WorldWideScience

Sample records for lend-lease supplemental appropriation

  1. The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Parkhitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.

  2. Encouraging appropriate, evidence-based use of oral nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Rebecca J; Elia, Marinos

    2010-11-01

    With the considerable cost of disease-related malnutrition to individuals and to society (estimated to be >£13×109 for the UK, 2007 prices), there is a need for effective and evidence-based ways of preventing and treating this condition. The wide range of oral nutritional supplements that may be prescribed for the dietary management of malnutrition and other conditions account for only about 1% (about £99×106, 2007 data) of the prescribing budget in England. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently suggest that ready-made, multi-nutrient liquids which may be prescribed can improve energy and nutritional intake, body weight and have a variety of clinical and functional benefits in a number of patient groups. Meta-analyses have repeatedly shown that oral nutritional supplements produce significant reductions in complications (e.g. infections) and mortality, and a recent meta-analysis shows a reduction in hospital admissions (OR 0·56 (95% CI 0·41, 0·77), six randomised controlled trials). Such benefits suggest that the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements should form an integral part of the management of malnutrition, particularly as there is currently a lack of evidence for alternative oral nutrition strategies (e.g. food fortification and counselling). As with all therapies, compliance to oral nutritional supplements needs to be maximised and the use monitored. To make sure that those at risk of malnutrition are identified and treated appropriately, there is a need to embed national and local policies into routine clinical practice. In doing so, the economic burden of this costly condition can be curtailed. As recently suggested by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, substantial cost savings could be made if screening and treatment of malnourished patients was undertaken.

  3. Herbal dietary supplements and knowledge of appropriate use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and Aloe vera (32.2%). Fifty eight (71.6%) out of the 81 respondents on prescription drugs were using it alongside HDS. Respondents with poor, fair and good knowledge of appropriate use of HDS were 69.1%, 27.3% and 3.6% respectively.

  4. Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for DoD Needs Arising from Hurricane Katrina at Selected DoD Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Pfeil, Lorin T; Adu, Henry Y; Appiah, Emmanuel A; Lawrence, Charlisa D; Loftin, Sharon A; Straw, Richard W; Davis, Sonya T; Hart, Erin S

    2007-01-01

    .... The Inspector General (IG), DoD, performed this audit to determine if the emergency supplemental appropriations for DoD needs arising from Hurricane Katrina and others were used for their intended purposes...

  5. Supplementing energy demand of rural households in Bangladesh through appropriate biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Rafiqul Hoque, A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has sought to show the potential of energy recovery from rurally available agro and household organic wastes and thus, the possible impact on supplementing energy demand, reducing deforestation, and replacing fossil fuel as well as avoided greenhouse gases. Results show that co......-digestion of a wide range of manure, crop residues and household wastes with cow manure was successful to produce increased gas yield than what would be if cow dung is digested separately and the energy value from this can supplement 57–79% of the rural energy demand, depending on the methane yield from organic waste...

  6. Supplementation of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein with cereal proteins - supplementation of soup with a protein blend of appropriate nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of the cowpea bean protein was improved through supplementations with flours from beans exposed to microwave oven treated with cereal proteins such as wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum. Biological assays results with these blends showed that the casein exceeded the other diets concerning digestibility only; however, in parameters such as biological value, net protein utilization (NPU), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nutritional efficiency ratio (NER), no significant differences occurred. Among all elaborated blends, the one with irradiated beans submitted to microwave oven for 30 minutes (65%) + rice (35%) presented the best results. The soup elaborated with the best supplemented blend was satisfactory concerning color, odor, flavor and texture

  7. Control of antioxidant supplementation through interview is not appropriate in oxidative-stress sport studies: Analytical confirmation should be required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jeronimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casuso, Rafael A; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study. They denied taking any antioxidant supplementation at initial interview. After a HPLC analysis, abnormal α-tocopherol concentrations were detected, probably due to a hidden antioxidant supplementation. Participants were classified into two groups: no evidence of antioxidant supplementation (NS group = α-tocopherol values antioxidant supplementation (S group = α-tocopherol values >80 nmol/mL; n = 19). Lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nonenzymatic antioxidant content were analyzed according to this classification. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test. The α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in the S group than in the NS group (MD = 725.01 ± 39.01 nmol/mL; P = 0.001). The S group showed a trend toward lower hydroperoxides than the NS group (MD = 1.19 ± 0.72 nmol/mL; P = 0.071). The S group showed significantly lower catalase activity than the NS group (MD = 0.10 ± 0.02-seg-1 mg-1; P antioxidant supplementation in a personal interview, as they showed high plasmatic α-tocopherol concentrations after HPLC verification. Catalase activity seems to be affected by high α-tocopherol plasma levels. Therefore, we strongly recommend the HPLC analysis as a necessary tool to verify the antioxidant intake and preserve results in studies linking oxidative stress and sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Homocysteine in small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates from mothers receiving folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thushari S; Lindner, Ulrike; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karandagoda, Wimal; Gortner, Ludwig; Obeid, Rima

    2010-08-01

    Prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates are at risk for postnatal complications. Concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) might be related to neonatal outcome. We hypothesized that concentrations of tHcy are not related to growth restriction in neonates from mothers receiving 5 mg/day folic acid. We studied a total of 133 preterm neonates from normotensive mothers; SGA (n=96) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=37). Concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B12 were measured in venous umbilical cord plasma. AGA preterm neonates had higher mean birth weight (BW) compared to SGA preterms (2472 g vs. 2007 g; pgestational age (GA) (35.1 vs. 35.7 weeks; p=0.059). Concentrations of tHcy (4.86 vs. 4.95 micromol/L), folate (63.3 vs. 55.7 nmol/L), and vitamin B12 (409 vs. 394 pmol/L) were not significantly different between the groups. GA was a strong positive predictor, BW was a significant negative predictor of cord plasma folate. Vitamin B12 concentration was a significant negative predictor of cord tHcy. Concentrations of tHcy did not differ between SGA and AGA preterm neonates born to mothers supplemented with folic acid. This finding argues against a causal role for folate deficiency or increased tHcy in growth restriction.

  9. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  10. Appropriate strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, M

    1979-01-01

    Technology strategies are concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of technology. Observation of less developed countries (LDCs) and international organizations shows that little attention is given to the development of a technology strategy. LDCs need to formulate a strategy of self-reliant technological development for the next decade. They should no longer be content to stand in a technologically dependent relationship to the developed countries. Such strategies must balance the ratio between investment in indigenous technologies and expenditure for foreign technology. The strategies change according to the level of industrialization achieved. The following considerations come into development of technology strategies: 1) determination of an appropriate balance among the accumulation, consumption, and distribution of technology; 2) the amount and level of government support; and 3) the balance between depth and breadth of technology to be encouraged.

  11. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  12. Appropriability, services and reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    The appropriability regime (Teece 1986) that innovating service firms face is generally weaker than what firms in manufacturing sectors face. An important means to appropriate benefits from innovation that service firms can use is their reputation. This conceptual paper offers insights into how a

  13. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  14. Appropriering, system, bogobjekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    og en afpersonaliseringens poetik bliver konstrueret og typologiseret ud fra et heterogent og spredt tekstmateriale. En poetik, der er kendetegnet af en vidtdreven afmytologisering og afpersonalisering af kunstnerrollen og værket. I kapitel 2, Appropriering, analyseres approprieringsteknikker som...... værker af Bjørn Nørgaard, Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, Henning Christiansen, Vagn Steen og Per Kirkeby (i kap. 2, 3 og 4) analyseres eksempler på appropriering, systemer og bogobjekter. Afpersonalisering er som strategi ikke en homogen metode, men derimod en heterogen og individuel praksis, der spænder fra...

  15. Crowding as appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to address the relation between crowds andpublic space as a question of appropriation. With the newliberal constitutions in Europe, several phenomena of crowdingemerge in major cities, of which Copenhagen is taken as anexample. By focusing on the crowd as an agglomeration...... ofbodies, it is assessed how the agency of the crowd works on animmediate level and in its more lasting effects on urban space.The notion of appropriation is related to the crowd’s claim,formal and informal, as resulting from a negotiation of this,mostly public, space, and articulated in empirical cases...

  16. Appropriation of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cognitive mapping for eliciting users' sensemaking during information system (IS) appropriation. Despite the potential usefulness of sensemaking, few studies in IS research use it as a theoretical lens to address IS appropriation. A possible reason for this may...... be that sensemaking does not easily lend itself to be used in practice. We introduce cognitive mapping as a way to elicit users' sensemaking and illustrate its value by reporting on findings from an empirical study of the introduction of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system. The contribution of the paper...

  17. Narrative self-appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...

  18. Special Appropriation Act Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is sometimes directed to provide funding to a specific entity for study, purpose, or activity.This information will be of interest to a community or other entity that has been identified in one of EPA's appropriations acts to receive such funding.

  19. Choosing Appropriate Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides guidance on considerations in the selection of an appropriate business model through which to conduct an agricultural investment. Agricultural investments have a wide range of impacts, positive and negative. The choice of business model is one, but by no means the only, determining factor of the financial success of the investment, as well as its socioeconomic and enviro...

  20. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  1. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  2. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  4. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  5. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Marcus M; Moussa, Marwan; Bykowski, Julie; Kirsch, Claudia F E; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fife, Terry D; Germano, Isabelle M; Kendi, A Tuba; Kim, Jeffrey H; Luttrull, Michael D; Nunez, Diego; Shah, Lubdha M; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; Symko, Sophia C; Cornelius, Rebecca S

    2017-11-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. It is a common symptom that can be related to hearing loss and other benign causes. However, tinnitus may be disabling and can be the only symptom in a patient with a central nervous system process disorder. History and physical examination are crucial first steps to determine the need for imaging. CT and MRI are useful in the setting of pulsatile tinnitus to evaluate for an underlying vascular anomaly or abnormality. If there is concomitant asymmetric hearing loss, neurologic deficit, or head trauma, imaging should be guided by those respective ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® documents, rather than the presence of tinnitus. Imaging is not usually appropriate in the evaluation of subjective, nonpulsatile tinnitus that does not localize to one ear. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  7. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Organ Donation and Recovery Improvement ActP.L. 108-216 Reimbursement of travel and subsistence...FY 2013 Appropriation Authorized: Indefinite Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Capital investment grants to support intercity ...priority rail corridor projects necessary to reduce congestion or facilitate ridership growth in intercity rail passenger transportation * FY 2013

  8. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  9. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  10. Appropriate Technology as Indian Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the mounting enthusiasm of Indian communities for appropriate technology as an inexpensive means of providing much needed energy and job opportunities. Describes the development of several appropriate technology projects, and the goals and activities of groups involved in utilizing low scale solar technology for economic development on…

  11. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    value creation. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt at reviewing the management literature on value appropriation in business exchange. The authors provide overview, details, comparisons, and frame a research agenda as a first step towards establishing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  12. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  13. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  14. The moral appropriateness of shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ally

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the much neglected moral emotion of shame and consider the senses in which it may be regarded as morally appropriate. I argue that there is a connection between coming to terms with shame for those who feel ashamed, and judgments concerning its moral appropriateness. The elucidation of normative connections between shame, self-respect and autonomy implies the need to accept certain aspects of shame as regrettable yet, sometimes, as valuable.

  15. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Multiple Gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanc, Phyllis; Nyberg, David A; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep Prakash; Dudiak, Kika M; Henrichsen, Tara Lynn; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Weber, Therese M; Zelop, Carolyn M

    2017-11-01

    Women with twin or higher-order pregnancies will typically have more ultrasound examinations than women with a singleton pregnancy. Most women will have at minimum a first trimester scan, a nuchal translucency evaluation scan, fetal anatomy scan at 18 to 22 weeks, and one or more scans in the third trimester to evaluate growth. Multiple gestations are at higher risk for preterm delivery, congenital anomalies, fetal growth restriction, placenta previa, vasa previa, and velamentous cord insertion. Chorionicity and amnionicity should be determined as early as possible when a twin pregnancy is identified to permit triage of the monochorionic group into a closer surveillance model. Screening for congenital heart disease is warranted in monochorionic twins because they have an increased rate of congenital cardiac anomalies. In addition, monochorionic twins have a higher risk of developing cardiac abnormalities in later gestation related to right ventricular outflow obstruction, in particular the subgroups with twin-twin transfusion syndrome or selective intrauterine growth restriction. Monochorionic twins have unique complications including twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, twin embolization syndrome, and acardius, or twin-reversed arterial perfusion sequence. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or

  16. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  17. Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Appropriations Act (H.R. 4974, S. 2806, H.R. 2577, H.R. 5325) Committee Markup (H.R. 4974, S. 2806) House Report H.R. 4974 House Passage H.R...List (UPL), has had the UPL extracted to indicate the budget authority not requested by the President:  Active Components (Army, Navy and Marine

  18. State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2008 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and social reforms. The President initially pledged $5 billion annually by FY2006, although funds requested and appropriated have never reached this...to Cuba. The BBG is planning to eliminate several VOA services including Uzbek, Greek, and Cantonese as well as the RFE/RL Macedonia service. BBG also...increased to $230.0 million. The increase of $195 million is entirely for social services to Iraqi refugees. FY2007 Supplemental Request. On April 25

  19. Academic appropriation and Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of appropriation of scientific knowledge and the indicators designed to measure its impact is being hotly debated in Iberoamerica right now. I will separate what I call academic appropriation of knowledge from what many authors have called social appropriation of knowledge. The former isrelated to knowledge communication and transference practices in scientific communities, and the latter has to do with the multiple ways in which knowledge goes to society. This editorial will address academic appropriation.Academic appropriations are found in many levels: the first is that performed by colleagues (peers who use this knowledge, and citations are the indicators of usage. This is a sensitive indicator, and thus vulnerable to citation dynamics in academic communities. For example, communities with low levels of knowledge use are generally endogamic and have low international collaboration.They are also characterised by not easily modifying their citation habits. In this sense, a part of these citations generally make themselves invisible, this is, they do not acknowledge neither their own efforts, not those made by local peer groups (regional, and are negatively paradoxical, even when proclaimed in an anti-mainstream science discourse. At the same time, they downplay their own production or the regional production, and ground their work on the production that they claim to go beyond.On the other hand, research groups with an important output can improve or decrease the visibility of other groups and journals, since the amount of work ends up concentrating citations in particular works or journals, which affects themeasures derived from citation-expressed impacts. In this sense, and as a response with additional elements for assessing academic production, it is suggested that: 1. The quartile of the journal be used, since it gives a more accurate idea of its dynamics and shows the journal in relation to other journals with its variability

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney; Kim, David H; Bartel, Twyla B; Cash, Brooks D; Chang, Kevin J; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Garcia, Evelyn M; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Marin, Daniele; Peterson, Christine M; Scheirey, Christopher D; Smith, Martin P; Weinstein, Stefanie; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the relevant literature regarding colorectal screening with imaging. For individuals at average or moderate risk for colorectal cancer, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening. After positive results on a fecal occult blood test or immunohistochemical test, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer detection. For individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer (eg, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn colitis), optical colonoscopy is preferred because of its ability to obtain biopsies to detect dysplasia. After incomplete colonoscopy, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening for individuals at average, moderate, or high risk. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandharipande, Pari V; Lowry, Kathryn P; Reinhold, Caroline; Atri, Mostafa; Benson, Carol B; Bhosale, Priyadarshani R; Green, Edward D; Kang, Stella K; Lakhman, Yulia; Maturen, Katherine E; Nicola, Refky; Salazar, Gloria M; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Sussman, Betsy L; Uyeda, Jennifer; Wall, Darci J; Whitcomb, Bradford; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2017-11-01

    There has been much interest in the identification of a successful ovarian cancer screening test, in particular, one that can detect ovarian cancer at an early stage and improve survival. We reviewed the currently available data from randomized and observational trials that examine the role of imaging for ovarian cancer screening in average-risk and high-risk women. We found insufficient evidence to recommend ovarian cancer screening, when considering the imaging modality (pelvic ultrasound) and population (average-risk postmenopausal women) for which there is the greatest available published evidence; randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated a mortality benefit in this setting. Screening high-risk women using pelvic ultrasound may be appropriate in some clinical situations; however, related data are limited because large, randomized trials have not been performed in this setting. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  19. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  20. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Suspected Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Arlene; Donnelly, Edwin F; Crabtree, Traves P; Henry, Travis S; Iannettoni, Mark D; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Kazerooni, Ella A; Maldonado, Fabien; Olsen, Kathryn M; Wu, Carol C; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension may be idiopathic or related to a large variety of diseases. Various imaging examinations that may be helpful in diagnosing and determining the etiology of pulmonary hypertension are discussed. Imaging examinations that may aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension include chest radiography, ultrasound echocardiography, ventilation/perfusion scans, CT, MRI, right heart catheterization, pulmonary angiography, and fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose PET/CT. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appropriate use. 3.5 Section 3.5 National... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense...

  3. Ghost-Story Telling: Keeping It Appropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for telling ghost stories at camp involve considering children's fears at different ages, telling age appropriate stories, determining appropriate times for telling ghost stories, and minimizing fear when a child becomes frightened by a ghost story. Includes tips on the selection, preparation, and presentation of ghost stories. (LP)

  4. 7 CFR 457.9 - Appropriation contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriation contingency. 457.9 Section 457.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.9 Appropriation contingency...

  5. 22 CFR 710.13 - Appropriate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication to, OPIC on any matter or business for a period not to exceed five years, which may be... communication. (b) Taking other appropriate disciplinary action. [45 FR 5685, Jan. 24, 1980; 49 FR 18295, Apr...

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, W. Warren; Blackstock, A. William; Herman, Joseph; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007

  7. Appropriate flow forecasting for reservoir operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Xiaohua

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this thesis is to develop and apply a methodology to determine the appropriate model application by including the water management objective explicitly, and to demonstrate its benefits.

  8. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  9. Long-Term Military Contingency Operations: Identifying the Factors Affecting Budgeting in Annual or Supplemental Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    .... The results show that planning, timing, accountability, visibility, politics and policy, stakeholder influence, military objectives, and fear of change are the most important factors. These findings can help stakeholders shape funding strategy.

  10. FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy; Nowels, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (subsequently amended to total $82.04 billion) to provide funds for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the global war on terror, reconstruction in Afghanistan, Tsunami relief and rehabilitation, and other activities...

  11. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the... the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime... International Development, may issue loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Government of Israel on...

  12. FY2007 Supplemental Appropriations for Defense, Foreign Affairs, and Other Purposes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daggett, Stephen; Belasco, Amy; Towell, Pat; Epstein, Susan B; Veillette, Connie; Tarnoff, Curt; Margesson, Rhoda; Elias, Bart

    2007-01-01

    ... of S. 965, and subsequent debate in the Senate has proceeded using the House number, H.R. 1591. The House-passed bill includes a Democratic leadership plan that sets three alternative timetables for withdrawal from Iraq...

  13. Ways of art appropriation by the advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fernandes Esteves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the different ways of appropriation of the artistic visualrepresentations by the advertising communication, proposed by Lucia Santaella (2005 – imitation of the ways of composing and incorporation of the artistic image – this article presents, as of the examination of advertisements broadcast in different countries, seven new categories outlined on the basis of partial or total use of the appropriated image and the interference performed in them.

  14. Chautauqua notebook: appropriate technology on radio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, B.

    1981-01-01

    Experiences in establishing and maintaining a regional call-in information-exchange radio show (Chautauqua) on energy conservation, appropriate technology, renewable energy sources, and self-reliance are discussed. Information is presented on: appropriate technology; the Chautauquaa concept; topics discussed; research performed; guests; interviewing tips; types of listeners; program features; where to find help; promotion and publicity; the technical and engineering aspects; the budget and funding; and station policies. (MCW)

  15. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  16. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  17. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Assessment of Fetal Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-12-01

    Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® First Trimester Vaginal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas L; Packard, Ann; Maturen, Katherine E; Deshmukh, Sandeep Prakash; Dudiak, Kika M; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Poder, Liina; Sadowski, Elizabeth A; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Weber, Therese M; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2018-05-01

    Vaginal bleeding is not uncommon in the first trimester of pregnancy. The majority of such patients will have a normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), a nonviable IUP, or an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound (US) is the primary imaging modality in evaluation of these patients. US, along with clinical observations and serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels, can usually distinguish these causes. Although it is important to diagnose ectopic pregnancies and nonviable IUPs, one should also guard against injury to normal pregnancies due to inappropriate treatment with methotrexate or surgical intervention. Less common causes of first trimester vaginal bleeding include gestational trophoblastic disease and arteriovenous malformations. Pulsed methods of Doppler US should generally be avoided in the first trimester when there is a normal, or a potentially normal, IUP. Once a normal IUP has been excluded, Doppler US may be useful when other diagnoses such as retained products of conception or arteriovenous malformations are suspected. MRI may occasionally be helpful as a problem-solving tool. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainiero, Martha B; Moy, Linda; Baron, Paul; Didwania, Aarati D; diFlorio, Roberta M; Green, Edward D; Heller, Samantha L; Holbrook, Anna I; Lee, Su-Ju; Lewin, Alana A; Lourenco, Ana P; Nance, Kara J; Niell, Bethany L; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Stuckey, Ashley R; Vincoff, Nina S; Weinstein, Susan P; Yepes, Monica M; Newell, Mary S

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer screening recommendations are based on risk factors. For average-risk women, screening mammography and/or digital breast tomosynthesis is recommended beginning at age 40. Ultrasound (US) may be useful as an adjunct to mammography for incremental cancer detection in women with dense breasts, but the balance between increased cancer detection and the increased risk of a false-positive examination should be considered in the decision. For intermediate-risk women, US or MRI may be indicated as an adjunct to mammography depending upon specific risk factors. For women at high risk due to prior mantle radiation between the ages of 10 to 30, mammography is recommended starting 8 years after radiation therapy but not before age 25. For women with a genetic predisposition, annual screening mammography is recommended beginning 10 years earlier than the affected relative at the time of diagnosis but not before age 30. Annual screening MRI is recommended in high-risk women as an adjunct to mammography. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ASP Strategies and Appropriate Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian R; Tribble, Alison; Handy, Lori; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L; Kronman, Matthew; Terrill, Cindy; Newland, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommends hospitals implement antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) in order to decrease inappropriate antibiotic use due to the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections. Data are limited on the extent to which different ASP strategies influence appropriate antibiotic use. Methods We conducted an online survey in 2016 of U.S. Children’s Hospitals to collect hospital-level information on dedicated ASP effort, ASP monitoring activities, use of audit-feedback, formulary restrictions, rapid diagnostics, etc. During the same period the ASP teams at these hospitals completed 3 point prevalence surveys that documented details on all admitted patients 0–17 years receiving any antibiotics, determined what ASP modifications could be made, and if the antibiotic was appropriate. We employed hierarchical, multivariable logit models to examine which ASP-related, hospital-level strategies were associated with appropriate antibiotic use. Results Thirty hospitals participated. A total of 6,921 patients were included, representing 10,068 total antibiotics. Of these orders, 8,554 (85.0%) were categorized as appropriate, though this varied across sites (range: 68-92%). Additionally, 78.2% of antibiotics did not have recommended modifications. Appropriate antibiotic use was significantly higher for hospitals that relied on rapid diagnostics (aOR: 1.6; P Terrill, Merck: Grant Investigator, Research grant Allergan: Grant Investigator, Research grant. J. Newland, Merck: Grant Investigator, Research grant. Allergan: Grant Investigator, Research grant

  1. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  2. Technological transfer. 1. Appropriateness for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrie, T W

    1978-12-01

    Capital-intensive projects dominate the technology transferred to developing countries in spite of the need to serve a pool of unskilled labor and small capital reserves. Recent doubts about the appropriateness of large industrialization projects have questioned the social and economic benefits of this approach and led to an emphasis on innovative planning for the benefit of the urban and rural poor. This shift assumed that direct attacks on the roots of poverty will be more effective than the trickle-down approach, but development planners now see that technologies can be planned that are not limited to single groups. Official policies, often working against the adoption of appropriate technologies, must consider local needs and local resources. Farm equipment, for example, must minimize the need for skilled labor and maintenance. Planners for appropriate urban technology should emphasize local capability, but should also risk occasional failure in the effort to improve the efficiency of labor.

