr was significantly slower at Lopt (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s−1 in duplicate analyses) than at L90 (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s−1). We therefore show that ktr can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the ktr decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank–Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics. PMID:23277479

  3. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  4. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills......Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  5. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  6. 西藏藏族学生手长、掌长、指长与身高的关系%THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY HEIGHT AND HAND LENGTH,METACARPAL LENGTH AND FINGER LENGTH IN TIBETAN STUDENTS OF XIZANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳杰; 吴东妮; 李志强; 席焕久

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between the body height and the hand length, the metacarpal length and the finger length in Tibetan students of Xizang, so it could provide reference for the study of anthropology, ethnology, forensic medicine and clinical medicine. [Methods] The body height, the hand length, the metacarpal length and the finger length of 2 537 Tibetan students aged 7-18 were measured and the results were statistical analysis. [ Results] The mean values of the hand length, the metacarpal length and the finger length, as well as the correlation coefficient and the ratio between them and the body height were calculated out. The regression equations of calculated body height were obtained. [CortClusionj The hand length, the metacarpal length and the finger length have high correlation with the body height and the ratio are fixed. The regression equations can be used to calculate the body height in Tibetan students.%[目的]探讨藏族学生手长、掌长、中指长与身高的关系,为人类学、民族学、法医学及临床医学研究积累资料.[方法]以藏族7~18岁中小学生共2 537人为研究对象,测量其手长、掌长、中指长和身高并进行统计学分析.[结果]计算出手长、掌长、中指长的均数值及其与身高的相关系数、与身高的比值并推算出预测身高的回归方程.[结论]手长、掌长、中指长与身高呈显著正相关且与身高的比值不随年龄变化,所得回归方程可用于推算藏族学生身高.

  7. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  8. Assessment of body fat proportion by means of bioelectrical impedance in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years with respect to specific types of instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance (BIA seems an appropriate method for basic diagnostics of body composition in a practical environment. This is a non-time consuming non-invasive method that provides a high degree of response relevance. However, the values identifi ed by the BIA method are susceptible to a number of factors, which need to be taken into account during the investigation stage and interpretation of the results. One of the signifi cant factors infl uencing the outcomes of measurement is the instrument factor.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present comparative survey was to analyse the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method and BIA leg-to-leg method in a sample of athletic individuals aged 7 to 18 years.METHODS: The survey included a total of 178 ice-hockey players aged 7 to 18 years. The proportion of body fat analysed by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method was measured by the Tanita BC-418 MA instrument. For the purposes of the BIA leg-to-leg method the Tanita BF-350 instrument was used (Tanita, Japan. Both instruments work at a frequency of 50 kHz.RESULTS: The percentage of body fat established by the BIA leg-to-leg method (M = 13.5%; SD = 4.8 indicated signifi cantly lower values of fat percentage than the values measured by the BIA hand-to-leg method (M = 17.1%; SD = 4.3. The overall diff erence represents an average value of 3.6% (standard mode; p < .001; d = 0.8. Regarding the monitored age categories the observed diff erences are in the range of 3.1–4.7% (p < .001; d = 0.7–1.2.CONCLUSION: The present study compares the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA leg-to-leg method and BIA hand-to-leg method in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years. The results measured by the BIA leg-to-leg method signifi cantly undervalue the proportion of body fat in comparison with the BIA hand-to-leg method. The instrument factor and age factor represented signifi - cant variables infl uencing the results of the

  9. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128......Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...

  11. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-12-07

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size.

  12. Difference Analysis of Body Proportion in Different Uses Horse Breeds%不同用途马肢体各部位比例差异性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林玲; 麦尔旦江; 玛依拉; 孟军; 王建文; 曾亚琦; 姚新奎; 任海帆; 王欢; 吐尔逊江·吾木尔艾力; 姚芳芳

    2016-01-01

    本试验通过测定纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马和汉诺威马4个类型马细分体尺,并计算各体尺比例及体尺指数等指标,分析各体尺、体尺指数及各比例差异性。结果表明,在体高、体长、胸围、管围、颈长、肱骨长、背长、腰椎长、尻长、尻高、股骨长和胫骨长等体尺方面,纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马均极显著低于汉诺威马(P <0.01);体躯指数方面,纯血马×伊犁马显著高于奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马(P <0.05);肱骨长/背长、股骨长/背长和胫骨长/背长方面,纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马均极显著低于汉诺威马(P <0.01);奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马和俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马之间所有指标差异均不显著(P >0.05)。本试验结果表明不同用途马匹体型结构具有一定差异性,为不同用途马匹的培育提供数据参考。%Measuring subsection body measurements of Thoroughbred × Yili horses,Orlov trotter×Yili horses,Russia trotter×Yili horses and Hanoverian horse,and calculated the propor-tion and index,analysing differences in each body measurement,index and proportion.The results showed that the body height,body length,chest circumference,cannon bone circumference,neck length,humerus length,back length,lumbar spine,rump length,rump high,thighbone length and tibiae length of Thoroughbred×Yili horses,Orlov trotter×Yili horses and Russia trotter×Yili horses were extremely significantly lower than Hanoverian horse (P 0.05).The experiment results showed that the difference in body structure of horses for different uses could provide data reference for breeding these horses.

  13. 健美男子理想体围比例研究%Study on the Ideal Body Round Proportion of Bodybuilders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田里

    2001-01-01

    拥有健美男子的体型是男性所梦寐以求的。研究通过对1999年全国健美锦标赛参赛男运动员的体围测量、统计,经与国内外相关男子体围指数比较,并运用黄金分割法检验,获得了健美男子的身高与不同部位的理想体围比例指数:身高(100);颈围(21.94);肩围(71);胸围(61.8);腰围(43.88);臀围(55);上臂围(21.01);前臂围(17);大腿围(33.99);小腿围(21.01)。%The proportion indices of body height to ideal body round of different positions were obtained through measurement and statistics of male bodybuilders participating in the 1999 Chinese national bodybuilding championship. Compared with the body round indices of relative males in China and from abroad, and tested by the Fibonacci method, ideal body round proportion indices for body builders were obtained as follows: 100 for stature, 21.94 for neck round, 71 for shoulder round, 61.8 for circumference, 43.88 for waistline, 55 for hip round, 21.01 for armband, 17 for forearm round, 33.99 for thigh round, and 21.01 for calf round.

  14. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gupta Kedarisetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian′s method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG′s were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian′s method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification. Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188. Conclusion: Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  15. Relationships among body mass, brain size, gut length, and blood tryptophan and serotonin in young wild-type mice

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The blood hyperserotonemia of autism is one of the most consistent biological findings in autism research, but its causes remain unclear. A major difficulty in understanding this phenomenon is the lack of information on fundamental interactions among the developing brain, gut, and blood in the mammalian body. We therefore investigated relationships among the body mass, the brain mass, the volume of the hippocampal complex, the gut length, and the whole-blood levels of tryp...

  16. Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Andrea L J; Peacor, Scott D; McAdam, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which could change within or across years. Clonal analysis of wild-captured Bythotrephes indicated that variance components for distal spine length were variable among but not within years. Spine length was always heritable but was not always influenced by maternal effects. In contrast, variance components for body length varied both within and among years, but likewise body length was always heritable and not always influenced by maternal effects. Results indicate that important Bythotrephes traits have heritable variation comparable to native species and other invasive species that would enable an evolutionary response to natural selection. This evolutionary capacity could contribute to the widespread success and dramatic effects of Bythotrephes invasion in systems with diverse biotic and abiotic conditions.

  17. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  18. Posturographic stabilisation of healthy subjects exposed to full-length mirror image is inversely related to body-image preoccupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Monzani, Daniele; Gherpelli, Chiara; Covezzi, Roberta; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo

    2006-12-13

    Affective states, anxiety in particular, have been shown to negatively influence human postural control efficiency as measured by posturographic means, while exposure to a full-length mirror image of one's body exerts a stabilizing effect. We tested the hypothesis that body image concerns and preoccupations would relate negatively to this stabilising effect. Sixty-six healthy students, who screened negative for psychiatric disorders, completed rating scales for anxiety, depression and body image concerns. Posturography recordings of body sway were taken under three conditions: with eyes closed, looking at a vertical bar and looking at a full-length mirror. The Eyes Open/Mirror Stabilometric Quotient [EOMQ=(sway path with eyes closed/sway path looking at the mirror)x100], an index of how much postural control is stabilized by mirror feedback in comparison to the visual vertical bar condition, was significantly inversely related to body image concerns and preoccupations, and to trait anxiety. This finding confirms the impact of emotional factors on human postural control, which warrant further studies. If confirmed in clinical populations characterized by high levels of body image disturbances, e.g. eating disorders, it could lead to developments in the assessment and monitoring of these patients.

  19. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed.

  20. Effects of niacin supplementation and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk performance of primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production.

  1. Comparison between Measured and Proposed Body Rise Length Distance for Trouser Pattern Block Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Podbevšak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body rise distances (crotch depth from contemporary construction systems with the measured body rise (BRise distances of the young Slovenian female population to establish which body rise presented in different contemporary construction systems fi ts best to the body dimensions of that specifi c target market group. A total of 180 female students (aged 19 to 27 years from the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia volunteered in the study. The results showed that measured body rise distances differed significantly from those obtained from most tables of contemporary construction systems or calculated as a secondary measure according to some authors. Measured BRise distances were the same in all size groups and did not increase as the size group increased as is the case with all analysed contemporary construction systems. The range of measured BRise distances within each size group was substantial (SD from 1.47 to 2.75 cm, while the Müller system, as the most frequently used pattern construction system in Slovenia, gave the lowest values of BRise distances for all size groups. In conclusion, the values for body rise distances proposed by different contemporary construction systems diff er significantly from those measured in the young Slovenian female population. It is suggested that body rise distance be included as a directly measured parameter for trouser pattern block construction when producing made-to-measure clothes.

  2. Impact of leg length and body mass on the stride length and gait speed of infants with normal motor development: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle B. Rodriguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait acquisition is supported by changes in the neuromusculoskeletal system of the child. Changes in the dimensions of the body structures resulting from the growth of the child partly explain gait improvement in the first year of life. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether changes in body mass and leg length modulate the effect of independent gait practice (experience on gait speed and stride length. METHOD: Thirty-two infants with normal development were monitored monthly from the acquisition of independent gait until six months post-acquisition. Longitudinal evaluations included measurements of the body mass and leg length of each child. Temporospatial variables of gait (speed and stride length were documented using the Qualisys Pro-reflex(r system. The data were analyzed using multilevel regression models, with a significance level of α=0.05. RESULTS: An effect of the practice time on speed (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A aquisição da marcha é suportada por mudanças no sistema neuromusculoesquelético da criança. a literatura aponta que modificações nas dimensões das estruturas corporais resultantes do crescimento da criança explicam, em parte, o aprimoramento da marcha no primeiro ano de vida. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar se mudanças na massa corporal e comprimento da perna modulam o efeito da prática da marcha independente nos seguintes parâmetros da marcha: velocidade e comprimento da passada. MÉTODO: Trinta e dois lactentes com desenvolvimento normal foram acompanhados mensalmente a partir da aquisição da marcha independente até seis meses pós-aquisição. Avaliações longitudinais incluíram mensurações da massa corporal e do comprimento da perna de cada criança. As variáveis temporoespaciais da marcha (velocidade e comprimento da passada foram documentadas utilizando-se o sistema Qualisys Pro-Reflex (r . Os dados foram analisados por modelos de regressão multinível, com nível de significância α=0,05. RESULTADOS

  3. Limiting the effects of the media on body image: does the length of a media literacy intervention make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the length of a media literacy intervention had an impact on awareness of sociocultural ideals, internalization of sociocultural ideals, and body dissatisfaction. Fifty-four traditional-aged undergraduate females were assigned to a control condition (25.9%), a video only condition (22.4%), a short-term single session intervention condition (22.4%), or a long-term multi-session intervention condition (29.3%). The long-term intervention did decrease body dissatisfaction and both the short- and long-term intervention conditions decreased internalization of sociocultural ideals. It appears that longer term media literacy interventions have more potential to reduce body dissatisfaction than shorter term media literacy interventions and both short- and long-term media literacy interventions reduce internalization of socio cultural ideals.

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Seeley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles

  5. Assessment of physical growth through body proportionality in Peruvian children living at moderately elevated altitudes. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fargueta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of our approach involves the use of an instrument for measuring body proportionality for the purpose of comparing growth of segments to body dimensions. The objective of this descriptive transversal study is to assess physical growth through body proportionality of school children, aged 6 to 12 years, living at moderately elevated altitudes. Study participants included 482 females and 473 males ranging in ages from 6 to 12 years and possessing middle socioeconomic status. The students were selected from a stratified probability segment of 6,659 students. In all, we evaluated: anthropometric measurements of weight (kg, height (m, five skinfolds (mm, four body perimeters and four body-bone diameters. Proportionality analyses were performed using the Phantom theoretical model proposed by Ross and Wilson (1974. The results of the Phantom Z-scores for both genders show generally negative values for body weight (-3.7 to -1.7, skinfold thickness (0.5 to -1.5, and body circumference (-0.9 to -1.3. In turn, bone diameters show positive values in all ages as well as in both genders (1.0 to 3.2. The results suggest that school children living at moderately elevated altitudes are characterized by slow growth correlated to body weight; on the other hand, skinfold thicknesses and body circumferences in relation to bone diameters exhibit a tendency to robustness.

  6. The effect of varying proportion and chop length of lucerne silage in a maize silage-based total mixed ration on diet digestibility and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A L; Humphries, D J; Jones, A K; Reynolds, C K

    2017-06-27

    The objective was to assess the effects of inclusion rate and chop length of lucerne silage, when fed in a total mixed ration (TMR), on milk yield, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and digestion in dairy cows. Diets were formulated to contain a 50 : 50 ratio of forage : concentrate (DM basis) and to be isonitrogenous (170 g/kg CP). The forage portion of the offered diets was comprised of maize and lucerne silage in proportions (DM basis) of either 25 : 75 (high Lucerne (HL)) or 75 : 25 (low lucerne (LL)). Lucerne was harvested and conserved as silage at either a long (L) or short (S) chop length. These variables were combined in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to give four treatments (HLL, HLS, LLL, LLS) which were fed in a Latin square design study to Holstein dairy cows in two separate experiments. In total, 16 and 8 multiparous, mid-lactation cows were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. To ensure sufficient silage for both experiments, different cuts of lucerne silage (taken from the same sward) were used for each experiment: first cut for experiment 1 (which was of poorer quality) and second cut for experiment 2. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition where measured in both experiments, and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance were assessed using four cows in experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows fed LL had increased DMI (+3.2 kg/day), compared with those fed HL. In contrast, there was no difference in DMI due to lucerne silage inclusion rate in experiment 2. A reduction in milk yield was observed with the HL treatment in both experiment 1 and 2 (-3.0 and -2.9 kg/day, respectively). The HL diet had reduced digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) (-3% and -4%, respectively), and also reduced the efficiency of intake N conversion into milk N (-4%). The S chop length increased total tract digestibility of DM and OM (both +4%), regardless of inclusion rate. Inclusion of lucerne silage at 25% of forage DM increased milk yield relative to

  7. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomases, Becca

    2016-01-01

    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in wh...

  8. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  9. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  10. Relationship Between Beak Morphological Variables and Body Size and Mantle Length of Male and Female Argentine Shortfin Squid (Illex argentinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; LU Huajie; LIU Bilin; FANG Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Beak of cephalopod is an important hard tissue.Understanding the morphology of beak can yield critical information on the role of cephalopods in the ecosystem.The south patagonic stock of the Argentine shortfin squid,Illex argentinus,is not only one of the most important fishing targets,but also one of the most important species in the marine eco-system of the southwest Atlantic.A total of 430 samples of I.argentinus,including 229 females 103-346mm in mantle length (ML) and 201males 140-298mm in ML,were collected from the area off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Argentinean waters by Chinese squid jigging vessels during February to May 2007.The morphology of their beaks was evaluated.The relationships between beak morphological variables and ML differed significantly among males and females.They could be best described by logarithmic functions for females and linear functions for males except for upper wing length (UWL) and lower rostrum length (LRL),which followed exponential functions in their relationships with ML.The results showed the sexual dimorphism in the relationship between ML and beak morphology for the south patagonic stock of I.argentinus.However,no significant difference was found between males and females in the relationships of beak morphological variables (except for UWL) versus body weight (BW),suggesting that the relationship between beak morphological variables and BW can be used for estimating the biomass consumed by their predators.

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting shank length, body weight and carcass weight from the Japanese cockfighting chicken breed, Oh-Shamo (Japanese Large Game).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsudzuki, M; Onitsuka, S; Akiyama, R; Iwamizu, M; Goto, N; Nishibori, M; Takahashi, H; Ishikawa, A

    2007-01-01

    We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map QTLs controlling shank length, body weight, and carcass weight in a resource family of 245 F(2) birds developed from a cross of the large-sized, native, Japanese cockfighting breed, Oh-Shamo (Japanese Large Game), and the White Leghorn breed of chickens. Interval mapping revealed three significant QTLs for shank length on chromosomes 1, 4 and 24 at the experiment-wise 5% level, and a suggestive shank length QTL on chromosome 27 at the experiment-wise 10% level. For body weight two QTLs, one significant and the other suggestive, were identified on chromosomes 4 and 24, respectively. As expected, QTLs for carcass weight, which was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.95), were detected at the same chromosomal locations as the detected body weight QTLs. Interestingly, the chromosomal locations containing these body weight and carcass weight QTLs coincided with those of two of the four shank length QTLs detected. No QTL with an epistatic interaction effect was discovered for any trait. The total contribution of all detected QTLs to genetic variance was 98.4%, 27.0% and 25.9% for shank length, body weight and carcass weight, respectively, indicating that most shank length QTLs have been identified but many body weight and carcass weight QTLs have been overlooked by the present analysis because of a low coverage rate of the 88 microsatellite markers used here (approximately 46% of the whole genome). Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on body weight, mating success, oestrous cycle, gestation length and litter size in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduma, J A; Wango, E O; Makawiti, D W; Einer-Jensen, N; Oduor-Okelo, D

    1995-02-01

    Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 5 or 20 mg/kg body weight heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. They were weighed every day and the stage of oestrus determined by vaginal smears. One experimental group was mated and pregnancy characteristics studied. Heptachlor affected body weights, cycle patterns, length of gestation period and litter sizes in a dose-related manner. At a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, heptachlor caused a significant decrease in average body weight (P gestation length (P < 0.05) and decreased litter size (P < 0.01).

  13. Blood parasites, body condition, and wing length in two subspecies of yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) during migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurulinkov, Peter; Chakarov, Nayden; Daskalova, Girgina

    2012-05-01

    Blood parasites of migrating yellow wagtails of two subspecies--Motacilla flava feldegg and Motacilla flava flava-were studied on a sample of 473 birds caught in spring and autumn periods in Bulgaria. We controlled eight "migration waves" (flocks captured in different evenings) of yellow wagtails for four parameters--average body mass, average fat level, average wing length, and average prevalence of different hematozoan species. Gametocytes or meronts of a total of six species of hematozoa belonging to three genera were identified-Haemoproteus motacillae, Haemoproteus anthi, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium subpraecox, Plasmodium cathemerium, and Tryponosoma avium. Mixed infections were detected in 31 cases, of which 14 were of H. anthi/H. motacillae type. Parasite species composition was similar in the two studied subspecies of M. flava. We did not find any significant differences in the overall infection prevalence or number of infecting parasites between M. f. flava and M. f. feldegg. Parasite prevalence and the number of co-infecting parasites in spring were much higher than in fall. Season had a strong influence on the prevalence of H. anthi and H. motacillae, and for both, there was a marginally significant interaction between subspecies and season, but not a season-independent influence of subspecies. Males of M. f. feldegg had a significantly higher overall blood parasite prevalence and prevalence of H. anthi than females. Sex-related differences in the prevalence of other parasites were not significant. Migration waves of yellow wagtails differed in overall infection status and in H. motacillae prevalence, but not for H. anthi prevalence. We also found significant differences in fat score, weight, and wing length between the studied migration waves of the yellow wagtails. Fat scores of birds infected with different hematozoa were lower compared with those of the non-infected birds. This only marginally was true for body weight and was not the case for wing

  14. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past hi

  15. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  16. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged...... these persons no longer a danger to themselves or others. This practice was, however, severely criticized by advocates for the mentally ill in the late 1990s, since many of these treatment sentences lasted far longer than penal sentences given to mentally competent persons found guilty of similar crimes....... This critique, which hinges on proportionality, led to a change in the law on July 1, 2000, after which the length of treatment for non-serious-violent crimes was limited to a maximum of five years. This change was itself criticized by the Council of Medical Forensic Specialists, who argued that time of release...

  17. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged...... these persons no longer a danger to themselves or others. This practice was, however, severely criticized by advocates for the mentally ill in the late 1990s, since many of these treatment sentences lasted far longer than penal sentences given to mentally competent persons found guilty of similar crimes....... This critique, which hinges on proportionality, led to a change in the law on July 1, 2000, after which the length of treatment for non-serious-violent crimes was limited to a maximum of five years. This change was itself criticized by the Council of Medical Forensic Specialists, who argued that time of release...

  18. Weight, Length, and Body Mass Index Growth of Children Under 2 Years of Age With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gabriela Serrano; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; de Barros, Suely Prietto; Arena, Eliane Petean; de Souza, Luiz

    2016-05-01

    To study the growth of length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and body mass index (BMI) of children with cleft lip and palate receiving a normal diet; to establish specific growth curves for children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CLP/ICP) who had not undergone palatoplasty and for children with isolated cleft lip (ICL); and to assess if CLP/ICP growth differed from ICL growth and if CLP/ICP and ICL growth differed from growth for typical children. Prospective and cross-sectional study. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Weight and length of 381 children with cleft lip and palate and who were younger than 2 years were recorded and used to calculate W/A, L/A, and BMI growth curves. The 2006 World Health Organization growth charts were used as a reference for typical children. All children received a normal diet for age. Children with CLP/ICP had median W/A and BMI growth curves below growth curves for typical children but showed spontaneous recovery starting at approximately 5 months of age, even with nonoperated cleft palate. Children with ICL had growth similar to that of typical children. Children with CLP/ICP, who initially had W/A and BMI values less than those of the ICL group, had W/A and BMI equal to or higher than the ICL group after 9 months of age. Children with CLP/ICP had impaired W/A and BMI growth with spontaneous recovery starting early in childhood. This study established specific W/A, BMI, and L/A growth curves for children with cleft lip and palate.

  19. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  20. A simple strategy for the purification of native recombinant full-length human RPL10 protein from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Larissa M; Silva, Luana R; Alves, Joseane F; Marin, Nélida; Silva, Flavio Sousa; Morganti, Ligia; Silva, Ismael D C G; Affonso, Regina

    2014-09-01

    The L10 ribosomal protein (RPL10) plays a role in the binding of the 60 S and 40 S ribosomal subunits and in mRNA translation. The evidence indicates that RPL10 also has multiple extra-ribosomal functions, including tumor suppression. Recently, the presence of RPL10 in prostate and ovarian cancers was evaluated, and it was demonstrated to be associated with autistic disorders and premature ovarian failure. In the present work, we successfully cloned and expressed full-length human RPL10 (hRPL10) protein and isolated inclusion bodies containing this protein that had formed under mild growth conditions. The culture produced 376mg of hRPL10 protein per liter of induced bacterial culture, of which 102.4mg was present in the soluble fraction, and 25.6mg was recovered at approximately 94% purity. These results were obtained using a two-step process of non-denaturing protein extraction from pelleted inclusion bodies. We studied the characteristics of this protein using circular dichroism spectroscopy and by monitoring the changes induced by the presence or absence of zinc ions using fluorescence spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the protein obtained using these non-conventional methods retained its secondary and tertiary structure. The conformational changes induced by the incorporation of zinc suggested that this protein could interact with Jun or the SH3 domain of c-yes. The results suggested that the strategy used to obtain hRPL10 is simple and could be applied to obtaining other proteins that are susceptible to degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…

  2. BIP, a BRAM-interacting protein involved in TGF-beta signalling, regulates body length in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, K; Morita, K; Ueno, N; Shibuya, H

    2001-07-01

    The TGF-beta superfamily has diverse biological activities and is involved in the early development of animals. We previously identified a novel family member, BMP receptor associated molecule (BRAM), which binds to the intracellular domain of BMP type IA receptor and is involved in the BMP signalling pathway. To identify novel molecules involved in TGF-beta signalling pathways, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using BRAM as bait. From a Xenopus cDNA library, we cloned a cDNA encoding 693 amino acids and containing the motif for an oxysterol binding protein (OSBP), which we designated BRAM interacting protein (BIP). We then isolated a BIP homologue from the Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes 733 amino acids and also contains the OSBP-like motif. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting studies revealed that C. elegans BIP could interact with the C. elegans BRAM homologues BRA-1 and BRA-2. C. elegans BIP was expressed in pharyngeal muscle, hypodermis and several neuronal cells, an expression pattern overlaps with those of BRA-1 and BRA-2. Finally, we found that inhibition of BIP expression in C. elegans by double stranded RNA interference produces a Sma phenotype. BIP was isolated using the yeast two-hybrid systems. BIP may function in the TGF-beta pathway and regulate body length in C. elegans.