  3. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  4. An appropriate level for reactor regulatory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this brief paper the appropriate role for NRC's research program is set down, based on the experience of the last decade; and the broad outlines of an appropriate research program for the next decade are discussed. The two authors bring to this topic direct personal experience: they are two of only three former directors of NRC's research program in its history (the other was the last Saul Levine). The discussion considers only reactor safety research, although NRC's research program covers several other areas as well. Safeguards, environmental and health studies, waste management, and transportation are not covered

  5. Rediscovering Enterprise: Developing Appropriate University Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon; Hegarty, Cecilia; Porter, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship can refer to business start-up, but now sometimes has wider connotations. This paper aims to explore what entrepreneurship means for the promoters of entrepreneurship education and what might be appropriate for the students who consume it. Design/methodology/approach: The paper assesses the work of NICENT (The Northern…

  6. Desktop Publishing Choices: Making an Appropriate Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Discusses various choices available for desktop publishing systems. Four categories of software are described, including advanced word processing, graphics software, low-end desktop publishing, and mainstream desktop publishing; appropriate hardware is considered; and selection guidelines are offered, including current and future publishing needs,…

  7. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit incorporating avoidability and appropriate intervention can significantly decrease perinatal mortality. H. R. G. Ward, G. R. Howarth, O. J. N. Jennings,. R. C. Pattinson .... 6 months) and seven interns. The study was .... maternity care notes study: a randomized control trial to assess the effects of giving expectant mothers ...

  9. Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension of Chemistry Texts: A Guide for Chemistry Teachers. ... African Research Review ... Unfortunately, contemporary research insight into science reading is lacking and science educators tend to focus on methods of teaching specific subject matter and ...

  10. Perspectives on Conceptualizing Developmentally Appropriate Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério Marques, Sara; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recognition of the importance of a developmentally appropriate approach to sexuality education, there is little direct guidance on how to do this. This study employed in-depth interviews with experienced sexuality educators and developers of sexuality education materials to identify how this concept is understood and applied in the field.…

  11. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Understanding NAMA Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    There is no internationally defined or agreed Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action(NAMA) cycle, as was the case, for example, with the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) project cycle. However, there are some common steps that NAMA identification, formulation, and implementation will all go...

  12. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  13. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...

  14. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  19. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  20. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  1. Selection of appropriate greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid the adverse environmental impacts due to global warming/climate change. They have different characteristics when evaluated using different criteria. For example, some options may be very cost effective, while some may have an additional advantage of reducing local pollution. Hence, selection of these options, for consideration by a national government or by a funding agency, has to incorporate multiple criteria. In this paper, some important criteria relevant to the selection are discussed, and a multi-criteria methodology is suggested for making appropriate selection. The methodology, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is described using two illustrations. (author)

  2. 5 CFR 9901.332 - Standard and targeted local market supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other appropriate factors; (2) A targeted local market supplement applies to an employee eligible for a... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard and targeted local market... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Local Market Supplements...

  3. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  4. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February week 4, 2014) and EMBASE (1974 to March 2014). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. No new trials were identified for inclusion in this update. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There were a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse

  5. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Travis S; Kirsch, Jacobo; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Chung, Jonathan H; Donnelly, Edwin F; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; McComb, Barbara L; Parker, J Anthony; Ravenel, James G; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2014-11-01

    Rib fracture is the most common thoracic injury, present in 10% of all traumatic injuries and almost 40% of patients who sustain severe nonpenetrating trauma. Although rib fractures can produce significant morbidity, the diagnosis of associated complications (such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, atelectasis, flail chest, cardiovascular injury, and injuries to solid and hollow abdominal organs) may have a more significant clinical impact. When isolated, rib fractures have a relatively low morbidity and mortality, and failure to detect isolated rib fractures does not necessarily alter patient management or outcome in uncomplicated cases. A standard posteroanterior chest radiograph should be the initial, and often the only, imaging test required in patients with suspected rib fracture after minor trauma. Detailed radiographs of the ribs rarely add additional information that would change treatment, and, although other imaging tests (eg, computed tomography, bone scan) have increased sensitivity for detection of rib fractures, there are little data to support their use. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review process include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  6. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristina Rulli, Maria; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300–550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190–370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations. (letter)

  7. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  8. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  9. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...

  10. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Designing appropriate blended courses: a students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-10-01

    The computing education in Taiwan's vocational schools usually focuses on how to help students enhance their professional skills and pass certified examinations. In addition, due to national education policy and universities' regulations, pure online courses are not permitted in Taiwan. In order to design appropriate blended learning (BL) courses, the author explored the effects of web-mediated self-regulated learning (SRL) with variations in online class frequency on enhancing students' computing skills and their perspective of the blended courses. A total of 172 students, divided into four groups, participated in the experiment. The results showed that students in the SRL and BL group with five online classes had the highest scores for using a database management system (DBMS), and the highest pass rate on certified examinations. Students in this group also expressed their positive perspective on the arrangement of their blended course with the intervention of web-mediated SRL.

  12. Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynette, R. [FloWind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Selecting appropriate cases when tracing causal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed resurgence in the interest in studying the causal mechanisms linking causes and outcomes in the social sciences. This article explores the overlooked implications for case selection when tracing mechanisms using in-depth case studies. Our argument is that existing case...... selection guidelines are appropriate for research aimed at making cross-case claims about causal relationships, where case selection is primarily used to control for other causes. However, existing guidelines are not in alignment with case-based research that aims to trace mechanisms, where the goal...... is to unpack the causal mechanism between X and Y, enabling causal inferences to be made because empirical evidence is provided for how the mechanism actually operated in a particular case. The in-depth, within-case tracing of how mechanisms operate in particular cases produces what can be termed mechanistic...

  14. ACR appropriateness criteria blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jonathan H; Cox, Christian W; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Kirsch, Jacobo; Brown, Kathleen; Dyer, Debra Sue; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; Ravenel, James G; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Imaging is paramount in the setting of blunt trauma and is now the standard of care at any trauma center. Although anteroposterior radiography has inherent limitations, the ability to acquire a radiograph in the trauma bay with little interruption in clinical survey, monitoring, and treatment, as well as radiography's accepted role in screening for traumatic aortic injury, supports the routine use of chest radiography. Chest CT or CT angiography is the gold-standard routine imaging modality for detecting thoracic injuries caused by blunt trauma. There is disagreement on whether routine chest CT is necessary in all patients with histories of blunt trauma. Ultimately, the frequency and timing of CT chest imaging should be site specific and should depend on the local resources of the trauma center as well as patient status. Ultrasound may be beneficial in the detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pericardial hemorrhage; transesophageal echocardiography is a first-line imaging tool in the setting of suspected cardiac injury. In the blunt trauma setting, MRI and nuclear medicine likely play no role in the acute setting, although these modalities may be helpful as problem-solving tools after initial assessment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  16. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  17. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  18. Evidence for Policy Making: Clinical Appropriateness Study of Lumbar Spine MRI Prescriptions Using RAND Appropriateness Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Yousefi Manesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI is a new and expensive diagnostic technology, which has been used increasingly all over the world. Low back pain is a worldwide prevalent disorder and MRI technique is one of the several ways to diagnose it. This paper aims to identify the appropriateness of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions in Shiraz teaching hospitals using standardized RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM criteria. Methods This study consisted of two phases. The first phase involved a qualitative enquiry and the second phase had a quantitative cross-sectional nature. In the first phase RAM was used for developing lumbar spine MRI indications and scenarios. In the second phase, the finalized scenarios were compared with the history and physical examination of 300 patients with low back pain. The rate of appropriateness of lumbar spine MRI prescription was then calculated. Results Of 300 cases of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions, approximately 167 (56% were considered inappropriate, 72 (24% were uncertain, and 61 (20% were deemed to be appropriate. The economic burden of inappropriate prescriptions was calculated at 88,009,000 Rials. In addition, the types of expertise and physical examination were considered as related factors to appropriateness of prescriptions. Conclusion In conclusion, a large proportion of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions, which result in financial burden on the insurance companies and the patients alike is unnecessary. This study suggests that policy makers consider this evidence while decision-making. Our findings highlight the imperative role of Health Technology Assessment (HTA and Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs. As a result, developing local clinical guidelines may create the commitment needed in physicians in prescribing appropriate prescriptions within the health sector. The study further recommends that appropriate scenarios should be considered as a criterion for payment and reimbursement.

  19. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Exploring voices, exploring appropriate education. A practitioners’ discourse'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, C.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    My thesis describes an exploratory process into a practitioners’ discourse on appropriate education. Chapter one: Appropriate Education is about the Dutch educational policy called Passend onderwijs. The chapter positions the appropriate education in national and international educational and

  1. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  2. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  3. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  4. Public Library Representations and Internet Appropriations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sequeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available May the changes in the representations of the public library be propitiated by readers' appropriations of the Internet? To answer this question, a theoretically-driven and empirically-based research was developed in a public library in Portugal, combining the analysis of documents uses, the ethnography of space and Internet use, of social relations developed while reading, with the analysis of representations of the public library. No clear-cut association emerged between social-demographics or user profiles, and representations, in general. No disruptive Internet "impact" was found: Internet use may contribute to reinforce traditional representations of the library, while it may also update and democratise other representations. If the library and the Internet are represented as synonymous, the former does not make sense without the latter; but an Internet widespread and intensive use conflicts with the image of an institution dedicated to high-brow culture. Changes in uses of the public library are, instead, clearly associated with new types of readers, which in their turn reflect changes in urban social composition. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401141

  5. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  6. Appropriate fluid regimens to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, O K

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is an important problem in premature neonates with surfactant deficiency because of fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium and reduced urine output. Some retrospective reports suggest that excessive early hydration might increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Only three prospective studies evaluating low or conventional fluid administration regimens to very low birth weight infants have been published. According to their results no significant differences in the incidence of BPD have been shown. However, fluid restriction seems to improve the outcome of the infants because of decreased incidence of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary air leaks and decreased mortality. The appropriate amount of sodium in the intravenous fluids during the first days of life needs further evaluation. In tiny infants with birth weights from 500 to 800g intensive monitoring of fluid balance is essential to control the extremely high fluid losses due to evaporation. Undernutrition is a risk factor of BPD and therefore it is important to start parenteral nutrition early. The benefit of the use of colloids as volume expanders is controversial. According to some retrospective reports there might be an association with increased use of colloidal fluids during the first days of life and the development of BPD. Early excessive fluid administration might constitute a potential risk for low birth weight infants with hyaline membrane disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovsky, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare bioelectrical activity of the brain in remote period of acute radiation sickness (ARS), chronic and prenatal irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. Registration of computerized 19-channel EEG, visual and somato-sensory evoked potentials have been carried out for 70 patients who had a verified ARS, 100 Chernobyl disaster survivors, who have been working in the Chernobyl exclusion zone since 1986-87 during 5 and more years, 50 prenatally irradiated children, and relevant controls. The relative risks of neurophysiological abnormalities are 4.5 for the ARS-patients, 3.6 for the chronically irradiated persons and 3.7 for the prenatally irradiated children. The data obtained testify to possibility of radiation-induced neurophysiological abnormalities in examined Chernobyl accident survivors which seems to be non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. For all examined irradiated patients it was typically an increasing of δ- and β- powers of EEG, particularly, in the frontal lobe shifted to the left fronto-temporal region, but spectral power of both θ- and α-range was significantly depressed. Aforesaid signs together with data of evoked potentials reflect the structural and functional abnormalities of limbic system and the left hemisphere as the first revealed neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects. (author)

  8. Neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Loganovsky, K N [Department of Neurology, Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare bioelectrical activity of the brain in remote period of acute radiation sickness (ARS), chronic and prenatal irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. Registration of computerized 19-channel EEG, visual and somato-sensory evoked potentials have been carried out for 70 patients who had a verified ARS, 100 Chernobyl disaster survivors, who have been working in the Chernobyl exclusion zone since 1986-87 during 5 and more years, 50 prenatally irradiated children, and relevant controls. The relative risks of neurophysiological abnormalities are 4.5 for the ARS-patients, 3.6 for the chronically irradiated persons and 3.7 for the prenatally irradiated children. The data obtained testify to possibility of radiation-induced neurophysiological abnormalities in examined Chernobyl accident survivors which seems to be non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. For all examined irradiated patients it was typically an increasing of {delta}- and {beta}- powers of EEG, particularly, in the frontal lobe shifted to the left fronto-temporal region, but spectral power of both {theta}- and {alpha}-range was significantly depressed. Aforesaid signs together with data of evoked potentials reflect the structural and functional abnormalities of limbic system and the left hemisphere as the first revealed neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects. (author). 25 refs.

  9. Financial Audit and Spending of Appropriations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mijoč

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local and district (regional governments receive various forms of revenue. The entitlement to and purpose of this income is determined by law. Likewise for companies owned by local government there are revenues with allocated use, which are also associated with the budget of the local unit. The importance of proper recording of the revenue collected, as well as claims for different types of income is significant because it affects the proper presentation of the financial statements. The presented data are the basis for making decisions, which result in opportunities to meet the needs of local communities. When it comes to the disposal of revenue collected, misconduct or even illegal activities might occur. It is crucial to spot them early on, and here the internal control system and the accounting system have a key role, as they examine the financial and other information for management purposes. The aim of the paper was to investigate irregularities in the use of local funds by examining the data obtained by Financial Audits and to show the movement of appropriations (allocated funds at the county level.

  10. Methylphenidate: increased abuse or appropriate use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana, M E; Crismon, M L

    1999-01-01

    To address the question of the significant increase in methylphenidate (MPD) prescriptions being written and to make recommendations for health care providers involved in providing care for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. Medline search 1966-1998 for professional articles using the following search terms--methylphenidate, children, adolescents, abuse; Internet search using MPD, Ritalin, and ADHD; and Paper Chase search using methylphenidate. The available literature regarding potential abuse or diversion of MPD consists of case reports, review articles, newspaper articles, and a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) publication. All available literature sources were used. Although the media and DEA report significant abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD, a review of the available literature did not reveal data to substantiate these claims. Nonetheless, there are reasons to suspect that abuse and diversion occur. A potential contributing factor to abuse is the reported similarities in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between MPD and cocaine. Recommendations are made to decrease the possibility of abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD. A balanced middle ground must be found regarding the benefits of MPD and its abuse potential. Education of clinicians, patients, and family members is key in ensuring that MPD is used appropriately.

  11. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  12. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  13. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  14. Developing appropriate criteria for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgery Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Results of different studies show that a relatively large number of healthcare services offered are inappropriate or unnecessary. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the prostate gland. Clinical features of this disease are one of the most common problems encountered by elderly males. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. Materials & Methods: In this qualitative study which was conducted in 2008-9, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the RAN/UCLA method was used, which was designed in 1980 by the RAND institute and the University of California in Los Angeles. Regarding the stages of our method, scenarios and indications for benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery were chosen from the latest approved scientific resources and subsequently sent to urology specialists, who were chosen as members of the specialized panel. Panel members gave scores ranging from 1 to 9 to each indication and scenario based on scientific resources, clinical experiences and patient’s condition in two separate panel sessions. After compilation, the indications were finally grouped as appropriate, equivocal, and inappropriate so that they could be used to determine appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery in hospitals. In this study, the most suitable and most approved clinical guidelines related to benign prostatic hyperplasia, the Guidelines Evaluation and Research Appraisal (AGREE were used.The selected guidelines were used as scientific resources for choosing the indications of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery. SPSS version 16 and kappa weighted value were used in analysis process of the study. Results: Out of 282 scenarios grouped as 9 conditions related to benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery, which were extracted from scientific sources, 73 cases (25.9% were considered as appropriate, 14 cases (5% as equivocal and 7 cases (2

  15. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  16. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  17. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  19. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  1. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  2. State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2008 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veillette, Connie; Epstein, Susan B

    2007-01-01

    ... an unprecedented level compared with the past 40 years. Emergency supplementals enacted since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to assist the front-line states in the war on terrorism, fund Afghanistan and Iraq reconstruction, and upgrade State...

  3. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money appropriated by any enactment of Congress to pay for any personal service, advertisement, telegram... appropriations which they deem necessary for the efficient conduct of the public business (18 U.S.C. 1913). (b...

  4. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Bhinder, Nimarta; Kim, David H; Holly, Brian P; Johnson, Pamela T; Hanley, Michael; Carucci, Laura R; Cash, Brooks D; Chandra, Ankur; Gage, Kenneth L; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Oliva, Isabel B; Peterson, Christine M; Strax, Richard; Rybicki, Frank J; Dill, Karin E

    2017-05-01

    rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  6. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  7. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  8. 45 CFR 84.33 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Free appropriate public education. 84.33 Section..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.33 Free appropriate public education. (a) General. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program or activity shall provide a free appropriate...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.22 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free appropriate public education. 15b.22 Section 15b... Extension Education § 15b.22 Free appropriate public education. (a) General. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program or activity shall provide a free appropriate public...

  10. 45 CFR 605.33 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Free appropriate public education. 605.33 Section... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.33 Free appropriate public education. (a) General. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program shall provide a free appropriate...

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  12. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  13. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  14. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.

  15. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  16. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  17. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc.) With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving). Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines. PMID:15841264

  18. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard G M; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.

  19. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  20. Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    textbooks on legislative procedure. Tracking DOD authorization or appropriation bills can be confusing and time-consuming. This has been particularly...by the President through the White House Office of Management and Budget) to the defense authorizing and appropriations committees. Then, for...maintain operations . 3 This might be considered a “line of credit” against the enactment of the relevant appropriations for the new fiscal year

  1. Vitamin D supplementation, bone turnover, and inflammation in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguella, L; Arbault, A; Fillion, A; Blot, M; Piroth, C; Denimal, D; Duvillard, L; Ornetti, P; Chavanet, P; Maillefert, J-F; Piroth, L

    2018-04-13

    To assess whether vitamin D supplementation could be associated with a modification of inflammatory markers and bone turnover in HIV-1-infected patients. Patients who participated in an initial survey in 2010 and who were followed in the same department were included in a new study in 2012. Between 2010 and 2012, vitamin D supplementation was offered to patients presenting with hypovitaminosis D as per appropriate guidelines. Clinical examinations were performed, and fasting blood samples were taken for inflammation and bone marker evaluations. Of the 263 patients who participated in the 2010 study, 198 were included in the 2012 study. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 47% (36/77) of participants supplemented as per appropriate guidelines, in 78% (75/97) of transiently or incompletely supplemented participants, and in 71% (17/24) of non-supplemented participants (mainly because vitamin D levels in 2010 were normal). No significant correlation between vitamin D supplementation and the 2-year inflammation outcome (IL-6 and hsCRP) or C-terminal telopeptide levels was observed. However, a decrease in IL6 levels over the 2 years significantly correlated with reaching a normal vitamin D level (OR=0.89 per+1pg/mL IL6 increase, 95% CI=0.81-0.97, P=0.015). Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of hypovitaminosis D but does not decrease the risk of inflammation nor bone turnover, unless normal 25-OH vitamin D levels are reached. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  3. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  4. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  5. 75 FR 55393 - Determination Under Section 1010(a) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...) Conduct regular consultations with Mexican human rights organizations and other relevant Mexican civil... with Mexican and international law; (C) Ensure that civilian prosecutors and judicial authorities are investigating and prosecuting, in accordance with Mexican and international law, members of the Federal police...