  3. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Prospective study. Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members' myopia and parents' socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.

  4. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal e...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.......Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  5. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition: evidence from a cohort of Ethiopian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Admassu, Bitiya; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Gregers S

    2015-09-01

    A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) <115 mm and weight-for-height z score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well understood. We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. At all ages, length showed consistently strong positive correlations with the MUAC but not with the WLZ. Adjustment for length reduced observed correlation coefficients of FM and FFM with the MUAC but increased those for the WLZ. At all ages, both length-adjusted FM and FFM showed an independent association with the WLZ and MUAC with higher regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly

  6. Body mass index is inversely correlated with the expanded CAG repeat length in SCA3/MJD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Silva, Andrew Chaves Feitosa da; Souza, Gabriele Nunes; Russo, Aline Dutra; Donis, Karina Carvalho; Vedolin, Leonardo; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Portela, Luis Valmor Cruz; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2012-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder with no current treatment. We aimed to evaluate the body mass index (BMI) of patients with SCA3/MJD and to assess the correlations with clinical, molecular, biochemical, and neuroimaging findings. A case-control study with 46 SCA3/MJD patients and 42 healthy, non-related control individuals with similar age and sex was performed. Clinical evaluation was done with the ataxia scales SARA and NESSCA. Serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and magnetic resonance imaging normalized volumetries of cerebellum and brain stem were also assessed. BMI was lower in SCA3/MJD patients when compared to controls (p = 0.01). BMI was associated with NESSCA, expanded CAG repeat number (CAG)n, age of onset, age, disease duration, and serum insulin levels; however, in the linear regression model, (CAG)n was the only variable independently associated with BMI, in an inverse manner (R = -0.396, p = 0.015). In this report, we present evidence that low BMI is not only present in SCA3/MJD, but is also directly related to the length of the expanded CAG repeats, which is the causative mutation of the disease. This association points that weight loss might be a primary disturbance of SCA3/MJD, although further detailed analyses are necessary for a better understanding of the nutritional deficit and its role in the pathophysiology of SCA3/MJD.

  7. Change in Proportional Protein Intake in a 10-Week Energy-Restricted Low- or High-Fat Diet, in Relation to Changes in Body Size and Metabolic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771 were randomised to a 600 kcal energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat% or high-fat (40-45 fat% diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2 on outcomes. Results: The low-fat group with >2 prot% increase lost 1.1 kg more weight (p = 0.03 and reduced cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l more (p = 0.003 than the high-fat group with >2 prot% decrease. These differences were 2.5-fold and 1.8-fold greater than the differences between the low-fat and high-fat groups while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet.

  8. Seasonal change in body length of important small copepods and relationship with environmental factors in Jiaozhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaohong; SUN Song; LI Chaolun; WANG Minxiao

    2012-01-01

    Differences among species in prosome length and in species' response to environmental factors do exist.Therefore,it is useful to examine prosome length for different copepod species in variable environments.Seasonal variations in prosome length of four small copepods and their copepodite stages in the Jiaozhou Bay were compared and the relative influence of temperature,salinity,and chlorophyll concentration were examined.Two peaks were found in the mean prosome length of Paracalanusparvus (in early winter and May).For Acartia bifilosa,the maximum values of all copepodites occurred mainly from February to April,and decreased to the bottom in July.Prosome length of Acartia pacifica peaked when it first appeared in June,then reached to the minimum in July.Parvocalanus crassirostris only appeared from late summer to autumn and the mean prosome length showed no clear changes.Correlations of adult prosome length with environmental factors were evaluated.For the four species,temperature was negatively correlated to prosome length except for P.crassirostris.But the different species varied markedly in their responds to temperature.A.bifilosa showed a more definite trend of size variation with temperature than P.parvus and A.pacifica.Correlations of prosome length with salinity were significantly positive for almost all the small copepods.The relationship between chlorophyll concentration and prosome length was complicated for these copepods,but for P.parvus,chlorophyll concentration was also an important affecting factor.Furthermore,investigation needs to be done on food quality for some copepod.These results are essential to estimate the biomass and the production,and to understand these small copepods' population dynamics in this human-affected bay.

  9. Estimation of stature and length of limb segments in children and adolescents from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamyan, Davit O. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France); Sargsyan Military Institute, Medical Facility, Yerevan (Armenia); Gazarian, Aram [Debrousse Hospital, Service of Hand Surgery, Clinique du Parc Lyon, Lyon (France); Braillon, Pierre M. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France)

    2008-03-15

    Anthropometric standards vary among different populations, and renewal of these reference values is necessary. To produce formulae for the assessment of limb segment lengths. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of 413 Caucasian children and adolescents (170 boys, 243 girls) aged from 6 to 18 years were retrospectively analysed. Body height and the lengths of four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) were measured. The validity (concurrent validity) and reproducibility (intraobserver reliability) of the measurement technique were tested. High linear correlations (r > 0.9) were found between the mentioned five longitudinal measures. Corresponding linear regression equations for the most important relationships were derived. The tests of validity and reproducibility revealed a good degree of precision of the applied technique. The reference formulae obtained from the analysis of whole-body DEXA scans will be useful for anthropologists, and forensic and nutrition specialists, as well as for prosthetists and paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. (orig.)

  10. Cumulative inflammatory load is associated with short leukocyte telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife O'Donovan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is an emerging marker of biological age. Chronic inflammatory activity is commonly proposed as a promoter of biological aging in general, and of leukocyte telomere shortening in particular. In addition, senescent cells with critically short telomeres produce pro-inflammatory factors. However, in spite of the proposed causal links between inflammatory activity and LTL, there is little clinical evidence in support of their covariation and interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this issue, we examined if individuals with high levels of the systemic inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP had increased odds for short LTL. Our sample included 1,962 high-functioning adults who participated in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (age range: 70-79 years. Logistic regression analyses indicated that individuals with high levels of either IL-6 or TNF-α had significantly higher odds for short LTL. Furthermore, individuals with high levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α had significantly higher odds for short LTL compared with those who had neither high (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.37-0.72, only IL-6 high (OR = 0.57, CI = 0.39-0.83 or only TNF-α high (OR = 0.67, CI = 0.46-0.99, adjusting for a wide variety of established risk factors and potential confounds. In contrast, CRP was not associated with LTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that cumulative inflammatory load, as indexed by the combination of high levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, is associated with increased odds for short LTL. In contrast, high levels of CRP were not accompanied by short LTL in this cohort of older adults. These data provide the first large-scale demonstration of links between inflammatory markers and LTL in an older population.

  11. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  12. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  13. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  14. Adaptation through proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

  15. Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Loram, Ian D; Stannard, Stephen R; Rittweger, Jörn

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that vibration causes small changes in muscle length, but to the best of our knowledge, these have yet to be demonstrated during whole-body vibration (WBV). This was an observational study to determine whether acute WBV would result in muscle lengthening. We hypothesized that acute WBV would increase electromyography (EMG) activity concurrently with measurable changes in muscle contractile length. Nine healthy males performed two conditions on a Galileo vibration machine for 15 s at 0 HZ (resting) and 6 HZ at a set knee angle of 18 degrees. Muscle tendon complex length, contractile tissue displacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and EMG of soleus, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis muscles were measured. At 6 HZ the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle tendon complex (MTC) amplitude (375 microm) was significantly greater (P EMG modulation were found for all muscles during the 6 HZ compared to the 0 HZ condition. The major finding was that approximately 50% of the elongation occurred within the muscle itself and was associated with preceding changes in EMG. This indicates muscle lengthening may be a prerequisite for eliciting stretch reflexes. In conclusion, there is a temporal association between EMG activity and muscle contractile tissue displacement where low-frequency WBV results in small muscle length changes and increases muscle activation.

  16. Proportional Borda allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Klamler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least [Formula: see text] of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.

  17. Regulatory scrutiny of subsidiarity and proportionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne; Gomtsyan, Suren

    2015-01-01

    As the monitoring of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality is mostly left up to the EU institutions, internal quality control bodies could play an important role in developing tests and standards which represent part of ‘subsidiarity and proportionality in action’. In this context, the

  18. Feeding broiler breeder males. 2. Effect of cumulative rearing nutrition on body weight, shank length, comb height, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Leksrisompong, N; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 planes (low and high) of cumulative nutrient intake during the rearing period on performance of broiler breeder males. The low cumulative nutrition program supplied 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP, whereas the high cumulative nutrition program supplied 33,500 kcal of ME and 1,730 g of CP to photostimulation at 21 wk of age. Two diets (LoDiet and HiDiet) were used with a single feeding program in experiment 1. In experiment 2, a single diet with 2 feeding programs (LoFeed and HiFeed) was used. In experiment 1, the 2 diets were blended from 21 to 24 wk to provide a gradual transition to a single common laying breeder diet that was fed during the production period. At 21 wk of age in experiment 2, males were divided into light or heavy BW groups to complete a 2 x 2 factorial design during the production period. The high plane of nutrition increased BW, shank length, and comb height during the rearing period, but the differences disappeared after 28 wk of age. Retrospective analysis showed that the heavy males at 21 wk of age in experiment 2 were also the heaviest males at 8 wk of age. Both low plane groups (LoDiet in experiment 1 and LoFeed in experiment 2) exhibited better fertility during late production. A cumulative nutrient intake during the rearing period of 29,580 kcal of ME and 1,470 g of CP was minimally sufficient for subsequent male reproductive performance.

  19. Influence of Collimation and Detector length on CT exposures measured in a 60cm long body phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Victor J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data fitting approaches to modeling allow for parametric formulae that may not reveal the physical quantities involved and their influence on the function being studied. In this paper the author models the approach to equilibrium function by a method that allows the physical quantities to be defined beforehand, allows their influence to be studied, and can be used to predict how each physical quantity affects approach to equilibrium. Methods: An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is used to model the approach to equilibrium function for the case where collimation is changed at fixed detector size. A parallel model is used to study the approach to equilibrium as a function of detector size for fixed collimation. Both models are validated by experimental measurements in a 60cm body phantom. Influence of detector size is simulated by using leaded sleeves of varying sizes wrapped around a 100mm pencil chamber. This creates sleeve gaps of 10 - 60mm around the chamber. A 100mm detector size is the pen...

  20. Electronic structure and bond length dependence of the effective valence shell Hamiltonian of S2 as studied by quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Freed, Karl F.

    1987-03-01

    The effective valence shell Hamiltonian (Hv) of S2 is calculated as a function of internuclear distance using quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory with the full valence space spanned by eight valence orbitals. Calculated potential curves and excitation energies for several valence states are in good agreement with experiment and are compared with configuration interaction calculations using the same primitive basis. In order to test assumptions of semiempirical theories, we also perform a more approximate calculation of Hv in which the valence space is constructed as the union of the atomic valence spaces with the atomic orbitals taken from atomic SCF calculations. A new and important feature of this approximate, correlated Hv is the use of optimized valence and excited orbitals as determined from a constrained SCF procedure. The matrix elements of this approximate, correlated Hv are transformed to the original nonorthogonal atomic valence basis, and their bond length dependences are fit with simple analytical functions. Some calculated Hv matrix elements agree with the forms commonly postulated for semiempirical integrals, while others display quite different behavior. An example of the latter are the one-center, two-electron integrals which depend significantly on bond length in marked contrast to semiempirical theories which assume them to be bond length independent.

  1. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  2. The divine proportion

    CERN Document Server

    Huntley, H E

    1970-01-01

    Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

  3. ["Golden proportion" and its application to calculate dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Gumberidze, N Sh; Mandzhavidze, N A

    2007-01-01

    Within an evolutionary process, the nature has created the standard of aesthetics - a "gold proportion" on the basis of which, the parts of human body, to be more exact, teeth and denture correspond to each other and to own parts by the size, which is the ideal precondition for ideal appearance. The charming smile serves as the proof, that teeth in denture are located by a principle of "gold proportion". A "gold proportion" is the corner stone of beauty and it can be applied with success in stomatology. Proportion is the certain ratio between parts, and proportional means a proper correlation of parts among themselves. It is reputed, that knowledge about "gold proportion" Pythagor has got from products of the Egyptian and Babylon scientists. And this is true, proportions of cult constructions, bas-relieves, pyramids in Giza, home appliances and ornaments from Tutanhamon tomb testify, that under their creation the Egyptian masters were guided by a principle of "gold proportion". The facade of ancient Greek temple Parthenon is built by a principle of "gold proportion". During archeological digs of this temple the compasses which sculptors and architects of an ancient world used has been found. The "gold proportion" is mentioned in the work which has reached us "Beginning" the author is the scientist of antique epoch Euclid. In 1509, in Venice the book of Luka Pacholi the "Divine proportion" has been published, its illustration is attributed to Leonardo de Vinci. This work has been recognized as a "Hymn of a gold proportion". In 1885 the German researcher professor Zeising published his work - "Aesthetic researches". When Zeising has received numerical values of piece length, he saw that they coincided with figures of some numerical sequence, which was offered by the great Italian mathematician of Middle Ages Fibonacci (or Leonardo Pisano). In his composition the "Abacus Book" Leonardo Fibonacci showed aforesaid sequence of numbers, by means of which he has explained

  4. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  5. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  7. Proportional counter radiation camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  8. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  9. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  10. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  11. The microstrip proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  12. A maximum likelihood model for fitting power functions with data uncertainty: A case study on the relationship between body lengths and masses for Sciuridae species worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, a maximum likelihood model is developed to incorporate data uncertainty in response and explanatory variables when fitting power-law bivariate relationships in ecology and evolution. This simple likelihood model is applied to an empirical data set related to the allometric relationship between body mass and length of Sciuridae species worldwide. The results show that the values of parameters estimated by the proposed likelihood model are substantially different from those fitted by the nonlinear least-of-square (NLOS method. Accordingly, the power-law models fitted by both methods have different curvilinear shapes. These discrepancies are caused by the integration of measurement errors in the proposed likelihood model, in which NLOS method fails to do. Because the current likelihood model and the NLOS method can show different results, the inclusion of measurement errors may offer new insights into the interpretation of scaling or power laws in ecology and evolution.

  13. Optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades based on Gaussian body force distribution: Wind energy, actuator line model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Tossas, L. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 21218 MD USA; Churchfield, M. J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden 80401 CO USA; Meneveau, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 21218 MD USA

    2017-01-20

    The actuator line model (ALM) is a commonly used method to represent lifting surfaces such as wind turbine blades within large-eddy simulations (LES). In the ALM, the lift and drag forces are replaced by an imposed body force that is typically smoothed over several grid points using a Gaussian kernel with some prescribed smoothing width e. To date, the choice of e has most often been based on numerical considerations related to the grid spacing used in LES. However, especially for finely resolved LES with grid spacings on the order of or smaller than the chord length of the blade, the best choice of e is not known. In this work, a theoretical approach is followed to determine the most suitable value of e, based on an analytical solution to the linearized inviscid flow response to a Gaussian force. We find that the optimal smoothing width eopt is on the order of 14%-25% of the chord length of the blade, and the center of force is located at about 13%-26% downstream of the leading edge of the blade for the cases considered. These optimal values do not depend on angle of attack and depend only weakly on the type of lifting surface. It is then shown that an even more realistic velocity field can be induced by a 2-D elliptical Gaussian lift-force kernel. Some results are also provided regarding drag force representation.

  14. Human skeleton proportions from monocular data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG En; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the skeleton proportions ofa human figure from monocular data.The proposed system will first automatically extract the key frames and recover the perspective camera model from the 2D data.The human skeleton proportions are then estimated from the key frames using the recovered camera model without posture reconstruction. The proposed method is tested to be simple, fast and produce satisfactory results for the input data. The human model with estimated proportions can be used in future research involving human body modeling or human motion reconstruction.

  15. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  16. Ontogenetic changes in limb bone structural proportions in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Burgess, M Loring; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that adult mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) are the most terrestrial of all nonhuman hominoids, but that infant mountain gorillas are much more arboreal. Here we examine ontogenetic changes in diaphyseal strength and length of the femur, tibia, humerus, radius, and ulna in 30 Virunga mountain gorillas, including 18 immature specimens and 12 adults. Comparisons are also made with 14 adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which are known to be more arboreal than adult mountain gorillas. Infant mountain gorillas have significantly stronger forelimbs relative to hind limbs than older juveniles and adults, but are nonsignificantly different from western lowland gorilla adults. The change in inter-limb strength proportions is abrupt at about two years of age, corresponding to the documented transition to committed terrestrial quadrupedalism in mountain gorillas. The one exception is the ulna, which shows a gradual increase in strength relative to the radius and other long bones during development, possibly corresponding to the gradual adoption of stereotypical fully pronated knuckle-walking in older juvenile gorillas. Inter-limb bone length proportions show a contrasting developmental pattern, with hind limb/forelimb length declining rapidly from birth to five months of age, and then showing no consistent change through adulthood. The very early change in length proportions, prior to significant independent locomotion, may be related to the need for relatively long forelimbs for climbing in a large-bodied hominoid. Virunga mountain gorilla older juveniles and adults have equal or longer forelimb relative to hind limb bones than western lowland adults. These findings indicate that both ontogenetically and among closely related species of Gorilla, long bone strength proportions better reflect actual locomotor behavior than bone length proportions.

  17. Introduction: Two Kinds of Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Cohen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of architectural proportional systems in the history of architecture, the topic of this special collection of essays in 'Architectural Histories', has long been characterized by a fundamental ambiguity: the word and concept of proportion simultaneously signify two unrelated and in some ways opposite meanings. Proportion can refer to ratios, or it can refer to architectural beauty. In this introduction to the papers that follow, Matthew A. Cohen proposes a simple clarification of this ambiguity as a framework for continued discussion of this subject: that whenever scholars use the word proportion, they specify whether they intend ‘proportion-as-ratio’ or ‘proportion-as-beauty’. The frequent blending of these meanings today, Cohen argues, is a survival of attitudes toward proportional systems in architecture that were prevalent as long ago as the early Renaissance. Cohen proposes an alternative to Rudolf Wittkower's paradigmatic ‘break-away’ theory of the history of proportional systems, according to which virtually everyone accepted proportional systems as sources of universal beauty in architecture until the mid-eighteenth century, and after that time virtually everyone believed that beauty and proportional systems were matters of individual preference. Rather than a long period respectful of tradition followed by a long period skeptical of it, Cohen argues, based in part on a new interpretation of Claude Perrault’s 1683 codification of the notion of positive beauty, that architects and others have always had access to two parallel strands of thought pertaining to proportional systems: a skeptical-pragmatic strand and a respectful-metaphysical strand. This new historical and historiographical interpretation of the problem of architectural proportional systems, and the new vocabulary with which to discuss it critically presented herein, helps to separate aesthetic from historical considerations.

  18. A study of dentists' preferred maxillary anterior tooth width proportions: comparing the recurring esthetic dental proportion to other mathematical and naturally occurring proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel H

    2007-01-01

    Presently, there are no generally accepted standards for designing smiles using tooth proportion relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine whether North American dentists prefer smile designs created using the recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion, other mathematically defined tooth proportion relationships, or naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions previously reported to occur in the North American population. Three hundred and one North American dentists were surveyed to determine their preferences of imaged smiles exhibiting different anterior tooth width proportions and the primary proportion influencing their decision. One-sample t-tests were used to compare preferences of constructed smiles. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the independence of the relationship between the subjects' demographic attributes and the factors reported as being instrumental in their decision processes. Fifty-seven percent of dentists surveyed preferred the smiles with the 70% RED proportion over the smiles with the naturally occurring maxillary anterior tooth width proportions in normal-length teeth. Dentists preferred the smiles of the naturally occurring maxillary tooth proportions (70%) and the 70% RED proportion (75%) over the golden proportion. In smiles with tall teeth, the golden proportion was preferred by 58% of the surveyed dentists over the naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions as previously defined by Preston. Sixty-two percent of dentists cited the overall balance as the primary factor affecting their selection. Twenty-three percent made their selection based on the size of the maxillary central incisors, whereas 15% used other teeth or factors. Smiles created using the principles of the RED proportion were preferred by a majority of dentists surveyed. The majority of dentists reported that overall balance was the primary factor affecting their selection. The RED proportion may be useful in creating smiles

  19. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  20. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  1. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

  2. Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2005-09-01

    Similar in body size, locomotor behaviour and morphology to the last common ancestor of Primates, living small quadrupedal primates provide a convenient model for investigating the evolution of primate locomotion. In this study, the hind limb kinematics of quadrupedal walking in mouse lemurs, brown lemurs, cotton-top tamarins and squirrel monkeys are analysed using cineradiography. The scaling of hind limb length to body size and the intralimb proportions of the three-segmented hind limb are taken into consideration when kinematic similarities and differences are discussed. Hind limb kinematics of arboreal quadrupedal primates, ranging in size between 100 g and 3000 g, are size independent and resemble the hind limb kinematics of small non-cursorial mammals. A common feature seen in smaller mammals, in general, is the horizontal position of the thigh at touchdown and of the lower leg at lift-off. Thus, the maximum bone length is immediately transferred into the step length. The vertical position of the leg at the beginning of a step cycle and of the thigh at lift-off contributes the same distance to pivot height. Step length and pivot height increase proportionally with hind limb length, because intralimb proportions of the hind limb remain fairly constant. Therefore, the strong positive allometric scaling of the hind limb in arboreal quadrupedal primates affects neither the kinematics of hind limb segments nor the total angular excursion of the limb. The angular excursion of the hind limb in quadrupedal primates is equal to that of other non-cursorial mammals. Hence, hind limb excursion in larger cercopithecine primates differs from that of other large mammals due to the decreasing angular excursion as part of convergent cursorial adaptations in several phylogenetic lineages of mammals. Typical members of those phylogenetic groups are traditionally used in comparison with typical primates, and therefore the ;uniqueness' of primate locomotor characteristics is

  3. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  4. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  5. Proportional smile design using the recurring esthetic dental (red) proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D H

    2001-01-01

    Dentists have needed an objective way in which to evaluate a smile. A method for determining the ideal size and position of the anterior teeth has been presented here. Use of the FIVE to evaluate the RED proportion and the width-to-height ratio, tempered with sound clinical judgment, gives pleasing and consistent results. With the diversity that exists in nature, rarely does the final result follow all the mathematical rules of proportional smile design. This approach may serve as a foundation on which to base initial smile design, however. When one begins to understand the relationship between beauty, mathematics, and the surrounding world, one begins to appreciate their interdependence.

  6. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  7. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  8. Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic-Muller, Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…

  9. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data.

  10. 尸食性蚤蝇幼虫活体测量的新方法%A New Method of Measuring Living Body Length During Growth of Carrion-breeding Phorid Flies Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯典兴; 刘广纯

    2012-01-01

    蝇蛆体长是判断死后间隔时间最常应用的指标.为了准确测量幼虫的体长,本文提出利用Olympus三维重构图像处理系统进行活体测量的新方法,在20℃和28℃两个恒温下,对蛆症异蚤蝇Megaselia scalaris(Loew)幼虫体长变化进行了观察、测量.结果表明:该方法简便、易行,适于尸食性蚤蝇幼虫体长的测量.对两个恒温下体长随时间的变化情况进行了模拟,模拟效果较好.%The body length of maggots is a indicator often used for the post-mortem interval estimation. In order to accurately measure the larvae body length, a new method of living measurement is proposed using Olympus 3D reconstruction and image processing system. Under two constant temperature conditions of 20 ~C and 28 ~C, the length changes of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) larvae were observed and measured. The results show that the method is simple, and easy to operate, and suitable for the measurement of carrion-breeding phorid flies larvae length. The dependence of the larval change in length on two temperature conditions can be well simulated with linear regression.

  11. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  12. Photodetectors for scintillator proportionality measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: wwmoses@lbl.gov; Choong, Woon-Seng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  13. Photodetectors for Scintillator Proportionality Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, J.D.