  6. Innovation Determinants and Barriers: A Tri-Perspective Analysis of IT Appropriation within an Early Childhood Education and Care Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Plumb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on information technology (IT in early childhood education and care organisations are scant, despite an increasing number of these organisations choosing to innovate with IT. This paper presents a framework to understand the appropriation of IT as an innovation within such an organisation. The framework consists of three perspectives on innovation: an individualist, a structuralist and an interactive process perspective. While the first focuses on concepts such as leadership, IT champions, previous IT exposure, the second focuses on organisation size, parents as stakeholders, competitors, government compliance and regulatory requirements. The third perspective views the innovation as a dynamic phenomenon of change, produced by the continuous interaction of the innovation content, its context, and the appropriation process as related in an interactive process. We demonstrate the framework’s applicability and determine that the three perspectives supplement each other and together provide a deeper understanding of the IT appropriation process in terms of innovation determinants and barriers.

  7. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  8. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  11. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or its...

  12. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  13. Please Touch the Children: Appropriate Touch in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…

  14. Appropriate Technology and Journal Writing: Structured Dialogues that Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, James; Sandage, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many available options, instructors should choose "appropriate technology" that meets pedagogical goals with minimum disruption. Student journal assignments follow many teaching "best practices" but consume time and energy; we recommend e-mail as the most appropriate choice for journal assignments. E-mail encourages fast and personalized…

  15. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  16. Evaluation of the appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Napolitano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of antibiotics prophylaxis in the prevention and reduction in the incidence of surgical site infection is widespread. This study evaluates the appropriateness of the prescription of antibiotics prophylaxis prior to surgery amongst hospitalized patients in the geographic area of Avellino, Caserta, and Naples (Italy and the factors associated with a poor adherence. METHODS: A sample of 382 patients admitted to 23 surgical wards and undergoing surgery in five hospitals were randomly selected. RESULTS: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was appropriate in 18.1% of cases. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with hypoalbuminemia, with a clinical infection, with a wound clean were more likely to receive an appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared with patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA score ≥4, those with a score of 2 were correlated with a 64% reduction in the odds of having an appropriate prophylaxis. The appropriateness of the timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration was observed in 53.4% of the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that such appropriateness was more frequent in older patients, in those admitted in general surgery wards, in those not having been underwent an endoscopic surgery, in those with a higher length of surgery, and in patients with ASA score 1 when a score ≥4 was chosen as the reference category. The most common antibiotics used inappropriately were ceftazidime, sultamicillin, levofloxacin, and teicoplanin. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions are needed to improve perioperative appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.

  17. 16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity for...

  18. 38 CFR 18.433 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... education. 18.433 Section 18.433 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS..., Secondary, and Adult Education § 18.433 Free appropriate public education. (a) General. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program shall provide a free appropriate public...

  19. Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    eight divisions that are further divided into 38 districts.2 This report provides an overview of the Corps water resource activities , including...rules associated with authorization and appropriation earmarks, individual Members often brought attention to similar activities for congressional...Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy

  20. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  1. 34 CFR 300.101 - Free appropriate public education (FAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Fape Requirements § 300.101 Free appropriate... ensure that FAPE is available to any individual child with a disability who needs special education and... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Free appropriate public education (FAPE). 300.101...

  2. Primary to comprehensive stroke center transfers: Appropriateness, not futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K; Wilson, Alexis T; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; McTaggart, Ryan; Jayaraman, Mahesh; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose Ischemic stroke patients must be transferred to comprehensive stroke centers for endovascular treatment, but this transfer can be interpreted post hoc as "futile" if patients do not ultimately undergo the procedure or have a poor outcome. We posit that transfer decisions must instead be evaluated in terms of appropriateness at the time of decision-making. Methods We propose a classification schema for Appropriateness of Transfer for Endovascular Thrombectomy based on patient, logistic, and center characteristics. Results The classification outline characteristics of patients that are 1. Appropriate for transfer for endovascular treatment; 2. Inappropriate for transfer; and 3. Appropriate for transfer for higher level of care. Conclusions Appropriate transfer decisions for endovascular treatment are significant for patient outcomes. A more nuanced understanding of transfer decision-making and a classification for such transfers can help minimize inappropriate transfers in acute stroke.

  3. APPROPRIATING CREATIVE WORKS PROTECTED BY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ownership, either public or private, is an expression for appropriating goods. Consequently, the appropriation takes the form of private (i.e. private property and common forms (i.e. public property. The common law property defines appropriation as „a deliberate act of acquisition of something, often without the permission of the owner”, but the intellectual property rights do not protect goods. Particularly in this case „the object” of appropriation does not represent a „res nullius” simply because the intellectual property right arises from the act of creation, therefore the appropriation of somebody else’s creation becomes equivalent with stealing (plagiarism. Consequently, if we are to admit that the authors have a right of ownership over them, then ownership in intellectual property law has (it must have other manifestations than those known and accepted in the common law of property.

  4. Proteomics in quality control: Whey protein-based supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Bruno Carius; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Lourenço, Daniela C; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2016-09-16

    The growing consumption of nutritional supplements might represent a problem, given the concern about the quality of these supplements. One of the most used supplements is whey protein (WP); because of its popularity, it has been a target of adulteration with substitute products, such as cheaper proteins with lower biological value. To investigate this type of adulteration, this study used shotgun proteomics analyses by MS(E) (multiplexed, low- and high-collision energy, data-independent acquisition) of WP-based supplements. Seventeen WP-based supplement samples were evaluated. Chicken, maize, rice, potato, soybean, and wheat proteins were considered as probable sources of bovine whey adulteration. Collectively, 523 proteins were identified across all 16 samples and replicates, with 94% of peptides inside a normal distribution within 10ppm of maximum error. In 10 of the 16 samples analyzed, only proteins from bovine whey could be detected, while in the other samples several other protein sources were detected in high concentrations, especially soybean, wheat, and rice. These results point out a probable adulteration and/or sample contamination during manufacturing that could only be detected using this proteomic approach. The present work shows how shotgun proteomics can be used to provide reliable answers in quality control matters, especially focusing on Whey Protein nutritional supplements which are a very popular subject in food and nutrition. In order to achieve an appropriate methodology, careful evaluation was performed applying extremely rigorous quality criteria, established for the proteomic analysis. These criteria and the methodological approach used in this work might serve as a guide for other authors seeking to use proteomics in quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  7. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  8. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  9. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  10. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  11. A review of dietary supplement-induced renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Munz, Kristin; Ulbricht, Catherine

    2007-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a multibillion-dollar industry. Almost half of the American population uses some form of CAM, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their health care providers of their CAM use, and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of dietary supplement-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. CAM manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, because the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate them. However, concern exists surrounding the safety of CAM. A literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken to explore the impact of CAM on renal function. English-language studies and case reports were selected for inclusion but were limited to those that consisted of human subjects, both adult and pediatric. This review provides details on dietary supplements that have been associated with renal dysfunction and focuses on 17 dietary supplements that have been associated with direct renal injury, CAM-induced immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, and hepatorenal syndrome. It is concluded that it is imperative that use of dietary supplements be monitored closely in all patients. Health care practitioners must take an active role in identifying patients who are using CAM and provide appropriate patient education.

  12. Supplemental knowledge acquisition through external product interface for CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tim; Ebaud, Stephen; Loftin, Bowen R.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally, the acquisition of knowledge for expert systems consisted of the interview process with the domain or subject matter expert (SME), observation of domain environment, and information gathering and research which constituted a direct form of knowledge acquisition (KA). The knowledge engineer would be responsible for accumulating pertinent information and/or knowledge from the SME(s) for input into the appropriate expert system development tool. The direct KA process may (or may not) have included forms of data or documentation to incorporate from the SME's surroundings. The differentiation between direct KA and supplemental KA (indirect) would be the difference in the use of data. In acquiring supplemental knowledge, the knowledge engineer would access other types of evidence (manuals, documents, data files, spreadsheets, etc.) that would support the reasoning or premises of the SME. When an expert makes a decision in a particular task, one tool that may have been used to justify a recommendation, would have been a spreadsheet total or column figure. Locating specific decision points from that data within the SME's framework would constitute supplemental KA. Data used for a specific purpose in one system or environment would be used as supplemental knowledge for another, specifically a CLIPS project.

  13. Budget estimates fiscal year 1989: Appropriation, Salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The budget estimates for Salaries and Expenses for FY 1989 provide for obligations of $450,000,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation. The sum appropriated shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1989 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, excluding those monies received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1989 appropriation estimated at not more than $247,500,000

  14. Appropriateness of hospitalization for CAP-affected pediatric patients: report from a Southern Italy General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonelli Fabio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a common disease, responsible for significant healthcare expenditures, mostly because of hospitalization. Many practice guidelines on CAP have been developed, including admission criteria, but a few on appropriate hospitalization in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate appropriate hospital admission for CAP in a pediatric population. Methods We evaluated appropriate admission to a Pediatric Unit performing a retrospective analysis on CAP admitted pediatric patients from a Southern Italy area. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological signs. Appropriate hospital admission was evaluated following clinical and non-clinical international criteria. Family ability to care children was assessed by evaluating social deprivation status. Results In 2 winter seasons 120 pediatric patients aged 1-129 months were admitted because of CAP. Median age was 28.7 months. Raised body temperature was scored in 68.3% of patients, cough was present in 100% of cases, and abdominal pain was rarely evidenced. Inflammatory indices (ESR and CRP were found elevated in 33.3% of cases. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were found positive in 20.4%. Trans-cutaneous (TC SaO2 was found lower than 92% in 14.6%. Dyspnoea was present in 43.3%. Dehydration requiring i.v. fluid supplementation was scored in 13.3%. Evaluation of familial ability to care their children revealed that 76% of families (derived from socially depressed areas were "at social risk", thus not able to appropriately care their children. Furthermore, analysis of CAP patients revealed that "at social risk" people accessed E.D. and were hospitalized more frequently than "not at risk" patients (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI: 1,15 to 11,12; p = 0.01, and that admitted "at social risk" people presented without clinical signs of severity (namely dyspnoea, and/or SaO2 ≤ 92%, and/or dehydration more frequently than "not at risk" population

  15. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  16. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  17. Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Carol H; Bearden, David M; Corn, M. L; Gorte, Ross W; Humphries, Marc; Sheikh, Pervaze A; Whiteman, David L; Boren, Susan; Walke, Roger; Bea, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... of Health and Human Services. It also includes funding for arts and cultural agencies; the Environmental Protection Agency, which was recently transferred to the appropriations subcommittees that deal with Interior and Related Agencies...

  18. Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... In each case, however, the technologies have done their job – they have led to lasting solutions ... Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right at home ... In a Bookless Society, Why Start With Books?

  19. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  20. Financial Status of Air Force Expired Year Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ... Procurement appropriations. In our report on that audit, we found that the Air Force experienced deficits and accounting problems relating to funding upward cost adjustments to obligations when such costs were charged...

  1. Determining the appropriate code in a South African business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the appropriate code in a South African business environment. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... would be perceived to enhance the quality of the interaction between client and service provider.

  2. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available and environmental factors into planning, implementation and decision-making so as to ensure that development serves present and future generations. The chapter discusses the use of appropriate technologies and systems to render sanitation technologies and services...

  3. Appropriate tools and methods for tropical microepidemiology: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate tools and methods for tropical microepidemiology: a case-study of malaria clustering in Ethiopia. Tedros A Ghebreyesus, Peter Byass, Karen H Witten, Asfaw Getachew, Mitiku Haile, Mekonnen Yohannes, Steven W Lindsay ...

  4. Age-Appropriate Immunization (AAI) as an Intractable Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dinesh Kumar

    ) approved. 30 cluster ... As FI measures coverage for services, but age appropriate ..... providers need to be effectively oriented towards importance of ... planning and management interventions for improving age- ... BMC Health Serv Res.

  5. [Quality control in herbal supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelker, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used.

  6. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  7. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Andrew D. Govus, Peter Peeling, Chris R. Abbiss, Christopher J. Gore

    2016-03-01

    not increase in the 8 athletes with Ferritin-Pre <35 µg.L-1 who were supplemented with 105 mg.d-1, it is possible that in these athletes this dose was insufficient to support erythropoiesis. Furthermore, athletes with higher Ferritin-Pre, but large daily iron requirements, may also benefit from supplementation at altitude. The lack of improvement in Hbmass in non-supplemented athletes, may be related to reduced iron availability and mobility, despite plentiful iron stores, perhaps due to an increase in hepcidin post-exercise (Peeling, 2010. In summary, our regression tree suggests if sufficient iron is made available (via supplementation, even ID athletes can improve Hbmass in response to altitude. Some athletes with otherwise normal ferritin may also require supplementation to maintain an iron balance capable of supporting both the haematological and non-haematological adaptations to altitude. We recommend an individualised approach when deciding whether iron supplementation is appropriate, particularly concerning the dose provided.

  8. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Liesl; Nagpal, Sukrti; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Sinclair, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. Objectives To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (from 1946 to 4 February 2016), EMBASE (from 1980 to 4 February 2016), LILACS (from 1982 to 4 February 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis up to 4 February 2016, and checked the reference lists of all included studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death, and cure at six and 12 months. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We presented the results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Main results Thirty-five trials

  9. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and ...

  10. 75 FR 74063 - Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... the program expansion including the availability of appropriate staff and sufficient funding. 4. The...] Supplemental Funding Under the Food and Drug Administration's Convener of Active Medical Product Surveillance... expansion of its Conference Cooperative Agreement Program (U13), awarded to the Engelberg Center for Health...

  11. Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies' usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs members in using databases and would also be capable of

  12. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  13. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 60 REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, UNDERACHIEVERS, PROBABILITY ESTIMATES, AND…

  15. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  16. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  17. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Monitoring Response to Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanetz, Priscilla J; Moy, Linda; Baron, Paul; diFlorio, Roberta M; Green, Edward D; Heller, Samantha L; Holbrook, Anna I; Lee, Su-Ju; Lewin, Alana A; Lourenco, Ana P; Niell, Bethany; Stuckey, Ashley R; Trikha, Sunita; Vincoff, Nina S; Weinstein, Susan P; Yepes, Monica M; Newell, Mary S

    2017-11-01

    Patients with locally advanced invasive breast cancers are often treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive surgical intervention. The primary aims of this approach are to: 1) reduce tumor burden thereby permitting breast conservation rather than mastectomy; 2) promptly treat possible metastatic disease, whether or not it is detectable on preoperative staging; and 3) potentially tailor future chemotherapeutic decisions by monitoring in-vivo tumor response. Accurate radiological assessment permits optimal management and planning in this population. However, assessment of tumor size and response to treatment can vary depending on the modality used, the measurement technique (such as single longest diameter, 3-D measurements, or calculated tumor volume), and varied response of different tumor subtypes to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (such as concentric shrinkage or tumor fragmentation). As discussed in further detail, digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, US and MRI represent the key modalities with potential to help guide patient management. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  19. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  20. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  1. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  2. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  3. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with .... elemental iron and 350 μg of folic acid per tablet. Definition of ..... Determinants of adherence to iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy.

  4. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ...

  5. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  6. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D; Antoine-Jonville, S

    2012-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2-40.5) of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city.

  7. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D.; Antoine-Jonville, S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements among exercisers in gyms has been never investigated in the Middle East. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence intake of nutritional supplements and the potential influencing factors among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. In this cross-sectional study, 512 exercisers, aged between 20 and 50 years, were randomly selected from gyms. The intake of nutritional supplements was reported among 36.3% (95% confidence interval 32.2–40.5) of participants, with a weak presence of medical supervision. Patterns of supplement use differed by gender and age. Men and younger exercisers were found to focus on supplements associated with performance enhancement and muscle building, while women and older exercisers were more concerned with health-promoting products such as vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements. An appropriate dissemination of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding the benefits and side effects of nutritional supplements is highly recommended in the sports environment in Beirut city. PMID:22506105

  8. Beyond Brazilian Coalition Presidentialism: the Appropriation of the Legislative Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silveira e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though they possess several power resources, Brazilian Presidents also elaborate their legislative proposals based upon bills already being processed in Congress through a phenomenon called Appropriation of the legislative agenda. In this paper I examine the conditions under which this phenomenon occurs by means of a typology and a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA. I conclude that Appropriation provides the President with the expansion of the formal support base by controlling the agenda of allied and opposition parties as well as obtaining the "paternity" of several policies already in motion in Congress, thus enabling a public association of the President's actions and his or her party with the possibility of social benefits. Be it in the pursuit of promising agendas or for the maintenance of their own dominance, Appropriation shows that Brazilian Presidents must go beyond coalition presidentialism.

  9. Korean guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hwan Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, amsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung A [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The development of cardiac CT has provided a non-invasive alternative to echocardiography, exercise electrocardiogram, and invasive angiography and cardiac CT continues to develop at an exponential speed even now. The appropriate use of cardiac CT may lead to improvements in the medical performances of physicians and can reduce medical costs which eventually contribute to better public health. However, until now, there has been no guideline regarding the appropriate use of cardiac CT in Korea. We intend to provide guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart diseases based on scientific data. The purpose of this guideline is to assist clinicians and other health professionals in the use of cardiac CT for diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, especially in patients at high risk or suspected of heart disease.

  10. Appropriate selection for omalizumab treatment in patients with severe asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Leo; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Madsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Omalizumab improves asthma control in patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma; however, appropriate patient selection is crucial. Information in this field is sparse. Objective: We aimed to estimate whether potential omalizumab candidates were appropriately selected according...... to guidelines, and the clinical effect of omalizumab treatment over time. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study on adult patients with asthma treated with omalizumab during 2006-2015 at the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Odense University Hospital (OUH), Denmark. Data were obtained...... from the Electronic Patient Journal of OUH and Odense Pharmaco-Epidemiological Database. Guideline criteria for omalizumab treatment were used to evaluate the appropriateness of omalizumab candidate selection, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) to assess the clinical effects of omalizumab at weeks 16...

  11. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  12. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment. 141.809... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and...

  13. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance...

  14. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  15. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  16. 47 CFR 61.86 - Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplements. 61.86 Section 61.86... Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.86 Supplements. A carrier may not file a supplement except to suspend or cancel a tariff publication, or to defer the effective date...

  17. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may...

  18. 20 CFR 226.16 - Supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental annuity. 226.16 Section 226.16... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee Annuity § 226.16 Supplemental annuity. A supplemental annuity is payable in addition to tiers I and II and the vested dual benefit to an...

  19. Knowledge of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Barco Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To identify the use of folic acid during pregnancy, as well as the new mothers´ knowledge about folic acid. Methodology. Quantitative, descriptive exploratory, and prospective study. A total of 198 mothers were interviewed in the pediatric outpatient service of Hospital de Base Sao José do Rio Preto, Brazil. They have taken their children for neonatal screening and formally consented to participating in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (350,287. A specific instrument was used for data collection. The data were entered into an appropriate spreadsheet and later statistically analyzed. Pearson´s chi-squared test, p <0.15, was used. Results. On average, the interviewed mothers were 25 years old and received less than two minimum wages. Most had prenatal in the first quartile and a mean of seven appointments, starting the use of folic acid from the 7th to the 9th week of gestational age. However, when asked about the importance of folic acid and its action, almost the majority was not able to answer. Conclusion. Although daily acid supplementation is recommended in prenatal care, this study found that consumption is inadequate, contributing to the increased risk of fetal malformation. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses, should develop educational activities for women about the use of folic acid in the pre-gestation period and in the first pregnancy trimester.

  20. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  1. The Appropriation of Fine Art into Contemporary Narrative Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Many picturebook artists have been formally trained in specific artistic styles, movements, and techniques. These artists appropriate and transform works of fine art to varying degrees to fit the themes and designs of the stories they illustrate and publish, and to increase the significance and impact of their illustrations. The…

  2. 14 CFR 1261.403 - Consultation with appropriate officials; negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with appropriate officials; negotiation. 1261.403 Section 1261.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Collection of Civil Claims of the United States Arising Out of the Activities of the National Aeronautic...

  3. MySQL based selection of appropriate indexing technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with selection of appropriate indexing technique applied on MySQL Database for a health care system and related performance issues using multiclass support vector machine (SVM). The patient database is generally huge and contains lot of variations. For the quick search or fast retrieval of the desired ...

  4. Appropriate assessment of English language competency for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate assessment of English language competency for South African teachers-in-training. ... albeit having regard to learner attitudes and purposes. The paper concludes that using the new communicative methods of language testing with foundation phase teachers-in-training may improve classroom practice.

  5. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  6. Relations between the technological standards and technological appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto PRADO GUERRERO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the educational practices of using Blackboard in blended learning environments with students of higher education to understand the relationship between technological appropriation and standards of educational technology. To achieve that goal, the following research question was raised: ¿To what extent are the standards of education technology with the appropriation of technology in blended learning environments in higher educa­tion related? The contextual framework of this work includes the following topics: the institution, teaching, teachers and students. The design methodology that was used is of a correlation type. Correlations were carried out to determine the frequency and level in the technological standards as well as the appropriation of technology. In the comparison of the results obtained by the students, the teachers and the platform; we found that students in the school study showed a high degree of technology ownership and this was the same for the performance shown on the technological standards. It was established that teachers play a key role in developing the techno­logical appropriation of students and performance in technology standards.

  7. The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PR Newton, R Naidoo, P Brysiewicz. Abstract. Introduction. Emergency medical services (EMS) are sometimes required to respond to cases that are later found not to be emergencies, resulting in high ...

  8. 12 CFR 269.4 - Determination of appropriate bargaining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requesting a representation election signed by at least thirty percent (30%) of the employees in a unit which... the labor organization should disagree with the Special Tribunal's decision, the party in disagreement... percent (30%) of the employees in a unit claimed by a labor organization as appropriate or subsequently...

  9. 5 CFR 532.217 - Appropriated fund survey jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Laundry Worker 1 Food Service Worker 2 Cook 8 (e) A lead agency must obtain prior approval of OPM to add a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriated fund survey jobs. 532.217 Section 532.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  10. Applicability of the Appropriate use Criteria for Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de [Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazil); Rezende, Maria Fernanda [Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Corrêa, Renato; Mousinho, Rodrigo [Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Jader Cunha [Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Sandra Marina; Oliveira, Aline Ribeiro [Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazil); Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Appropriateness Criteria for nuclear imaging exams were created by American College of Cardiology (ACC) e American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) to allow the rational use of tests. Little is known whether these criteria have been followed in clinical practice. To evaluate whether the medical applications of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in a private nuclear medicine service of a tertiary cardiology hospital were suitable to the criteria of indications proposed by the American medical societies in 2005 and 2009 and compare the level of indication of both. We included records of 383 patients that underwent MPS, November 2008 up to February 2009. Demographic characteristics, patient's origin, coronary risk factors, time of medical graduation and appropriateness criteria of medical applications were studied. The criteria were evaluated by two independent physicians and, in doubtful cases, defined by a medical expert in MPS. Mean age was 65 ± 12 years. Of the 367 records reviewed, 236 (64.3%) studies were performed in men and 75 (20.4%) were internee. To ACC 2005, 255 (69.5%) were considered appropriate indication and 13 (3.5%) inappropriate. With ACC 2009, 249 (67.8%) were considered appropriate indications and 13 (5.2%) inappropriate. We observed a high rate of adequacy of medical indications for MPS. Compared to the 2005 version, 2009 did not change the results.

  11. towards an appropriate extension approach for agricultural and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    empowered to do so, an important condition is an appropriate organisational structure, which can support the process and take it forward. The community structure required is one that serves as an effective linkage structure to facilitate an effective partnership interaction between the development agent. (or organisation) and ...

  12. Is the New Partnership for Africa's Development an Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is the African Union's socio-political and economic development programme, and one of its tasks is to accelerate African continental integration. The fundamental question is, however, whether it is the appropriate programme for this. Its success depends on the ...

  13. 34 CFR 104.33 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Free appropriate public education. 104.33 Section 104.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  14. 34 CFR 300.17 - Free appropriate public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Free appropriate public education. 300.17 Section 300.17 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...

  15. FTA Training Programs: Searching for Appropriate Teaching Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia; Constantinides, Janet C.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to acquiring communicative competence, teaching assistants who speak English as a second language must learn human relations skills, and how to teach content through appropriate teaching methods and skills that will help them bridge the cultural and language differences they experience in U.S. institutions of higher education. (CB)

  16. In search of an appropriate contemporary approach in Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article addresses the question: 'To what extent can Max Weber's ethic of responsibility be a helpful resource in the search of Christian Social Ethics for an appropriate contemporary approach'? This question is addressed by, first of all, providing a summary of Weber's famous speech Politics as a Vocation in which he ...

  17. A case study of culturally appropriate conservation education

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele Schermann

    2016-01-01

    Create culturally appropriate conservation education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English, as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. This case study discusses an organizational response from the USDA Forest Service, in partnership with others, to better serve the Hmong American community....

  18. Counselling as a psychological approach to fostering appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on counselling as a psychological approach to fostering appropriate learning behaviour in Nigerian secondary school students. The paper drew attention to the confrontation, mentoring, behavioural, appraisal, and standards blending models to appeal to the consciences of students with ...

  19. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  20. Social Appropriateness in EU Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    versus justice equation, on the issues of privacy and data protection, and on the broader respect for fundamental rights more generally. In this process, the legitimacy and the social appropriateness of some of these measures have been questioned, both at the societal level and before or by European...

  1. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR): An appropriate technology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This project has studied the appropriateness of the ABR for on-site primary sanitation in low-income communities. The baffled design of the ABR ensures high solids retention resulting in high treatment rates, while the overall sludge production is characteristically low. Effluent COD values measured from a 3 000 l pilot ABR ...

  2. Identification of appropriate tools of information and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to sufficient and desirable food is one of the principles of any developing and healthy society. One of the important means for attainment of food security is information and communication technologies (ICT). The purpose of the research was to identify appropriate tools of ICT in improving food security of Iran's rural ...

  3. Differences between Males and Females Concerning Perceived Electronic Mail Appropriateness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic mail is one of the most successfully diffused modern communication technologies. Yet, few researchers have investigated whether gender differences exist in perceptions of the types of appropriateness embedded within electronic mail messages. A framework originally created by Wiemann and Backlund (1980) served as the basis for the…

  4. Appropriate hydrological modelling of climate change on river flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.; Rizzoli, A.E.; Jakeman, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    How good should a river basin model be to assess the impact of climate change on river flooding for a specific geographical area? The determination of such an appropriate model should reveal which physical processes should be incorporated and which data and mathematical process descriptions should

  5. Appropriability mechanisms, innovation and productivity: Evidence from the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, B.H.; Sena, V.

    2014-01-01

    We use an extended version of the well-established Crepon, Duguet and Mairesse model (1998) to model the relationship between appropriability mechanisms, innovation and firm-level productivity. We enrich this model in several ways. First, we consider different types of innovation spending and study

  6. Mediating Third-Wave Feminism: Appropriation as Postmodern Media Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, Helene A.; Waggoner, Catherine Egley; Hallstein, D. Lynn O'Brien

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes gendered representations of Alanis Morissette, Kate Moss, and Ally McBeal. Argue that, in each case, the appropriation of third-wave feminist tenets is accomplished via a postmodern aesthetic code of juxtaposition that serves to recontextualize and reinscribe those sensibilities in a way that ultimately functions to reify dominant…

  7. Neural mechanism for judging the appropriateness of facial affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jeong, Bum Seok; Ki, Seon Wan; Im, Dong-Mi; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Hong Shick

    2005-12-01

    Questions regarding the appropriateness of facial expressions in particular situations arise ubiquitously in everyday social interactions. To determine the appropriateness of facial affect, first of all, we should represent our own or the other's emotional state as induced by the social situation. Then, based on these representations, we should infer the possible affective response of the other person. In this study, we identified the brain mechanism mediating special types of social evaluative judgments of facial affect in which the internal reference is related to theory of mind (ToM) processing. Many previous ToM studies have used non-emotional stimuli, but, because so much valuable social information is conveyed through nonverbal emotional channels, this investigation used emotionally salient visual materials to tap ToM. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects volunteered for our study. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activation during the judgmental task for the appropriateness of facial affects as opposed to gender matching tasks. We identified activation of a brain network, which includes both medial frontal cortex, left temporal pole, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left thalamus during the judgmental task for appropriateness of facial affect compared to the gender matching task. The results of this study suggest that the brain system involved in ToM plays a key role in judging the appropriateness of facial affect in an emotionally laden situation. In addition, our result supports that common neural substrates are involved in performing diverse kinds of ToM tasks irrespective of perceptual modalities and the emotional salience of test materials.

  8. Appropriate working hours for surgical training according to Australasian trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (work practices were then correlated with sufficiency of training time, time for study, fatigue and its impacts, and work-life balance preferences. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. The response rate was 55.3% with responders representative of the total trainee body. Trainees who worked median 60 h/week (interquartile range: 55-65) considered their work hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  10. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  11. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  12. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  13. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  14. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard GM; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. PMID:29540367

  15. The taxation of the petroleum products in the appropriation bill for 2001 and the correcting appropriation bill for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum products taxation in the framework of the appropriation bills. The following aspects are presented : the utilization of fuels more respectful of the environment, the taxation lightening measures, measures in favor of the transportation sector, the juridical references and elements for the economic situation. (A.L.B.)

  16. Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  17. Protection of citizens' rights by appropriate design of legal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author regards the Muehlheim-Kaerlich ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court of December 12, 1979 as a ruling which stipulates the protection of basic rights as a main function of the citizen participation. The essential importance of this ruling is specified by the statement that the shaping of procedures - of courts and authorities - has a constitutional importance, that the shaping of procedures is an essential element of an effective guarantee of basic rights. He expressly extends the above mentioned jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court beyond the influence of the substantive basic rights on the procedural law to the administrative procedural law. The procedural basic right of article 19, section 4 of the constitution is supplemented by the claim for an effective legal protection which directly results from the substantive basic right of article 14, section 1, paragraph 1 of the constitution. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Appropriateness of pediatric hospitalization in a general hospital in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, Magdy H; Seoudi, Tarek M M; Raway, Tarek S; Al Harbash, Nowair Z; Ahmad, Meshal M A; Al Mutairi, Hanan F

    2012-01-01

    To determine the rate of inappropriate pediatric admissions using the Pediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP) and to examine variables associated with inappropriateness of admissions. A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Farwania General Hospital, Kuwait, to examine successive admissions for appropriateness of admission as well as several sociodemographic characteristics over a 5-month period (August 2010 to December 2010). A total of 1,022 admissions were included. Of the 1,022 admissions, 416 (40.7%) were considered inappropriate. Factors associated with a higher rate of inappropriate admission included older age of patients and self-referral. The rate of inappropriate hospitalization of children was high in Farwania Hospital, Kuwait, probably due to the relatively free health care services, parental preference for hospital care, easy access to hospital services, and insufficient education about the child's condition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Routine Chest Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Barbara L; Chung, Jonathan H; Crabtree, Traves D; Heitkamp, Darel E; Iannettoni, Mark D; Jokerst, Clinton; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Ravenel, James G

    2016-03-01

    Chest radiographs are sometimes taken before surgeries and interventional procedures on hospital admissions and outpatients. This manuscript summarizes the American College of Radiology review of the literature and recommendations on routinely performed chest radiographies in these settings. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  20. Software appropriation over time: from adoption to stabilization and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonette Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies are introduced into an organization with the aim of improving productivity. However, persistent use of an information system is required to enhance productivity and user satisfaction. In this paper, we examine the process of technology appropriation and the factors that encourage and discourage use of an information system over time. In a longitudinal field study in an educational setting, we identify changing expectations and influences that encourage persistent use of a technology above and beyond adoption. Our work indicates that stabilization of a technology may only be a temporary plateau. Further appropriation may occur beyond initial stabilization as expectations and influences encourage persistent use of a technology. We have found that the driving forces in encouraging productive use of a technology are the ability for users to experience the technology as useful and to have easy access to ongoing training.

  1. Appropriate Determination of Net Working Capital in Corporate Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity and working capital management belongs to one of the fundamental tasks of short-term financial management. However, in the context of net working capital, the issue of management of current assets and liabilities significantly overlaps with long-term financial management, in which the effects of various decisions have long-term consequences, with considerable inertia and possibility of high losses. The present study is therefore focused on the determination of appropriate amount of working capital, as an important part of financial decision making process in the company. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify the appropriate approach to accurate calculations of net working capital and determining its needs. The main contribution of the study can be found in the verification of calculation method of net working capital needs, which, according to the authors, may be beneficial both for business practice and teaching of financial management at universities.

  2. Development planning and appropriate technology: a dilemma and a proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, G.

    1981-03-01

    This paper examines the present system of project paper preparation and project planning used by the US Agency for International Development and many donor agencies. Three approaches for meeting the evident weaknesses of the system - a holistic approach to the planning problem, an operant-conditioning approach to implementation, and a process approach to planning and implementation - are presented and critiqued. On the basis of the critique, an approach grounded in a search for an approximately appropriate technology is supported; and a proposal for an appropriate-technology evaluation system which would analyze alternative technologies, deliver information to the field level, supply needed information on technologies and implementation, constrain donor planners, reduce lag time, incorporate evaluations into future planning, and reduce dependence upon planners is presented. 66 references.

  3. Methods of achieving and maintaining an appropriate caesarean section rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.

  4. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  5. Diligence in determining the appropriate form of stationarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Heymans

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: One of the most vexing problems of modelling time series data is determining the appropriate form of stationarity, as it can have a significant influence on the model’s explanatory properties, which makes interpreting the results problematic. Research purpose: This article challenged the assumption that most financial time series are first differenced stationary. The common difference first, ask questions later approach was revisited by taking a more systematic approach when analysing the statistical properties of financial time series data. Motivation for the study: Since Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 argued that many macroeconomic time series are difference stationary, many econometricians simply differenced data in order to achieve stationarity. However, the inherent properties of time series data have changed over the past 30 years. This necessitates a proper evaluation of the properties of data before deciding on the appropriate course of action, in order to avoid over-differencing which causes variables to lose their explanatory ability that leads to spurious results. Research approach, design and method: This article introduced a rigorous process that enables econometricians to determine the most appropriate form of stationarity, which is led by the underlying statistical properties of several financial and economic variables. Main findings: The results highlighted the importance of consulting the d parameter to makea more informed decision, rather than only assuming that the data are I(1. Evidence also suggested that the appropriate form of stationarity can vary, but emphasises the importance to consider a series to be fractionally differenced. Practical/managerial implications: Only when data are correctly classified and transformed accordingly will the data be neither under- nor over-differenced, thus enhancing the validity of the results generated by statistical models. Contribution/value-add: By utilising this rigorous

  6. Appropriate Utilization and Stocking of Antidotes in Qatar Public Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Rawan Salameh; Waleed Awad Salem; ISMA Qureshi; Asma Al-Bukari; Eman Shaat; Jibin Moinudheen; Galal Aleassi; Robert Hoffman

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are a few studies that evaluate preparedness and availability of antidotes in the emergency setting and none have been conducted in Qatar. Published studies show that timely availability of antidotes in the emergency department setting is a common issue. To address this, we conducted a study to evaluate antidote stocking and utilization in Qatar hospital pharmacies and emergency departments. Methods: In order to evaluate the appropriate use and timely administration of antid...

  7. Appeal to fear in health care: appropriate or inappropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, J. Keith

    2017-01-01

    Aim This paper examines appeal to fear in general: its perceived positive aspects, its negative characteristics, its appropriate as well as its fallacious use. Background Appeal to fear is a commonly used marketing method that attempts to change behaviour by creating anxiety in those receiving a fearful message. It is regularly used in public health initiatives such as anti-smoking, anti-drunk driving campaigns as well as in hypertension awareness campaigns. Some chiropractors appear to use a...

  8. Appropriability mechanisms, innovation and productivity: Evidence from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, B.H.; Sena, V.

    2014-01-01

    We use an extended version of the well-established Crepon, Duguet and Mairesse model (1998) to model the relationship between appropriability mechanisms, innovation and firm-level productivity. We enrich this model in several ways. First, we consider different types of innovation spending and study the differences in estimates when innovation spending (rather than R&D spending) is used to predict innovation in the CDM model. Second, we assume that a firm simultaneously innovates and chooses a...

  9. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  10. The Concept of Appropriateness in Issuing Administrative Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Nedelcu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Administrative acts are a legal way of organizing the execution and enforcement of the law. Law can not and should not establish all cases and all the ways, by means of which public administration bodies interfere with administrative actions, therefore administrative public bodies must have some initiative and ought to be able to assess the situations in which they will issue these acts and to appreciate their appropriateness. The appropriateness principle of administrative acts must be correlated with the legality principle. It can be concluded that the appropriateness principle underscores the power conferred by public administration, permitted in accordance with which it has the right and duty to judge when issuing an administrative compliance of the state of lawand facts, an appreciation that public administration is based on a single criterion: the interests of the community that they represent. Also, the very organization of the state as a state of law leads to the conclusion that the law – which is the materialization of the idea of justice – should be the standard on which the activity of human individuals report both to the quality of beneficiaries of the provisions and benefits of public administration and on the other hand as officials, public servants or ordinary employees in public administration system.

  11. Guideline for appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Sung Mok; Kim, Jeong A; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of deaths in Korea, along with malignant neoplasms and cerebrovascular diseases. The proper diagnosis and management for patients with suspected heart diseases should be warranted for the public health care. Advances in CT technology have allowed detailed images of the heart to be obtained, which enable evaluations not only of the coronary arteries but also of other cardiac structures. Currently, the latest multi-detector CT machines are widespread around Korea. The appropriate use of cardiac CT may lead to improvements of the physicians' medical performances and to reduce medical costs which eventually contribute to promotions of public health. However, until now, there has been no guidelines regarding the appropriate use of cardiac CT in Korea. We intend to provide guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart diseases based on scientific data. The purpose of this guideline is to assist the clinicians and other health professionals when using cardiac CT for diagnosis and treatments of heart diseases.

  12. APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.

  13. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  14. Nonlinear mechanics a supplement to theoretical mechanics of particles and continua

    CERN Document Server

    Fetter, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    In their prior Dover book, Theoretical Mechanics of Particles and Continua, Alexander L. Fetter and John Dirk Walecka provided a lucid and self-contained account of classical mechanics, together with appropriate mathematical methods. This supplement-an update of that volume-offers a bridge to contemporary mechanics.The original book's focus on continuum mechanics-with chapters on sound waves in fluids, surface waves on fluids, heat conduction, and viscous fluids-forms the basis for this supplement's discussion of nonlinear continuous systems. Topics include linearized stability analysis; a det

  15. Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J

    2018-03-01

    In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.

  16. The emergency department: An appropriate referral rate for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.J.; Tins, B.; Cherian, R.; Rae, F.; Dharmarajah, R.; Phair, I.C.; McCall, I.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hypothesis that where there is good clinical practice in an emergency department (ED), there is a low uptake of plain radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Emergency notes and radiography records were reviewed over one week in January 1999, to determine the rate of radiography of first time attenders at the North Staffordshire NHS Trust. The clinical appropriateness of the imaging was assessed by pairs of radiology specialist registrars and casualty physicians. They judged the appropriateness of the imaging by the 1998 Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines and/or their clinical judgement, by consensus. Where there was no consensus or the data appeared incomplete, the radiology and ED consultant reviewed the notes. RESULTS: A total of 1615 notes were found out of 1643 (98%). Of these, 147 (9%) return attenders were excluded and 32 patients left without being seen. The number of first time attenders was 1436 (87%), of whom 637 (44%) were radiographed; 95% of these radiography examinations were appropriate and 5% were inappropriate. Of the first time attenders who were not radiographed the decision was appropriate in 95% of cases, and inappropriate for 5%, i.e. 5% of those who had no radiography, should have been X-rayed. There were no disagreements between RCR guidelines and the clinical judgements, but in 16% there were no suitable RCR guidelines. Junior doctors were not always able to find the relevant RCR guideline (relevant clinical guideline found in 73% of cases) in the guideline book, compared to the consultants (relevant clinical guideline found in 84% of cases). CONCLUSION: The application of the RCR guidelines is taken as representing good clinical practice in determining when to refer a patient for radiography. Based on this assumption, a referral rate for radiography of 44% of first time attenders was found to be appropriate. This referral rate can be taken as a benchmark. A benchmark is necessary in order to allow departments

  17. Lessons learned from the scaling-up of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in the integrated food security program (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Ursula; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was initiated as an appropriate intervention to protect poor urban populations from anemia. To identify the lessons learned from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program implemented in poor urban populations of Chiclayo, Peru. Data were collected from a 12-week program in which multimicronutrient supplements were provided weekly to women and adolescent girls 12 through 44 years of age and children under 5 years of age. A baseline survey was first conducted. Within the weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, information was collected on supplement distribution, compliance, biological effectiveness, and cost. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary strategies can be integrated synergistically within a micronutrient intervention program. To ensure high cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program, the following conditions need to be met: the program should be implemented twice a year for 4 months; the program should be simultaneously implemented at the household (micro), community (meso), and national (macro) levels; there should be governmental participation from health and other sectors; and there should be community and private sector participation. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are cost effective options in urban areas with populations at low risk of energy deficiency and high risk of micronutrient deficiencies.

  18. Trends in metformin utilisation and dose appropriateness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Kumar, S S; Graham, G G; Baysari, M T; Williams, K M; Chen, W; Viardot, A; Greenfield, J R; Day, R O

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to (1) determine the trends in the utilisation of metformin in Australia, (2) determine the appropriateness of metformin dosing in an Australian teaching hospital and (3) gather the opinions of prescribers on the relationship between metformin dose and renal function. National prescription data between 1990 and 2012 were accessed. A retrospective audit (2008-2012) of metformin doses and patient renal function (20 % random sample of all in-patients prescribed metformin) was conducted at St Vincent's Hospital (SVH), Sydney. Prescribers of metformin were interviewed (semi-structured; consultants at SVH) or surveyed (Australian endocrinologists) to gather their understanding of metformin dosing in relation to renal function. Metformin utilisation increased fivefold nationally between 1995 and 2012. Metformin tended to be under-dosed in SVH patients with normal renal function (83.5 %) and over-dosed in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) metformin doses needed to be reduced in renal impairment. Most endocrinologists (61 %) were comfortable prescribing metformin down to eGFRs around 30 mL/min. The use of metformin increased greatly over the period of the study. Metformin is prescribed frequently for patients with eGFR values below the minimal level approved in the product label (60 mL/min). While prescribers expressed their understanding of the need to reduce metformin doses in patients with renal impairment, we found that metformin doses were higher than appropriate in patients with impaired renal function. Metformin may be used safely when renal function is poor provided dosage is appropriately reduced.

  19. Is BMD testing appropriate for all menopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleerekoper, Michael; Nelson, Dorothy A

    2005-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force has provided an evidence-based guideline indicating that bone mineral density (BMD) testing is appropriate for all women aged 65 or older. This does not preclude BMD testing in younger postmenopausal women but places the onus on the treating physician to justify the procedure to the patient and often the patient's insurance carrier. There are very few circumstances in which BMD testing is appropriate for healthy premenopausal women, but BMD testing in younger postmenopausal women is often appropriate: when there is a family history of osteoporosis with fracture, a personal history of fracture as an adult, and a medical, surgical or therapeutic history that might be associated with accelerated bone loss or increased risk of fracture. Medical conditions include intestinal diseases associated with malabsorption, such as non-tropical sprue, or primary hyperparathyroidism. Women who have neurologic conditions that increase the risk of falling should also be tested. There are data to suggest that patients with hemoglobinopathy are at increased risk for osteoporosis. Surgical conditions include the increasingly performed surgery for obesity and other surgery resulting in bowel resection (e.g., for inflammatory bowel disease). The major medication-related concern is corticosteroid therapy, but chronic or over-treatment with thyroxine, and chronic heparin therapy, should also be considered risk factors for osteoporosis. When performing a BMD test for the first time, it is essential to remember that 50% of women at menopause will have a negative T-score, but this does not imply that the patient has indeed lost any bone from her peak bone mass.