    2010-10-18

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  14. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered. A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity. In some situations, the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels, and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one. In other situations, under mild conditions, the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage. Meanwhile, some simulations are performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

  15. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  16. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  17. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XingZhong; LIU Fang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered.A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity.In some situations,the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels,and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one.In other situations,under mild conditions,the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage.Meanwhile,some simulations axe performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

  18. Proportional Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourniaire, Francoise; Pulos, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The literature on proportional reasoning is reviewed. After methodology is discussed, strategies used to solve proportion problems, variables that influence performance, and training studies are each considered. (MNS)

  19. Desert bird associations with broad-scale boundary length: Applications in avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Current understanding regarding the effects of boundaries on bird communities has originated largely from studies of forest-non-forest boundaries in mesic systems. To assess whether broad-scale boundary length can affect bird community structure in deserts, and to identify patterns and predictors of species' associations useful in avian conservation, we studied relations between birds and boundary-length variables in Chihuahuan Desert landscapes. Operationally, a boundary was the border between two adjoining land covers, and broad-scale boundary length was the total length of such borders in a large area. 2. Within 2-km radius areas, we measured six boundary-length variables. We analysed bird-boundary relations for 26 species, tested for assemblage-level patterns in species' associations with boundary-length variables, and assessed whether body size, dispersal ability and cowbird-host status were correlates of these associations. 3. The abundances or occurrences of a significant majority of species were associated with boundary-length variables, and similar numbers of species were related positively and negatively to boundary-length variables. 4. Disproportionately small numbers of species were correlated with total boundary length, land-cover boundary length and shrubland-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for large proportions of boundary length). Disproportionately large numbers of species were correlated with roadside boundary length and riparian vegetation-grassland boundary length (variables responsible for small proportions of boundary length). Roadside boundary length was associated (positively and negatively) with the most species. 5. Species' associations with boundary-length variables were not correlated with body size, dispersal ability or cowbird-host status. 6. Synthesis and applications. For the species we studied, conservationists can use the regressions we report as working models to anticipate influences of boundary-length changes

  20. Assessment of the mass, length, center of mass, and principal moment of inertia of body segments in adult males of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) and green, or carolina, anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legreneur, Pierre; Homberger, Dominique G; Bels, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    This study provides a morphometric data set of body segments that are biomechanically relevant for locomotion in two ecomorphs of adult male anoles, namely, the trunk-ground Anolis sagrei and the trunk-crown Anolis carolinensis. For each species, 10 segments were characterized, and for each segment, length, mass, location of the center of mass, and radius of gyration were measured or calculated, respectively. The radii of gyration were computed from the moments of inertia by using the double swing pendulum method. The trunk-ground A. sagrei has relatively longer and stockier hindlimbs and forelimbs with smaller body than A. carolinensis. These differences between the two ecomorphs demonstrated a clear relationship between morphology and performance, particularly in the context of predator avoidance behavior, such as running or jumping in A. sagrei and crypsis in A. carolinensis. Our results provide new perspectives on the mechanism of adaptive radiation as the limbs of the two species appear to scale via linear factors and, therefore, may also provide explanations for the mechanism of evolutionary changes of structures within an ecological context.

  1. Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…

  2. Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Pawel Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.

  3. Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laski Pawel Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.

  4. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  5. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimal crossover designs for the proportional model

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In crossover design experiments, the proportional model, where the carryover effects are proportional to their direct treatment effects, has draw attentions in recent years. We discover that the universally optimal design under the traditional model is E-optimal design under the proportional model. Moreover, we establish equivalence theorems of Kiefer-Wolfowitz's type for four popular optimality criteria, namely A, D, E and T (trace).

  7. Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…

  8. CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…

  9. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    . Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...... results show that the explanation in two domains has different approach, but basically they are mathematically related....

  10. Estimation of genome length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The genome length is a fundamental feature of a species. This note outlined the general concept and estimation method of the physical and genetic length. Some formulae for estimating the genetic length were derived in detail. As examples, the genome genetic length of Pinus pinaster Ait. and the genetic length of chromosome Ⅵ of Oryza sativa L. were estimated from partial linkage data.

  11. Numerical Proportion Representation: A Neurocomputational Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Verguts, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Proportion representation is an emerging subdomain in numerical cognition. However, its nature and its correlation with simple number representation remain elusive, especially at the theoretical level. To fill this gap, we propose a gain-field model of proportion representation to shed light on the neural and computational basis of proportion representation. The model is based on two well-supported neuroscientific findings. The first, gain modulation, is a general mechanism for information integration in the brain; the second relevant finding is how simple quantity is neurally represented. Based on these principles, the model accounts for recent relevant proportion representation data at both behavioral and neural levels. The model further addresses two key computational problems for the cognitive processing of proportions: invariance and generalization. Finally, the model provides pointers for future empirical testing.

  12. Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weights and morphological traits in the turbot, Scophthalmusmaximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinan; MA Aijun; MA Deyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth traits in turbot during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of the body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights of turbots was conducted by mixed genetic models with additive-dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses with four different strains of Scophthalmus maximus from Denmark, Norway, Britain, and France. Unconditional genetic analysis revealed that the unconditional additive effects for the four traits were more significant than unconditional dominance effects, meanwhile, the alternative expressions were also observed between the additive and dominant effects for body weights, total lengths and standard lengths. Conditional analysis showed that the developmental periods with active gene expression for body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights were 15–18, 15 and 21–24, 15 and 24, and 21 and 27 months of age, respectively. The proportions of unconditional/conditional variances indicated that the narrow-sense heritabilities of body weights, total lengths and standard lengths were all increased systematically. The accumulative effects of genes controlling the four quantitative traits were mainly additive effects, suggesting that the selection is more efficient for the genetic improvement of turbots. The conditional genetic procedure is a useful tool to understand the expression of genes controlling developmental quantitative traits at a specific developmental period (t-1→t) during ontogeny. It is also important to determine the appropriate developmental period (t-1→t) for trait measurement in developmental quantitative genetic analysis in fish.

  13. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2) cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a

  14. Sternum Length and Rib Cage Dimensions Compared with Bodily Proportions in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A greater structural expansion of the rib cage in females compared with males has been described in cystic fibrosis (CF patients; however, conflicting data exist as to whether an elongation of the bony ribs and sternum contributes to this expansion.

  15. Correlation of individualeum length with body height in Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city%湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大元; 石慧娟; 梁成青; 吴国运; 熊健

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系.方法 应用人体测量法测量了1896名(年龄6~16岁)苗族学生的同身寸和身高.结果 得出男女生各年龄组同身寸长、身高均值;除16岁女生组外,同身寸长与身高呈正的直线相关.结论 同身寸长和身高有直线相关性,可用同身寸长推算身高.%Objective To explore the correlation of the individualeum length with the body height of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city. Methods The individualeum length and body height of 1896 normal students (aged 6-16) of Miao nationality were measured by anthropological method, and the analysis of the linear regression was done. Results The means that the individualeum length and the body height of different ages and sexes were obtained. The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height of all the male age groups and the female groups except 7 was positively related, and the regression equation was also established. Conclusion The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height was positively related of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Cuizhou provinces, the figures of stature can be calculated by the individualeum length.

  16. How body torque and Strouhal number change with swimming speed and developmental stage in larval zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.L.; Voesenek, C.J.; Müller, U.K.

    2015-01-01

    Small undulatory swimmers such as larval zebrafish experience both inertial and viscous forces, the relative importance of which is indicated by the Reynolds number (Re). Re is proportional to swimming speed (vswim) and body length; faster swimming reduces the relative effect of viscous forces.

  17. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  18. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Frasier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymassb. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or

  19. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  20. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  1. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho [Busan Wooridul Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 {+-} 4.93 years, height: 157 {+-} 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 {+-} 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 {+-} 2.08 kg/m{sup 2}]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 {+-} 2.27 years, height: 156 {+-} 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 {+-} 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 {+-} 2.94 kg/m{sup 2}]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, {rho} = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, {rho} = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, {rho} = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, {rho} = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, {rho} 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent

  2. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Rheinberger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  3. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, C. M.; Romang, H. E.; Bründl, M.

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  4. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  5. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...... of the LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

  6. Proportional hazards models with discrete frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Chrys; Crowder, Martin; Kimber, Alan

    2010-07-01

    We extend proportional hazards frailty models for lifetime data to allow a negative binomial, Poisson, Geometric or other discrete distribution of the frailty variable. This might represent, for example, the unknown number of flaws in an item under test. Zero frailty corresponds to a limited failure model containing a proportion of units that never fail (long-term survivors). Ways of modifying the model to avoid this are discussed. The models are illustrated on a previously published set of data on failures of printed circuit boards and on new data on breaking strengths of samples of cord.

  7. Divining Proportions in the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of reverse engineering proportional systems of historic buildings has long been fraught with problems. One cannot assume, without knowing the specific conditions of acquisition, that existing plans are accurate enough to sustain the scrutiny necessary to resolve differences among potential proportional schemes. Yet producing a new survey with conventional measurement instruments could take weeks, if not months, and only in the best of situations would it be possible to acquire data in the upper reaches of the building—information required to avoid arbitrary dimensional rectification. With the advent of high-speed and high-precision laser scanning, however, the situation has changed dramatically.

  8. Kitchen Gardens: Contexts for Developing Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2013-01-01

    It is great to see how the sharing of ideas sparks new ideas. In 2011 Lyon and Bragg wrote an "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) article on the mathematics of kitchen gardens. In this article the authors show how the kitchen garden may be used as a starting point for proportional reasoning. The authors highlight different…

  9. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. Adaptive bayesian analysis for binomial proportions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of statistical inference of binomial proportions for non-matched, correlated samples, under the Bayesian framework. Such inference can arise when the same group is observed at a different number of times with the aim...

  11. An approach to scoring cursorial limb proportions in carnivorous dinosaurs and an attempt to account for allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons Iv, W Scott; Currie, Philip J

    2016-01-27

    From an initial dataset of 53 theropod species, the general relationship between theropod lower-leg length and body mass is identified. After factoring out this allometric relationship, theropod hindlimb proportions are assessed irrespective of body mass. Cursorial-limb-proportion (CLP) scores derived for each of the considered theropod taxa offer a measure of the extent to which a particular species deviates in favour of higher or lower running speeds. Within the same theropod species, these CLP scores are found to be consistent across multiple adult specimens and across disparate ontogenetic stages. Early theropods are found to have low CLP scores, while the coelurosaurian tyrannosauroids and compsognathids are found to have high CLP scores. Among deinonychosaurs, troodontids have consistently high CLP scores, while many dromaeosaur taxa, including Velociraptor and Deinonychus, have low CLP scores. This indicates that dromaeosaurs were not, overall, a particularly cursorily adapted group. Comparisons between the CLP scores of Tyrannosaurus and specimens referred to the controversial genus Nanotyrannus indicate a strong discrepancy in cursorial adaptations, which supports the legitimacy of Nanotyrannus and the previous suggestions of ecological partitioning between Nanotyrannus and the contemporaneous Tyrannosaurus.

  12. An approach to scoring cursorial limb proportions in carnivorous dinosaurs and an attempt to account for allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, W. Scott, IV; Currie, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    From an initial dataset of 53 theropod species, the general relationship between theropod lower-leg length and body mass is identified. After factoring out this allometric relationship, theropod hindlimb proportions are assessed irrespective of body mass. Cursorial-limb-proportion (CLP) scores derived for each of the considered theropod taxa offer a measure of the extent to which a particular species deviates in favour of higher or lower running speeds. Within the same theropod species, these CLP scores are found to be consistent across multiple adult specimens and across disparate ontogenetic stages. Early theropods are found to have low CLP scores, while the coelurosaurian tyrannosauroids and compsognathids are found to have high CLP scores. Among deinonychosaurs, troodontids have consistently high CLP scores, while many dromaeosaur taxa, including Velociraptor and Deinonychus, have low CLP scores. This indicates that dromaeosaurs were not, overall, a particularly cursorily adapted group. Comparisons between the CLP scores of Tyrannosaurus and specimens referred to the controversial genus Nanotyrannus indicate a strong discrepancy in cursorial adaptations, which supports the legitimacy of Nanotyrannus and the previous suggestions of ecological partitioning between Nanotyrannus and the contemporaneous Tyrannosaurus.

  13. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  14. Efficacy paradox and proportional contextual effect (PCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2017-07-20

    The "efficacy paradox" is when the effect of a treatment tested in an RCT, or evidence-based guideline advice, differs markedly from treatment benefits observed in clinical practice. This arises because in RCT reporting and guideline development treatment efficacy is judged by the separation of the treatment group from the placebo group (the specific treatment effect) whereas in clinical practice it is the overall treatment effect, which includes both specific and contextual responses, that patients experience. This paradox causes a disconnect between guidelines and clinical practice and ignores the importance of contextual response in clinical care. This article fully explains and discusses these issues and presents a possible way to reduce the paradox through an alteration in RCT reporting that shifts the focus to overall treatment benefit and the proportion ("proportional contextual effect") that is explained by placebo and contextual effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bougamont, E; Derre, J; Galan, J; Gerbier, G; Giomataris, I; Gros, M; Katsioulas, I; Jourde, D; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Papaevangelou, T; Savvidis, I; Tsiledakis, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor of the detector in order to achieve the maximum amplification and better resolution. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with a ${}^{252}Cf$ and a ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}Be$ neutron source. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also given.

  16. Proportional Fair Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karumbu, Premkumar; Leith, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We consider multi--hop wireless networks carrying unicast flows for multiple users. Each flow has a specified delay deadline, and the lossy wireless links are modelled as binary symmetric channels (BSCs). Since transmission time, also called airtime, on the links is shared amongst flows, increasing the airtime for one flow comes at the cost of reducing the airtime available to other flows sharing the same link. We derive the joint allocation of flow airtimes and coding rates that achieves the proportionally fair throughput allocation. This utility optimisation problem is non--convex, and one of the technical contributions of this paper is to show that the proportional fair utility optimisation can nevertheless be decomposed into a sequence of convex optimisation problems. The solution to this sequence of convex problems is the unique solution to the original non--convex optimisation. Surprisingly, this solution can be written in an explicit form that yields considerable insight into the nature of the proporti...

  17. Developing Essential Understanding of Ratios, Proportions, and Proportional Reasoning for Teaching Mathematics: Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Ellis, Amy; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2010-01-01

    How do you refute the erroneous claim that all ratios are fractions? This book goes beyond a simple introduction to ratios, proportions, and proportional reasoning. It will help broaden and deepen your mathematical understanding of one of the most challenging topics for students--and teachers--to grasp. It will help you engage your students,…

  18. Proportional Reasoning of Preservice Elementary Education Majors: An Epistemic Model of the Proportional Reasoning Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleener, M. Jayne

    Current research and learning theory suggest that a hierarchy of proportional reasoning exists that can be tested. Using G. Vergnaud's four complexity variables (structure, content, numerical characteristics, and presentation) and T. E. Kieren's model of rational number knowledge building, an epistemic model of proportional reasoning was…

  19. Ideal proportional navigation for exoatmospheric interception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kebo; Zhang Taotao; Chen Lei

    2013-01-01

    Ideal proportional navigation (IPN) is a natural choice for exoatmospheric interception for its mighty capture capability and ease of implementation.The closed-form solution of two-dimensional ideal proportional navigation was conducted in previous public literature,whereas the practical interception happens in the three-dimensional space.A novel set of relative dynamic equations is adopted in this paper,which is with the advantage of decoupling relative motion in the instantaneous rotation plane of the line of sight from the rotation of this plane.The dimension-reduced IPN is constructed in this instantaneous plane,which functions as a three-dimensional guidance law.The trajectory features of dimension-reduced IPN are explored,and the capture regions of dimension-reduced IPN with limited acceleration against nonmaneuvering and maneuvering targets are analyzed by using phase plane method.It is proved that the capture capability of IPN is much stronger than true proportional navigation (TPN),no matter the target maneuvers or not.Finally,simulation results indicate that IPN is more effective than TPN in exoatmospheric interception scenarios.

  20. Band Control of Mutual Proportional Reinsurance

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, John; Yuan, Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance --- a mutual reserve system that is intended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual insurance and reserve banks in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control $(a,A,B,b)$ with $a=0$ and $aproportional reinsurance policy (classical control), is optimal when the objective is to minimize the total maintenance cost. That is, when the reserve position reaches a lower boundary of $a=0$, the reserve should immediately be raised to ...

  1. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Milutinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of a patient’s facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP. Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

  2. The Proportion of Stars with Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of the proportion of Sun-like stars with accompanying planets vary widely; the best present estimate is that it is about 0.34. The capture theory of planet formation involves an interaction between a condensed star and either a diffuse protostar or a high-density region in a dense embedded cluster. The protostar, or dense region, is tidally stretched into a filament that is gravitationally unstable and breaks up into a string of protoplanetary blobs, which subsequently collapse to form planets, some of which are captured by the star. A computational model, in which the passage of collapsing protostars, with initial radii 1000, 1500 and 2000 au, through a dense embedded cluster are followed, is used to estimate the proportion of protostars that would be disrupted to give planets, in environments with star number-densities in the range 5000-25,000 pc-3. It is concluded from the results that the capture theory might explain the presently-estimated proportion of stars with exoplanet companions, although other possible ways of producing exoplanets are not excluded.

  3. Effect of birth size and proportionality on BMI and skinfold thickness in early adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C L; Hallal, P C; Nader, G A; Neutzling, M B; deFátima Vieira, M; Menezes, A M B; Victora, C G

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of birth weight, length and ponderal index at birth on body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness in early adolescence. Population-based, prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. Out of 5249 cohort members, 87.5% were traced at 11 years of age. Birth weight, length and ponderal index (birth weight/birth length(3) x 100) -- treated as continuous variable and divided into fourths -- were the exposure variables. BMI at 11 years, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were the outcomes. Confounders included sex, gestational age, parity, maternal schooling, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI. All three exposure variables were significantly associated with BMI in early adolescence, but the strongest effect was observed for birth weight. Each unit (Z-score) increase in birth weight was associated with 0.46 kg m(-2) increase in BMI at 11 years. The equivalent coefficients for ponderal index and birth length were 0.22 and 0.21 kg m(-2), respectively. High birth weight, length and ponderal index were also associated with increased values for triceps and subscapular skinfolds at 11 years, and with increased prevalence of obesity. Of the three birth exposures studied, birth weight presented the strongest effect on anthropometry in early adolescence. Ponderal index, a proportionality indicator associated with infant mortality, hospitalizations and anthropometry in infancy, was also associated with anthropometry in early adolescence, but its predictive value for the latter is lower than that of birthweight alone. All three birth size indicators studied presented poor predictability of the later risk of obesity.

  4. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  5. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  6. Proportions of maxillary anterior teeth relative to each other and to golden standard in tabriz dental faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (Pmean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (Pgolden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (Pgolden standard exists. In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

  7. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  8. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  9. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  10. Classifying stages of third molar development: crown length as a predictor for the mature root length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Willems, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tooth development staging techniques were reported based on arbitrarily set borderlines between succeeding stages. Anatomic tooth features or predictions of future tooth part dimensions were described to identify the thresholds between the established stages. The need to predict mature tooth dimensions, while the tooth considered is still in development, is a drawback to use this staging technique for dental age estimations. Using the fully mature crown length as a predictor for the future root length could provide a tool for undisputable staging. The aim of this study was first to measure the crown and root length of fully mature third molars and second to investigate whether the crown length could be used as a predictor of the root length, in order to classify the observed root length as a proportion of the future mature root. The crown and root lengths of all present third molars were digitally measured on dental panoramic radiographs of 1,000 subjects. The included subjects were equally distributed in gender, and their age ranged between 22 and 40 years. Two occlusal borders, the cement enamel junction and the root apices, were defined as landmarks for standardized measurements. Regression models with root length as response and crown length as predictor were established and revealed low R (2) and high RMSE values. Due to the small explained variance by the prediction models and the high variation in prediction errors, the observed crown length cannot be used to predict the final root length of a developing third molar.

  11. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  12. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  13. Decay of boson systems with large scattering length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, O; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2003-06-01

    We investigate systems of identical bosons with the focus on two-body correlations. We apply a Faddeev type of decomposition of the wavefunction. At large scattering length a series of spatially extended many-body bound states appears, analogously to the three-body Efimov states. We discuss a recombination process with these many-body Efimov states as intermediate states.

  14. A comparison of several methods for the confidence intervals of negative binomial proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Alfred Lim Sheng; Shan, Fam Pei

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of the performances of several approaches in constructing confidence interval of negative binomial proportions (single negative binomial proportion and the difference between two negative binomial proportions). After that, the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches in constructing confidence interval of negative binomial proportions are figured out. Performances of the approaches will be accessed by comparing their coverage probabilities and average lengths of confidence intervals. For the comparison of the performances of the approaches in single negative binomial proportion, Wald confidence interval (WCI-I), Agresti confidence interval (ACI-I), Wilson's Score confidence interval (WSCI-I) and Jeffrey confidence interval (JCI-I) are used. WSCI-I is the better approach for single negative binomial proportion in term of the average length of confidence intervals and average coverage probability. While for the comparison of the performances of the approaches in the difference between two negative binomial proportions, Wald confidence interval (WCI-II), Agresti confidence interval (ACI-II), Newcombe's Score confidence interval (NSCI-II), Jeffrey confidence interval (JCI-II) and Yule confidence interval (YCI-II) are used. Under different situations, a better approach has been discussed and recommended. There will be different approach that performs better for the coverage probability.

  15. Connecting Few-Body Inelastic Decay to Quantum Correlations in a Many-Body System: A Weakly Coupled Impurity in a Resonant Fermi Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sébastien; Pierce, Matthieu; Delehaye, Marion; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe

    2017-03-10

    We study three-body recombination in an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture. We first show theoretically that, for weak interspecies coupling, the loss rate is proportional to Tan's contact. Second, using a ^{7}Li/^{6}Li mixture we probe the recombination rate in both the thermal and dual superfluid regimes. We find excellent agreement with our model in the BEC-BCS crossover. At unitarity where the fermion-fermion scattering length diverges, we show that the loss rate is proportional to n_{f}^{4/3}, where n_{f} is the fermionic density. This unusual exponent signals nontrivial two-body correlations in the system. Our results demonstrate that few-body losses can be used as a quantitative probe of quantum correlations in many-body ensembles.

  16. [Discussion of actual legal minimum requirements for feeder space and perch length in laying hen husbandry in the light of the body widths measured in Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown laying hens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Andreas; Spindler, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Legal requirements on space and dimensions regarding furnished cages and alternative systems in laying hen husbandry are subject of constant discussion. Further knowledge about basic measures of the hens might help to come to reasonable results in the future. Digital images of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens, housed at the Lehr- und Forschungsgut Ruthe, University for Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, in Big Dutchman Eurovent laying hen cages, were made at three stages (19th, 36th and 58th week) of production. All hens had been taken out of their cages by night and set on a perch in a special cage used to photograph the hens frontally under controlled conditions. Body widths were calculated by a python application Cdisto.py0 2009 Andreas Briese) to mark and measure the body width in the digital images of a total of 156 hens. Mean body widths of 133.77 mm in Lohmann-LSL hens (SD = 9.71; N = 64; mean weight: 1.73 kg) and of 152.55 mm in Lohmann-LB hens (SD = 10.31; N = 92; mean weight: 1.93 kg) respectively were found. Even slight changes in body weights had no effect on the body width. Nonetheless the differences between both hybrids were always statistically significant (Mann-Whitney p < 0,001). Using these preliminary results on body width in a mathematical model simultanious feeding behaviour becomes only possible if the number of animals is reduced by 10.3% to 89.7% in LSL and by 21.3% to 78.7% in LB breeds in relation to a calculated maximum on base of the minimum space requirements for furnished cages in the EU-Dir 74/1999/EC.

  17. Active vibration isolation by adaptive proportional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chu, Chih-Liang

    2013-01-01

    An active vibration isolation system that applies proportional controller incorporated with an adaptive filter to reduce the transmission of base excitations to a precision instrument is proposed in this work. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. In practice, the phase response of integrator at low frequency such as 2~5 Hz deviate from the 90 degree which is the exact phase difference between the vibration velocity and acceleration. Therefore, an adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error in this paper. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies.

  18. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  19. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  20. Scaling and universality in proportional elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Castellano, Claudio

    2007-09-28

    A most debated topic of the last years is whether simple statistical physics models can explain collective features of social dynamics. A necessary step in this line of endeavor is to find regularities in data referring to large-scale social phenomena, such as scaling and universality. We show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is a universal scaling function, identical in different countries and years. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general microscopic dynamics that does not depend on the historical, political, and/or economical context where voters operate. A simple dynamical model for the behavior of voters, similar to a branching process, reproduces the universal distribution.

  1. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  2. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  3. Length contraction in Very Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    Glashow and Cohen claim that many results of special theory of relativity (SR) like time dilation, relativistic velocity addition, etc, can be explained by using certain proper subgroups, of the Lorentz group, which collectively form the main body of Very special relativity (VSR). They did not mention about length contraction in VSR. Length contraction in VSR has not been studied at all. In this article we calculate how the length of a moving rod contracts in VSR, particularly in the HOM(2) version. The results are interesting in the sense that in general the length contraction formulas in VSR are different from SR but in many cases the two theories predict similar length contraction of moving rods.

  4. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  5. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  6. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  7. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  8. Observations on oesophageal length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  9. Exact tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, William R

    2009-12-01

    Exact conditional tests are often required to evaluate statistically whether a sample of diploids comes from a population with Hardy-Weinberg proportions or to confirm the accuracy of genotype assignments. This requirement is especially common when the sample includes multiple alleles and sparse data, thus rendering asymptotic methods, such as the common chi(2)-test, unreliable. Such an exact test can be performed using the likelihood ratio as its test statistic rather than the more commonly used probability test. Conceptual advantages in using the likelihood ratio are discussed. A substantially improved algorithm is described to permit the performance of a full-enumeration exact test on sample sizes that are too large for previous methods. An improved Monte Carlo algorithm is also proposed for samples that preclude full enumeration. These algorithms are about two orders of magnitude faster than those currently in use. Finally, methods are derived to compute the number of possible samples with a given set of allele counts, a useful quantity for evaluating the feasibility of the full enumeration procedure. Software implementing these methods, ExactoHW, is provided.