  20. APpropriAteness of percutaneous Coronary interventions in patients with ischaemic HEart disease in Italy: the APACHE pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marcello; Crimi, Gabriele; Maiorana, Florinda; Rizzotti, Diego; Lettieri, Corrado; Bettari, Luca; Zuccari, Marco; Sganzerla, Paolo; Tresoldi, Simone; Adamo, Marianna; Ghiringhelli, Sergio; Sponzilli, Carlo; Pasquetto, Giampaolo; Pavei, Andrea; Pedon, Luigi; Bassan, Luciano; Bollati, Mario; Camisasca, Paola; Trabattoni, Daniela; Brancati, Marta; Poli, Arnaldo; Panciroli, Claudio; Lettino, Maddalena; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Tarantini, Giuseppe; De Luca, Leonardo; Varbella, Ferdinando; Musumeci, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To first explore in Italy appropriateness of indication, adherence to guideline recommendations and mode of selection for coronary revascularisation. Design Retrospective, pilot study. Setting 22 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-performing hospitals (20 patients per site), 13 (59%) with on-site cardiac surgery. Participants 440 patients who received PCI for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome were independently selected in a 4:1 ratio with half diabetics. Primary and secondary outcome measures Proportion of patients who received appropriate PCI using validated appropriate use scores (ie, AUS≥7). Also, in patients with stable CAD, we examined adherence to the following European Society of Cardiology recommendations: (A) per cent of patients with complex coronary anatomy treated after heart team discussion; (B) per cent of fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for borderline stenoses in patients without documented ischaemia; (C) per cent of patients receiving guideline-directed medical therapy at the time of PCI as well as use of provocative test of ischaemia according to pretest probability (PTP) of CAD. Results Of the 401 mappable PCIs (91%), 38.7% (95% CI 33.9 to 43.6) were classified as appropriate, 47.6% (95% CI 42.7 to 52.6) as uncertain and 13.7% (95% CI 10.5% to 17.5%) as inappropriate. Median PTP in patients with stable CAD without known coronary anatomy was 69% (78% intermediate PTP, 22% high PTP). Ischaemia testing use was similar (p=0.71) in patients with intermediate (n=140, 63%) and with high PTP (n=40, 66%). In patients with stable CAD (n=352) guideline adherence to the three recommendations explored was: (A) 11%; (B) 25%; (C) 23%. AUS was higher in patients evaluated by the heart team as compared with patients who were not (7 (6.8) vs 5 (4.7); p=0.001). Conclusions Use of heart team approaches and adherence to guideline recommendations on coronary revascularisation in a real-world setting

  1. Appropriateness criteria of FDG PET/CT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    18 Fluorine-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established functional imaging method widely used in oncology. In this article, we have incorporated the various indications for 18 FDG PET/CT in oncology based on available evidence and current guidelines. Growing body of evidence for use of 18 FDG PET/CT in select tumors is also discussed. This article attempts to give the reader an overview of the appropriateness of using 18 F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies

  2. Development and appropriation of an integration policy for sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2011-01-01

    the history and culture of the society in which it is created. Second, policy is seen as discourses that are articulated by specific institutions, and third, the anthropological perspective focuses on the ways in which policy is a applied and interpreted in practice. The first part of this article therefore...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear......-Danish ethnic background) appropriate these political assumptions....

  3. The Subordinates in the Fictions of Appropriation of Minors

    OpenAIRE

    Souto, Luz Celestina

    2013-01-01

    the rol of the subordinates in the appropriation of children during the Argentinian Dictatorship has been questioned in several disciplines. However, are the works of  the writer Martín Kohan which have managed to tell the untold history in a very effective way by condensing it in the creation of a credible fictional world and, because of that, grinding. In Dos veces junio, as well as in Cuentas pendientes, the consequences of the banality of evil are obvious, since it represents the consensu...

  4. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  5. Understanding the Concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept...... and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman’s terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA...

  6. The appropriate use of the emergengy department for paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Benahmed, Nadia; Laokri, Samia; Zhang, Wei Hong; Cohen, Laurent; Karlin, Sophie; De Wever, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors associated with paediatric inappropriate use (IU) of the accident and emergency department (A&E). Method: An observational prospective survey was performed. All the patients (< 16 years) attending A&E in 12 Belgian hospitals during 2 weeks in 2010 were included. The use of A&E was considered appropriate if, at least, one of the following criteria was met: child referred by a doctor or the police, brought by ambulance, need for a short stay, need for technic...

  7. What is "appropriate" for school-aged children with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Tim; Conroy, Terrye

    2006-10-01

    Compliance with the IDEA and S.C. Board of Education procedures is only the first step toward providing a student with autism with an IEP that is reasonably calculated to enable that student to receive educational benefits--a FAPE. At the heart of the IEP process is instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs, talents, and experiences of each child. While disagreements over the appropriateness of the IEP, including the methodologies used to provide such instruction, may arise, it is through the successful collaboration of parents, health care providers, and school professionals that a child with autism will develop into an adult with a life of community and meaning.

  8. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Francaux, Marc; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2006-01-01

    Context: Allegations about side effects of creatine supplementation by athletes have been published in the popular media and scientific publications. Purpose: To examine the experimental evidence relating to the physiological effects of creatine supplementation. Results: One of the purported effects of oral creatine supplementation is increased muscle mass. A review of the literature reveals a 1.0% to 2.3% increase in body mass, which is attributed to fat-free mass and, more specifically, to ...

  9. Use of Nutrition Supplements for the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Tenglerová, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of my thesis was to describe the use of food supplements by seniors. Most seniors use medications prescribed by physicians and some of them also use over-the-counter food supplements that are more easily accessible. Seniors, in particular, are susceptible to considering food supplements to be as efficient as medications under the incessant influence of massive advertising on TV and other media, and many of them are willing to spend considerable amounts from their income on su...

  10. Structuring supplemental materials in support of reproducibility

    OpenAIRE

    Greenbaum, Dov; Rozowsky, Joel; Stodden, Victoria; Gerstein, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Supplements are increasingly important to the scientific record, particularly in genomics. However, they are often underutilized. Optimally, supplements should make results findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (i.e., ?FAIR?). Moreover, properly off-loading to them the data and detail in a paper could make the main text more readable. We propose a hierarchical organization for supplements, with some parts paralleling and ?shadowing? the main text and other elements branching off f...

  11. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  12. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). PMID:29910389

  13. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-05-12

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition).

  14. Structuring supplemental materials in support of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dov; Rozowsky, Joel; Stodden, Victoria; Gerstein, Mark

    2017-04-05

    Supplements are increasingly important to the scientific record, particularly in genomics. However, they are often underutilized. Optimally, supplements should make results findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (i.e., "FAIR"). Moreover, properly off-loading to them the data and detail in a paper could make the main text more readable. We propose a hierarchical organization for supplements, with some parts paralleling and "shadowing" the main text and other elements branching off from it, and we suggest a specific formatting to make this structure explicit. Furthermore, sections of the supplement could be presented in multiple scientific "dialects", including machine-readable and lay-friendly formats.

  15. Hiring appropriate providers for different populations: acute care nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Cathy; Madden, Maureen

    2015-06-01

    Acute care nurse practitioners, prepared as providers for a variety of populations of patients, continue to make substantial contributions to health care. Evidence indicates shorter stays, higher satisfaction among patients, increased work efficiency, and higher quality outcomes when acute care nurse practitioners are part of unit- or service-based provider teams. The Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification, and Education outlines detailed guidelines for matching nurse practitioners' education with certification and practice by using a population-focused algorithm. Despite national support for the model, nurse practitioners and employers continue to struggle with finding the right fit. Nurse practitioners often use their interest and previous nursing experience to apply for an available position, and hospitals may not understand preparation or regulations related to matching the appropriate provider to the work environment. Evidence and regulatory guidelines indicate appropriate providers for population-focused positions. This article presents history and recommendations for hiring acute care nurse practitioners as providers for different populations of patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. Diverse structural approaches to haem appropriation by pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Stephen A

    2017-04-01

    The critical need for iron presents a challenge for pathogenic bacteria that must survive in an environment bereft of accessible iron due to a natural low bioavailability and their host's nutritional immunity. Appropriating haem, either direct from host haemoproteins or by secreting haem-scavenging haemophores, is one way pathogenic bacteria can overcome this challenge. After capturing their target, haem appropriation systems must remove haem from a high-affinity binding site (on the host haemoprotein or bacterial haemophore) and transfer it to a binding site of lower affinity on a bacterial receptor. Structural information is now available to show how, using a combination of induced structural changes and steric clashes, bacteria are able to extract haem from haemophores, haemopexin and haemoglobin. This review focuses on structural descriptions of these bacterial haem acquisition systems, summarising how they bind haem and their target haemoproteins with particularly emphasis on the mechanism of haem extraction. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2009-05-01

    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached.

  18. From Adaptation to Appropriation: Framing the World Through News Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeón Roberto A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terminological issues are problematic in the analysis of translation processes in news production. In the 1980s, Stetting coined the term “transediting”, which has been widely used in the translation studies literature, but “translation” itself becomes contentious in communication studies, a discipline closely related to news translation research. Only a few communication scholars have specifically dealt with the linguistic and cultural transformations of source texts, but they tend to regard translation as word-for-word transfer, unusual news production. More productive for the study of news translation seems to be the application of the concept of framing, widely used in communication studies. Framing considers the linguistic and paralinguistic elements of news texts in the promotion of certain organizing ideas that the target audience can identify with. In news translation, this entails the adaptation of a text for the target readership, a process can lead to appropriation of source material. Two examples are mentioned to illustrate this point: the appropriation of the US Department of State cables by the Wikileak organisation, and the pro-Romanian slogans produced by the Gandul newspaper as a response to Britain’s anti-immigration campaigns. The final section relates news adaptation to adaptation of other text types, such as literary and historical works.

  19. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE STATISTICAL TEST IN SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is mathematical science dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data in order to draw relevant conclusions. Statistics is a form of mathematical analysis that uses quantified models, representations and synopses for a given set of experimental data or real-life studies. The students and young researchers in biomedical sciences and in special education and rehabilitation often declare that they have chosen to enroll that study program because they have lack of knowledge or interest in mathematics. This is a sad statement, but there is much truth in it. The aim of this editorial is to help young researchers to select statistics or statistical techniques and statistical software appropriate for the purposes and conditions of a particular analysis. The most important statistical tests are reviewed in the article. Knowing how to choose right statistical test is an important asset and decision in the research data processing and in the writing of scientific papers. Young researchers and authors should know how to choose and how to use statistical methods. The competent researcher will need knowledge in statistical procedures. That might include an introductory statistics course, and it most certainly includes using a good statistics textbook. For this purpose, there is need to return of Statistics mandatory subject in the curriculum of the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation at Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje. Young researchers have a need of additional courses in statistics. They need to train themselves to use statistical software on appropriate way.

  20. Bounded authority: Expanding "appropriate" police behavior beyond procedural justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Jackson, Jonathan; Tyler, Tom R

    2018-06-01

    This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent, and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity, and concern; and (c) respecting the limits of one's rightful power. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, we show that concerns over bounded authority, respectful treatment, and neutral decision-making combine to form a strong predictor of police and legal legitimacy. We also find that legal legitimacy is associated with greater compliance behavior, controlling for personal morality and perceived likelihood of sanctions. We discuss the implications of a boundary perspective with respect to ongoing debates over the appropriate scope of police power and the utility of concentrated police activities. We also highlight the need for further research specifically focused on the psychological mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries and why they shape the legitimacy of the police and law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Francisco M. [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Research Department, Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Arana, Estanislao, E-mail: aranae@uv.es [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Servicio de Radiología, Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia (Spain); Fundación Instituto de Investigación en Servicios de Salud, Valencia (Spain); Royuela, Ana [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Unidad de Bioestadística Clínica, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, IRYCIS, Ctra. Colmenar Km. 9.1, 28034 Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, Alberto [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hospital de Galdakao, Barrio Labeaga, 48960 Galdakao, Vizcaya (Spain); Casillas, Carlos [Spanish Back Pain Research Network (REIDE), Fundación Kovacs, Paseo de Mallorca 36, 07012 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Instituto de Traumatología Unión de Mutuas, Av. del Lledó, C/Juan de Herrera, 27 12004 Castellón (Spain); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To determine the minimum percentage of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (LSMRI) which are inappropriately prescribed in routine practice. Methods: LSMRI performed prospectively on 602 patients in 12 Radiology Services across 6 regions in Spain, were classified as “appropriate”, “uncertain” or “inappropriate” based on the indication criteria established by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, the American College of Physicians and Radiology, and current evidence-based clinical guidelines. Studies on patients reporting at least one “red flag” were classified as “appropriate”. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of inappropriate LSMRI, including gender, reporting of referred pain, health care setting (private/public), and specialty of prescribing physician. Before performing the LSMRI, the radiologists also assessed the appropriateness of the prescription. Results: Eighty-eight percent of LSMRI were appropriate, 1.3% uncertain and 10.6% inappropriate. The agreement of radiologists’ assessment with this classification was substantial (k = 0.62). The odds that LSMRI prescriptions were inappropriate were higher for patients without referred pain [OR (CI 95%): 13.75 (6.72; 28.16)], seen in private practice [2.25 (1.20; 4.22)], by orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons or primary care physicians [2.50 (1.15; 5.56)]. Conclusion: Efficiency of LSMRI could be improved in routine practice, without worsening clinical outcomes.

  2. Classifying decommissioning wastes for allocation to appropriate final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.C.; Tunaboylu, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in different repositories, it is of advantage to classify them in well-defined conditioned categories, appropriate for final disposal. These categories, the so-called waste sorts are characterized by similar radionuclide distribution, similar nuclide-specific activity concentrations and similar waste matrix. A methodology is presented for classifying decommissioning wastes and is applied to the decommissioning wastes arising from a Swiss program of 6 GWe. The amounts and nuclide-specific activity inventories of the decommissioning waste sorts have been estimated. A first allocation into two different repository types has been performed. Such a classification enables one to define the source parameters for repository safety analysis and allows one to allocate the different waste categories into appropriate final repositories. This work presents a first iteration to determine which waste sorts belong to which repository type. The characteristics of waste sorts have to be better defined and the protective strength of the repository barriers has to be optimized. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  3. Natura 2000 appropriate assessment: Shortcomings and improvements in Finnish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Tara

    2009-01-01

    The EU Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC requires impact assessments called Appropriate Assessments (AA) for plans and projects probably having adverse effects on the sites of European ecological importance, Natura 2000 sites. Seventy-three Appropriate Assessment reports and seventy official opinions given on them by regional environmental authorities from 1997 to 2005 were reviewed. The findings of the study demonstrate typical shortcomings of ecological impact assessment: a weak information basis for assessment outcomes and lack of proper cumulative impact assessment with respect to ecological structures and processes. The quality of reporting has improved over time with respect to direct impacts on individual habitat types and species and detailed mitigation measures. Regional environment centres considered one fifth of the AA reports to be inadequate because of lacking data. In most cases the regional environment centres demanded a change of plan or project, added mitigation measures, choice of only one alternative for further planning or a new completed assessment with additional information in order to be able to evaluate the significance of the effects. The study underlines the need for iterative planning practices in which the preparation of a plan or project with alternative options goes hand in hand with the impact assessment equipped with sufficient data

  4. Appropriating religion: understanding religion as an object of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wiebe

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author focuses on the study of religion as a scientific project, for it is the scientific interest in religion which has constituted the grounds for admitting the study of religion into the curriculum of the modern Western university. Despite that academic legitimation, however, the study of religion in the setting of the modern research university is not held in high esteem relative to the other sciences. It if the scientific study of religion is to be legitimately ensconced in the modern research university, the notion of religion will have to be wholly appropriated by science; only then will we be able to establish a conceptual foundation from which to make valid knowledge claims about religion on a level commensurate with the pronouncements of the natural and social sciences. Indeed, to go one step further, given the hold on the concept of religion by those committed to the humanistic study of religion, we might need to talk here not of the appropriation but of expropriation of religion by science—that is, of wresting ownership of the concept from the humanists by using it solely as a taxonomic device to differentiate and explain a peculiar range of human behaviour demonstrated in religious practices.

  5. Appropriateness of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Francisco M.; Arana, Estanislao; Royuela, Ana; Cabrera, Alberto; Casillas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the minimum percentage of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (LSMRI) which are inappropriately prescribed in routine practice. Methods: LSMRI performed prospectively on 602 patients in 12 Radiology Services across 6 regions in Spain, were classified as “appropriate”, “uncertain” or “inappropriate” based on the indication criteria established by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, the American College of Physicians and Radiology, and current evidence-based clinical guidelines. Studies on patients reporting at least one “red flag” were classified as “appropriate”. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with a higher likelihood of inappropriate LSMRI, including gender, reporting of referred pain, health care setting (private/public), and specialty of prescribing physician. Before performing the LSMRI, the radiologists also assessed the appropriateness of the prescription. Results: Eighty-eight percent of LSMRI were appropriate, 1.3% uncertain and 10.6% inappropriate. The agreement of radiologists’ assessment with this classification was substantial (k = 0.62). The odds that LSMRI prescriptions were inappropriate were higher for patients without referred pain [OR (CI 95%): 13.75 (6.72; 28.16)], seen in private practice [2.25 (1.20; 4.22)], by orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons or primary care physicians [2.50 (1.15; 5.56)]. Conclusion: Efficiency of LSMRI could be improved in routine practice, without worsening clinical outcomes

  6. Improving the radiologist–CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, W.; Cnossen, F.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist–CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human–automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist–CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human–automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist–CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist–CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist–CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist–CAD team. - Highlights: • Radiologists often have an inappropriate

  7. 20 CFR 227.2 - Initial supplemental annuity rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial supplemental annuity rate. 227.2... COMPUTING SUPPLEMENTAL ANNUITIES § 227.2 Initial supplemental annuity rate. The supplemental annuity rate... supplemental annuity rate is $43 for an employee with 30 or more years of service. ...

  8. Technical rigidity and appropriate technology in less-developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D J.C. [Univ. of Strathyclyde, England; McBain, N S; Solomon, R F

    1980-05-01

    The extent to which the use of capital-intensive methods in LDCs can properly be ascribed to the inherent rigidity of the factor proportions embodied in modern technology - rather than to distortions and aberrrations in the process of technology choice - is still a matter of considerable uncertainty after two decades of debate. In this study, an engineering-based index is developed to summarize the opportunities for, and barriers to, substitution of labor for capital in a wide range of industries. The index is used to compare the technology actually installed in manufacturing in Ghana, the Philippines, Turkey, and Malaysia with the feasible alternatives. The finding that opportunities for use of labor-intensive methods are to a large extent exploited is interpreted as casting doubt on the ability of even the most appropriate choice from currently feasible technologies to reduce unemployment significantly. 46 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Appropriate electromagnetic techniques for imaging geothermal fracture zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R; Walker, P [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Electromagnetic surface detection of fracture zones has often been approached by using the magnetotelluric method. This technique suffers greatly from the quantity and scale of the conductive inhomogeneities lying above the fracture zones. Additionally, it suffers from the inherent inability to focus the source on the target. There are no such source focusing capabilities in magnetotellurics. Accordingly, the quantity of magnetotelluric data required to resolve targets in such complex conditions can make the technique inefficient and insufficient from a cost perspective. When attempting to reveal a subsurface structure and image it, the basic physical responses at hand must be kept in mind, and the appropriate source must be utilized, which most effectively illuminates the target. A further advantage to controlled sources is that imaging techniques may be used to accentuate the response due to knowledge and control of the source.

  10. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested.

  11. Registered indians and tobacco taxation: a culturally-appropriate strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia A

    2005-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely-used strategy that prompts smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. Registered Indian tobacco use prevalence is at least double that of the rest of Canadians and is in part due to the lower cost of tobacco products purchased on reserve by Registered Indians (RIs) as they are tax exempt. Although registered Indian communities have the ability to collect tax on tobacco products and direct the use of these revenues, this strategy is rarely utilized. Tobacco taxation could have substantial health and economic benefits to RI communities, but perhaps is not culturally-appropriate. In order to better support RI communities, governments and other organizations need to examine this policy instrument in the context of RI populations.

  12. Appropriate location of the nipple-areola complex in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, O; Badani, E; Wolf, Y; Hauben, D J

    2001-08-01

    Gynecomastia is a common deformity encountered by plastic surgeons. The appropriate location of the nipple-areola complex is a major determinant of the aesthetic success of the procedure. To study the natural location of the nipple-areola complex in the normally built male, 50 nonobese men with no evidence of gynecomastia and an average age of 27.9 years were examined. Three ratios were calculated and found to be relatively constant; they were the ratio between the height of the nipple and the height of the patient, the ratio between the distance between the nipples and chest circumference, and the ratio between the suprasternal notch-to-nipple distance and the height of the patient. Using these three parameters, a method of locating the nipple-areola complex on the male chest wall was devised. The method is advocated as a reliable, simple, and useful technique.

  13. An Assessment of Culturally Appropriate Design: A Malaysian University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsul Arrieya Ariffin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of mobile devices, together with the constant technological improvement of mobile websites and applications informed about the quality of the user interface design. However, the particularities of mobile devices require special attention in terms of their usability aspects, such as culture. Therefore, this study evaluated the use of culturally appropriate design guidelines for a mobile learning web site. The research methodology used comprised a survey from heuristic evaluation questionnaires with undergraduate students. This research captured the students’ experiences in using the MLearn website of Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia.  From the study, the lowest ranking is realistic error management at 3.5, and the highest is suitable content for local culture at 4.6.  This study affirmed that general usability and cultural principles in design are important for a usable mobile learning website system in a local university context.