  10. Does the stalk contractility of Vorticella convallaria depend on the stalk length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Gul; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a sessile stalked ciliate living in water, and its stalk coils to move the cell body (zooid) towards its residence substrate at a maximum speed of ~ 50 mm/s. Our previous microfluidics study shows that the isometric tension of the V. convallaria stalk is linearly proportional to the stalk length. Based on this observation, we hypothesize that the contractility of V. convallaria during normal contraction is also dependent on the stalk length. To investigate our hypothesis, we measured the contraction speed of V. convallaria using high-speed videography and evaluated the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria using fluid dynamics modeling. We appreciate support from UNL Layman Seed Grant and Nebraska EPSCoR First Award Grant.

  11. Autonomous and FliK-dependent length control of the flagellar rod in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F V; Hughes, Kelly T; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism.

  12. Autonomous and FliK-Dependent Length Control of the Flagellar Rod in Salmonella enterica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism. PMID:19666714

  13. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  14. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  15. Tank tests to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls II : effect of varying depth of step, angle of after- body keel, length of afterbody chine, and gross load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R; Mckann, Robert; Hay, Elizabeth S

    1946-01-01

    The second part of a series of tests made in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls is presented. Results are given to show the effects on resistance characteristics of varying angle of afterbody keel, depth of step, and length of afterbody chine. The effect of varying the gross load is shown for one configuration. The resistance characteristics of planing-tail hulls are compared with those of a conventional flying-boat hull. The forces on the forebody and afterbody of one configuration are compared with the forces on a conventional hull. Increasing the angle of afterbody keel had small effect on hump resistance and no effect on high-speed resistance but increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Increasing the depth of step increased hump resistance, had little effect on high-speed resistance, and increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Omitting the chines on the forward 25 percent of the afterbody had no appreciable effect on resistance. Omitting 70 percent of the chine length had almost no effect on maximum resistance but broadened the hump and increased spray around the afterbody. Load-resistance ratio at the hump decreased more rapidly with increasing load coefficient for the planing-tail hull than for the representative conventional hull, although the load-resistance ratio at the hump was greater for the planing-tail hull than for the conventional hull throughout the range of loads tested. At speeds higher than hump speed, load-resistance ratio for the planing-tail hull was a maximum at a particular gross load and was slightly less at heavier and lighter gross loads. The planing-tail hull was found to have lower resistance than the conventional hull at both the hump and at high speeds, but at intermediate speeds there was little difference. The lower hump resistance of the planing-tail hull was attributed to the ability of the afterbody to carry a greater percentage of the

  16. Regression Analysis of Whole Length and Body Weight of Giant Salaman-ders (Andrias davidianus) under the Condition of the Artificial Breeding%人工养殖大鲵全长与体重关系的回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启军; 赵虎; 张红星; 吉红

    2012-01-01

    Giant salamanders {Andrias davidianus), which is Amphibia, Caudata, salamander Cryptobranchus Branch, Megalobatrachus, is a unique endemic amphibious in China. Recently, breeding giant salamanders in historical distribution areas is a hot spot, however, the assessment methods of breeding effects are still rare. This essay analyzed the whole length as well as the weight of 1 530 giant salamanders using regression analysis in SPSS analysis software. The results indicated that there was a significant correlative relation between the weight and the whole length of giant salamanders. The formula was Y=0.010X2.867. In conclusion, this article provided a scientific method to assess the status of giant salamander via artificial breeding.%大鲵(Andrias davidianus)隶属两栖纲,有尾目,隐鳃鲵科,大鲵属,为我国特有的珍稀濒危两栖动物.目前在我国一些主要历史分布区掀起了一股大鲵养殖高潮,但是对当前养殖效果缺乏成熟的评价手段,因此本研究通过对陕西省汉中市和安康市两大鲵养殖场养殖的1 530尾大鲵的体重和全长进行实际测量,利用SPSS分析软件对数据进行了回归分析.结果表明,体重与全长之间存在极显著的相关关系,体重与全长之间的关系主要表现为幂函数关系,其关系式为:Y=0.010X2.867.本研究的顺利完成,为今后评价大鲵的人工养殖效果提供了科学的方法.

  17. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  18. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  19. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than......Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... analysis in 548 same-sex Danish twins (274 pairs) aged 73-94 years, of whom 204 pairs experienced the death of one or both co-twins during 9-10 years of follow-up (1997-2007). From the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) distribution, the authors obtained the mean TRFL (mTRFL) and the mean values...

  1. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  2. Fmr1基因敲除雄性小鼠生长指标的变化%Observation on the results of body weight and length of male mince with Fmr1 gene knockout.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乙; 刘国彬; 刘绪红; 林波; 黄月玲; 沈岩松; 张维雯; 孙卫文; 李敏雄; 陈盛强

    2011-01-01

    目的 对出生后0~56d的清洁级FVB小鼠和Fmr1基因敲除雄性小鼠的体重和体长指标进行分析比较,同时比较出生后28d的睾丸大小变化.方法 挑选10周龄FVB小鼠和Fmr1基因敲除小鼠各20只(雌、雄各半),采取1:I同居,全同胞兄妹近交繁殖,测定雄性子代生长发育指标,进行统计分析.结果 出生后0~56d清洁级Fmr1基因敲除雄性小鼠体重与体长的增长与FVB小鼠差异无统计学意义(t=0.93,t=1.24,P>0.05),但出生后28d的FVB小鼠和Fmr1基因敲除雄性小鼠睾丸大小差别有统计学意义(t=4.12,P<0.05).结论 Fmr1基因敲除不影响雄性小鼠正常的体重和体长的发育,但出生后28d的Fmr1基因敲除小鼠有巨睾征.%Objective To characterize the growth performance of FVB mice and Fmrl gene knockout mice. Methods There 20 seed FVB micedO males and 10 females,aged 10 weeks)were chosen and monogamously mated. The parameters of growth performance were analyzed. And these analysis also conducted on male Fmrl gene knockout mice. Results There no significant statistical differences in average weight and length of the newboms FVB and Fmrl gene knockout mice within 56 days after borth were observed. While significant differences were observed in size of testes of FVB mice and Fmrl gene knockout mice 28 days after birth. Conclusion Fmrl gene knockout does not affect the growth and weight of the mice but the mice may have giant testes.

  3. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  4. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  5. A new model predicting locomotor cost from limb length via force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman

    2005-04-01

    Notably absent from the existing literature is an explicit biomechanical model linking limb design to the energy cost of locomotion, COL. Here, I present a simple model that predicts the rate of force production necessary to support the body and swing the limb during walking and running as a function of speed, limb length, limb proportion, excursion angle and stride frequency. The estimated rate of force production is then used to predict COL via this model following previous studies that have linked COL to force production. To test this model, oxygen consumption and kinematics were measured in nine human subjects while walking and running on a treadmill at range of speeds. Following the model, limb length, speed, excursion angle and stride frequency were used to predict the rate of force production both to support the body's center of mass and to swing the limb. Model-predicted COL was significantly correlated with observed COL, performing as well or better than contact time and Froude number as a predictor of COL for running and walking, respectively. Furthermore, the model presented here predicts relationships between COL, kinematic variables and body size that are supported by published reduced-gravity experiments and scaling studies. Results suggest the model is useful for predicting COL from anatomical and kinematic variables, and may be useful in intra- and inter-specific studies of locomotor anatomy and performance.

  6. Mathematically modelling proportions of Japanese populations by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    I propose a mathematical model for temporal changes of proportions for industrial sectors. I prove that the model keeps the proportions for the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary sectors between 0 and 100% and preserves their total as 100%. The model fits the Japanese historical data between 1950 and 2005 for the population proportions by industry very well. The model also predicts that the proportion for the secondary industry becomes negligible and becomes less than 1% at least around 2080.

  7. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, B. V. Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. Aim: To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital p...

  8. Altitudinal Variation in Digestive Tract Length in Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangling LOU; Yanhong LI; Long JIN; Zhiping MI; Wenchao LIU; Wenbo LIAO

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays an important role in digestion and the acquisition of food energy. Understanding the impact of abiotic environments on digestive tract morphology is especially important for evolution of digestive tract across different environments. Here, we investigated altitudinal variation in digestive tract length in the Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden) across ifve populations ranging from 1413 m to 1935 m a.s.l. in Ningnan County, Sichuan province in western China. Frogs were collected during the breeding season, from 1-5 June 2012. Our results revealed that females had longer digestive tract and relative digestive tract (i.e. digestive tract length/body size) lengths in com-parison to males, on average, but the differences between them decreased with increasing altitude. Digestive tract and relative digestive tract lengths increased with increasing altitude suggesting that a higher proportion of indigestible ma-terials may be consumed at high-altitude sites and result in a relative increase in digestive tract dimensions.

  9. Spatial Proportional Reasoning Is Associated with Formal Knowledge about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S.; Levine, Susan C.; Frick, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves thinking about parts and wholes (i.e., about fractional quantities). Yet, research on proportional reasoning and fraction learning has proceeded separately. This study assessed proportional reasoning and formal fraction knowledge in 8- to 10-year-olds. Participants (N = 52) saw combinations of cherry juice and water…

  10. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  11. Annular shape silver lined proportional counter for on-line pulsed neutron yield measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, P. M.; Das, D.

    2015-04-01

    An annular shape silver lined proportional counter is developed to measure pulsed neutron radiation. The detector has 314 mm overall length and 235 mm overall diameter. The central cavity of 150 mm diameter and 200 mm length is used for placing the neutron source. Because of annular shape the detector covers >3π solid angle of the source. The detector has all welded construction. The detector is developed in two halves for easy mounting and demounting. Each half is an independent detector. Both the halves together give single neutron pulse calibration constant of 4.5×104 neutrons/shot count. The detector operates in proportional mode which gives enhanced working conditions in terms of dead time and operating range compared to Geiger Muller based neutron detectors.

  12. Multichannel electrotactile feedback for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gauravkumar K.; Dosen, Strahinja; Castellini, Claudio; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Closing the loop in myoelectric prostheses by providing artificial somatosensory feedback to the user is an important need for prosthetic users. Previous studies investigated feedback strategies in combination with the control of one degree of freedom of simple grippers. Modern hands, however, are sophisticated multifunction systems. In this study, we assessed multichannel electrotactile feedback integrated with an advanced method for the simultaneous and proportional control of individual fingers of a dexterous hand. Approach. The feedback used spatial and frequency coding to provide information on the finger positions (normalized flexion angles). A comprehensive set of conditions have been investigated in 28 able-bodied subjects, including feedback modalities (visual, electrotactile and no feedback), control tasks (fingers and grasps), systems (virtual and real hand), control methods (ideal and realistic) and range of motion (low and high). The task for the subjects was to operate the hand using closed-loop myoelectric control and generate the desired movement (e.g., selected finger or grasp at a specific level of closure). Main results. The subjects could perceive the multichannel and multivariable electrotactile feedback and effectively exploit it to improve the control performance with respect to open-loop grasping. The improvement however depended on the reliability of the feedforward control, with less consistent control exhibiting performance trends that were more complex across the conditions. Significance. The results are promising for the potential application of advanced feedback to close the control loop in sophisticated prosthetic systems.

  13. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  14. Theoretical Investigation of a Proportional-Plus-Flicker Automatic Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Ernest C.

    1950-01-01

    The proportional-plus-flicker automatic pilot operates by a nonlinear principle whereby a fast-acting flicker servomotor response is combined with a low-speed proportional servomotor response for the purpose of obtaining supersonic stability and control. Essentially, the autopilot maintains a zero reference about which the output is proportional to the input. However, a flicker response overrides this proportional response at a fixed angle of gimbal displacement on either side of the zero gyroscope reference. Therefore, in contrast to other high speed control systems, the design requirements are simplified because the two components of the proportional-flicker control system are easy to build separately and they can be combined in a relatively simple manner. By application of the proportional-flicker principle, satisfactory stability can be obtained by the proper adjustment of the variable factors in the autopilot mechanism; namely, the proportional gain, the amplitude of flicker control deflection, the autopilot time-lag factor (the time-lag between flicker and proportional operation), and the point in the range that the autopilot switches from a flicker to a proportional system. There is a possibility that these factors can be adjusted so that a more rapid response time (the time to reach steady state) is obtained with the non-linear proportional-flicker autopilot than with a purely linear proportional autopilot. For the main part of this analysis, the proportional part of the system is approximated by a zero-phase-lag proportional autopilot with the assumption that the control surface moves instantaneously at the point where the system switches from flicker to proportional. Good correlation is shown between the results obtained by this method and results obtained by using a close approximation of an actual autopilot transfer function for proportional autopilot operation.

  15. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengh are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF

    2015-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50

  16. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    compared with males. Measurements of the skull and flipper bones show negative allometry, whereas those of the bones of the body generally show positive allometry. There are no statistically significant intersexual differences in allometry except for the pelvic bones, where the males show stronger positive...... a larger proportion as compared with males. As these characters show negative and positive allometry, respectively, it is suggested that males finish their development at an earlier stage than females, retaining more paedomorphic proportions of the skeleton. Paedomorphosis in fully grown males relative...... to females is also found in the vertebral epiphyses that mature later in males than females, although the males finish growth at a younger age....

  17. The proportion of the face in younger adults using the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, O

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci could be an objective method in the determination of the natural and artistic proportions of human face. In this study, a sample of 400 subjects (200 male and 200 female, 22-25 years old) was used. Measurements were made of the length of thumb, the length of ear, the approximate distances between the hair line and the glabella or eyebrows, between the glabella or eyebrows and the tip of the nose and the distance between the nose and the chin, and the distance between the ear and the lateral aspect of the eye. The results obtained in the males and females showed significant (p < 0.01) correlations between the length of thumb and the proportions of the face examined in the study. Additionally, the height of the face was found to be almost three times the length of the thumb. However, the measurements obtained from female subjects were on average smaller than those taken from males. The results obtained in this experiment could be of value in understanding of the evaluation of the face for the people working in plastic surgery or art.

  18. Discussions on Feasibility of Paleo-salinity Reconstruction of Lake Qinghai Water by Variations in Body Length of Ostracod Valves%试论利用青海湖介形虫体长定量恢复湖水古盐度的可靠性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐星娜; 汪勇; 沈吉; 王勇

    2012-01-01

    Lake Qinghai, the largest closed-basin brackish lake in China, is located in the northeastern margin of Ti- betan Plateau. The authors studied a 475 cm long sediment core ( QH-2005 ) retrieved from the southeastern part of Lake Qinghai The six chronological constraints for core QH-2005 include: four 14C dates on bulk organic carbon (BOC) andtwo on lignin. The inferred changing "lake reservoir effect" was used to correct the older BOC dates. The corrected BOC dates, together with the lignin dates were converted into calendar ages to yield the "depth-age" model for core QH-2005. We randomly collected adult ostracod (Limnocythere inopinata or Eucypris inflata ) valves from the sediment and measured the body length for 30 L. inopinata valves, which were later statistically processed to yield its average val- ue. For sections without enough L. inopinata valves in core QH-2005, E. inflata valves were used to instead. In ad- dition, sediment redness was also determined for Core QH-2005. Ostracod δ18O values for Core QH-2005 were revealed to be mainly related to dilution and evaporative enrichment of the lake water and hence can be further used to indicate enhanced monsoonal precipitation of Lake Qinghai area when negative ostracod δ18O values were observed. High redness values indicate increased riverine supply to Lake Qinghai associated with increased monsoon rainfall. The results of ostracod δl8O and redness show that: climate dur- ing 13,500 - 10,900 cal a BP was relatively cold and dry with frequent short-term fluctuations; warm and wet climate began at about 10 900 cal a BP and culminated around 6 500 cal a BP as a result of monsoon strengthening; climate became cold and dry afterwards and has remained relatively stable since 3 400 cal a BP. The reconstructed salinity based on ostracod body length coincides well with the above changing pattern. Generally, the reconstructed lake water salinity shows evident decreasing trend with considerable fluctuations in late

  19. Growth standardized values and curves based on weight for length/height,body mass index for Chinese children under 7 years of age%中国七岁以下儿童身长/身高的体重和体块指数的生长标准值及标准化生长曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    首都儿科研究所; 九市儿童体格发育调查协作组

    2009-01-01

    目的 制定中国7岁以下儿童身长/身高的体重、体块指数(BMI)的生长标准值及标准化生长曲线.方法 选择"2005年九市儿童体格发育调查"中69 622名城区7岁以下儿童的身长/身高、体重测量值,采用LMS法分别建立身长的体重和BMI模型.将3岁后身高加上0.7 cm与身长对接,构建统一身长的体重LMS模型,数据拟合后可将身长减去0.7 cm转化为身高的体蕈.BMI采取"身长BMI"和"身高BMI"分别独立拟合的方法,将身高加上0.7 cm计算"身长BMI",在整个年龄段拟合"身长BMI"LMS模型,类似地可建立"身高BMI"模型.曲线的拟合效果评价采用拟合优度X2检验.结果 制定出中国儿童45~105 cm身长的体重、65~125 cm身高的体重、0~3岁年龄的BMI(由身长计算)、2~7岁年龄的BMI(由身高计算)的按百分位数及标准差单位的生长标准值及标准化生长曲线图.该参照标准总体上略高于世界卫生组织新标准,而略低于美国疾控中心2000年修订标准(CDC2000).结论 本研究制定的身长/身高的体重及BMI标准具有国家代表性,可在全国范围内用于儿童生长监测与营养评估.%Objective To construct the growth standardized data and curves based on weight for length/height,body mass index (BMI) for Chinese children under the age of 7 years.Methods The fourth national growth survey of children under 7 years of age in the nine cities of China was performed in 2005 and from this survey,data of the 69 622 urban healthy children were used to set up the database for weight for length/height (length was measured for children under 3 years of age) and BMI.Measurement data were ascribed to rigorous methods of data collection and standardized procedures across study sites.Models of weight for length/height and BMI were established by the LMS method,respectively;0.7 cm was added to the height values (3 to 7 years),then weight for length/height were fitted by the single model,and after the

  20. Universality of modulation length and time exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Seidel, Alexander; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-10-01

    We study systems with a crossover parameter λ, such as the temperature T, which has a threshold value λ(*) across which the correlation function changes from exhibiting fixed wavelength (or time period) modulations to continuously varying modulation lengths (or times). We introduce a hitherto unknown exponent ν(L) characterizing the universal nature of this crossover and compute its value in general instances. This exponent, similar to standard correlation length exponents, is obtained from motion of the poles of the momentum (or frequency) space correlation functions in the complex k-plane (or ω-plane) as the parameter λ is varied. Near the crossover (i.e., for λ→λ(*)), the characteristic modulation wave vector K(R) in the variable modulation length "phase" is related to that in the fixed modulation length "phase" q via |K(R)-q|[proportionality]|T-T(*)|(νL). We find, in general, that ν(L)=1/2. In some special instances, ν(L) may attain other rational values. We extend this result to general problems in which the eigenvalue of an operator or a pole characterizing general response functions may attain a constant real (or imaginary) part beyond a particular threshold value λ(*). We discuss extensions of this result to multiple other arenas. These include the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. By extending our considerations, we comment on relations pertaining not only to the modulation lengths (or times), but also to the standard correlation lengths (or times). We introduce the notion of a Josephson time scale. We comment on the presence of aperiodic "chaotic" modulations in "soft-spin" and other systems. These relate to glass-type features. We discuss applications to Fermi systems, with particular application to metal to band insulator transitions, change of Fermi surface topology, divergent effective masses, Dirac systems, and topological insulators. Both regular periodic and glassy (and spatially chaotic behavior) may be found in

  1. The body type profile of women occupying modern pentathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It was made an attempt to define the features of the body structure athletes - members of the Polish national team in modern pentathlon (n = 11. Age athletes were in the range of 18-35 years old (23,4 ± 5,2, and training experience - 6-20 years old (12,4 ± 4,4. The five factors (Rohrera, Queteleta II, Manouvrier, height-weight, pelvic and shoulder, and the total body surface were defined. The share based on body measurements of skin-fat folds using prediction equations Piechaczka is calculated. Total fat as a percentage of body weight using the formula Brożka i Keys is calculated. At all were defined 20 indicators. On the basis of the valuation of the body structure specifies a profile of the subjects were determined. A comparison group is consisted of students of Warsaw University of Technology. The members of the women's national team of Poland in modern pentathlon are characterized, above all, significant indicators of the body length of the upper and lower extremities, with a diameter of forearm, elbow width, as well as the value of the proportion of the body.

  2. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  3. Measurements of proportional scintillation in liquid xenon using thin wires

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Goetzke, L W; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Messina, M; Naganoma, J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P; Wall, R

    2014-01-01

    Proportional scintillation in liquid xenon has a promising application in the field of direct dark matter detection, potentially allowing for simpler, more sensitive detectors. However, knowledge of the basic properties of the phenomenon as well as guidelines for its practical use are currently limited. We report here on measurements of proportional scintillation light emitted in liquid xenon around thin wires. The maximum proportional scintillation gain of $287^{+97}_{-75}$ photons per drift electron was obtained using 10 $\\mu$m diameter gold plated tungsten wire. The thresholds for electron multiplication and proportional scintillation are measured as $725^{+48}_{-139}$ and $412^{+10}_{-133}$ kV/cm, respectively. The threshold for proportional scintillation is in good agreement with a previously published result, while the electron multiplication threshold represents a novel measurement. A complete set of parameters for the practical use of the electron multiplication and proportional scintillation processe...

  4. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  5. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  6. The proportionality as legal limit the right negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva Zolet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a maximum of proportionality study and its maximum partial, especially of the Negotiating law perspective and in the sphere of legal limitation for proportionality in the practice of commercial freedoms. The constant use of the maximum of proportionality, as the basis of judicial decisions without proper methodological rigor, triggers a debate about the use of the Theory of Fundamental Rights as a mere rhetorical reference, including criticism of an incomplete legal basis of the principle of proportionality, which by means of judicial decisions can take on a different character or subverted that provided in the doctrine of Robert Alexy.     

  7. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B V Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Standardized frontal images of 56 dental students, 20 male and 36 female, were captured. Each maxillary anterior tooth was digitally measured. Once the measurements were recorded, the three theories were applied and the data was analyzed statistically. The golden proportion was found to exist only in 14-25% of the subjects, between perceived maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. The value of RED proportion was not constant, and as one moved distally, this proportion gradually increased. Furthermore, the results revealed that golden percentage was rather constant in terms of relative tooth width. Central incisor represented 22%, lateral incisor 15% and canine 13% of the width of six maxillary anterior teeth, as viewed from the front. Both golden proportion and RED proportion are unsuitable methods to relate the successive width of the maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. However, the golden percentage theory can be applied if percentages are adjusted, taking into consideration the ethnicity of the population.

  8. Two body scattering length of Yukawa model on a lattice

    CERN Document Server

    De Soto, F; Roiesnel, C; Boucaud, P; Leroy, J P; Pène, O; Boucaud, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of scattering parameters from Euclidean simulations of a Yukawa model in a finite volume with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed both in non relativistic quantum mechanics and in quantum field theory.

  9. Ab initio determination of bond length dependence of the correlated valence shell Hamiltonian of CH: Comparison with semiempirical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hosung; Freed, Karl F.

    1984-01-01

    The exact ab initio effective valence shell Hamiltonian, which is mimicked by semiempirical theories of valence, is calculated for CH at 11 bond lengths using quasidegenerate many-body perturbation theory to incorporate extensive correlation contributions. Least squares fits of the bond length dependence of the calculated CH matrix elements provide simple formulas which are compared with the intuitive forms introduced into semiempirical theories. Some of the semiempirical formulas, e.g., one-center, one-electron integrals and two-center, two-electron integrals, are in good agreement with our correlated ab initio calculations, while others display substantial departures. For example, the bond length dependence of one-center, two-electron integrals, which are assumed to be independent of bond length in semiempirical theories, is substantial but physically understandable. Corrections are found to the assumed proportionality of resonance and overlap integrals. The bond length dependence of nonclassical three-electron integrals is presented along with the hybrid and exchange integrals that are ignored in zero differential overlap methods.

  10. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  11. A novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan-qing; Sun, Niu-yi; Che, Wen-ru [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure and Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics and School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shan, Rong, E-mail: shan.rong@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure and Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics and School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu, Zhen-gang, E-mail: zgzhu@ucas.ac.cn [School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Spin diffusion length of Pt is evaluated via proximity effect of spin orbit coupling (SOC) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Pt/Co{sub 2}FeAl bilayers. By varying the thicknesses of Pt and Co{sub 2}FeAl layer, the thickness dependences of AHE parameters can be obtained, which are theoretically predicted to be proportional to the square of the SOC strength. According to the physical image of the SOC proximity effect, the spin diffusion length of Pt can easily be identified from these thickness dependences. This work provides a novel method to evaluate spin diffusion length in a material with a small value.

  12. A Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Both Proportional and Non-proportional Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Surajit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    This paper has presented a life prediction model in the field of multiaxial low-cycle fatigue. The proposed model is generally applied for constant amplitude multiaxial proportional and non-proportional loading. Depending upon applied strain path the equivalent strain varies within a cycle. Equivalent average strain amplitude is considered as fatigue damage parameter in the proposed model. The model has requirement of only two material constants and no other tuning parameters. The model is examined by the proportional and non-proportional low-cycle fatigue life experimental data for eight different types of materials. The model is successfully correlated with multiaxial fatigue lives of eight different materials.

  13. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  14. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  15. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  16. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent the proport...

  17. Store-Forward and its implications for Proportional Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Proportional Scheduler was recently proposed as a scheduling algorithm for multi-hop switch networks. For these networks, the BackPressure scheduler is the classical benchmark. For networks with fixed routing, the Proportional Scheduler is maximum stable, myopic and, furthermore, will alleviate

  18. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  19. The Fibonacci Sequence: Proportional Semantic Bases of Children's Aesthetic Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neperud, Ronald W.; Serlin, Ronald C.

    1984-01-01

    Only at the third- and seventh-grade levels did proportional preferences for Fibonacci figures differ significantly from preferences for other kinds of proportional spatial divisions. Semantic patterns were similar among third and fifth graders, with a change occurring between fifth and seventh grades in keeping with the development of formal…

  20. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, BE van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  1. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, Cl; Surendra Kumar, Gp; Jnanadev, Kr

    2011-01-01

    Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston's proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion...

  2. Proportional reasoning as a key to numeracy across the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    . Proportional reasoning is the ability to understand, interpret, and solve problems related to situations of proportion, using comparison and relative and multiplicative thinking. It relies on numerous foundational skills including fractional thinking and an understanding of ratio, scale, decimals......Numeracy (mathematical literacy) is an essential skill in life and work. Lack of numeracy has been linked to poor health and work outcomes, and diminished social and civic participation. A key aspect of numeracy, which is not often explicitly mentioned in school curricula, is proportional reasoning...... internationally. Research has also shown that while proportional reasoning develops in students from Years 5 to 9, this development does not always happen naturally. Further, research suggests that targeted teaching can assist students to develop better proportional reasoning skills. This multi-state Australian...

  3. Dynamic adjustment: an electoral method for relaxed double proportionality

    CERN Document Server

    Linusson, Svante

    2013-01-01

    We describe an electoral system for distributing seats in a parliament. It gives proportionality for the political parties and close to proportionality for constituencies. The system suggested here is a version of the system used in Sweden and other Nordic countries with permanent seats in each constituency and adjustment seats to give proportionality on the national level. In the national election of 2010 the current Swedish system failed to give proportionality between parties. We examine here one possible cure for this unwanted behavior. The main difference compared to the current Swedish system is that the number of adjustment seats is not fixed, but rather dynamically determined to be as low as possible and still insure proportionality between parties.

  4. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology.

  5. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  6. Two-body and three-body contacts for identical Bosons near unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2014-03-21

    In a recent experiment with ultracold trapped Rb85 atoms, Makotyn et al. studied a quantum-degenerate Bose gas in the unitary limit where its scattering length is infinitely large. We show that the observed momentum distributions are compatible with a universal relation that expresses the high-momentum tail in terms of the two-body contact C2 and the three-body contact C3. We determine the contact densities for the unitary Bose gas with number density n to be C2 ≈ 20 n(4/3) and C3 ≈ 2n(5/3). We also show that the observed atom loss rate is compatible with that from 3-atom inelastic collisions, which gives a contribution proportional to C3, but the loss rate is not compatible with that from 2-atom inelastic collisions, which gives a contribution proportional to C2. We point out that the contacts C2 and C3 could be measured independently by using the virial theorem near and at unitarity, respectively.

  7. Investigating Proportional Reasoning in a University Quantitative Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Frith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reason with proportions is known to take a long time to develop and to be difficult to learn. We regard proportional reasoning (the ability to reason about quantities in relative terms as a threshold concept for academic quantitative literacy. Our study of the teaching and learning of proportional reasoning in a university quantitative literacy course for law students consisted of iterative action research, in which we introduced various teaching interventions and analysed students’ written responses to assessment questions requiring students to explain their reasoning in situations that call for proportional reasoning. For this analysis we used a modified phenomenographic method to develop and refine a framework to code the responses. This enabled us to broadly describe the responses in terms of the concept of the liminal space that a student must traverse in coming to a full understanding of a threshold concept, and to further define the liminal space to facilitate finer description of students’ responses. Our latest analysis confirmed that many university students cannot reason with proportions, that this kind of thinking is difficult to learn, and that it takes more time than is available in a one-semester course. The context and structure of the questions have a marked effect on students’ ability to apply proportional reasoning successfully. The fraction of students who were classified as ‘at or over the threshold’ (i.e., fairly competent at proportional reasoning after instruction ranged between 8% for the most difficult question and 48% for the easiest.

  8. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-01-23

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ(2) = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  9. Transformation of equations in analysis of proportionality through referent models

    CERN Document Server

    Romay, E O

    2006-01-01

    In proportionality of objects, samples or populations, usually we work with Z score of proportionality calculated through referent models, instead directly with the variables of the objects in itself. In these studies we have the necessity to transform, the equations that use the variables of the object, in equations that directly use like variables Z score. In the present work a method is developed to transform the parametric equations, in equations in variables Z using like example the studies of human proportionality from the Phantom stratagem of Ross and Wilson.

  10. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  11. Comparative postcranial body shape and locomotion in Chlorocebus aethiops and Cercopithecus mitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, F; Turner, T R; Mott, C S; Jolly, C J

    2005-06-01

    Body weight and length, chest girth, and seven postcranial limb segment lengths are compared between two guenon species, Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (vervets) and Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkeys), exhibiting different habitual locomotor preferences. The subjects, all adults, were wild caught for a non-related research project (Turner et al. [1986] Genetic and morphological studies on two species of Kenyan monkeys, C. aethiops and C. mitis. In: Else JG, Lee PC, editors. Primate evolution, proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Primatology, Cambridge. London). The morphological results are interpreted within the context of previously published observations of primate locomotion and social organization. The sample is unique in that the body weight of each individual is known, allowing the effects of body-size scaling to be assessed in interspecific and intersexual comparisons. C. mitis has a significantly (P agility, and also the requisite transition between ground and canopy. Although normally associated with arboreal monkeys, greater relative tail length occurs in the more terrestrial vervets. However, because vervets exploit both arboreal and terrestrial habitats, a longer tail may compensate for diminished balance during arboreal quadrupedalism resulting from the greater "brachial" and "crural" indices that enhance their ground quadrupedalism. Most interspecific differences in body proportions are explicable by differences in locomotor modalities. Some results, however, contradict commonly held "tenets" that relate body size and morphology exclusively to locomotion. Generally associated with terrestriality, sexual dimorphism (male/female) is greater in the more arboreal blue monkeys. A more intense, seasonal mating competition may account for this incongruity.

  12. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  13. Estimating the proportion of variation in susceptibility to schizophrenia captured by common SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; DeCandia, Teresa R; Ripke, Stephan;

    2012-01-01

    of schizophrenia is the same in males and females, and that a disproportionate proportion of variation is attributable to a set of 2,725 genes expressed in the central nervous system (CNS; P = 7.6 × 10(-8)). These results are consistent with a polygenic genetic architecture and imply more individual SNP......Schizophrenia is a complex disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Using 9,087 affected individuals, 12,171 controls and 915,354 imputed SNPs from the Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Consortium (PGC-SCZ), we estimate that 23% (s.e. = 1......%) of variation in liability to schizophrenia is captured by SNPs. We show that a substantial proportion of this variation must be the result of common causal variants, that the variance explained by each chromosome is linearly related to its length (r = 0.89, P = 2.6 × 10(-8)), that the genetic basis...

  14. Reducing magnetic zero drift by optimizing proportions of neon dual isotopes in laser gyros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Nan; ZHAO Jian-lin

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among the proportions of the neon dual isotopes ratio,scale factor corrections (SFCs),light intensities,environmental magnetic field and magnetic zero drift are discussed in detail by numerical simulations.The results show that the unification of the optimal operating point (OP) and the frequency stabilization operating point (FSP) is achievable by adjusting the proportions of neon dual isotopes accurately and tuning the cavity length with frequency stabilization system exactly.In that case,the left-rotation and right-rotation gyros can obtain the same SFC,which can decrease the magnetic sensitivity of the laser gyro efficiently.The Zeeman effect zero drift and the Faraday bias zero drift are both reduced by two orders of magnitude,while the magnetic shielding requirement of laser tube is decreased by 1-2 orders of magnitude.

  15. FETAL FOOT LENGTH AND HAND LENGTH: RELATIONSHIP WITH CROWN RUMP LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of gestational age of fetus is of great medicolegal importance. Multiple parameters of the fetal anatomical measurements are in use. However, gestational age assessment may be difficult in fetus with anencephaly, hydrocephalus, short limb dysplasia, post mortem destruction or in mutilated case. Study of literature suggests that fetal foot has a characteristic pattern of normal growth and the fetal foot shows gradual increase in length relative to the length of the embryo and could be used to estimate gestational age. The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy in estimating gestational age using fetal foot and hand length by studying its relation with crown rump length in the foetuses of Manipuri origin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1 To study the relationship between fetal crown rump length and fetal hand and foot length, thereby determining the accuracy in estimating gestational age by a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 formalin fixed fetuses of Manipuri origin, obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, were included in the study, carried out in the Department of Anatomy, from February 2015 to July 2015. The parameters studied were crown rump length, foot length and hand length of fetuses. The data was analysed using SPSS software by regression analysis. Graphs were also plotted to determine pattern of growth and their correlation with crown rump length if any. RESULTS A total of 100 fetuses were studied, of which 43 were females and 57 were males. The mean foot length and hand length progressively increased with increase in crown rump length. Measurements were not significantly different in right or left side or among male and female fetuses. A statistically significant linear relationship was seen between foot length and crown rump length of the fetus (r=0.980, p<0.0001 and hand length and crown rump length of the fetus

  16. Proportion and factors associated with low fifth minute Apgar score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion and factors associated with low fifth minute Apgar score among ... with low Apgar scores are at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. ... of meconium stained liquor, induced/ augmented labor and low birth weight.

  17. Proportionality: a valid alternative to correlation for relative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the life sciences, many measurement methods yield only the relative abundances of different components in a sample. With such relative-or compositional-data, differential expression needs careful interpretation, and correlation-a statistical workhorse for analyzing pairwise relationships-is an inappropriate measure of association. Using yeast gene expression data we show how correlation can be misleading and present proportionality as a valid alternative for relative data. We show how the strength of proportionality between two variables can be meaningfully and interpretably described by a new statistic ϕ which can be used instead of correlation as the basis of familiar analyses and visualisation methods, including co-expression networks and clustered heatmaps. While the main aim of this study is to present proportionality as a means to analyse relative data, it also raises intriguing questions about the molecular mechanisms underlying the proportional regulation of a range of yeast genes.

  18. The proportional fairness scheduling algorithm on multi-classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 吴建平

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study resource management models and algorithms that satisfy multiple performance objects simultaneously. We realize the proportional fairness principle based QoS model, which defines both delay and loss rate requirements of a class, to include fairness, which is important for the integration of multiple service classes. The resulting Proportional Fairness Scheduling model formalizes the goals of the network performance, user's QoS requirement and system fairness and exposes the fundamental tradeoffs between these goals. In particular, it is difficult to simultaneously provide these objects. We propose a novel scheduling algorithm called Proportional Fairness Scheduling (PFS) that approximates the model closely and efficiently. We have implemented the PFS scheduling in Linux. By performing simulation and measurement experiments, we evaluate the delay and loss rate proportional fairness of PFS, and determine the computation overhead.

  19. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses for Multiple Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongmei Jiang; RW Doerge

    2008-01-01

    ...) controlling procedures are too conservative. Although false discovery rate (FDR) procedures have been suggested as having greater power, the control itself is not exact and depends on the proportion of true null hypotheses...

  20. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  1. A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter with krypton filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mano, R. D. P.; Barata, E. C. G. M.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter filled with pure krypton was studied. Energy resolution below 10% for 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained with this prototype. This value is much better than the energy resolution obtained with proportional counters or other MPGDs with krypton filling. The krypton electroluminescence scintillation and ionisation thresholds were found to be about 0.5 and 3.5 kV cm-1bar-1, respectively.

  2. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  3. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. CONCLUSION It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit. PMID:27826387

  4. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Karani; Tüfekci, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit.

  5. Theory of stellar convection: Removing the Mixing-Length Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Pasetto, S; Cropper, M; Grebel, E K

    2014-01-01

    Stellar convection is customarily described by Mixing-Length Theory, which makes use of the mixing-length scale to express the convective flux, velocity, and temperature gradients of the convective elements and stellar medium. The mixing-length scale is taken to be proportional to the local pressure scale height, and the proportionality factor (the mixing-length parameter) must be determined by comparing the stellar models to some calibrator, usually the Sun. No strong arguments exist to suggest that the mixing-length parameter is the same in all stars and at all evolutionary phases. Because of this, all stellar models in literature are hampered by this basic uncertainty. The aim of this study is to present a new theory of stellar convection that does not require the mixing length parameter. We present a self-consistent analytical formulation of stellar convection that determines the properties of stellar convection as a function of the physical behaviour of the convective elements themselves and the surround...

  6. Growth of long fatigue cracks under non-proportional loadings – experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign was carried out on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion. The results from experiments are measured and compared. It is observed that cracks follow a shear-dominated growth pattern with increasing crack length, instead of a tension-dominated one. The experiments are performed with high amplitudes applied to the specimens, resulting in large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates up to 10-3 mm/cycle. Stress intensity factors were calculated for the proportional loading case.

  7. Experimental design studies and flow visualization of proportional laminar-flow fluidic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Mcdermon, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of certain parameter variations on the performance characteristics of laminar, proportional, jet-deflection fluidic amplifiers were studied. The matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high pressure gain was included, but dynamic effects were not. The parameter variations considered were aspect ratio, setback, control length, splitter distance, receiver-duct width, width of center-vent duct, and bias pressure. Usable pressure gains of 19 per stage were achieved, and 5 amplifier stages were integrated to yield an overall pressure gain of 2,000,000.

  8. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  9. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  10. Shielding experiment of heavy-ion produced neutrons using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomiya, T; Yonai, S; Takada, M; Fukumura, A; Nakamura, T

    2003-01-01

    A shielding experiment was performed at the HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), to measure neutron dose using a spherical TEPC (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) of 12.55 cm inner diameter. Neutrons are produced from a 5 cm thick stopping length Cu target bombarded by 400 MeV/nucleon C6+ ions and penetrate concrete or iron shields of various thicknesses at 0 degree to the beam direction. From this shielding experiment. y-distribution, mean lineal energy, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and mean-quality factor were obtained behind the shield as a function of shield thickness. The neutron dose attenuation lengths were also obtained as 126 g cm(-2) for concrete and 211 g cm(-2) for iron. The measured results were compared with the calculated results using the MARS Monte Carlo code.

  11. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  12. Numerical simulation for submerged body fitted with hydrofoil by boundary element method; Kyokai yosoho ni yoru yokutsuki bossuitai mawari no nagare keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Coordinate Variation in Lengths of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecules and Head Lengths in Morphological Variants of Bacteriophage T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosig, Gisela; Carnighan, Janet Renshaw; Bibring, Jane Baxandall; Cole, Robert; Bock, Hans-Georg Otto; Bock, Susan

    1972-01-01

    We have investigated three classes of small bacteriophage T4 particles which differ from normal T4 particles in length of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in head length, in protein content, and in density. The different particles contain DNA molecules measuring 0.90, 0.77, or 0.67, respectively, of the normal T4 length. An additional class of viable particles contains DNA molecules of 1.1 unit length. These discrete differences in DNA length correspond to discrete differences in length (but not width) of the respective heads and are roughly proportional to the resulting differences in head volumes. The measured relative dimensions of the different heads fit best the relative dimensions predicted by a quasi-icosahedral model in which the smallest T4 head corresponds to an icosahedron with a triangulation number T = 21. The mid-portion of this structure is thought to be elongated by adding successive rows of gene 23 protein hexamers, the normal T4 head having three added rows. Different mutants produce small particles of the three classes in varying proportions, but no mutant produces exclusively particles of a single class. Particles of each class, with indistinguishable DNA content, show additional minor differences in protein content, as measured by differences in buoyant density and in the relative ratio of 32P to 35S. Images PMID:5025493

  14. Why the long face? The mechanics of mandibular symphysis proportions in crocodiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Walmsley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crocodilians exhibit a spectrum of rostral shape from long snouted (longirostrine, through to short snouted (brevirostrine morphologies. The proportional length of the mandibular symphysis correlates consistently with rostral shape, forming as much as 50% of the mandible's length in longirostrine forms, but 10% in brevirostrine crocodilians. Here we analyse the structural consequences of an elongate mandibular symphysis in relation to feeding behaviours. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simple beam and high resolution Finite Element (FE models of seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads simulating biting, shaking and twisting. Using beam theory, we statistically compared multiple hypotheses of which morphological variables should control the biomechanical response. Brevi- and mesorostrine morphologies were found to consistently outperform longirostrine types when subject to equivalent biting, shaking and twisting loads. The best predictors of performance for biting and twisting loads in FE models were overall length and symphyseal length respectively; for shaking loads symphyseal length and a multivariate measurement of shape (PC1- which is strongly but not exclusively correlated with symphyseal length were equally good predictors. Linear measurements were better predictors than multivariate measurements of shape in biting and twisting loads. For both biting and shaking loads but not for twisting, simple beam models agree with best performance predictors in FE models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining beam and FE modelling allows a priori hypotheses about the importance of morphological traits on biomechanics to be statistically tested. Short mandibular symphyses perform well under loads used for feeding upon large prey, but elongate symphyses incur high strains under equivalent loads, underlining the structural constraints to prey size in the longirostrine morphotype. The biomechanics of the crocodilian mandible are largely

  15. Assessment of facial golden proportions among central Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Rathore; Piyush, Bolya; Sourabh, Bhatt; Preeti, Ojha; Trivedi, Rutvik; Vishnoi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to identify and establish the facial and smile proportions in young adults and to compare the results with ideal or divine proportions, compare the proportions of males and females included in our study population and compare them with those established for Caucasian and Japanese populations. Materials and Methods: Two hundred participants (164 females, 36 males) with Angle's class I malocclusion (M.O). and well-balanced faces were selected and photographed in the frontal repose position. Analysis was done in Adobe Photoshop software. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0. (IBM Corporation Armonk, New York, United States). Results: Results suggested that females are more near to ideal ratios and males are more deviated from the ideal ratios. The proportions of males and females were not considerably different from each other. In Indian population, upper 3rd facial height (TR-LC) was increased and mid-face height (LC-LN) was decreased; in lower 3rd of the face, LN-CH was slightly increased in comparison to CH-ME. In facial widths, outer canthal width (LC-LC) was greater in the Indian population and mouth width (CH-CH) was normal. When compared with Indian population, Japanese participants had wider noses, outer canthal distance, and bitemporal width. Conclusion: It was concluded that significant difference was found between the proportions of the Indian population and ideal ratio. When Indian population was compared with Japanese and Caucasian populations, some parameters of facial proportions showed significant difference, which leads to the need for establishing standardized norms for various facial proportions in Indian population. PMID:28217534

  16. Impedance of Finite Length Resistor

    CERN Document Server

    Krinsky, Samuel; Podobedov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a and length g, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k>>1/a). In the equilibrium regime, ka2

  17. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  18. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  19. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  20. Morphology and motion: hindlimb proportions and swing phase kinematics in terrestrially locomoting charadriiform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Andrada, Emanuel; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2016-05-01

    Differing limb proportions in terms of length and mass, as well as differences in mass being concentrated proximally or distally, influence the limb's moment of inertia (MOI), which represents its resistance to being swung. Limb morphology - including limb segment proportions - thus probably has direct relevance for the metabolic cost of swinging the limb during locomotion. However, it remains largely unexplored how differences in limb proportions influence limb kinematics during swing phase. To test whether differences in limb proportions are associated with differences in swing phase kinematics, we collected hindlimb kinematic data from three species of charadriiform birds differing widely in their hindlimb proportions: lapwings, oystercatchers and avocets. Using these three species, we tested for differences in maximum joint flexion, maximum joint extension and range of motion (RoM), in addition to differences in maximum segment angular velocity and excursion. We found that the taxa with greater limb MOI - oystercatchers and avocets - flex their limbs more than lapwings. However, we found no consistent differences in joint extension and RoM among species. Likewise, we found no consistent differences in limb segment angular velocity and excursion, indicating that differences in limb inertia in these three avian species do not necessarily underlie the rate or extent of limb segment movements. The observed increased limb flexion among these taxa with distally heavy limbs resulted in reduced MOI of the limb when compared with a neutral pose. A trade-off between exerting force to actively flex the limb and potential savings by a reduction of MOI is skewed towards reducing the limb's MOI as a result of MOI being in part a function of the radius of gyration squared. Increased limb flexion is a likely means to lower the cost of swinging the limbs.

  1. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  2. BMI AND LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder disease is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in middle-aged women in developed countries. Body Mass Index (BMI is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness. Postoperative length of stay (POLOS was defined as the time from operative end to discharge from the hospital. Although increased Body Mass Index (BMI is well recognized as a risk factor for gallstones and subsequent cholecystectomy, there is little information on what direct impact underweight, overweight and obesity have on the length of hospital stay for gallbladder disease. Aim of this study was to find out effect of BMI on length of hospital stay .This retrospective study of 55 patients was conducted over 3months in the department of general surgery, Father Muller Medical College Hospital (FMMCH Mangalore, India, and BMI appeared to contribute to a decreased POLOS.

  3. Effects of coil length on tube compression in electromagnetic forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the length of solenoid coil on tube compression in electromagnetic forming were investigated either by theory analysis or through sequential coupling numerical simulation. The details of the electromagnetic and the mechanical models in the simulation were described. The results show that the amplitude of coil current waveform and the current frequency decrease with the increase of the coil length. And the peak value of magnetic pressure is inversely proportional to the coil length. The distribution of the magnetic force acting on the tube is inhomogeneous while the tube is longer than the coil. The shortened coil length causes the increases of the maximum deformation and energy efficiency. The numerically calculated result and the experimental one of the final tube profile are in good agreement.

  4. Occupational impact on body physique and health status: An anthropometric analysis of carpenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitpal Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Constant exposure of human body to any kind of work or profession brings remarkable changes in the body morphology and its physiology either in positive or negative outcomes. Present study has been conducted on a total of 200 adult male carpenters ranging in age from 30-40 years belonging to the different urban and rural areas of Punjab state. They were measured anthropometrically for gross body measurements, skinfolds, circumferences, segmental lengths and body breadths following the standardized techniques of Lohman et al.1988. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also recorded for each subject. Findings of the study indicate that carpenters show balanced type of somatotyping i.e. endo-mesoporphic type. Remarkable proportional development has been observed in the hand breadth and forearm length. Upper region of body carries more adipose tissue mass in comparison to the lower region and more development of muscle mass. Majority of the carpenters are found to be under normal grades of body mass index, waist hip ratio, blood pressure values and thus run the lower risk of developing CHDs and CVDs

  5. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Biofuel proportions in fuels by AMS radiocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M., E-mail: markku.j.oinonen@helsinki.f [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hakanpaeae-Laitinen, H. [Neste Oil Oyj, Research and Technology, Porvoo (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, K.; Kaskela, A.; Jungner, H. [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Within the context of expanding use of biofuels in transport worldwide, a need has emerged to accurately determine biofuel proportions of fuels. In this study, the radiocarbon method by AMS has been used to study the fuel mixtures containing 2%, 5% and 30% of the NExBTL renewable diesel, particularly. Special effort has been put to develop reproducible pretreatment and combustion methods and to verify the reliable determination of the low biofuel proportions - corresponding to the present status of the European-wide biofuel usage. The developed procedures are ready to meet the requirements set in the ASTM D 6866-06a standard and demonstrate our ability to perform reliable measurements on biofuel proportions in fuels.

  7. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  8. Proportional Motor Recovery After Stroke: Implications for Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ackerley, Suzanne J; Smith, Marie-Claire; Borges, Victor M; Barber, P Alan

    2017-03-01

    Recovery of upper-limb motor impairment after first-ever ischemic stroke is proportional to the degree of initial impairment in patients with a functional corticospinal tract (CST). This study aimed to investigate whether proportional recovery occurs in a more clinically relevant sample including patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and previous stroke. Patients with upper-limb weakness were assessed 3 days and 3 months poststroke with the Fugl-Meyer scale. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test CST function, and patients were dichotomized according to the presence of motor evoked potentials in the paretic wrist extensors. Linear regression modeling of Δ Fugl-Meyer score between 3 days and 3 months was performed, with predictors including initial impairment (66 - baseline Fugl-Meyer score), age, sex, stroke type, previous stroke, comorbidities, and upper-limb therapy dose. One hundred ninety-two patients were recruited, and 157 completed 3-month follow-up. Patients with a functional CST made a proportional recovery of 63% (95% confidence interval, 55%-70%) of initial motor impairment. The recovery of patients without a functional CST was not proportional to initial impairment and was reduced by greater CST damage. Recovery of motor impairment in patients with intact CST is proportional to initial impairment and unaffected by previous stroke, type of stroke, or upper-limb therapy dose. Novel interventions that interact with the neurobiological mechanisms of recovery are needed. The generalizability of proportional recovery is such that patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and previous stroke may usefully be included in interventional rehabilitation trials. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ANZCTR12611000755932. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Student reasoning about ratio and proportion in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    To many students, introductory physics must seem a fast-moving parade of abstract and somewhat mysterious quantities. Most such quantities are rooted in proportional reasoning. Using ratio, physicists construct the force experienced by a unit charge, and attach the name electric field, or characterize a motion with the velocity change that occurs in a unit time. While physicists reason about these ratios without conscious effort, students tend to resort to memorized algorithms, and at times struggle to match the appropriate algorithm to the situation encountered. Although the term ``proportional reasoning'' is prevalent, skill in reasoning with these ratio quantities is neither acquired nor applied as a single cognitive entity. Expert ability seems to be characterized by the intentional use of a variety of components, or elements of proportional reasoning, by a fluency in shifting from one component to another, and by a skill in selecting from among these components. Based on this perspective, it is natural to expect students to develop proportional reasoning ability in fits and starts as various facets are acquired and integrated into existing understandings. In an ongoing collaboration between Western Washington University, New Mexico State University, and Rutgers, we are attempting to map the rich cognitive terrain of proportional reasoning, and to use our findings to guide the design of instruction that develops fluency. This talk will present a provisional set of proportional reasoning components, along with research tasks that have been developed to measure student ability along these components. Student responses will be presented as evidence of specific modes of thinking. The talk will conclude with a brief outline of our approach to improving student understanding.