  14. Determination of appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Min, Beong-Tae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to use experiments that have been performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe during about the last ten years for determining the most appropriate models and parameters for premixing calculations. The results of a QUEOS experiment are used to fix the parameters concerning heat transfer. The QUEOS experiments are especially suited for this purpose as they have been performed with small hot solid spheres. Therefore the area of heat exchange is known. With the heat transfer parameters fixed in this way, a PREMIX experiment is recalculated. These experiments have been performed with molten alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) as a simulant of corium. Its initial temperature is 2600 K. With these experiments the models and parameters for jet and drop break-up are tested

  15. Narrative Intertextuality: How Pacheco Appropriates The Go-Between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alcázar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the role of rewriting in postmodern fiction, whether it goes under such names as appropriation, adaptation or the interaction between a hypotext and a hypertext. The core of the article is concerned with a minute comparison between H. P. Hartley’s novel The Go-Between (1953 and José Emilio Pacheco’s Las batallas en el desierto (1981. Similarities such as the role of a child/adult narrator, his infatuation with a mature woman, the traumatic experience it entails, how a distant past is recreated, the clash of opposite social classes, the narrative thematics of music, as well as other minor details are brought to the fore.

  16. Cultural Appropriations; Ethnic-Racial Representations; Black Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Zubaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the exchange and circulation of ideas in the black diaspora, particularly in the newspaper The Example, mapping and discussing the ethnic-racial and gender representations constructed in the narratives produced by the editors of this newspaper, during the campaign for the construction of a monument to the “Black Mother”. The aim is to analyze how the newspaper’s editors have appropriated texts that circulated in other newspapers about the campaign to the monument of the “Black Mother”, adapted them to their own interests and given them new meanings. From the theoretical approach of Cultural Studies, we understand the black press as a cultural artifact that not only informs but also produces discourses and representations that contribute to the formation of black subjectivities and identities.

  17. The appropriateness of a proton pump inhibitor prescription.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, N

    2014-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drug in Ireland, at great expense to the Irish healthcare executive. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of PPI prescriptions on admission and discharge in a tertiary referral hospital. All non-elective admissions in the Emergency Department in one week were included in the study. 102 patients in total were included, with 36 (35.4%) treated with a PPI on admission. Of these, only 3 (8.3%) had a clear indication noted as per current NICE guidelines. 18 new in-hospital PPI prescriptions were documented. 11 (61%) of which were present on discharge prescriptions. Continuing PPI prescription on discharge into the community may be inappropriate, costly and potentially harmful. Brief interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate PPI prescriptions have been shown to be effective at reducing the cost and potential harm of unnecessary treatment.

  18. Determination of the appropriate energy policy for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulutas, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is an inevitable necessity for human beings. But the energy source is predicted to be scarce in the coming years as a result of population growth. Therefore people prefer energy sources that are renewable, clean and cost effective. Unfortunately there is not a sole energy source to meet these demands. Determination of the appropriate energy policy problem with interactive criteria and alternatives can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem within the context of the long range and strategic process. The analytic network process (ANO), one of MCDM methods, deals with the dependency and feedback that the problem has. The goal of this paper is to apply the ANP model to evaluate the alternative energy sources for the country. Finally when the results are discussed, it is apparent that the model can produce reasonable and applicable solutions for the case. (author)

  19. The importance of having an appropriate data segmentation (partitioning)

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation will be shown real life examples from database applications in the ATLAS experiment @ LHC where we make use of many Oracle partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL for sustaining data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the reference partitioning in some use cases, however the most challenging was to segment the data of a large bookkeeping system which resulted in tens of thousands list partitions and list sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate for the use case data management model. The gained experience with all of those will be shared with the audience.

  20. The importance of applying an appropriate data partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation are described specific technical solutions put in place in various database applications of the ATLAS experiment at LHC where we make use of several partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL procedures and scheduler jobs to sustain data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the new Oracle 11g reference partitioning in the ATLAS Nightly Build System to achieve uniform data segmentation. However the most challenging was to segment the data of the new ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, which resulted in tens of thousands list type partitions and sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate physical model for the application data management. The so-far accumulated knowledge wi...

  1. Designing appropriate complementary feeding recommendations: tools for programmatic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelmans, Bernadette; Ferguson, Elaine; Lutter, Chessa K; Singh, Neha; Pachón, Helena; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Woldt, Monica; Mangasaryan, Nuné; Cheung, Edith; Mir, Roger; Pareja, Rossina; Briend, André

    2013-09-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of stunting in young children from age 6 months. The design of effective programmes to improve infant and young child feeding requires a sound understanding of the local situation and a systematic process for prioritizing interventions, integrating them into existing delivery platforms and monitoring their implementation and impact. The identification of adequate food-based feeding recommendations that respect locally available foods and address gaps in nutrient availability is particularly challenging. We describe two tools that are now available to strengthen infant and young child-feeding programming at national and subnational levels. ProPAN is a set of research tools that guide users through a step-by-step process for identifying problems related to young child nutrition; defining the context in which these problems occur; formulating, testing, and selecting behaviour-change recommendations and nutritional recipes; developing the interventions to promote them; and designing a monitoring and evaluation system to measure progress towards intervention goals. Optifood is a computer-based platform based on linear programming analysis to develop nutrient-adequate feeding recommendations at lowest cost, based on locally available foods with the addition of fortified products or supplements when needed, or best recommendations when the latter are not available. The tools complement each other and a case study from Peru illustrates how they have been used. The readiness of both instruments will enable partners to invest in capacity development for their use in countries and strengthen programmes to address infant and young child feeding and prevent malnutrition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Appropriate use of the increment entropy for electrophysiological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xue; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Aimin

    2018-04-01

    The increment entropy (IncrEn) is a new measure for quantifying the complexity of a time series. There are three critical parameters in the IncrEn calculation: N (length of the time series), m (dimensionality), and q (quantifying precision). However, the question of how to choose the most appropriate combination of IncrEn parameters for short datasets has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this research was to provide guidance on choosing suitable IncrEn parameters for short datasets by exploring the effects of varying the parameter values. We used simulated data, epileptic EEG data and cardiac interbeat (RR) data to investigate the effects of the parameters on the calculated IncrEn values. The results reveal that IncrEn is sensitive to changes in m, q and N for short datasets (N≤500). However, IncrEn reaches stability at a data length of N=1000 with m=2 and q=2, and for short datasets (N=100), it shows better relative consistency with 2≤m≤6 and 2≤q≤8 We suggest that the value of N should be no less than 100. To enable a clear distinction between different classes based on IncrEn, we recommend that m and q should take values between 2 and 4. With appropriate parameters, IncrEn enables the effective detection of complexity variations in physiological time series, suggesting that IncrEn should be useful for the analysis of physiological time series in clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A guide to public engagement and appropriate dispute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, C.

    2006-10-15

    This guide was developed to help oil and gas companies operating in British Columbia to understand what tools are available to them when entering a public engagement process. It describes the BC Oil and Gas Commission's (OGC's) expectations regarding public engagement and appropriate dispute resolutions (ADR) associated with applications for oil and gas exploration, development and production in the province. The OGC's comprehensive application review process is designed to balance environmental, economic and social factors. The public engagement process is intended to allow the public to express concerns about how proposed oil and gas operations may affect them. This document also emphasized the government's responsibility to consult with First Nations on their treaty rights. The guide presented key concepts and best practices in the public engagement process and explained how to engage participants before, during and after application decisions are made. The OGC may impose conditions on the applicant to mitigate concerns of the affected public. The concerns typically range from noise of oil and gas machinery; air pollution; concern for health and safety; traffic control; water quality; and, aesthetics. A table of possible mitigative measures to these concerns was presented to demonstrate some options that may be used by industry and the affected public in resolving issues related to oil and gas activities. The OGC promotes the independent resolution of concerns. However, if conflicts exist, the OGC encourages participants to use appropriate dispute resolution (ADR) to help resolve any differences. Although participation in ADR is voluntary, its use allows affected parties to gain a sense of ownership over the proceedings and outcomes. In addition to being less costly than legal proceedings, ADR can lead to win-win outcomes, improve relationships and lead to more routine applications for oil and gas activities. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®  Resectable Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The management of resectable rectal cancer continues to be guided by clinical trials and advances in technique. Although surgical advances including total mesorectal excision continue to decrease rates of local recurrence, the management of locally advanced disease (T3-T4 or N+ benefits from a multimodality approach including neoadjuvant concomitant chemotherapy and radiation. Circumferential resection margin, which can be determined preoperatively via MRI, is prognostic. Toxicity associated with radiation therapy is decreased by placing the patient in the prone position on a belly board, however for patients who cannot tolerate prone positioning, IMRT decreases the volume of normal tissue irradiated. The use of IMRT requires knowledge of the patterns of spreads and anatomy. Clinical trials demonstrate high variability in target delineation without specific guidance demonstrating the need for peer review and the use of a consensus atlas. Concomitant with radiation, fluorouracil based chemotherapy remains the standard, and although toxicity is decreased with continuous infusion fluorouracil, oral capecitabine is non-inferior to the continuous infusion regimen. Additional chemotherapeutic agents, including oxaliplatin, continue to be investigated, however currently should only be utilized on clinical trials as increased toxicity and no definitive benefit has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to

  5. Male appropriation and medicalization of childbirth: an historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, H A

    2001-02-01

    This paper aims to explore through historical analysis some of the means by which medicine successfully appropriated and medicalized pregnancy and childbirth and to consider the impact that this has had on women's experiences within maternity care. The appropriation and medicalization of pregnancy and childbirth by men are rooted in a patriarchal model that has been centuries in the making. A model that perceives women as essentially abnormal, as victims of their reproductive systems and hormones, it is also one that defines pregnancy as inherently pathological - a clinical crisis worthy of active intervention. In both law and medicine men have used their power to define reproduction as a biological defect (LeMoncheck L. 1996 Journal of Clinical Ethics 7, 160--176), requiring both legal regulation and medical intervention, whilst feminist writers have long argued that women's experiences within the health care system at least to some extent reflects their social position. Male justifications of female inferiority have been developed and nurtured through professional discourses and socialization processes inherent within medical education and practice (Cahill H. 1999 MA Thesis, University of Keele). These assumptions are internalized and reproduced to shape quite profoundly, the nature of doctors' interactions with women in their care. Perhaps more fundamentally, such discursive explanations of women's bodies as inherently defective continue to shape women's position in society. Maternity care is a key area in which women's ability to exercise real choice and make informed decisions is limited and where doctor-patient interactions are themselves constructions of existing gender orders; women's autonomy continues to be violated through both quite subtle and overt discourse and practice.

  6. Defining appropriate incentive levels: A review of theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfett, R.S.; Lodola, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects related to determining the incentive levels for demand-side management (DSM) programs are discussed. The theoretical aspects comprise the efficiency criteria, from a social point of view; the equity issue, or ensuring that no one pays higher rates as a result of conservation programs; and the method of recovering the customer's investment, or the implicit discount rate method. The study of these theoretical aspects takes into account the perspectives of all the concerned parties and focuses on the need to harmonize the efficiency criteria which are in opposition. From this process are derived general criteria for aiding program planners and managers to determine the incentive levels for their DSM programs. Past experience has shown that incentive levels cannot be determined in an isolated manner. Other characteristics affecting the carrying out of DSM programs will also have repercussions on the success rate. To determine the appropriate incentives, it is important to have a clear understanding of what the DSM program intends to achieve. Factors such as the market sector, the technology chosen, and demographic characteristics can influence all aspects of the design and implementation of the program, including the type and level of incentive offered. When the goals of the program are clearly established and the intended market is clearly determined, a strategy should be formed which will have the greatest chance of fulfilling the program objectives. The role of each element in the program must be well understood. It is only at this stage that it is possible to determine an appropriate level of incentive. 7 refs

  7. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis

  8. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  9. Supplement use and mortality: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.; Kaluza, J.; Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is hypothesis that in relatively healthy older people supplement usage can be consider as healthy life style habit and as such can positively influence longevity. Aim of the study To determine whether supplement use was associated with all-cause mortality in the participants of the

  10. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  11. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary methionine supplementation at varying levels on the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey was investigated. Four Isocaloric and Isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diets were supplemented with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% respectively.

  12. 30 CFR 75.361 - Supplemental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental examination. 75.361 Section 75.361... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.361 Supplemental examination. (a) Except for certified persons conducting examinations required by this subpart, within 3 hours before anyone...

  13. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  14. Should infant girls receive micronutrient supplements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Lund, Sofia; Fisker, Ane

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have proposed the hypothesis that the combination of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination may be associated with increased mortality in girls. Recent zinc/folic acid (FA) and iron supplementation trials did not find any beneficial effects...

  15. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  16. Attitudes towards nutritional supplement use amongst adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutritional supplements refer to a product ingested to increase the nutritional content of a normal diet, to fill a dietary need and/or presumed deficiency. The usage and popularity of nutritional supplements, however, raises concerns from a health benefit and risk perspective. In South Africa, there is currently no ...

  17. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  18. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  19. Daily Report East Europe Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-11

    Czech 30 Jan 93 p 1 [Editorial by Karel Kriz: "Without Paternalism "] [Text] From the legal standpoint, the joint state split apart on 1 January...insurance—the embodiment of social security itself. Beyond this, it would be appropriate to develop a peculiar sick pay and maternity pay system...the danger of an authoritarian regime taking power? [Patriciu] There is such a risk. But even this perception of an opposition that does not impose

  20. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  1. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  3. Mineral supplementation in Tunisian smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekhis, J.; Kouki-Chebbi, K.; Dhaouadi, B.; Khlif, K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of supplementation of di-calcium-phosphate in the form of blocks in late pregnancy (2 months before calving), on production and reproduction parameters of dairy cattle in smallholder farms. The experiment covered 63 animals in 20 smallholder farms, divided into control and supplemented groups. Results showed that mineral supplementation had a significant effect on calf weight, milk fat content and reproduction parameters. Calves born to cattle supplemented with di-calcium-phosphate were heavier by 1.67 kg than those in the control group. Similarly, the average milk fat content in the supplemented group was 5.6 g/L (P 0.05). (author)

  4. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  5. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background : The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective : This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods : Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results : We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions : Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  6. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996. Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. Ginko biloba, horse- chestnut, and only 10% of the herbs used in nutritional supplements are commonly present in the food (e.g. garlic, soy, blueberry, green the, ginger, curcuma (Eisenberg et al., 1993. There is much interest in "alternative natural approaches" in sport. It is appealing for athletes to use 'natural' substances with similar activity to 'pharmacological' ones in term of improving performance, are not considered doping, and are considered side-effects free (Table 1. Indeed, many herbal dietary supplements marketed on internet are presented as legal alternative to illicit drugs (Denneey et al., 2005. EcdysteroidsEcdysteroids are the steroid hormones of arthropods (Figure 1. They also occur in some plants, where they are known as phytoecdysteroids, and are believed to contribute to deter invertebrate predators. In insects, they regulate moulting and metamorphosis, may regulate reproduction and diapause. Most actions of ecdysteroids are mediated by intracellular receptor complexes, which regulate gene expression in a tissue- and development-specific manner (Lehmann et al 1989.Several phytoecdysteroids have anabolic growth-promoting effects on mice, rats, pigs and Japanese quails. Ecdysteroids stimulate muscle growth, and this anabolic effect promotes increased physical performance without training. Ecdysteroids are also able to increase muscle ATP content in vitamin D-deprived rats (Báthori, 2002. Ecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in the

  7. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  8. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  9. Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: the role of openness and innovativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zobel, Ann-Kristin; Lokshin, Boris; Hagedoorn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses how firms’ degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  11. Ketoanalogues supplementation decreases dialysis and mortality risk in patients with anemic advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hsiung Wu

    Full Text Available The benefit of alpha-Ketoanalogues (KA supplementation for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients that followed low-protein diet (LPD remains undetermined.We extracted longitudinal data for all CKD patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2010. A total of 1483 patients with anemic advanced CKD treated with LPD, who started KA supplementation, were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the risks of end stage renal disease and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with influential drugs as time-dependent variables.A total of 1113 events of initiating long-term dialysis and 1228 events of the composite outcome of long-term dialysis or death occurred in patients with advanced CKD after a mean follow-up of 1.57 years. Data analysis suggests KA supplementation is associated with a lower risk for long-term dialysis and the composite outcome when daily dosage is more than 5.5 tablets. The beneficial effect was consistent in subgroup analysis, independent of age, sex, and comorbidities.Among advanced CKD patients that followed LPD, KA supplementation at an appropriate dosage may substantially reduce the risk of initiating long-term dialysis or of developing the composite outcome. KA supplementation represents an additional therapeutic strategy to slow the progression of CKD.

  12. The efficacy of protein supplementation during recovery from muscle-damaging concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Lee; Browne, Sarah; Stevenson, Emma J; Sanderson, Brad; van Someren, Ken; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to 3 independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate, or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of 4 days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 carbohydrate, 1.2 g·kg -1 ·day -1 protein, remainder from fat). Following the concurrent exercise session at time-point 0 h, comprising a simulated high-intensity road cycling trial and 100 drop-jumps, recovery of outcome measures was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h. The concurrent exercise protocol was deemed to have caused exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), owing to time effects (p 0.05) were observed for any of the outcome measures. The present results indicate that protein supplementation does not attenuate any of the indirect indices of EIMD imposed by concurrent exercise, when employing great rigour around the provision of a quality habitual diet and the provision of appropriate supplemental controls.

  13. Controlling the Glycosylation Profile in mAbs Using Time-Dependent Media Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Radhakrishnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet desired drug product quality targets, the glycosylation profile of biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs must be maintained consistently during manufacturing. Achieving consistent glycan distribution profiles requires identifying factors that influence glycosylation, and manipulating them appropriately via well-designed control strategies. Now, the cell culture media supplement, MnCl2, is known to alter the glycosylation profile in mAbs generally, but its effect, particularly when introduced at different stages during cell growth, has yet to be investigated and quantified. In this study, we evaluate the effect of time-dependent addition of MnCl2 on the glycan profile quantitatively, using factorial design experiments. Our results show that MnCl2 addition during the lag and exponential phases affects the glycan profile significantly more than stationary phase supplementation does. Also, using a novel computational technique, we identify various combinations of glycan species that are affected by this dynamic media supplementation scheme, and quantify the effects mathematically. Our experiments demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration the time of addition of these trace supplements, not just their concentrations, and our computational analysis provides insight into what supplements to add, when, and how much, in order to induce desired changes.

  14. Can claims, misleading information, and manufacturing issues regarding dietary supplements be improved in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James E; Taylor, David A

    2005-09-01

    The safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are assessed through the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) OTC drug review. Prescription drugs are approved through the rigorous new drug application (NDA) process. In contrast, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, and the FDA must determine that a dietary supplement ingredient poses a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury" instead of requiring the manufacturer to provide safety data. According to the FDA, there are more than 29,000 different dietary supplements available to consumers today. This momentum has its roots in consumer interest in health and self-care and suggests that Americans are searching for alternatives to conventional foods for physical and mental well being. The Committee on the Framework for Evaluating the Safety of Dietary Supplements was formed under the auspices of the Food and Nutrition Board that produced a report entitled Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety. Categories of specific information identified for use are 1) human data, 2) animal studies, 3) in vitro experiments, and 4) information on related substances. Several factors were identified to guide the FDA in applying the framework. Two of these factors are expressed as follows: 1) "the appropriate scientific standard to be used to overturn this basic assumption of safety is to demonstrate significant or unreasonable risk, not prove that an ingredient is unsafe"; and 2) "approaches taken by diverse organizations and governmental bodies, both within and outside the United States, which evaluate the safety and at times efficacy of dietary supplement ingredients, vary in their relevance to the protection of the American public from risks associated with consumption of dietary supplement ingredients".

  15. [Appropriateness of ketorolac use in a trauma hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles González-Fernández, M

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the suitability of ketorolac and non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other analgesic drugs currently used in the hospital. We have followed the steps to develop a PDCA cycle (plan, do, check, act) or quality improvement cycle. The quality problem was analysed using an Ishikawa diagram. We defined both qualitative quality indicators, those that measure prescription quality, and quantitative ones (defined daily dose, DDD/100BDs), which measure drug consumption, being the objectives to achieve. The study was conducted in all patients admitted to the hospital and who were admitted to orthopaedic and trauma surgery and plastic surgery departments with unit-dose dispensing systems. The strategy used was to give information to physicians through meetings and documentation. Finally, the results were analysed and compared with the initial objectives. The study was performed on 260 patients in the first study period and 292 in the second. Qualitative indicators: intravenous ketorolac use or =65 years old at dose < or =60 mg/day it increased 27.7% (p<0.05). Quantitative indicators: in the second study period, ketorolac use decreased (plastic surgery department: 61.8 DDD/100BDs to 14.8), whereas tramadol, ibuprofen and metamizole increased (plastic surgery department: 0 to 14.1 in tramadol, 8.7 to 48.6 in ibuprofen and 50.1 to 71 in metamizole). Appropriateness of ketorolac, NSAIDs and tramadol use has been achieved, thus improving patient safety. Strategies have been effective.

  16. Appropriate Separator Sizing: A Modified Stewart and Arnold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boukadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas separators were one of the first pieces of production equipment to be used in the petroleum industry. The different stages of separation are completed using the following three principles: gravity, centrifugal force, and impingement. The sizes of the oil droplets, in the production water, are based mainly on the choke valve pressure drop. The choke valve pressure drop creates a shearing effect; this reduces the ability of the droplets to combine. One of the goals of oil separation is to reduce the shearing effect of the choke. Separators are conventionally designed based on initial flow rates; as a result, the separator is no longer able to accommodate totality of produced fluids. Changing fluid flow rates as well as emulsion viscosity effect separator design. The reduction in vessel performance results in recorded measurements that do not match actual production levels inducing doubt into any history matching process and distorting reservoir management programs. In this paper, the new model takes into account flow rates and emulsion viscosity. The generated vessel length, vessel diameter, and slenderness ratio monographs are used to select appropriate separator size based on required retention time. Model results are compared to API 12J standards.