  10. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, B; Habib, S; Hallin, A L [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Bichsel, H; Cox, G A; Formaggio, J A; McGee, S; Miller, M L; Oblath, N S [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cai, B; Kraus, C; Leslie, H R; Martin, R [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Deng, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Detwiler, J; Loach, J C [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Huang, M [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0264 (United States); Monreal, B; Monroe, J, E-mail: nsoblath@mit.edu [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on {sup 3}He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase {sup 8}B solar-neutrino measurement.

  11. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  12. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  13. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  14. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  15. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence.

  16. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-05-31

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  17. The Word-Length Effect in Acquired Alexia, and Real and Virtual Hemianopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Claire A.; Abegg, Mathias; Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A word-length effect is often described in pure alexia, with reading time proportional to the number of letters in a word. Given the frequent association of right hemianopia with pure alexia, it is uncertain whether and how much of the word-length effect may be attributable to the hemifield loss. To isolate the contribution of the visual field…

  18. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anaya, J. M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Franklin, J. E.; Geissbühler, P.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L. L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Loach, J. C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K. K. S.; Miller, G. G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N. S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B. A.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wouters, J. M.

    2007-09-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been built in order to make a unique measurement of the total active flux of solar neutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the third phase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 and 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve the neutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of 36 strings of proportional counters filled with a mixture of 3He and CF 4 gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteron neutral-current reaction in the D 2O, and four strings filled with a mixture of 4He and CF 4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counter diameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCD array is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional counters ever produced. This article describes the design, construction, deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses the electronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signatures and backgrounds.

  19. An array of low-background $^3$He proportional counters for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Amsbaugh, J F; Banar, J C; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Di Marco, M; Doe, P J; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Esch, E -I; Fergani, H; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Franklin, J E; Geissbühler, P; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Guillian, E; Hallin, A L; Harper, G; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heise, J; Hime, A; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Kormos, L L; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Loach, J C; Majerus, S; Manor, J; McGee, S; Miknaitis, K K S; Miller, G G; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D; Wall, B L; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wouters, J M

    2007-01-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been built in order to make a unique measurement of the total active flux of solar neutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the third phase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 and November 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve the neutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of 36 strings of proportional counters filled with a mixture of $^3$He and CF$_4$ gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteron neutral current reaction in the D$_2$O, and four strings filled with a mixture of $^4$He and CF$_4$ gas for background measurements. The proportional counter diameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCD array is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional counters ever produced. This article describes the design, construction, deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses the electronics and data acquisition sys...

  20. An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Dai, X.; H.Deng,X.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Franklin, J.E.; Geissbuehler, P.; Germani, J.V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A.L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L.L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko,K.T.; Loach, J.C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, G.G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N.S.; O' Kee, H.M.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner,S.D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A.R.; Smith,M.W.E.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill,L.C.; Thornewell, P.M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B.A.; VanWechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L.; Tseung, H.W.C.; Wendland,J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wouters, J.M.

    2007-02-01

    An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.

  1. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, M. L.; Pratchett, M. S.; Goodman, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors.

  2. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S

    2015-01-01

    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  4. Heteronuclear Efimov Scenario with Positive Intraspecies Scattering Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmanis, Juris; Häfner, Stephan; Pires, Rico; Kuhnle, Eva D.; Wang, Yujun; Greene, Chris H.; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the heteronuclear Efimov scenario for a three-body system that consists of two bosons and one distinguishable particle with positive intraspecies scattering lengths. The three-body parameter at the three-body scattering threshold and the scaling factor between consecutive Efimov resonances are found to be controlled by the scattering length between the two bosons, approximately independent of short-range physics. We observe two excited-state Efimov resonances in the three-body recombination spectra of an ultracold mixture of fermionic 6Li 6 and bosonic 113Cs atoms close to a Li-Cs Feshbach resonance, where the Cs-Cs interaction is positive. Deviation of the obtained scaling factor of 4.0(3) from the universal prediction of 4.9 and the absence of the ground state Efimov resonance shed new light on the interpretation of the universality and the discrete scaling behavior of heteronuclear Efimov physics.

  5. Length Invisibilization of Tachyonic Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Faster than the speed of light particle such as tachyonic neutrino due to its superluminal nature disapper and is undetectable. L = iΩ-1Lo where, i =√{ - 1 } is imaginary Number, Ω = 1 /√{βs2 - 1 } is Estakhr's Omega factor, L is the Superluminal Length, Lo is the proper length, βs =Vs / c > 1 is superluminal speed parameter, Vs is Superluminal velocity and c is speed of light.

  6. Proportional Reasoning in the Learning of Chemistry: Levels of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Narod, Fawzia Bibi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study sketches the ways in which proportional reasoning is involved in the solution of chemistry problems, more specifically, problems involving quantities in chemical reactions (commonly referred to as stoichiometry problems). By building on the expertise of both mathematics and chemistry education research, the present…

  7. Modelling long term survival with non-proportional hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perperoglou, Aristidis

    2006-01-01

    In this work I consider models for survival data when the assumption of proportionality does not hold. The thesis consists of an Introduction, five papers, a Discussion and an Appendix. The Introduction presents technical information about the Cox model and introduces the ideas behind the extensions

  8. System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.

  9. Macroevolutionary diversity of amniote limb proportions predicted by developmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M

    2013-11-01

    Mammals, birds, and reptiles exhibit a remarkable diversity of limb proportions. These evolved differences are thought to reflect selection for biomechanical, postural, and locomotor requirements primarily acting on independent variation in later fetal and postnatal segmental growth. However, earlier conserved developmental events also have the potential to impact the evolvability of limb proportions by limiting or biasing initial variation among segments. Notably, proximo-distal patterning of the amniote limb through activation-inhibition dynamics predicts that initial proportions of segments should exhibit both tradeoffs between stylopod and autopod and a diagnostic reduction in variance of the zeugopod. Here it is demonstrated that this developmental "design rule" predicts patterns of macroevolutionary diversity despite the effects of variation in segmental growth over ontogeny, lineage-specific differences in phylogenetic history, or functional adaptation. These results provide critical comparative evidence of a conserved Turing-like mechanism in proximo-distal limb segmentation, and suggest that development has played a previously unrecognized role in the evolvability of limb proportions in a wide range of amniote taxa.

  10. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  11. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF/sub 2/, as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures.

  12. The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life.

  13. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  14. Map Scale, Proportion, and Google[TM] Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Martin C.; Cooper, Linda L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerial imagery has a great capacity to engage and maintain student interest while providing a contextual setting to strengthen their ability to reason proportionally. Free, on-demand, high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography provides both a bird's eye view of the world and a new perspective on one's own community. This article presents an…

  15. Are Explicit Apologies Proportional to the Offenses They Address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, John; Raymond, Chase Wesley

    2016-01-01

    We consider here Goffman's proposal of proportionality between virtual offenses and remedial actions, based on the examination of 102 cases of explicit apologies. To this end, we offer a typology of the primary apology formats within the dataset, together with a broad categorization of the types of virtual offenses to which these apologies are…

  16. On Homogeneous Production Functions with Proportional Marginal Rate of Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daniela Vîlcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We completely classify homogeneous production functions with proportional marginal rate of substitution and with constant elasticity of labor and capital, respectively. These classifications generalize some recent results of C. A. Ioan and G. Ioan (2011 concerning the sum production function.

  17. Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.

  18. Secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force aircrew (1971-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Clark, Adam J; Blanchonette, Peter

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force aircrew. Following corrections for methodological differences, two samples (matched for age and overall body size) of male aircrew measured in 1971 (n = 220) and 2005 (n = 220) were compared across 13 absolute and proportional body dimensions. Changes in means were expressed as standardised effect sizes and changes in distributional characteristics were expressed as the ratio of coefficients of variation and as changes in skew. Small secular increases (standardised effects sizes >0.2) in age-matched aircrew were observed for mass, height, BMI, sitting height, buttock-knee length, waist girth, hip girth and waist:hip ratio, with a small decline observed for head girth. Changes in body dimensions were not independent of changes in overall body size (except for head girth) and were not always uniform across the distribution. These changes in body size have implications for ensuring correct human-machine and human-equipment fit. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: There have been small secular changes in body dimensions of RAAF aircrew between 1971 and 2005, although these secular changes have not always been uniform across the distribution. These secular changes in body dimensions have implications for ensuring correct human-machine and human-equipment fit and underscore the need for regular anthropometric surveys.

  19. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  20. Socio-demographic factors and cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Mandić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The cervical length is an important factor in the risk evaluation of preterm delivery. The aim of this work was to determine the correlation between the cervical length and the demographic characteristics. A transversal type prospective study was done on a sample of 579 pregnant women at various gestational age of low risk mono-fetal pregnancy. The cervical length was measured by trans-vaginal ultrasound procedure within the regular pregnancy monitoring process. The following data were taken into consideration: the woman's age, her body mass at the beginning of the pregnancy and her height in order to calculate the body mass index as well as her smoking habit at the moment of conception. The mean cervical length was 34.3 mm and 35 mm in the group of women aged 30 and less and 31 and over, respectively. The cervix was insignificantly shorter in younger women (being 34.9 mm/35.9 mm in the 1st trimester, 34.5 mm/35.1 mm in the 2nd one and 33.9 mm/34.7 mm in the 3rd trimester). The sample of 579 pregnant women consisted of 448 non-smokers and 131 smokers. The difference in the length of the cervix in smokers and nonsmokers was not significant (being 32.2 mm/35.9 mm; 35 mm/34 mm and 34.4 mm/33.5 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively). The correlation between the body mass index and the cervical length was analyzed by trimesters. In the first trimester the increase in the body mass index was followed by the shortening of the cervix; the cervical length was not affected by the BAI in the second trimester, whereas the higher the body mass index the longer the cervix in the third trimester. Our study has shown that the cervical length is affected neither by the age of the woman nor her smoking habit but it is affected by the body mass index at the moment of conception, that linear trend being negative in the 1st trimester but positive in the 3rd one. Since the cervical length may be affected not only by the socio-demographic characteristics but the gynecologic

  1. The analysis of the body composition changes during growth in pigs using the visual image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Ck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the live weight and lean meat percentage (LMP using image analysis. The image analysis technique is based on finding certain anatomical proportions in pigs. The test was carried out with the use of 72 hybrids pigs. At the age of 120 and 170 days and at an ABW 64 and 110 kg, the animals were individually weighed and photographed. The total of 7 linear and 4 areal dimensions were measured on the live animals. Using correlation analysis, the relationship between average body weight (ABW, carcass quality and body measurements was determined. The study found higher positive correlation coefficients between the measured length dimensions and the weight of the main carcass parts. Video image analysis appears to be a suitable method for the body parts weight determination. However, the presumption of a reliable LMP estimation wasnt confirmed in any of the measurements.

  2. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Moghaddam, Z Abbaspour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  3. Changes in shape and cross-sectional geometry in the tibia of mice selectively bred for increases in relative bone length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Miranda N; Sparrow, Leah M; Rolian, Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Limb bone size and shape in terrestrial mammals scales predictably with body mass. Weight-bearing limb bones in these species have geometries that enable them to withstand deformations due to loading, both within and between species. Departures from the expected scaling of bone size and shape to body mass occur in mammals that have become specialized for different types of locomotion. For example, mammals adapted for frequent running and jumping behaviors have hind limb bones that are long in relation to body mass, but with narrower cross-sections than predicted for their length. The Longshanks mouse was recently established, a selectively bred line of mice with ~12-13% longer tibiae relative to body mass. This increased limb length resembles superficially the derived limb proportions of rodents adapted for hopping and jumping. Here, 3D geometric morphometrics and analyses of bone cross-sectional geometry were combined to determine whether selection for increased relative tibia length in Longshanks mice has altered the scaling relationship of size and shape, and/or bone robusticity, relative to the tibiae of random-bred control mice from the same genetic background. The results suggest that the Longshanks tibia is not a geometrically scaled version of the control tibiae. Instead, the Longshanks tibia has become narrower in cross-section in relation to its increased length, leading to a decrease in overall bending strength when compared with control tibiae. These changes in bone shape and robusticity resemble the derived morphology of mammals adapted for running and jumping, with important implications for the material properties and strength of bone in these mammals.

  4. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  5. Intelligent automated control of life support systems using proportional representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Annie S; Garibay, Ivan I

    2004-06-01

    Effective automatic control of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) is a crucial component of space exploration. An ALSS is a coupled dynamical system which can be extremely sensitive and difficult to predict. As a result, such systems can be difficult to control using deliberative and deterministic methods. We investigate the performance of two machine learning algorithms, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a stochastic hill-climber (SH), on the problem of learning how to control an ALSS, and compare the impact of two different types of problem representations on the performance of both algorithms. We perform experiments on three ALSS optimization problems using five strategies with multiple variations of a proportional representation for a total of 120 experiments. Results indicate that although a proportional representation can effectively boost GA performance, it does not necessarily have the same effect on other algorithms such as SH. Results also support previous conclusions that multivector control strategies are an effective method for control of coupled dynamical systems.

  6. Measuring Cherenkov Backgrounds from Proportional Counters in SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stanley

    2006-04-01

    In the current phase of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, He-3 proportional counters have been deployed in the center of the detector to measure neutron production from neutral-current interactions between neutrinos and deuterons in the heavy water. Radioactive decays of Bi-214 and Tl-208 in the counters produce gammas of sufficient energy to photodisintegrate deuterons, which become a background to the neutral current measurement. We have measured the background rate in-situ using Cherenkov light detected with SNO's 9456 inward-looking photomultiplier tubes. A maximum likelihood method is used to separate backgrounds in the heavy water from backgrounds in the proportional counters based upon the spatial distribution of low energy Cherenkov event vertices. Uncertainties on the backgrounds have been estimated using calibration data taken with both a distributed Na-24 source, and a contained Th source deployed at various points in the detector.

  7. Event identification in 3He proportional counters using risetime discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

    2013-07-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in 3He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  8. Event Identification in $^3$He Proportional Counters Using Risetime Discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Langford, T J; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Erwin, D K; Heimbach, C R; Nico, J S

    2012-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in $^3$He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  9. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosaki, M.; Kawano, T.; Isozumi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive 55Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH4 admixed dry air or N2. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 104) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O2 has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N2.

  10. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  11. Proportional reasoning as a key to numeracy across the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    -day workshops in Queensland and four full-day workshops in South Australia). Between workshops, teachers designed and trialled teaching approaches and learning experiences in their classrooms to target their students’ identified proportional reasoning learning needs and capabilities. Data were collected from...... teachers through feedback sessions, surveys, interviews, and practical presentations. Data were collected on student learning outcomes through interviews, diagnostic instruments, and classroom observations. The initial findings revealed that students and teachers had relatively poor proportional reasoning...... skills and teachers tended to rely on algorithmic approaches rather than focusing on conceptual development. These findings informed the design of an ongoing professional development program and the collaboration between teachers and researchers led to the development of a range of evidence...

  12. Combining proportional and majoritarian democracy: An institutional design proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Ganghof

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a new way to combine the “proportional” and “majoritarian” visions of democracy. The proposal blends elements of mixed electoral systems, parliamentarism, presidentialism and bicameralism. Voters are given a single vote to make two simultaneous choices: one about the proportional composition of the legislature and one about the two top parties forming a majoritarian “confidence chamber” embedded within the legislature. Only the majority in this chamber has the power to dismiss the cabinet in a vote of no-confidence. The proposed system virtually guarantees the feasibility of identifiable and stable one-party cabinets governing with shifting, issue-specific majorities in a highly proportional legislature. It is illustrated with respect to the 2013 federal election in Germany.

  13. Random weighting method for Cox’s proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variance of parameter estimate in Cox’s proportional hazards model is based on asymptotic variance. When sample size is small, variance can be estimated by bootstrap method. However, if censoring rate in a survival data set is high, bootstrap method may fail to work properly. This is because bootstrap samples may be even more heavily censored due to repeated sampling of the censored observations. This paper proposes a random weighting method for variance estimation and confidence interval estimation for proportional hazards model. This method, unlike the bootstrap method, does not lead to more severe censoring than the original sample does. Its large sample properties are studied and the consistency and asymptotic normality are proved under mild conditions. Simulation studies show that the random weighting method is not as sensitive to heavy censoring as bootstrap method is and can produce good variance estimates or confidence intervals.

  14. Proportional Distribution of Patient Satisfaction Scores by Clinical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Leonard MD, MS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Proportional Responsibility for Integrated Metrics by Encounter (PRIME model is a novel means of allocating patient experience scores based on the proportion of each physician's involvement in care. Secondary analysis was performed on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys from a tertiary care academic institution. The PRIME model was used to calculate specialty-level scores based on encounters during a hospitalization. Standard and PRIME scores for services with the most inpatient encounters were calculated. Hospital medicine had the most discharges and encounters. The standard model generated a score of 74.6, while the PRIME model yielded a score of 74.9. The standard model could not generate a score for anesthesiology due to the lack of returned surveys, but the PRIME model yielded a score of 84.2. The PRIME model provides a more equitable method for distributing satisfaction scores and can generate scores for specialties that the standard model cannot.

  15. Random weighting method for Cox's proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI WenQuan; LI Kai; YANG YaNing; WU YueHua

    2008-01-01

    Variance of parameter estimate in Cox's proportional hazards model is based on asymptotic variance.When sample size is small,variance can be estimated by bootstrap method.However,if censoring rate in a survival data set is high,bootstrap method may fail to work properly.This is because bootstrap samples may be even more heavily censored due to repeated sampling of the censored observations.This paper proposes a random weighting method for variance estimation and confidence interval estimation for proportional hazards model.This method,unlike the bootstrap method,does not lead to more severe censoring than the original sample does.Its large sample properties are studied and the consistency and asymptotic normality are proved under mild conditions.Simulation studies show that the random weighting method is not as sensitive to heavy censoring as bootstrap method is and can produce good variance estimates or confidence intervals.

  16. MULTIAXIAL CREEP-FATIGUE LIFE EVALUATION UNDER PROPORTIONAL LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Noguchi; M.Miyahara

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for the multiaxial creep-fatigue life evaluation under proportional loadings. Because this method was derived from the strain range partitioning method with a multiaxiality factor, it was possible to consider the influence of both creep-fatigue interaction and multiaxial stress state on fatigue life. In order to predict the combined axial-torsional fatigue life the damage under combined loading was defined as linear summation of the damages under axial loading and torsional loading.Axial-torsional creep-fatigue tests were carried out using tubular specimens of 316LC austenitic stainless steel and the ferritic rotor steel. This rotor steel was developed for the permanent magnet type eddy current retarder in heavy trucks. Experimentally obtained lives of both steels were well corresponded with the lives predicted by the proposed method. It was found that the proposed method was effective in multiaxial fatigue life evaluation under proportional creep-fatigue loadings.

  17. Exact Group Sequential Methods for Estimating a Binomial Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first review existing sequential methods for estimating a binomial proportion. Afterward, we propose a new family of group sequential sampling schemes for estimating a binomial proportion with prescribed margin of error and confidence level. In particular, we establish the uniform controllability of coverage probability and the asymptotic optimality for such a family of sampling schemes. Our theoretical results establish the possibility that the parameters of this family of sampling schemes can be determined so that the prescribed level of confidence is guaranteed with little waste of samples. Analytic bounds for the cumulative distribution functions and expectations of sample numbers are derived. Moreover, we discuss the inherent connection of various sampling schemes. Numerical issues are addressed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of computation. Computational experiments are conducted for comparing sampling schemes. Illustrative examples are given for applications in clinical trials.

  18. Estimation of Dental and Facial Proportions Using Height as Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nalawade, Sumit Shivaji; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Pawar, Renuka Lalit; Gupta, Aditi; Kale, Vishwajeet Tulshidas; Janrao, Kunal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ideal dental restoration is one which not only restores optimal functions but also confirm to standard dental and facial relations. This is important to achieve long term patient satisfaction both with regard to esthetics as well as functions. Objective was to find a credible relationship between dental and facial proportions using height of individuals as the criteria in a specific group of population. To determine a regression equation for determination of various dental and fac...

  19. Estimation and relevance of bark proportion in a willow stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden); Estonian Agricultural Univ. (EAU), Inst. of Zoology and Botany, Tartu (Estonia); Verwijst, Theo; Aronsson, Paer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    We studied bark proportion of a willow (Salix viminalis) plantation established to produce biomass for energy, the vertical distribution of elements (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Si, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Ni) in bark and in wood of the shoots and the content of elements in the standing biomass. The study is based on 5-year-old shoots (clone 77-683) from a 12-year-old plantation. The bark proportion of the whole willow stand was 19% (9 tDM ha{sup -1}). The bark proportion of single shoots was constant after they had reached the size of 20 mm at stem diameter at 55 cm height. Compared to wood, bark had significantly higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Cd, Pb, Co and Zn. The nutrient element (N, P, K, Mg) concentrations in the bark and in the wood of the current year shoot fractions (twigs) were significantly higher compared to the bark and the wood of other fractions. The accumulation of heavy metals occurred due to the accumulation of tree biomass and not due to the increase of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in plant tissues over time. In summary, different management regimes give a possibility to influence shoot size frequency distribution of the crop and the chemical composition of biomass. For minimizing element removals from the soil and corrosion processes in power plants, energy willow stands should be managed in a way that promotes low bark proportion and thereby as little nutrient removal from the site by biomass harvest as possible. (Author)

  20. Effect of Autopilot Structure on Proportional Navigation Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Qun-li; LIU Yi-ying; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of acceleration autopilot and attitude autopilot are discussed in detail.Also, a comparison study was made between these two different types of control schemes for guidance loop.By means of simulation, it is concluded that the guidance accuracy is mainly determined by the slowest subsystem among different system dynamics.For air-to-ground missiles, with limited terminal guidance time, the control scheme of acceleration autopilot combined with proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law is the better choice.

  1. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselve...

  2. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  3. Simulation on Different Proportions of Coal and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Rotary Lime Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of coal and natural gas is a promising technology in the production of active lime. For this technology, proper fuel proportion of coal and natural gas (α is one of the key parameters that requires significant thought. By means of numerical simulation, contrast studies on co-combustion with five different fuel proportions were carried out. This paper firstly puts forward the models used to describe the system based on the actual conditions. Then, numerical simulation results were analysed in detail to illustrate the co-combustion process and the velocity and temperature distribution in the kiln. Finally, comparisons of high temperature region, char conversion, length of calcining zone, CO and NOx emission and total heat transfer rate to the material bed were made in order to make a decision on fuel proportion. Synthetically considering, α=30% is a balance between benefits and costs for the rotary lime kiln studied.

  4. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  5. Energy Proportionality and Performance in Data Parallel Computing Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Chou, Jerry; Rotem, Doron

    2011-02-14

    Energy consumption in datacenters has recently become a major concern due to the rising operational costs andscalability issues. Recent solutions to this problem propose the principle of energy proportionality, i.e., the amount of energy consumedby the server nodes must be proportional to the amount of work performed. For data parallelism and fault tolerancepurposes, most common file systems used in MapReduce-type clusters maintain a set of replicas for each data block. A coveringset is a group of nodes that together contain at least one replica of the data blocks needed for performing computing tasks. In thiswork, we develop and analyze algorithms to maintain energy proportionality by discovering a covering set that minimizesenergy consumption while placing the remaining nodes in lowpower standby mode. Our algorithms can also discover coveringsets in heterogeneous computing environments. In order to allow more data parallelism, we generalize our algorithms so that itcan discover k-covering sets, i.e., a set of nodes that contain at least k replicas of the data blocks. Our experimental results showthat we can achieve substantial energy saving without significant performance loss in diverse cluster configurations and workingenvironments.