  17. Cambridge Polytrauma Pathway: Are we making appropriately guided decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynell-Mayow, William; Guevel, Borna; Quansah, Benjamin; O'Leary, Ronan; Carrothers, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Addenbrooke's Hospital, the Major Trauma Centre for the East of England Trauma Network, received 1070 major trauma patients between 1st January and 31st December 2014. In order to improve care, an audit was performed of 59 patients meeting our own selection criteria for orthopaedic polytrauma between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2013. The Cambridge Polytrauma Pathway was devised through NCEPOD guidelines, literature review, internal and external discussion. It facilitates provision of best practice Early Appropriate Care, encompassing - multidisciplinary consultant decisions around the patient in our Neurological and Trauma Critical Care Unit, early full body trauma CT scans, serial measurements of lactate and fibrinogen levels, and out-of-hours orthopaedic theatre reserved for life-and-limb threatening injuries. Re-audit was conducted of 15 patients meeting selection criteria, admitted between 1st October 2014 and 31st March 2015. Significant improvements in recording of lactate and fibrinogen were demonstrated, both on admission (lactate - ppolytrauma patients and it is recommended that either the GOS-E, or the EQ-5D scoring systems be introduced to assess this. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sugammadex: Appropriate Use in the Context of Budgetary Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammu, Guy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess how sugammadex impacts postoperative residual curarization using appropriate doses based on neuromuscular transmission monitoring and whether the advantages of sugammadex versus neostigmine outweigh its higher cost. An accurate assessment of neuromuscular blockade with monitoring is necessary before selecting neostigmine versus sugammadex for reversal at the end of surgery to overcome incomplete neuromuscular recovery. The main advantages of sugammadex over neostigmine are its predictability and its ability to extend the range of blockade reversal. The cost of sugammadex is greater when higher doses of sugammadex are required for antagonism of deep block. Sugammadex probably has the potential to be cost-effective compared with neostigmine if its time savings are put to productive use in clinical practice. However, to date, the economic benefits of the drug are unknown. With sugammadex, almost any degree of neuromuscular block can be antagonized within 2-3 min; neostigmine is the only reversal agent effective against benzylisoquinolines and can ideally be used for reversal of lower levels of residual paralysis. The performance of the more expensive sugammadex on improving patient outcomes may depend on several elements of clinical strategy.

  19. SUSTAINABLE URBAN LANDSCAPE: AN APPROACH FOR ASSESSING AND APPROPRIATING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Amin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of development on its context is considered a key issue that governs the discussion and understanding of sustainability. For the reason, that ethics of sustainability are based on developing with no or less negative impacts on the contextual environment despite its urban scale whether limited or extended. This describes types of development that increase the good impacts on the tangible and intangible aspects of the built environment. Thus, achieving sustainability is no more a choice but it is a must especially, in an environment suffering from a lot of threats and stresses that affect all aspects of life; socially, economically, environmentally and also affect the beauty and aesthetics of urban fabrics. Assessing sustainability, the applied indicators and ways of assessment are allimportant concerns for urban sustainability discourses. Especially in such sensitive interacting domains as landscape, that links nature with the built environment. Approaching these concerns has a great deal when enhancing our environment aiming at better urban life containers. This paper aims at investigating the issue of sustainable urban landscape assessment through discussing the hue of indicators, their ways of classification, the criteria of selection and stating the variety of methods in which they can be assessed. Finally, it appropriates an approach for stating and assessing urban landscape sustainability indicators, which evaluates their both qualitative and quantitative value upon performance scale.

  20. Survey of appropriate endothermic processes for association with the HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Harrison, G.E.; Gent, C.W.; Plummer, J.

    1975-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on association of the HTR system as a heat source with chemical processes requiring temperatures up to 850 to 900 0 C, corresponding to a reactor coolant temperature of 950 0 C, though processes requiring temperatures up to 1100 0 C and above are reviewed. Particular attention is given to processes for the production of hydrogen-containing gases, including coal/lignite gasification which has been the subject of a recent study. Rising fuel prices make the HTR an attractive proposition if design concepts and materials can be developed to match the requirements. Other appropriate endothermic processes considered are oil processing, including tar sands and shales, and also energy production. Since the full temperature range of the reactor system must be utilised mention is made of low grade heat uses. Even very large chemical works have relatively small energy requirement by nuclear heat standards and adoption of the HTR as a heat source is likely only if it is associated with a large chemical/metallurgical complex or with the processing of a natural resource. (author)

  1. Hepatitis B virus reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy: Appropriate risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Wai-Kay

    2015-04-28

    Our understanding of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during immunosuppresive therapy has increased remarkably during recent years. HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive individuals has been well-described in certain immunosuppressive regimens, including therapies containing corticosteroids, anthracyclines, rituximab, antibody to tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HBV reactivation could also occur in HBsAg-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive individuals during therapies containing rituximab, anti-TNF or HSCT.For HBsAg-positive patients, prophylactic antiviral therapy is proven to the effective in preventing HBV reactivation. Recent evidence also demonstrated entecavir to be more effective than lamivudine in this aspect. For HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive individuals, the risk of reactivations differs with the type of immunosuppression. For rituximab, a prospective study demonstrated the 2-year cumulative risk of reactivation to be 41.5%, but prospective data is still lacking for other immunosupressive regimes. The optimal management in preventing HBV reactivation would involve appropriate risk stratification for different immunosuppressive regimes in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive individuals.

  2. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  3. PATTERNS FOR IDENTIFYING APPROPRIATE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Salmani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, striving to find an efficient way for developing or identifying appropriate knowledge management strategies in organizations has become so critical. Researchers and practitioners have attached great importance to information pyramids in organizations and have highlighted the lack of trained and skilled staff as a serious problem. On the other hand, having more flexibility at workplace, offering better service, and fulfilling customers' demands require a strategy for managing knowledge and its consequence. Knowledge management provides a wide range of different strategies and methods for identifying, creating, and sharing knowledge in organizations. This deep insight which consists of individual, organization’s experience, knowledge, and understanding helps organization respond to both internal and external stimuli and act in harmony. One fact which has seemingly achieved a consensus is the need for different strategies of knowledge management. Among the wide range of various and often unclear knowledge management strategies one can choose a strategy in a specific situation. The aim of this paper is to respond to strategic questions which emphasize competitive intelligence and internal knowledge retrieval system. The implications are discussed in detail.

  4. Developing a culturally appropriate mental health care service for Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Evaluating the Appropriateness and Use of Domain Critical Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W. Buckendahl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences associated with the uses and interpretations of scores for many credentialing testing programs have important implications for a range of stakeholders. Within licensure settings specifically, results from examination programs are often one of the final steps in the process of assessing whether individuals will be allowed to enter practice. This article focuses on the concept of domain critical errors and suggests a framework for considering their use in practice. Domain critical errors are defined here as knowledge, skills, abilities, or judgments that are essential to the definition of minimum qualifications in a testing program's pass-'fail decision-making process. Using domain critical errors has psychometric and policy implications, particularly for licensure programs that are mandatory for entry-level practice. Because these errors greatly influence pass-'fail decisions, the measurement community faces an ongoing challenge to promote defensible practices while concurrently providing assessment literacy development about the appropriate design and use of testing methods like domain critical errors.

  6. Understanding the concept of nationally appropriate mitigation action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Desgain, D.

    2013-05-15

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman's terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA and related MRV and financing issues have evolved through the different COPs. The second chapter clarifies the understanding of NAMAs in the context of the global temperature goal, and moves on to discuss the legal nature and scope of NAMAs. The chapter subsequently analyses the diversity of NAMAs submitted by developing countries to the UNFCCC, and ends by proposing a structure for formal submission of a NAMA. The third chapter specifically addresses the concept of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and describes the implications for countries implementing the MRV requirements. The last chapter discusses institutional arrangements, under the Convention, for providing financing to develop and implement NAMAs. The chapter also briefly discusses the different financial sources for implementing NAMAs, and concludes by explaining the concept of incremental cost in this specific context. (Author)

  7. Appropriate treatment of acute sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zheng; Yu, En-Da; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Rong-Gui; Hao, Li-Qiang; Fu, Chuan-Gang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate an appropriate strategy for the treatment of patients with acute sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting. METHODS: A retrospective review of 28 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus treated in the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai from January 2001 to July 2012 was performed. Following the diagnosis of acute sigmoid volvulus, an initial colonoscopic approach was adopted if there was no evidence of diffuse peritonitis. RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus, 19 (67.9%) were male and 9 (32.1%) were female. Their mean age was 63.1 ± 22.9 years (range, 21-93 years). Six (21.4%) patients had a history of abdominal surgery, and 17 (60.7%) patients had a history of constipation. Abdominal radiography or computed tomography was performed in all patients. Colonoscopic detorsion was performed in all 28 patients with a success rate of 92.8% (26/28). Emergency surgery was required in the other two patients. Of the 26 successfully treated patients, seven (26.9%) had recurrent volvulus. CONCLUSION: Colonoscopy is the primary emergency treatment of choice in uncomplicated acute sigmoid volvulus. Emergency surgery is only for patients in whom nonoperative treatment is unsuccessful, or in those with peritonitis. PMID:23946604

  8. Who owns urban waste? Appropriation conflicts in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavé, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Managing solid waste in developing cities is not an easy task and many public policies have failed to bring the expected results. It is here argued that comprehending the solid waste handling in the South implies reconsidering the proper definition of waste. Where does the product end and where does rubbish begin? The answer to this question is far from being obvious. Solid waste appears as a blurred concept. Such a thorny issue is all the more relevant today, as municipal solid waste management approaches in the developing world are being reformulated: dumping sites are banned, sanitary landfills are imposed, and separate collection is being introduced. The current sector transformations are here analysed through a novel theoretical analysis combined with an original qualitative and quantitative empirical work. Through two case-studies of one-million inhabitant cities from emerging countries, it is shown that if appropriation conflicts arise that is because the urban solid waste deposit in Southern countries can be defined as an impure public good. This issue does not only involve private service operators and informal wastepickers; several other actors covet the urban solid waste deposit's cream, that is, recyclable items. In emerging countries, huge industrial groups are starting to target domestic recyclable waste as an alternative for raw materials, which costs are increasing ever more. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  10. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  11. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  12. Guide to mathematical tables supplement no 1

    CERN Document Server

    Burunova, N M; Fedorova, R M

    1960-01-01

    A Guide to Mathematical Tables is a supplement to the Guide to Mathematical Tables published by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in 1956. The tables contain information on subjects such as powers, rational and algebraic functions, and trigonometric functions, as well as logarithms and polynomials and Legendre functions. An index listing all functions included in both the Guide and the Supplement is included.Comprised of 15 chapters, this supplement first describes mathematical tables in the following order: the accuracy of the table (that is, the number of decimal places or significant

  13. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  14. Appropriate bare potentials for studying fusion induced by 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, E; Chamon, L.C; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are some recent studies questioning the use of the same optical potential to explain simultaneously fusion and quasi-elastic experimental data [1] or even to explain deep sub-barrier- and above-barrier fusion [2], during the last decades, the bare nuclear interaction between the nuclei at near barrier energies has been widely represented by a frozen potential with a Woods-Saxon shape. Another well established fact is the strong dependence of nuclear reaction calculations on the choice of the primary interaction. Of course, comparison between data and theoretical calculations are strongly potential-dependent. So, the choice of an appropriate nuclear bare interaction between two colliding nuclei, although it is a difficult task, is a crucial step in the data interpretation. As one has not direct access to the true bare potential, some procedures have been developed in order to constrain the choice of the bare potential to be used. The first procedure is the analysis of the elastic scattering data within the context of an optical potential, where an imaginary potential is added to the real potential, in order to take into account the flux deviated from the elastic channel. The optical potential that gives the best fit to the elastic scattering data is then used to describe other reaction channels, even in coupled channel calculations including inelastic and transfer reactions in the coupling matrix. However, this kind of calculation suffers from several inconsistencies. Another procedure that has been widely used to obtain the bare potential is the fit of the high-energy fusion data by a single barrier penetration model (BPM). However this method also has its uncertainties, since there might be channels that hinder the fusion cross section at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. Hence, the bare potential extracted through this method can be contaminated by different processes. The derivation of experimental barrier distributions probably is the

  15. Appropriate Utilization and Stocking of Antidotes in Qatar Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Salameh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are a few studies that evaluate preparedness and availability of antidotes in the emergency setting and none have been conducted in Qatar. Published studies show that timely availability of antidotes in the emergency department setting is a common issue. To address this, we conducted a study to evaluate antidote stocking and utilization in Qatar hospital pharmacies and emergency departments. Methods: In order to evaluate the appropriate use and timely administration of antidotes, research assistants prospectively collected data on ED patients. All ED patients who received any key antidote over the 6-month study period were identified through both ED and pharmacy records. In order to evaluate the stocking of the 31 most important antidotes in our main public hospitals, a survey assessing the stocking of these key antidotes was sent to the four general hospitals in Qatar, to determine their availability and whether they are stocked in the ED or only in the main pharmacy. Results: Poison exposure was evaluated in 471 cases. Antidotes were given within 30 minutes in 73% of cases, which included atropine, calcium, dextrose, flumazenil, naloxone, pralidoxime, sodium bicarbonate, thiamine, vitamin K and scorpion and snake antivenoms. Administration occurred later than 60 minutes in 2% of cases, exclusively with N-acetylcysteine and activated charcoal. Atropine, calcium, dextrose, naloxone, pralidoxime (2-PAM, sodium bicarbonate, and anti-venoms were clinically indicated 92% of the times they were ordered. N-acetylcysteine was indicated in only 51.5% of administrations. Significant variation in antidote stocking existed between hospitals, and there was no stocked hydroxocobalamin as antidotes for cyanide poisoning or fomepizole for toxic alcohol poisoning. Conclusion: Antidote stocking varied significantly between hospitals, and antidotes necessary for cyanide and toxic alcohol poisoning were deficient in all public hospitals. The

  16. Fluxes of radiocesium to milk and appropriate countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Hove, K.; Prister, B.; Sobolev, A; Ratnikov, A; Travnikova, I.; Averin, V.; Tronevitch, V.; Strand, P.; Bogdanov, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of milk persists in some areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation which received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, effective countermeasures have been used which ensure that radiocesium activity concentrations in milk from collective farms does not exceed intervention limits. However, farming practices differ greatly between the large collective farms, and the small, family operated private farms which are responsible for a major part of the food consumed in many rural areas. As a result of comparative low rate of use of fertilizers and utilization of poor quality land 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk from family-owned cows continues to exceed intervention limits in some areas. It is therefore important to be able reliably to quantify the rates of transfer of 137 Cs to private milk, so that all areas where persistent problems occur are identified, and appropriate countermeasure strategies applied. Where there is considerable variation, within a few km 2 , in both soil type and deposition, the 137 Cs content of private milk is highly variable. However, combining information about soil type, transfer rates for each major soil type, deposition, pasture size and grazing strategies can be a useful method of quantifying transfer of radiocesium to milk. Geographical information systems provide a promising new tool to integrate these factors. Effective Countermeasures are available to reduce radiocesium transfer to private milk. Private farmers are more sceptical of such methods than the scientists, administrators and agriculturalists in their society, particularly those methods involving the use of chemical additives given to their animals. Increased information efforts on the local level appears to be a prerequisite for a successful implementation of necessary Countermeasures

  17. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  18. Nutritional supplements in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.

  19. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  20. Appropriate customization of radiation therapy for stage II and III rectal cancer: Executive summary of an ASTRO Clinical Practice Statement using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Karyn A; Patton, Caroline E; Fisher, George A; Hoffe, Sarah E; Haddock, Michael G; Parikh, Parag J; Kim, John; Baxter, Nancy N; Czito, Brian G; Hong, Theodore S; Herman, Joseph M; Crane, Christopher H; Hoffman, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    To summarize results of a Clinical Practice Statement on radiation therapy for stage II-III rectal cancer, which addressed appropriate customization of (neo)adjuvant radiation therapy and use of non-surgical therapy for patients who are inoperable or refuse abdominoperineal resection. The RAND/University of California, Los Angeles, Appropriateness Method was applied to combine current evidence with multidisciplinary expert opinion. A systematic literature review was conducted and used by the expert panel to rate appropriateness of radiation therapy options for different clinical scenarios. Treatments were categorized by median rating as Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate. In the neoadjuvant setting, chemoradiation was rated Appropriate and the ratings indicated short-course radiation therapy, chemotherapy alone, and no neoadjuvant therapy are potential options in selected patients. However, neoadjuvant endorectal brachytherapy was rated Rarely Appropriate. For adjuvant therapy, chemoradiation (plus ≥4 months of chemotherapy) was rated Appropriate and chemotherapy alone May Be Appropriate for most scenarios. For medically inoperable patients, definitive external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone were rated May Be Appropriate, whereas endorectal brachytherapy and chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy were possible approaches for some scenarios. The last option, definitive chemoradiation, was rated Appropriate to May Be Appropriate based on performance status. Finally, for patients with low-lying tumors refusing abdominoperineal resection, definitive chemoradiation alone, chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy, and chemoradiation plus external beam radiation therapy were all rated Appropriate. This Clinical Practice Statement demonstrated the central role of radiation therapy in stage II-III rectal cancer management and evaluated ways to better individualize its use in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and definitive settings

  1. Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

    2014-01-01

    With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances.

  3. Benefits, Potential Harms, and Optimal Use of Nutritional Supplementation for Preventing Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Tyber, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    To briefly review age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the main findings from the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) report number 8 on the use of nutritional supplements for AMD, and to focus on data suggesting that supplement use should be guided using genetic testing of AMD risk genes. A literature search (January 2001 through October 26, 2016) was conducted using MEDLINE and the following MeSH terms: Antioxidants/therapeutic use, Genotype, Macular Degeneration/drug therapy, Macular degeneration/genetics, Dietary Supplements, Proteins/genetics, and Zinc Compounds/therapeutic use. Bibliographies of publications identified were also reviewed. English-language studies assessing AREDS supplement response in patients with AMD in relation to complement factor H gene ( CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene ( ARMS2) risk alleles were evaluated. Three of the 4 studies demonstrated a treatment interaction between ARMS2 and CFH genotypes and a differential response to supplements. The fourth study documented an interaction for the CFH genotype only. Reported response interactions included attenuated response, no response, and good response, whereas a subset showed increased progression of AMD. Conversely, one study reported no interactions between CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles and response to supplements. The weight of the evidence supports using genetic testing to guide selection of ocular vitamin use. This approach will avoid using supplements that could speed the progression of AMD in vulnerable patients, avoid using supplements that will have little to no effect in others, and result in appropriately using supplements in those that are likely to derive meaningful benefits.

  4. Selection of an appropriately simple storm runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An appropriately simple event runoff model for catchment hydrological studies was derived. The model was selected from several variants as having the optimum balance between simplicity and the ability to explain daily observations of streamflow from 260 Australian catchments (23–1902 km2. Event rainfall and runoff were estimated from the observations through a combination of baseflow separation and storm flow recession analysis, producing a storm flow recession coefficient (kQF. Various model structures with up to six free parameters were investigated, covering most of the equations applied in existing lumped catchment models. The performance of alternative structures and free parameters were expressed in Aikake's Final Prediction Error Criterion (FPEC and corresponding Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies (NSME for event runoff totals. For each model variant, the number of free parameters was reduced in steps based on calculated parameter sensitivity. The resulting optimal model structure had two or three free parameters; the first describing the non-linear relationship between event rainfall and runoff (Smax, the second relating runoff to antecedent groundwater storage (CSg, and a third that described initial rainfall losses (Li, but which could be set at 8 mm without affecting model performance too much. The best three parameter model produced a median NSME of 0.64 and outperformed, for example, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number technique (median NSME 0.30–0.41. Parameter estimation in ungauged catchments is likely to be challenging: 64% of the variance in kQF among stations could be explained by catchment climate indicators and spatial correlation, but corresponding numbers were a modest 45% for CSg, 21% for Smax and none for Li, respectively. In gauged catchments, better

  5. Annual Status Report on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, G.; Roeser, F.; Hoehne, N. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Tilburg, X.; Cameron, L. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] (eds.)

    2013-11-15

    results of an online survey that collected respondents' considerations taken when designing and implementing NAMAs and elements perceived as key in operationalising a NAMA registry. UNEP Risoe Centre reflects on the linkages between lowcarbon development strategies, nationally appropriate mitigation actions and measuring, reporting and verification processes. The Overseas Environmental Cooperation Center (OECC) reflects on domestic institutional arrangement instead as essential elements in the development, coordination and implementation of NAMAs and their MRV. The contribution of the World Resources Institute (WRI) seeks to unpack MRV needs for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with NAMAs, as well as existing resources available to assist countries. The NAMA Facility presents an overview of its objectives, governance structure and selection and implementation procedures for NAMA support projects.

  6. Appeal to fear in health care: appropriate or inappropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J Keith

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines appeal to fear in general: its perceived positive aspects, its negative characteristics, its appropriate as well as its fallacious use. Appeal to fear is a commonly used marketing method that attempts to change behaviour by creating anxiety in those receiving a fearful message. It is regularly used in public health initiatives such as anti-smoking, anti-drunk driving campaigns as well as in hypertension awareness campaigns. Some chiropractors appear to use appeal to fear to promote subluxation awareness and thereby encourage the use of chiropractic treatment. Research supporting its use is equivocal; nevertheless, when used judiciously, appeal to fear probably has sufficient strengths to warrant its continued conditional use. When used to promote care for which there is no supporting evidence, its use is fallacious. Appeal to fear has been used in health promotion campaigns for sixty years or more with the intent of modifying behaviours. While there is evidence to suggest that appeal to fear may motivate some individuals to modify offending behaviour or adopt recommended behaviour there is growing resistance to the use of appeal to fear on ethical and psychological grounds. Using appeal to fear as a tool of persuasion can be valid or fallacious depending on the truth of the premises within the argument. When used to raise awareness about genuine health concerns such as smoking, drunk driving and hypertension appeal to fear is considered to be a valid approach with certain caveats. However, when appeal to fear, not based on evidence or reason, is used as motivator to get others to accept unnecessary interventions for unproven disorders, the use of appeal to fear is fallacious. In spite of the evidence against its use, it seems likely that appeal to fear will continue to be used in conjunction with other public awareness initiatives to modify recognized detrimental behaviours such as smoking and drunk driving as well as silent killers such as

  7. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  8. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  9. Medicines, injections, and supplements for arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthritis - medications; Arthritis - steroid injections; Arthritis - supplements; Arthritis - hyaluronic acid ... the-counter pain relievers can help with your arthritis symptoms. "Over-the-counter" means you can buy ...