  6. A method to quantify mouse coat-color proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songthip Ounpraseuth

    Full Text Available Coat-color proportions and patterns in mice are used as assays for many processes such as transgene expression, chimerism, and epigenetics. In many studies, coat-color readouts are estimated from subjective scoring of individual mice. Here we show a method by which mouse coat color is quantified as the proportion of coat shown in one or more digital images. We use the yellow-agouti mouse model of epigenetic variegation to demonstrate this method. We apply this method to live mice using a conventional digital camera for data collection. We use a raster graphics editing program to convert agouti regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, brown color and the yellow regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, yellow color. We use a second program to quantify the proportions of these standard colors. This method provides quantification that relates directly to the visual appearance of the live animal. It also provides an objective analysis with a traceable record, and it should allow for precise comparisons of mouse coats and mouse cohorts within and between studies.

  7. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  8. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  9. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/j.cam.2009.09.043

    2009-01-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  10. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  11. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  12. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

  13. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  14. Correlated N-boson systems for arbitrary scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, O.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate systems of identical bosons with the focus on two-body correlations and attractive finite-range potentials. We use a hyperspherical adiabatic method and apply a Faddeev type of decomposition of the wave function. We discuss the structure of a condensate as a function of particle number and scattering length. We establish universal scaling relations for the critical effective radial potentials for distances where the average distance between particle pairs is larger than the interaction range. The correlations in the wave function restore the large-distance mean-field behavior with the correct two-body interaction. We discuss various processes limiting the stability of condensates. With correlations we confirm that macroscopic tunneling dominates when the trap length is about half of the particle number times the scattering length.

  15. Structure Function Sum rules for Systems with Large Scattering Lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, Walter D

    2010-01-01

    We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general, and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. By employing a Borel transform of the OPE, the relevant integrals are weighted towards infrared frequencies, thus allowing for greater overlap low energy data. Similar sum rules can be derived for other response functions. The sum rules can be used to extract the contact parameter introduced by Tan, including universality violating corrections at finite scattering lengths.

  16. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  17. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  18. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and ... both fish species showed strong correlation between the weight and length with correlation coefficient (r) and ..... Basic data on the assessment of Sphyraena ... review of methods and their application.

  19. Persistence length of dendronized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailov, I.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerical results for the thermodynamic rigidity and induced persistence length of dendronized polymers with systematically varied topology of their grafts obtained by the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field method. The results were compared to predictions of an analytical mean-fiel

  20. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  1. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  2. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  3. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  4. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  5. Proportion of and risk factors for open fractures of the appendicular skeleton in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the proportion of and risk factors for open fractures of the appendicular skeleton in dogs and cats that were a result of acute trauma. Cross-sectional and case-control study. 84,629 dogs and 26,675 cats. Dogs and cats examined at Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from January 1993 through February 2013 were identified; the proportion of open fractures was estimated from the medical records. Additionally, all incident cases of open (77 dogs and 33 cats) and closed (469 dogs and 80 cats) fractures between January 1993 and February 2013 and a random sample of nonfracture patients (722 dogs and 330 cats) in 2010 were used to assess risk factors for open appendicular fractures. Proportion of open fractures for the 20-year period was 0.09% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07% to 0.11%) in dogs and 0.12% (95% CI, 0.09% to 0.17%) in cats. Seventy-seven of 546 (14.1%) and 33 of 113 (29.2%) traumatic fractures were classified as open in dogs and cats, respectively. Comminuted fractures were more likely than other configurations to be open in dogs (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.9 to 12.2) and cats (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 12.0). Vehicle-related trauma was a significant risk factor for open fractures in dogs (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 3.1 to 61.8). The proportion of incident open fractures in dogs and cats was low. Age, body weight, affected bone or bone segment, fracture configuration, and method of trauma were associated with an open fracture.

  6. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  7. Functional hand proportion is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, K W-Q; Quah, W-K; Chang, G-H; Chan, J Y

    2012-08-01

    The debatable relationship of functional human hand proportion with the Fibonacci series has remained an obscure scientific enigma short of clinical interest. The main difficulty of proving such a relationship lies in defining what should constitute true functional proportion. In this study, we re-evaluate this unique relationship using hand flexion creases as anatomical surrogates for the functional axes of joint rotation. Standardised desktop photocopies of palmar views of both hands in full digital extension and abduction were obtained from 100 healthy male volunteers of Chinese ethnicity. The functional axes were represented by the distal digital crease (distal interphalangeal joint, DIPJ), proximal digital crease (proximal interphalangeal joint, PIPJ), as well as the midpoint between the palmar digital and transverse palmar creases (metacarpophalangeal joint, MCPJ). The ratio of DIPJ-Fingertip:PIPJ-DIPJ:MCPJ-PIPJ (p3:p2:p1) was measured by two independent observers and represented as standard deviation about the mean, and then compared to the theoretical ratio of 1:1:2. Our results showed that, for the 2nd to 5th digits, the p2:p3 ratios were 0.97 ± ± 0.09, 1.10 ± 0.10, 1.04 ± 0.12, and 0.80 ± 0.08, respectively; whilst the p1:p2 ratios were 1.91 ± 0.17, 1.98 ± 0.14, 1.89 ± 0.16, and 2.09 ± 0.24, respectively. When the data were analysed for all digits, they showed a combined p3:p2:p1 ratio of 1:0.98:2.01. In conclusion, our results suggest that functional human hand proportion, as defined by flexion creases, is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

  8. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  9. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  10. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palomares

    Full Text Available Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars. Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493 were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68, with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  11. Asymmetrical body perception: a possible role for neural body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A; Witt, Jessica K; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2009-11-01

    Perception of one's body is related not only to the physical appearance of the body, but also to the neural representation of the body. The brain contains many body maps that systematically differ between right- and left-handed people. In general, the cortical representations of the right arm and right hand tend to be of greater area in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere for right-handed people, whereas these cortical representations tend to be symmetrical across hemispheres for left-handers. We took advantage of these naturally occurring differences and examined perceived arm length in right- and left-handed people. When looking at each arm and hand individually, right-handed participants perceived their right arms and right hands to be longer than their left arms and left hands, whereas left-handed participants perceived both arms accurately. These experiments reveal a possible relationship between implicit body maps in the brain and conscious perception of the body.

  12. Human epididymis: structural pattern, total length and inner surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandhan, Kalanghot P; Soni, Ashutosh; Joshi, Anantkumar; Avni, Kalanghot P S; Gupta, Bansi Dhar

    2017-05-24

    The organ epididymis is secured the name considering it functioned as an appendix to the testis; earlier testis was called as didymi. Regarding the length of human epididymis, several values are attributed by different authors. The present study was aimed to find out the pattern, total length and inner surface area of human epididymis. The study was conducted by employing microsurgical procedures on five testes from unclaimed human dead bodies. Caput was formed by few tubes interconnecting at three levels. These tubes led to corpus, which in turn was having more number of tubes interconnecting at different levels. Tubules were many looking like a mesh. United tubes of corpus form the single tube to form cauda. Epididymis length was 30.48 cm. Inner surface area was 818.16 mm2. Reported values of others seem to be a modified version from that of animals. Authors believe that organic revolutionary changes in man led to a reduction in the length of epididymis.

  13. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Recent applications of multiwire proportional chambers for time resolved studies on muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A. R.; Huxley, H. E.; Kress, M.

    1986-12-01

    The use of multiwire proportional chambers has played an important role in recording time resolved data from vertebrate muscle under various physiological conditions from which we have selected two examples from recent work. The first example describes the measurement of the equatorial pattern along with measurements of the muscle sarcomere length showing that the delay in tension development relative to changes in the X-ray intensity are not due to "internal" shortening in the muscle. The second example describes time-resolved measurements on the thin filament activation process, studied with both a linear and an area detector. The results show clearly that changes in thin filament structure precede cross-bridge formation producing further strong evidence for the "steric blocking model" for muscle contraction.

  15. Study on Proportional Synchronization of Hyperchaotic Circuit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG De-Ping; LUO Xiao-Shu; WANG Bin-Hong; FANG Jin-Qing; JIANG Pin-Qun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the proportional synchronization between drive system and response system is achieved by using the concept of generalized synchronization. The phase space of all variables in response system can be expanded and compressed flexibly. Meanwhile, the 6-D hyperchaotic chua's circuit is considered as an illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, focusing on the shortcoming of the long transient behavior during the process of synchronization, a feedback method is adopted to shorten the transitional time of synchronization, which will provide an effective way for speeding up the transmitting velocity of code in chaotic multiple access communication.

  16. High condylectomy versus proportional condylectomy: is secondary orthognathic surgery necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, R; Olate, S; Raposo, A; Araya, I; Alister, J P; Uribe, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for secondary orthognathic surgery in patients undergoing two different condylectomy protocols for active unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH). A retrospective cohort study evaluated UCH patients treated by condylectomy. Two groups were established: group 1 comprised those who had undergone a high condylectomy (5 mm removed) and group 2 comprised those who had undergone a proportional condylectomy (removing the difference observed between the measurements of the hyperplastic and the healthy side). Data analysis was done with the Levene test and t-test; a P-value of orthognathic surgery (Porthognathic surgery.

  17. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.

  18. Generalized Proportional Integral Control for an Unmanned Quadrotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a generalized proportional integral (GPI control approach is presented for regulation and trajectory tracking problems in a nonlinear, multivariable quadrotor system model. In the feedback control law, no asymptotic observers or time discretizations are needed in the feedback loop. The GPI controller guarantees the asymptotically and exponentially stable behaviour of the controlled quadrotor position and orientation, as well as the possibilities of carrying out trajectory tracking tasks. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the proposed method exhibits very good stabilization and tracking performance in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and noise measurements.

  19. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  20. Allometry of sexual size dimorphism in turtles: a comparison of mass and length data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Koy W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The macroevolutionary pattern of Rensch’s Rule (positive allometry of sexual size dimorphism) has had mixed support in turtles. Using the largest carapace length dataset and only large-scale body mass dataset assembled for this group, we determine (a) whether turtles conform to Rensch’s Rule at the order, suborder, and family levels, and (b) whether inferences regarding allometry of sexual size dimorphism differ based on choice of body size metric used for analyses. Methods We compiled databases of mean body mass and carapace length for males and females for as many populations and species of turtles as possible. We then determined scaling relationships between males and females for average body mass and straight carapace length using traditional and phylogenetic comparative methods. We also used regression analyses to evalutate sex-specific differences in the variance explained by carapace length on body mass. Results Using traditional (non-phylogenetic) analyses, body mass supports Rensch’s Rule, whereas straight carapace length supports isometry. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, both body mass and straight carapace length support Rensch’s Rule with strong congruence between metrics. At the family level, support for Rensch’s Rule is more frequent when mass is used and in phylogenetic comparative analyses. Turtles do not differ in slopes of sex-specific mass-to-length regressions and more variance in body size within each sex is explained by mass than by carapace length. Discussion Turtles display Rensch’s Rule overall and within families of Cryptodires, but not within Pleurodire families. Mass and length are strongly congruent with respect to Rensch’s Rule across turtles, and discrepancies are observed mostly at the family level (the level where Rensch’s Rule is most often evaluated). At macroevolutionary scales, the purported advantages of length measurements over weight are not supported in turtles. PMID:28149687

  1. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...

  3. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  4. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  6. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Hui, Francis K C

    2011-01-01

    The arcsine square root transformation has long been standard procedure when analyzing proportional data in ecology, with applications in data sets containing binomial and non-binomial response variables. Here, we argue that the arcsine transform should not be used in either circumstance. For binomial data, logistic regression has greater interpretability and higher power than analyses of transformed data. However, it is important to check the data for additional unexplained variation, i.e., overdispersion, and to account for it via the inclusion of random effects in the model if found. For non-binomial data, the arcsine transform is undesirable on the grounds of interpretability, and because it can produce nonsensical predictions. The logit transformation is proposed as an alternative approach to address these issues. Examples are presented in both cases to illustrate these advantages, comparing various methods of analyzing proportions including untransformed, arcsine- and logit-transformed linear models and logistic regression (with or without random effects). Simulations demonstrate that logistic regression usually provides a gain in power over other methods.

  7. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  8. Recent developments of multiwire proportional chambers at JINR (DUBNA)

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, A I

    1980-01-01

    In this report a review of some wire chamber developments at JINR is given. The conception and performance of different detectors will be discussed as well as their application in experiments. For NA-4 (CERN) a special proportional chamber with asymmetric cut for the target was built. The necessary rigidness was achieved by sandwich panels with honeycomb filling. In order to study rare processes with registration of the nuclear fragments a proportional drift chamber was constructed. The resolution for Delta m was 0.2 GeV and 0.2 for Delta Z. In the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems a new mode of gas amplification was investigated. It was shown to have interesting characteristics from the practical point of view; apparently it cannot be interpreted as a transitory mode. On the basis of these investigations two large systems of drift chambers operating in the selfquenching mode have been made. For investigations on the synchrocyclotron a multipurpose magnetic spectrometer ARES (Analyser of Rate Events) was develop...

  9. Optimization of the electric field distribution in a large volume tissue-equivalent proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, P.K.; Waker, A.J. (Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1992-10-01

    Large volume tissue-equivalent proportional counters are of interest in radiation protection metrology, as the sensitivity in terms of counts per unit absorbed dose in these devices increases as the square of the counter diameter. Conventional solutions to the problem of maintaining a uniform electric field within a counter result in sensitive volume to total volume ratios which are unacceptably low when counter dimensions of the order of 15 cm diameter are considered and when overall compactness is an important design criterion. This work describes the design and optimization of an arrangement of field discs set at different potentials which enable sensitive volume to total volume ratios to approach unity. The method has been used to construct a 12.7 cm diameter right-cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter in which the sensitive volume accounts for over 95% of the total device volume and the gas gain uniformity is maintained to within 3% along the entire length of the anode wire. (author).

  10. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione Nicolás E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in

  11. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  12. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  13. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  14. SINGLE ANODE TRIPLE GEM TISSUE EQUIVALENT PROPORTIONAL COUNTER AS THE BASIS FOR A PERSONAL NEUTRON DOSIMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydaliev, M; Dubeau, J; Ali, F

    2017-04-28

    This paper reports on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) based on a triple gas electron multiplier structure, with a single pad readout, as a basis for a personal neutron dosimeter. Its dosimetric response was studied using the 252Cf neutron source at the Health Physics Generator Facility of the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories. Measured lineal energy spectra were found to be in agreement with numerical simulations performed with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Both simulations and measurements showed that the mean pathlength of secondary charged particles in the TEPC gas was best represented by the thickness of the drift region of the device. It was determined that the Cauchy Theorem, used to calculate the mean chord length in spherical and cylindrical TEPCs, overestimated the simulated mean chord length by nearly a factor of two. Important operational characteristics of the device were investigated, including gas gain, sensitivity and dosimetric response, as functions of tissue-equivalent gas pressure. This work demonstrates that the proposed design can serve as the basis for a personal neutron dosimeter device, which would satisfy the angular dosimetric response criteria of the personal dosimeter standard IEC61526. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-07

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form.

  16. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  17. Light yield non-proportionality of undoped YAP scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klamra, W [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Balcerzyk, M; Czarnacki, W; Moszynski, M; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Szczesniak, T [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kozlov, V [Lebedev Physical Institute, 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: klamra@particle.kth.se

    2009-05-15

    Scintillation properties of undoped YAP crystal were studied. The emission spectra show a very intense light component at 360 nm. Analysis of the light pulse shape resulted in five components, four of them, with time constants of 38{+-}2 ns, 92{+-}3 ns, 7.5{+-}0.5 {mu}s and 24{+-}3 {mu}s, representing high light intensity. The light yield was found to be temperature dependent, N{sub ph}= 3090{+-}130 ph/MeV at liquid nitrogen temperature and N{sub ph}= 1440{+-}60 ph/MeV at room temperature. Also the light yield non-proportionality shows temperature dependence and is more pronounced at room temperature.

  18. The role of facial proportion in hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, D B; Schell, B J; Weyrich, R P

    1997-02-01

    Facial aesthetics involve basic artistic principles that relate individual features to the face as a whole. These principles, such as balance and proportion, are key elements in the development of hair restoration surgery and can be applied to reconstructive procedures for the trauma or burn patient. This paper describes the application of anthropometric and artistic principles used in hair reconstruction. Attention has been directed to the procedures used to determine hairline contour and placement, and certain aspects of frontotemporal recession management. The frontal hair has a profound effect on facial balance because of the major role hair plays in framing and visually enhancing the face. The presence of frontal hair and facial framing also serves to retain a vital element of autonomy in appearance for the individual.

  19. Jackknifed random weighting for Cox proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao; WU YaoHua; TU DongSheng

    2012-01-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is the most used statistical model in the analysis of survival time data.Recently,a random weighting method was proposed to approximate the distribution of the maximum partial likelihood estimate for the regression coefficient in the Cox model.This method was shown not as sensitive to heavy censoring as the bootstrap method in simulation studies but it may not be second-order accurate as was shown for the bootstrap approximation.In this paper,we propose an alternative random weighting method based on one-step linear jackknife pseudo values and prove the second accuracy of the proposed method.Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to evaluate the proposed method for fixed sample sizes.

  20. Method of proportioning stone to stowing installations underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafarczyk, J.; Kubek, F.

    1992-07-01

    Reviews types of stowing intallations and the technology of supplying after-washing stone used. It is recommended to take advantage of downward inclined stowing pipeline sections for underground feeding of the stowing stone. Calculation of the mass of stone fed to a stowing pipeline is explained. First experience of using the method in the Jankowice black coal mine in 1991 is reported on. About 8,000 t of stone were stowed using the method during 7 months. The stowing installation consists of a tippler, a belt conveyor and a batcher of about 10 m[sup 3]. The capacity of the installation is 30 m[sup 3]/h. Suitable proportions of slag-crushed stone mixtures are recommended.

  1. Optimization of maintenance policy using the proportional hazard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrout, M. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: mohamad.el_samrout@utt.fr; Chatelet, E. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: chatelt@utt.fr; Kouta, R. [M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort Montbeliard (France); Chebbo, N. [Industrial Systems Laboratory, IUT, Lebanese University (Lebanon)

    2009-01-15

    The evolution of system reliability depends on its structure as well as on the evolution of its components reliability. The latter is a function of component age during a system's operating life. Component aging is strongly affected by maintenance activities performed on the system. In this work, we consider two categories of maintenance activities: corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). Maintenance actions are characterized by their ability to reduce this age. PM consists of actions applied on components while they are operating, whereas CM actions occur when the component breaks down. In this paper, we expound a new method to integrate the effect of CM while planning for the PM policy. The proportional hazard function was used as a modeling tool for that purpose. Interesting results were obtained when comparison between policies that take into consideration the CM effect and those that do not is established.

  2. Beltrami Fields with a Nonconstant Proportionality Factor are Rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We consider the existence of Beltrami fields with a nonconstant proportionality factor f in an open subset U of R^3. By reformulating this problem as a constrained evolution equation on a surface, we find an explicit differential equation that f must satisfy whenever there is a nontrivial Beltrami field with this factor. This ensures that there are no nontrivial regular solutions for an open and dense set of factors f in the C k topology, {k≥q 7}. In particular, there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields whenever f has a regular level set diffeomorphic to the sphere. This provides an explanation of the helical flow paradox of Morgulis et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 48:571-582, 1995).

  3. Regularization for Cox's Proportional Hazards Model With NP-Dimensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Bradic, Jelena; Jiang, Jiancheng

    2010-01-01

    High throughput genetic sequencing arrays with thousands of measurements per sample and a great amount of related censored clinical data have increased demanding need for better measurement specific model selection. In this paper we establish strong oracle properties of non-concave penalized methods for {\\it non-polynomial} (NP) dimensional data with censoring in the framework of Cox's proportional hazards model. A class of folded-concave penalties are employed and both LASSO and SCAD are discussed specifically. We unveil the question under which dimensionality and correlation restrictions can an oracle estimator be constructed and grasped. It is demonstrated that non-concave penalties lead to significant reduction of the "irrepresentable condition" needed for LASSO model selection consistency. The large deviation result for martingales, bearing interests of its own, is developed for characterizing the strong oracle property. Moreover, the non-concave regularized estimator, is shown to achieve asymptotically ...

  4. Observational evidence for travelling wave modes bearing distance proportional shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, V

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies of range between the Space Surveillance Network radars and the Deep Space Network in tracking the 1998 earth flyby of NEAR, and between ESA's Doppler and range data in Rosetta's 2009 flyby, reveal a consistent excess delay, or lag, equal to instantaneous one-way travel time in the telemetry signals. These lags readily explain all details of the flyby anomaly, and are shown to be symptoms of chirp d'Alembertian travelling wave solutions, relating to traditional sinusoidal waves by a rotation of the spectral decomposition due to the clock acceleration caused by the Doppler rates during the flybys. The lags thus relate to special relativity, but yield distance proportional shifts like those of cosmology at short range.

  5. Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Jianqing; Gu, Weijie

    2011-01-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In the current paper, we propose a novel method based on principal factor approximation, which successfully subtracts the common dependence and weakens significantly the correlation structure, to deal with an arbitrary dependence structure. We derive an approximate expression for false discovery proportion (FDP) in large scale multiple testing when a common threshold is used and provide a consistent estimate of realized FDP. This result has important applications in controlling FDR and FDP. Our estimate of realized FDP compares favorably with Efron (2007)'s approach, as demonstrated in the sim...

  6. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  7. Design of pneumatic proportional flow valve type 5/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, P. A.; Pietrala, D. S.; Zwierzchowski, J.; Czarnogorski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the 5/3-way pneumatic, proportional flow valve was designed and made. Stepper linear actuator was used to move the spool. The valve is controlled by the controlled based on a AVR microcontroller. Virtual model of the valve was created in CAD. The real element was made based on a standard 5/3-way manually actuated valve with hand lever, which was dismounted and replaced by linear stepper motor. All the elements was mounted in a specially made housing. The controller consists of microcontroller Atmega16, integrated circuit L293D, display, two potentiometers, three LEDs and six buttons. Series of research was also conducted. Simulation research were performed using CFD by the Flow Simulation addition to SolidWorks. During the experiments the valve characteristics of flow and pressure was determined.

  8. Word of mouth and universal voting behaviour in proportional elections

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, S; Castellano, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo

    2006-01-01

    Human societies exhibit many examples of nontrivial collective behaviour generated by the interaction of a large number of individuals. To characterize these emergent phenomena and understand their origin it is crucial to discover regularities in the macroscopic patterns of data describing collective social phenomena. Elections are a prominent example of collective social phenomenon, and a quantitative statistical analysis has begun. Here we show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is universal, i.e. it is the same function in different countries and years, when the number of votes is rescaled according to the strength of the party each candidate belongs to. A simple dynamical model for the behaviour of voters, based on the spreading of word of mouth, reproduces well the universal distribution. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general underlying dynamics that does not depend on the specific historical, political and/or ec...

  9. Pulse-Shape Discrimination for Low-Background Proportional Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, Craig

    2011-10-01

    Digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) is used to improve measurement sensitivity for internal-source gas proportional counters. Because the design of these detectors can be physically simple, they are well-suited for low-background applications where the radiopurity of detector materials must be stringently controlled. After mitigating dominant backgrounds (cosmic rays, external gamma-rays, radioactivity in materials), remaining background events frequently do not arise from ionization of the proportional counter gas. Various PSD methods have exploited the resulting pulse-shape differences. More sophisticated methods can offer better discrimination but may lead to more difficult calibration between model and detector. Variations between modeled and experimental shapes can limit the discriminating power achieved. This work addresses this difficulty by generating a template shape from each individual sample measurement of interest, a ``self-calibrating'' template. Differences in event topology can also cause differences in pulse shape. In this work the temporal region analyzed is limited to maximize background discrimination while avoiding unwanted sensitivity to event topology. Low-background measurements of tritium, carbon-14, argon-37, and argon-39 are currently being developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with detectors employing radiopure materials developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches. The application of self-calibrating template PSD to measurement of these radioisotopes, along with initial measurement results, is described. Applications such as nuclear treaty verification, elucidating the environmental carbon cycle, and the assay of low-background materials for next-generation nuclear physics experiments are presented.

  10. An Objective Measure to Evaluate Actual Body Shape among Children and Adolescents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Lian Guo; WANG Hai Jun; LI Xiao Hui; WANG Zhi Qiang; Patrick WC Lau; YANG Yi De; MENG Xiang Kun; MA Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore an objective measure to assess actual body shape of children and adolescents in China. Methods Based on the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) in 2005, 210 927 children and adolescents' (7-18 years) body height, body weight, chest circumference, sitting height, chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height ratio, chest circumference-low limb ratio, and sitting height-low limb ratio measurements were used to develop an objective measure by using transformation variables and explored factor analysis (EFA). Discrimination power of the objective measure was evaluated based on BMI reference and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC). Results The objective measure included four dimensions scores:transverse dimension (TD) indicating weight and chest circumference; length dimension (LD) indicating height and sitting height;transverse-length ratio dimension (TLD) indicating chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height and chest circumference-low limb ratio; proportion dimension (PD) indicating sitting height-low limb ratio. The whole dimension (WD) indicating the whole body shape was showed by the average of four dimensions scores. Four dimensions and WD scores were approximately 80 in children and adolescents with normal weight, and higher than those of overweight, obesity, and underweight (all P-values Conclusion The objective measure which included four dimensions was explored, and TD, TLD, and WD had significant discrimination power.

  11. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...

  12. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  13. 极低出生体重儿行PICC置管时患儿体表测量长度和理想置管深度的关系%Relationship analysis of length of body surface measurement and ideal depth of tube detaining in very low birth weight infant with PICC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房莉; 史德利; 郝祥梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of length of body surface (LBSM ) measurement and ideal depth of tube detaining (IDTD) in very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) with PICC. Methods From May 2012 to January 2014, in NICU of the Children's Hospital of Xuzhou City, 40 VLBWI with upper PICC and 24 VLBWI with cephalic vein and cubital vein PICC were selected. The relationship of LBSM and IDTD at PICC was analyzed. Results The results of 40 VLBWI with upper PICC showed that the highest was IDTD acquired, for 67.50%, the next was followed placed too deep, the lowest was too shallow into the lowest percentage, only 12.50%. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed except the left cephalic vein of LBSM had no correlation with IDTD (r=0.397, P=0.512), the rest were corre-lated throughout the vein. By regression analysis, LBSM and IDTD regression equation was as follows, the right side of the vein:Y =-6.23±1.01X;the right of the cephalic vein:Y =-14.36±1.15X;the right of the median cubital vein;Y =4.12±0.82X; the left side of your vein; Y = 2.86±0.84X; the left of the cubital vein: Y = -19.52±1.23X. Conclusion When the right side of VLBWI vein catheterization to have a good correlation with IDTD LBSM, the clinical treatment should be valued.%目的:分析极低出生体重儿(VLBWI)行PICC置管时患儿体表测量长度(LBSM)和理想置管深度(IDTD)的关系。方法选择2012年5月~2014年1月于徐州市儿童医院新生儿重症监护室上肢植入PICC的40例贵要静脉置管及24例头静脉和肘正中静脉PICC置管的VLBWI患儿。分析对行PICC置管时LBSM和IDTD的关系。结果40例贵要静脉置管结果表明,获得理想深度的比例最高,为67.50豫;置入过深次之,置入过浅的比例最低,仅为12.50豫。 Pearson相关性分析显示,除左侧头静脉的LBSM与IDTD无相关性之外(r =0.397,P=0.512),其余各处静脉均有相关性。经回归分析,LBSM与IDTD的回归方程如下

  14. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  15. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  16. Weighted profile likelihood-based confidence interval for the difference between two proportions with paired binomial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Vivek; Saha, Krishna K; Banerjee, Tathagata; Evans, John C

    2014-07-30

    Inference on the difference between two binomial proportions in the paired binomial setting is often an important problem in many biomedical investigations. Tang et al. (2010, Statistics in Medicine) discussed six methods to construct confidence intervals (henceforth, we abbreviate it as CI) for the difference between two proportions in paired binomial setting using method of variance estimates recovery. In this article, we propose weighted profile likelihood-based CIs for the difference between proportions of a paired binomial distribution. However, instead of the usual likelihood, we use weighted likelihood that is essentially making adjustments to the cell frequencies of a 2 × 2 table in the spirit of Agresti and Min (2005, Statistics in Medicine). We then conduct numerical studies to compare the performances of the proposed CIs with that of Tang et al. and Agresti and Min in terms of coverage probabilities and expected lengths. Our numerical study clearly indicates that the weighted profile likelihood-based intervals and Jeffreys interval (cf. Tang et al.) are superior in terms of achieving the nominal level, and in terms of expected lengths, they are competitive. Finally, we illustrate the use of the proposed CIs with real-life examples.

  17. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  18. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  19. Heteronuclear Efimov scenario with positive intraspecies scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmanis, Juris; Pires, Rico; Kuhnle, Eva D; Wang, Yujun; Greene, Chris H; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the heteronuclear Efimov scenario for a three-body system that consists of two bosons and one distinguishable particle with repulsive intraspecies interactions. The three-body parameter at the three-body scattering threshold and the scaling factor between consecutive Efimov resonances are found to be controlled by the scattering length between the two bosons, approximately independent of short-range physics. We observe two excited-state Efimov resonances in the three-body recombination spectra of an ultracold mixture of fermionic $^6 $Li and bosonic $^{133} $Cs atoms close to a Li-Cs Feshbach resonance, where the Cs-Cs interaction is repulsive. Deviation of the obtained scaling factor of 4.0(3) from the universal prediction of 4.9 and the absence of the ground state Efimov resonance shed new light on the interpretation of the universality and the discrete scaling behavior of heteronuclear Efimov physics.

  20. Channel selection for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Hahne, Janne Mathias; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown the possibility of simultaneous and proportional control of electrically powered upper-limb prostheses, but there has been little investigation on optimal channel selection. The objective of this study is to find a robust channel selection method and the channel subsets most suitable for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). Approach. Ten able-bodied subjects and one person with congenital upper-limb deficiency took part in this study, and performed wrist movements with various combinations of two DoFs (flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation). During the experiment, high density electromyographic (EMG) signals and the actual wrist angles were recorded with an 8 × 24 electrode array and a motion tracking system, respectively. The wrist angles were estimated from EMG features with ridge regression using the subsets of channels chosen by three different channel selection methods: (1) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), (2) sequential feature selection (SFS), and (3) uniform selection (UNI). Main results. SFS generally showed higher estimation accuracy than LASSO and UNI, but LASSO always outperformed SFS in terms of robustness, such as noise addition, channel shift and training data reduction. It was also confirmed that about 95% of the original performance obtained using all channels can be retained with only 12 bipolar channels individually selected by LASSO and SFS. Significance. From the analysis results, it can be concluded that LASSO is a promising channel selection method for accurate simultaneous and proportional prosthesis control. We expect that our results will provide a useful guideline to select optimal channel subsets when developing clinical myoelectric prosthesis control systems based on continuous movements with multiple DoFs.

  1. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Shetty; Varun Pitti; C L Satish Babu; Surendra Kumar, G. P.; Jnanadev, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston′s proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. To determine the relative height of maxillary lateral incisor and canine occurring in natural dentition so that it can be used in any of the above proportions. Materials and Methods: Fiftee...

  2. Perbedaan Proporsi Lebar Gigi Anterior Rahang Atas dengan Konsep Golden Proportion dan Konsep Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) Proportion pada Mahasiswa FKG USU Angkatan 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prima, Ferianny

    2015-01-01

    Salah satu aspek terpenting dalam estetika kedokteran gigi adalah menciptakan proporsi yang harmonis antara lebar gigi-geligi anterior rahang atas dalam penyusunan anasir gigitiruan. Konsep golden proportion dan konsep Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion adalah konsep estetis yang diperkenalkan dalam bidang estetika kedokteran gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat perbedaan antara proporsi lebar gigi anterior rahang atas dengan konsep golden proportion dan konsep RED proport...

  3. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

    2013-04-01

    Let n Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  4. Traditional Iranian courtyards as microclimate modifiers by considering orientation, dimensions, and proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Soflaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of courtyards as microclimate modifiers on the sustainability of traditional houses in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran was explored. The principle behind traditional Iranian courtyards was investigated to identify the most influential physical–environmental characteristics that can effectively improve energy efficiency in contemporary residential buildings. A field study was performed to analyze various physical elements of six valuable traditional courtyard houses located in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran. These elements included the orientation, extension, rotation angle, dimensions, and proportions of enclosed and open spaces, as well as physical bodies (opaque walls, transparent surfaces (openings, and natural elements (water and soil. Results showed that most of the studied Iranian courtyards were particularly designed to enable orientation, dimension, and proportion to act as microclimate modifiers. All survey-based data were summarized and integrated to propose a physical–environmental design model for courtyards as a useful energy-efficient strategy for contemporary sustainable housing in a region with BWks mesoclimate. The proposed model can be generalized to all design cases located in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  5. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  6. Prediction of body composition of Iberian pigs by means bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; Mateos, A; Ovejero, I; Bote, C J López

    2006-01-01

    Twelve barrow Iberian pigs with an average weight at slaughter of 109.2kg were used to evaluate bioelectrical impedance procedures to predict the body composition of live pigs. Twelve hours before slaughter pigs were weighed, and a four-terminal body composition analyser (Model BIA-101, RJL Systems, Detroit, MI) was utilized to determine resistance (R(s) in Ω) and reactance (X(c) in Ω). The length values (L in cm) were measured between detector electrodes with a flexible steel tape. Twenty four hours after slaughter the left side of each carcass was separated using a scalpel into fat, lean, bone and skin. Multiple regression equations for estimating lean, fat, bone and skin amounts and lean, fat, bone and skin proportions with respect to slaughter weight were calculated. The live weight (LW) and L independent variables predicted 85.3% and 64.3% of the variability of the lean amount and lean proportion, respectively. The LW, X(c) and L variables accounted for 96% and 91.6% of the variation in fat quantity and fat proportion, respectively. The LW and R(s) accounted for 58.9% of the variation in bone amount, and the same variables predict 79.1% of the variability of bone percentage. The R(s) and L variables explained 68% of the variability of skin quantity and LW, R(s) and X(c) predicted 83.1% of the variation of skin proportion. Results from this experiment indicate that bioelectrical impedance may be of interest for body composition prediction of live Iberian pigs.

  7. Fluid-dynamic design optimization of hydraulic proportional directional valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Catalano, Luciano Andrea; Poloni, Carlo; Tamburrano, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an effective methodology for the fluid-dynamic design optimization of the sliding spool of a hydraulic proportional directional valve: the goal is the minimization of the flow force at a prescribed flow rate, so as to reduce the required opening force while keeping the operation features unchanged. A full three-dimensional model of the flow field within the valve is employed to accurately predict the flow force acting on the spool. A theoretical analysis, based on both the axial momentum equation and flow simulations, is conducted to define the design parameters, which need to be properly selected in order to reduce the flow force without significantly affecting the flow rate. A genetic algorithm, coupled with a computational fluid dynamics flow solver, is employed to minimize the flow force acting on the valve spool at the maximum opening. A comparison with a typical single-objective optimization algorithm is performed to evaluate performance and effectiveness of the employed genetic algorithm. The optimized spool develops a maximum flow force which is smaller than that produced by the commercially available valve, mainly due to some major modifications occurring in the discharge section. Reducing the flow force and thus the electromagnetic force exerted by the solenoid actuators allows the operational range of direct (single-stage) driven valves to be enlarged.

  8. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  9. Discussion on "proportional solidification technology" for nodular iron casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gen

    2006-01-01

    The Proportional Solidification Technology believes that advancing the expansion of graphite precipitation is favorable for fully utilizing the expansion to offset the contraction and minimizing feeder size. But this author has proved that advancing the expansion is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion. On contrary, advancing the contraction is favorable for both kinds of feeding and favorable for avoiding shrinkage. The feeding efficiency of feeders cannot be increased by advancing the expansion of the casting, but can only be increased by accelerating cooling and contraction of the casting, and (or) by delaying the freezing of the feeders. In order to fully utilize the expansion to offset the contraction, it is a must to ensure that all inlets and outlets of a casting being poured are blocked rapidly at the moment when pouring is finished. It is pointed out that blocking at the earlier frozen feeder neck is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion; whereas blocking at earlier frozen ingates is favorable for both kinds of feeding.

  10. Tire Force Estimation using a Proportional Integral Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Ahmad; Koenig, Damien; Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a method for detecting critical stability situations in the lateral vehicle dynamics by estimating the non-linear part of the tire forces. These forces indicate the road holding performance of the vehicle. The estimation method is based on a robust fault detection and estimation approach which minimize the disturbance and uncertainties to residual sensitivity. It consists in the design of a Proportional Integral Observer (PIO), while minimizing the well known H ∞ norm for the worst case uncertainties and disturbance attenuation, and combining a transient response specification. This multi-objective problem is formulated as a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) feasibility problem where a cost function subject to LMI constraints is minimized. This approach is employed to generate a set of switched robust observers for uncertain switched systems, where the convergence of the observer is ensured using a Multiple Lyapunov Function (MLF). Whilst the forces to be estimated can not be physically measured, a simulation scenario with CarSimTM is presented to illustrate the developed method.

  11. Phylogenetic origins of early alterations in brain region proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Sandoval, Alexis L; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-01-01

    Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups.

  12. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  13. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  14. Large-area proportional counter for in situ transuranic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Improved methods for site characterization are desired for environmental restoration at nuclear facilities. Measurements of transuranics, in particular several isotopes of plutonium, are especially difficult due to the low penetrating nature of the radiations involved, namely, alpha particles and X rays. The effects of attenuation by soil and vegetation generally render direct alpha survey methods useless. For this reason, thin scintillators, such as the FIDLER (field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation) or its more sophisticated successor, the VIOLINIST, that rely on the detection of the L shell X rays (13 to 21 keV) are used for survey work. Semiconductor detectors (germanium and silicon), used singly or in arrays, can be effective, especially for situations where {sup 241}Am (60 keV) is present in the isotropic mix. In principle, in situ spectrometric techniques that have been successfully applied at higher photon energies for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment can be extended to the X-ray region as well. For situations where {sup 241}Am is not present or its ratio to plutonium is unknown, an alternative detector that we have explored for in situ X-ray spectrometry is a large-area proportional counter (LAPC). These instruments were developed for X-ray astronomical measurements in space and offer the combination of large window area and medium energy resolution. Smaller versions have also been used for lung counting.

  15. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L van Eck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota. It is shown that as the number of parties increases, the number of lost votes (votes not used to allocate seats increases when using this method. Other existing allocation methods are discussed and compared with each other as well as with three optimisation methods (based on mathematical programming introduced in this paper. Applying these mathematical programming methods results in allocations that are more fair than the existing methods of seat allocation, if South African voting data are used. These mathematical models attempt to minimise a number of different measures of the deviation between the actual percentage of votes received and the percentage of seats allocated to a certain party. Ideally this deviation should be zero, but due to the discrete nature of seats this is virtually impossible to achieve.

  16. Major copy proportion analysis of tumor samples using SNP arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common genetic variations in the human genome and are useful as genomic markers. Oligonucleotide SNP microarrays have been developed for high-throughput genotyping of up to 900,000 human SNPs and have been used widely in linkage and cancer genomics studies. We have previously used Hidden Markov Models (HMM to analyze SNP array data for inferring copy numbers and loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH from paired normal and tumor samples and unpaired tumor samples. Results We proposed and implemented major copy proportion (MCP analysis of oligonucleotide SNP array data. A HMM was constructed to infer unobserved MCP states from observed allele-specific signals through emission and transition distributions. We used 10 K, 100 K and 250 K SNP array datasets to compare MCP analysis with LOH and copy number analysis, and showed that MCP performs better than LOH analysis for allelic-imbalanced chromosome regions and normal contaminated samples. The major and minor copy alleles can also be inferred from allelic-imbalanced regions by MCP analysis. Conclusion MCP extends tumor LOH analysis to allelic imbalance analysis and supplies complementary information to total copy numbers. MCP analysis of mixing normal and tumor samples suggests the utility of MCP analysis of normal-contaminated tumor samples. The described analysis and visualization methods are readily available in the user-friendly dChip software.

  17. Proportion of US congregations that have people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Chaves, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance studies monitor the prevalence and incidence of HIV, and this information is used by policy makers to design prevention programs and facilitate care for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Although most of these studies monitor the presence of PLWHIV in the general population or specific communities, some assess the presence of PLWHIV in organizations. One type of organization that has not been examined, yet could potentially play a large role in caring for PLWHIV, is the religious congregation. In this study, we estimate the proportion of US religious congregations that have PLWHIV and examine whether congregations that are in contact with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have PLWHIV using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations and the 2000 Census. Over 10,000 congregations have PLWHIV, and congregations containing, open to, or located in areas with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have them. This study offers new insight into the presence of HIV in the United States and provides information about which congregations may be amenable to serving as sites of HIV programs.

  18. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  19. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidis, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Giomataris, I; Papaevangellou, T

    2016-01-01

    We present low energy recoil detection results in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}{Be}$ fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the $keV$ energy region was resolved by observing the $5.9\\ keV$ line of a ${}^{55}Fe$ X-ray source, with energy resolution of $9\\%$ ($\\sigma$). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}{Be}$ source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF). The GEANT4 simulated energy deposition spectrum in addition with the SRIM calculated quenching factor provide valuable insight to the experimental results. The performance of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searc...

  20. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  1. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  2. Relative length of human kidney as more precise measuring of normal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malformations in kidney development and kidney diseases are accompanied with changes in their size. For kidney evaluation in clinical practice, the kidney length is the most widely used measurement, since it provides the most precise results and it is easy to perform. Recently, the measurement of relative renal length has become more preferable as it takes into account the body height. The aim of this study was to measure both the absolute and relative length of normal cadaveric kidneys according to the body height, sex and age. Material and methods. In this study, we examined 95 adult cadaveric kidneys, without renal and vascular impairment, their age ranging from 23-87 years. To determine the period of the most abundant changes in kidney length, we separated them into a 10-year range. The relative renal length was calculated using the kidney length anybody height ratio (kidney/body ratio. Results. The absolute and relative length of left kidney in males was longer than the right one, with a statistically significant correlation. In females, the left kidney length was also longer than the right one, however, without a statistical significance. In contrast to the absolute length, the relative length of both kidneys did not show a significant difference between sexes, and did not manifest a significant decrease with age. There was a significant correlation between the kidney length and the subject’s height. Conclusion. The relative renal length represents kidney size better than the absolute renal length because it eliminates sex and height differences until the age of 59 year. From the seventh decade of life, there is a significant decrease in both the absolute and relative renal length.

  3. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  4. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes...... of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  5. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  6. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  7. Modified pendulum model for mean step length estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael C; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio M; Alvarez, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    Step length estimation is an important issue in areas such as gait analysis, sport training or pedestrian localization. It has been shown that the mean step length can be computed by means of a triaxial accelerometer placed near the center of gravity of the human body. Estimations based on the inverted pendulum model are prone to underestimate the step length, and must be corrected by calibration. In this paper we present a modified pendulum model in which all the parameters correspond to anthropometric data of the individual. The method has been tested with a set of volunteers, both males and females. Experimental results show that this method provides an unbiased estimation of the actual displacement with a standard deviation lower than 2.1%.

  8. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  9. Calibration and background measurements with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autischer, M; Beck, P; Kindl, P; Latocha, M; Rollet, S

    2007-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent-proportional counter (TEPC) instrument has been used as the reference instrument for cosmic radiation measurement at flight altitudes by several institutes. For purposes of characterisation the response of the instrument has been investigated under different standard radiation conditions, in terms of radiation particle, energy and angle of incidence. Photon sources and photon beams of energies up to 6.6 MeV and neutron beams up to 200 MeV were used. To have a better understanding of the shielding influence of the instrument assembly, the angle dependence of response was analysed for several radiation conditions. Specific measurement conditions were simulated with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. The measured instrument response was compared with simulation results. It was demonstrated, that simulations were very helpful to understand the instrument's response. The TEPC instrument used by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (ARCS) research simulates the energy deposition in a unit density tissue volume of 2 microm diameter, of similar size to a cell nucleus. Pure propane at low pressure is used as measurement gas. To characterise the instrument at low dose rates background measurements were done 800 m below ground and at the ultra low level laboratory in Gran Sasso, 1380 m below ground. These results were compared with measurements on the Earth's surface at different altitudes on mountains up to 3480 m above sea level. The significant increase of the expected dose rate is well reproduced by the experiments at mountain altitudes. As a result of this study a full characterisation and a thorough understanding of the performance and reliability of the detector was achieved.

  10. Long-term plasticity is proportional to theta-activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tsanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theta rhythm in the hippocampal formation is a main feature of exploratory behaviour and is believed to enable the encoding of new spatial information and the modification of synaptic weights. Cyclic changes of dentate gyrus excitability during theta rhythm are related to its function, but whether theta epochs per se are able to alter network properties of dentate gyrus for long time-periods is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used low-frequency stimulation protocols that amplify the power of endogenous theta oscillations, in order to estimate the plasticity effect of endogenous theta oscillations on a population level. We found that stimulation-induced augmentation of the theta rhythm is linked to a subsequent increase of neuronal excitability and decrease of the synaptic response. This EPSP-to-Spike uncoupling is related to an increased postsynaptic spiking on the positive phases of theta frequency oscillations. Parallel increase of the field EPSP slope and the population spike occurs only after concurrent pre- and postsynaptic activation. Furthermore, we observed that long-term potentiation (>24 h occurs in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving adult rats after phasic activity of entorhinal afferents in the theta-frequency range. This plasticity is proportional to the field bursting activity of granule cells during the stimulation, and may comprise a key step in spatial information transfer. Long-term potentiation of the synaptic component occurs only when the afferent stimulus precedes the evoked population burst, and is input-specific. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm the role of the dentate gyrus in filtering information to the subsequent network during the activated state of the hippocampus.

  11. A method for measuring passive elastance during proportional assist ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, M; Webster, K; Kun, J; Roberts, D; Masiowski, B

    2001-07-01

    There are currently no reliable, noninvasive ways to monitor respiratory elastance (E) during assisted ventilation. We describe a method that is suited for proportional assist ventilation (PAV). In this mode, the end of the ventilator's inflation phase occurs during the declining phase of inspiratory effort (Pmus). If the opening of the exhalation valve is delayed, airway pressure (Paw) should initially rise as Pmus continues its decline. When Pmus declines to zero, a Paw plateau should appear. Paw at this point should reflect passive recoil at the prevailing volume. A cohort of 74 ventilator-dependent patients, ventilated in the PAV mode, were studied. Brief end-inspiratory occlusions were applied at random intervals. The magnitude of early change in Paw during the occlusion was inversely related to level of assist (r = 0.7, p 75%), Paw was nearly flat or declined slightly, indicating minimal residual Pmus at the onset of occlusion. At lower assist levels, Paw increased exponentially in most patients with an average time constant of 0.21 +/- 0.06 s. Extraneous events that may corrupt the measurement (e.g., behavioral responses) were extremely rare (passive E measured during controlled ventilation (ECMV); the average difference (EPAV - ECMV) was (+/- SD) -0.3 +/- 4.9 cm H2O x L(-1), corresponding to 0.9 +/- 16.4% of average E. We conclude that Paw measured at 0.25 s from the onset of end-inspiratory occlusion in the PAV mode provides a reliable estimate of passive elastic recoil.

  12. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P; Golda, K S; Singh, R P; Varughese, T; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B R; Mandal, S K

    2009-12-01

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20x10 cm(2) and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  13. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  14. Proportioning and performance evaluation of self-consolidating concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhao

    A well-proportioned self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture can be achieved by controlling the aggregate system, paste quality, and paste quantity. The work presented in this dissertation involves an effort to study and improve particle packing of the concrete system and reduce the paste quantity while maintaining concrete quality and performance. This dissertation is composed of four papers resulting from the study: (1) Assessing Particle Packing Based Self-Consolidating Concrete Mix Design; (2) Using Paste-To-Voids Volume Ratio to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixtures; (3) Image Analysis Applications on Assessing Static Stability and Flowability of Self-Consolidating Concrete, and (4) Using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation to Monitor Stiffening Process of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Tests were conducted on a large matrix of SCC mixtures that were designed for cast-in-place bridge construction. The mixtures were made with different aggregate types, sizes, and different cementitious materials. In Paper 1, a modified particle-packing based mix design method, originally proposed by Brouwers (2005), was applied to the design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixs. Using this method, a large matrix of SCC mixes was designed to have a particle distribution modulus (q) ranging from 0.23 to 0.29. Fresh properties (such as flowability, passing ability, segregation resistance, yield stress, viscosity, set time and formwork pressure) and hardened properties (such as compressive strength, surface resistance, shrinkage, and air structure) of these concrete mixes were experimentally evaluated. In Paper 2, a concept that is based on paste-to-voids volume ratio (Vpaste/Vvoids) was employed to assess the performance of SCC mixtures. The relationship between excess paste theory and Vpaste/Vvoids was investigated. The workability, flow properties, compressive strength, shrinkage, and surface resistivity of SCC mixtures were determined at various ages

  15. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  16. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  17. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated m1

  18. Dynamics of cilia length in left–right development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reduction in the length of motile cilia in the zebrafish left–right organizer (LRO), also known as Kupffer's vesicle, has a large impact on left–right development. Here we demonstrate through genetic overexpression in zebrafish embryos and mathematical modelling that the impact of increased motile cilia length in embryonic LRO fluid flow is milder than that of short cilia. Through Arl13b overexpression, which increases cilia length without impacting cilia beat frequency, we show that the increase in cilium length is associated with a decrease in beat amplitude, resulting in similar flow strengths for Arl13b overexpression and wild-type (WT) embryos, which were not predicted by current theory. Longer cilia exhibit pronounced helical beat patterns and, consequently, lower beat amplitudes relative to WT, a result of an elastohydrodynamic shape transition. For long helical cilia, fluid dynamics modelling predicts a mild (approx. 12%) reduction in the torque exerted on the fluid relative to the WT, resulting in a proportional reduction in flow generation. This mild reduction is corroborated by experiments, providing a mechanism for the mild impact on organ situs.

  19. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  20. It's All Connected: The Power of Proportional Reasoning to Understand Mathematics Concepts, Gr. 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    "It's All Connected" provides teachers of mathematics the support they need to improve their instruction. This in-demand collection of lessons for grades 6-8 explores proportionality, proportional relationships, and proportional reasoning, acknowledging that the ability to reason proportionally is crucial in the middle school mathematics…