  10. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  11. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  12. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  13. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  14. Chart Supplements - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Chart Supplements are searchable by individual airport in PDF format. They contain data on public and joint use airports, seaplane bases, heliports, VFR airport...

  15. MedlinePlus: Herbs and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Calendula Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Cancell/Cantron/Protocel (PDQ) ... Integrative Health Clove Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Coconut Oil Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Coconut Water Natural Medicines ...

  16. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... and awareness among both health workers and mothers. ... remains the lack of recognition of the need for. VAS. ..... of India where only 12.5% had received VAS (11). .... weekly vitamin A supplementation among women.

  17. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Consumers Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... site are provided as a service to our users and do not represent FDA endorsement of these ...

  18. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  19. Gastric Injury From Oral Iron Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    SAUSHEC, San Antonio, TX 2. Department of Gastroenterology, SAUSHEC, San Antonio, TX ABSTRACT BODY: Learning Objective 1: Recognize that iron...pill gastritis is a known complication of oral supplementation but is not well recognized Learning Objective 2: Recognize that the toxic effect of iron...prevalence worldwide (WHO). The typical treatment for iron deficiency anemia is through oral iron tablet supplementation. Iron pill gastritis is a known

  20. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  2. MEDIA APPROPRIATIONS OF BLACK FEMINISM IN BRAZILIAN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Sueli Pinto Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo examina apropriações midiáticas pelo feminismo negro baseadas em reflexões teórico-conceituais sobre a problemática da comunicação em sociedades midiatizadas e suas relações com a literacia midiática. O Instituto da Mulher Negra Geledés, fundado em 1998 no período da redemocratização brasileira, constitui-se no objeto de investigação. O movimento Geledés foi observado e mapeado em sua página no site de rede social Facebook, durante um período consecutivo de oito semanas em 2016, com o propósito de identificar modalidades de interações entre seus visitantes. A análise dedica-se, para além das postagens do Geledés, a apreender e compreender o que acontece na esfera da recepção quando se trata de tipos de usos, apropriações e produções de sentidos. Um construto metodológico baseado na Cartografia de Controvérsias (CC foi operacionalizado para analisar as interações dos actantes sociais do Geledés no Facebook, revelando predominância de interações passivas e elevado número de comentários participativos desqualificados sob a ótica do debate público racional.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Comunicação; Redes Sociais; Feminismo Negro; Literacia Midiática; Cartografia de Controvérsias.     ABSTRACT This article examines media appropriations by black feminism based on theoretical-conceptual reflections on the problem of communication in mediatized societies and their relations with media literacy. The Geledés Black Women's Institute, founded in 1998 in the period of Brazilian redemocratization, is the object of this research. The Geledés movement was observed and mapped on its page on the social networking site Facebook, during a consecutive period of eight weeks in 2016, with the purpose of identifying modalities of interactions among its visitors. The analysis is dedicated, in addition to the posts of the Geledés, to apprehend and to understand what happens in the sphere of the reception when

  3. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Annual Status Report on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, G.; Roeser, F.; Hoehne, N. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Tilburg, X.; Cameron, L. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] (eds.)

    2012-11-15

    The development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) has increased significantly over the last few years. The flexibility of the NAMA mechanism is widely regarded as an opportunity to deliver benefits that go far beyond greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. Many developing countries are developing pilot NAMAs that deliver important insights into the challenges of, and opportunities for, NAMA development from a national perspective. A few countries are already a step ahead and experiences gained from pilot NAMA development are feeding into the formulation of national climate change policies in which NAMAs are becoming a key element. To maintain the momentum in NAMA development, clear signs at the international level are needed that developed countries will follow through with their financial commitments made under the Copenhagen Accord. Without this financial support, NAMAs will not be able to realise their full potential and induce transformational change. The Annual Status Report on NAMAs 2012 is a continuation of previously published NAMA Status Reports. The report presents an overview of the state of play of NAMAs and of support activities for NAMA development and implementation. A new feature of the Annual Status Report on NAMAs 2012 is that it is produced as a joint effort by several organizations that are closely involved in analysing and supporting NAMA development processes worldwide. The Annual Status Report on NAMAs 2012 is written by authors from Ecofys, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, the Center of Clean Air Policy (CCAP), the World Resources Institute (WRI) and Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). In the section on 'Selected contributions on NAMAs', each organization discusses a specific topic of interest in relation to NAMA development that is closely related to their current NAMA activities or that is expected to provide 'food for thought' on potential ways forward for

  5. 42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health Insurance... determines whether or not a State regulatory program for Medicare supplemental health insurance policies...

  6. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nai Ming; Ahmad Kamar, Azanna; Choo, Yao Mun; Kong, Juin Yee; Ngim, Chin Fang

    2017-08-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation. To assess the risks and benefits of fluid supplementation compared to standard fluid management in term and preterm newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia who require phototherapy. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 7 June 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 7 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We included randomised controlled trials that compared fluid supplementation against no fluid supplementation, or one form of fluid supplementation against another. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group using the Covidence platform. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), risk difference (RD), and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Out of 1449 articles screened, seven studies were included. Three articles were awaiting classification, among them, two completed trials identified from the trial registry appeared to be unpublished so far.There were

  7. [Appropriateness admissions to the Department of Internal Medicine of the Hospital de Santa Luzia (Elvas) evaluated by the AEP (Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, A; Aguila, J; Massalana, A; Escoto, V; Lopes, L; Susano, R

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyse the appropriateness admissions to the Internal Medicine ward of the Hospital de Santa Luzia (Elvas). A retrospective study was performed during 6 months of 2001, using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP). Non-appropriateness admissions were found in 19% (CI95%: 16-22), and this group of patients had less mean age (63 + 16 vs 69 + 16; p <0.01), and less mean days of admission (7.1 + 6 vs 9.3 + 7; p <0.01) than group with appropriateness admissions. Appropriateness admissions were mainly found in patients admitted from the emergency room (86% vs 49%; p <0.001). Most of patients with non-appropriate admissions were admitted to undergo diagnostic tests (44%; CI95%: 35-53), or to be referred to other medical centres for specialized study and/or treatment (12%; CI95%: 6-18).

  8. Is Early Appropriate Care of axial and femoral fractures appropriate in multiply-injured elderly trauma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M S; Dolenc, A J; Moore, T A; Vallier, H A

    2016-09-26

    Previous work established resuscitation parameters that minimize complications with early fracture management. This Early Appropriate Care (EAC) protocol was applied to patients with advanced age to determine if they require unique parameters to mitigate complications. Between October 2010 and March 2013, 376 consecutive skeletally mature patients with unstable fractures of the pelvis, acetabulum, thoracolumbar spine, and/or proximal or diaphyseal femur fractures were treated at a level I trauma center and were prospectively studied. Patients aged ≤30 years (n = 114), 30 to 60 years (n = 184), and ≥60 years (n = 37) with Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ≥16 and unstable fractures of the pelvis, acetabulum, spine, and/or diaphyseal femur were treated within 36 h, provided they showed evidence of adequate resuscitation. ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification were determined. Lactate, pH, and base excess (BE) were measured at 8-h intervals. Complications included pneumonia, pulmonary embolism (PE), acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure (MOF), deep vein thrombosis, infection, sepsis, and death. Patients ≤30 years old (y/o) were more likely to sustain gunshot wounds (p = 0.039), while those ≥60 y/o were more likely to fall from a height (p = 0.002). Complications occurred at similar rates for patients ≤30 y/o, 30 to 60 y/o, and ≥60 y/o. There were no differences in lactate, pH, or BE at the time of surgery. For patients ≤30 y/o, there were increased overall complications if pH was <7.30 (p = 0.042) or BE <-6.0 (p = 0.049); patients ≥60 y/o demonstrated more sepsis if BE was <-6.0 (p = 0.046). EAC aims to definitively manage axial and femoral shaft fractures once patients have been adequately resuscitated to minimize complications. EAC is associated with comparable complication rates in young and elderly

  9. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P < 0.001), while users consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P < 0.01) with a particular preference for meat (48.0%). Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based

  10. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Is Nutrient Content and Other Label Information for Prescription Prenatal Supplements Different from Nonprescription Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Andrews, Karen W; Brown, LaVerne L; Costello, Rebecca B; Ershow, Abby G; Gusev, Pavel A; Hardy, Constance J; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal supplements are often recommended to pregnant women to help meet their nutrient needs. Many products are available, making it difficult to choose a suitable supplement because little is known about their labeling and contents to evaluate their appropriateness. To determine differences between prescription and nonprescription prenatal supplements available in the United States regarding declared nutrient and nonnutrient ingredients and the presence of dosing and safety-related information. Using two publicly available databases with information about prenatal supplement products, information from prescription and nonprescription product labels were extracted and evaluated. For the 82 prescription and 132 nonprescription products, declared label amounts of seven vitamins and minerals, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the presence of other nonnutrient components, and the presence of key safety and informational elements as identified in two Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG)'s 2003 reports were compiled and compared. Compared with nonprescription products, prescription products contained significantly fewer vitamins (9±0.2 vs 11±0.3; P≤0.05) and minerals (4±0.1 vs 8±0.3; P≤0.05). Declared amounts of folic acid were higher in prescription products, whereas vitamin A, vitamin D, iodine, and calcium were higher in the nonprescription products. Amounts of iron, zinc, and DHA were similar. Virtually all products contained levels of one or more nutrients that exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances for pregnant and/or lactating women. Product type also influenced ingredients added. Fewer prescription products contained botanical ingredients (6% prescription vs 33% nonprescription) and probiotics (2% prescription vs 8% nonprescription). Only prescription products contained the stool softener docusate sodium. Our analysis of prenatal supplements indicates that prescription and nonprescription supplements differ in terms

  12. Supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Liubartaitė, Elvyra

    2017-01-01

    Supply and Consumption of Cardiovascular Food Supplements in Lithuania. The aim - to evaluate supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in Lithuania. Work tasks: • To collect information on food supplements for heart health. • To rate the range of food supplements for heart health sold in Lithuania. • To analyze the consumption of food supplements for heart health. Research data were collected through questionnaire data collection method based on January-February, 2017 data. 4...

  13. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Hrda, P.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Hill, M.; Jiranek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential component of selenoproteins, enzymes with extensive regulatory and protective effect in organism. Immunological effects of Se are documented and are distinct even above concentrations necessary for maximal activity of selenoenzymes. Therefore, we investigated effect of supplementation by 100 μg of yeast-bound Se on concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies TPOAb and TgAb in the group of 253 seniors living in the Asylum Houses of South Bohemia. Increase of serum selenium from 59 to 150 μg Se/L serum in supplemented group and from 59 to 72 μg Se/L serum in group with placebo were detected by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and proved increased Se intake during the trial. Autoantibodies were analyzed by ELISA at the beginning of the trial and after 1 year. Statistical evaluation of results in whole groups (regardless of increased autoantibodies) by ANOVA manifested significant decrease of TPOAb and TgAb in non-supplemented group while supplementation did not effect serum autoantibodies concentrations. Evaluation of groups of seniors created from those with increased autoantibodies, ANOVA demonstrated decrease of TPOAb in both groups but Se supplementation did not affect the decrease. In opposite, TgAb increased significantly and Se supplementation led to higher increase of TgAb. Recent results of possibility to decrease serum concentration of TPOAb proved this effect only for high TPOAb concentrations and for higher Se supplements. From this point of view, it is necessary to conduct subsequent trials with the patients with autoimmune thyreoiditis with different levels of autoantibodies and detect also serum Se levels. (author)

  14. Efficacy of supplementation in filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S

    2015-01-01

    At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Overall, the results

  15. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25 of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12 of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13. Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC count

  16. Impact of supplemental instruction leader on the success of supplemental instruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne

    Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.

  17. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  18. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  19. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  20. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  1. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  2. [Recommendations on vitamin D and calcium supplements for adults in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigueira García, Ana Isabel

    2012-10-01

    Calcium supplements and vitamin D are involved in current debates of health, as cardiovascular safety of calcium, and correction of vitamin levels. The aim is to review the possibilities of making better use of supplements marketed in Spain, depending on their availability, information and related epidemiology. Analysis of comercial offer and available information about pharmacological aspects of Spanish medicinal supplements in data-sheets (39), guides and reports current institutional and professional, with additional search of this information and epidemiological data related Spanish in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ®, PubMed ® (tool "Clinical Queries"), Dialnet database and hand search of Spanish journals directly related. There is no uniformity in terms of indication, expression of content, dosages, precautions and safety in data sheets or technical reports. The literature search found more recent publications volume for vitamin D than calcium, No evidence was found to establish appropriate dosing regimens indisputable or universal, or cholecalciferol bioavailability tests with aqueous vehiculización. In Spain nutritional situation is found generally suitable for the calcium but a status mostly unsuitable for vitamin D with several references for insufficiency and vitamin deficiency in adults. Corrective treatments primarily affect calcium supplements. There is an ample supply of calcium and vitamin D in Spain, whose drug design should rethink because don't respond to the needs identified or correction possibilities currently recommended. It should also improve and update their information, with particular interest in health status related to hypovitaminosis D.

  3. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  4. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  5. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  6. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  7. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Gielen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and vitamin D supplements reverse secondary hyperparathyroidism and are widely prescribed to prevent osteoporotic fractures, with proven antifracture efficacy when targeted to individuals with documented insufficiencies. Men who should particularly be considered for calcium and vitamin D supplements include elderly or institutionalized individuals, patients with documented osteoporosis on antiresorptive or anabolic medication, and individuals receiving glucocorticoids. Benefits are most apparent when a daily dose of 1000–1200 mg calcium is complemented with 800 IU vitamin D. Compliance is the key to optimizing clinical efficacy. While (conventionally dosed vitamin D has not been associated with safety concerns, recent meta-analytic data have provided evidence to suggest that calcium supplements (without coadministered vitamin D may potentially be associated with cardiovascular risks.

  8. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  9. Problems and Prospects: Public Health Regulation of Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Andy H

    2018-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a global business worth more than US$100 billion annually. These supplements are taken by up to 50% of adults and perhaps one-third of children in economically advanced economies. Definitions of dietary supplements differ from country to country, and regulation is generally lax and often seems to be directed more toward promoting commerce than protecting public health. Supplements may directly cause toxic reactions or may interact with other supplements or pharmaceuticals. Some supplements are found to have been contaminated with heavy metals, and others do not contain the expected quantities of active ingredients. In general, supplements are not needed except in cases of established deficiencies, and excess of some nutrients can increase cancer rates. There are important public health reasons for taking some supplements, including folate and iodine in pregnancy. This review discusses the public health concerns associated with dietary supplements and suggests directions for further regulation.

  10. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  11. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  12. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission fiscal year 1980 supplemental budget request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The proposed supplemental will enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to implement necessary additional effort arising from the agency's assessment of the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 facility on March 28, 1979. The TMI accident has had a major impact on all NRC program areas, in particular on research activities and reactor operations. In addition, funds are requested to enhance the agency's Waste Management program to reflect the recommendations of the President's Interagency Review Group on Waste Management. Specific activities involved in this effort will include developing regulatory guidance, developing a licensing review capability and completing a plan for the site characterization review, all in support of the preparation of NRC guidelines necessary to conduct a construction authorization review. FY 1980 appropriations did not include funds to cover these requirements. A detailed analysis across program lines of the supplemental request is contained in this report

  13. [Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, A; San Martín, A; Rosselló, J; Pérez-Portabella, C; Palacios, A; Julià, A; Planas, M

    2009-01-01

    Hematological patients often present anorexia which along with other secondary effects from the chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments compromise their nutritional status. Oral supplementation can aid to fulfill the energy and protein requirements of these patients. Nevertheless, the use of commercial nutritional supplements normally available, is limited by its poor intake. To evaluate the degree of fulfillment of the prescribed supplements and fulfillment of energy requirements, as well as the development of nutritional status in hematological patients hospitalized for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Prospective, randomized and open study of inpatients at the hematological ward. Patients were randomized sequentially and they were assigned into 3 different nutritional interventions providing: Group 1 (G1), a flavored supplement; Group 2 (G2): a non flavored (neutral) supplement and Group 3 (G3): "kitchen" foods as supplements. Need and amount of nutritional supplements were provided according to the oral intake previously analyzed. Nutritional assessment (at admission and discharge) was based in the Subjective Global Assessment test (SGA), Risk Nutritional Index (RNI) and percentage of lost weight. Both fulfillment of supplement intake and achievement of energetic requirements were analyzed. 125 patients of 51.3 +/- 16.8 years; 45% men and 55% women. 54% lymphoma, 33% leukemia, 8% myeloma and others 4%. Length of stay (LOS): 7.0 +/- 3.6 d. The nutritional assessment done by SGA showed significant negative changes in G2 and G3 (G1: 30% developed malnutrition and 28% improved their nutritional status, p = NS; G2: 50% developed malnutrition against 7% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.002; y G3: 37% developed malnutrition against 21% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.02). According to RNI, patients evolved negatively from their nutritional state but no significant differences were found within groups (G1, from 81% of

  14. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  15. BJR supplements and radiotherapy treatment planning data - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scientific community has depended on the BJR Supplements on central axis depth dose data published from time to time. There have been five supplements since 1953 when Supplement No. 5 was first published on the subject. The frequent revisions, addition of new data and updating with the technological advancements are special features of these supplements. The most recent supplement is numbered 25 and has been brought out in 1996. A review of the data in respect of cobalt-60, MV X-rays and electron beams as described in the supplements is the subject matter of this write-up. (author)

  16. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  17. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 18 October 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with cystic fibrosis. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were

  18. ANALYSIS OF ω-3 FATTY ACID CONTENT OF POLISH FISH OIL DRUG AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadnik, Kamila; Jaworska, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Study results indicate that a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA n-3) exerts favorable effect on human health, accounting for reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PUFA n-3 contained in marine fish oils, particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acids, are attributed antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-arrhythmic effects. They have also beneficial effects on cognitive functions and immunological mechanisms of an organism. Considering the fact that marine fish are not abundant in Western diet, the pharmaceutical industry reacts with a broad selection of PUFA n-3 containing dietary supplements and drugs. Increased consumers' interest with those products has been observed recently. Therefore, their quality, understood as reliability of manufacturer's declaration of composition of offered dietary supplements, is highly important. We have tested 22 products available in pharmacies and supermarkets, manufacturers of which declared content of n-3 fatty acids (21 dietary supplements and I drug). Identity and content of DHA and EPA were assessed using ¹H NMR spectroscopy, based on characteristic signals from protons in methylene groups. Almost one in five of the examined dietary supplements contains content was consistent with the actual composition. It is notable that more cases of discrepancy between the declared and the actual content regarded DHA than EPA, which indicates a less favorable balance, considering the pro-health effect of those acids. Over a half of tested products provides the supplementary dose (250 mg/day) with one capsule taken daily, and in 27% of cases the daily dosage should be doubled. Only 10% of those products ensure the appropriate dose for cardiovascular patients (1 g/day) with the use of I capsule a day. Correct information provided by a manufacturer on a label regarding the total amount of DHA and EPA is a basis for selection of an appropriate

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  20. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2012-11-14

    It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation on the progression of AMD in people with AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to August 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 20 August 2012. We searched the reference lists of identified reports and the Science Citation Index. We contacted investigators and experts in the field for details of unpublished studies. We also searched for systematic reviews of harms of vitamin supplements. We included randomised trials comparing antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation (alone or in combination) to placebo or no intervention in people with AMD. Two authors assessed risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. Where appropriate, we pooled data using a random-effects model unless three or fewer trials were available in which case we used a fixed-effect model. Thirteen trials (6150 participants) were included in this review. Over

  1. IRON-ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN KUPANG CITY, EAST TIMOR PROVINCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Anie Indriastuti Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the main micronutrient deficiency problem among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Anemia due to iron deficiency often coexists with zinc deficiency. Both iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency can increase the risk of obstetric complications among pregnant women i.e. bleeding during labor and post-partum hemorrhage. Iron-folate supplementation among pregnant women had been conducting since long time ago throughout this country; however, effort to improve the nutritional status particularly among adolescent girls prior to pregnancy is still lack behind. Iron and zinc have antagonistic interaction. Therefore it was challenging to alleviate anemia problem among adolescent girls with appropriate ratio of iron-zinc supplementation, and will give a benefit to improve their nutritional status. This study was aimed to investigate the different ratios of ironzinc supplementation on reducing the prevalence of anemia as improving the nutritional status of adolescent school girls.A female elementary school students age 10-12 years old (n= 137 were screened in rural area of Kupang City, East Timor Province. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups for daily iron-zinc supplementation for 12 weeks; Group 1 (iron; 60 mg/day, Group 2 (iron and zinc; 30 mg and 15 mg/day, Group 3 (iron and zinc; 60 mg and 15 mg/day. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method (Hemocue to determine the prevalence of anemia (Hb level < 120 g/L, while anthropometric assessment was conducted for measuring weight and height to determine the nutritional status. General characteristics was assessed through interview. At base line, 29.1% of subjects suffered from anemia and in general, the prevalence was reduced to around 13.1% after they took iron supplements with or without zinc. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased among all subjects euther suffered from anemia or not. The result of this study showed that subject who

  2. Assessment of inpatient multimodal cardiac imaging appropriateness at large academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remfry, Andrew; Abrams, Howard; Dudzinski, David M; Weiner, Rory B; Bhatia, R Sacha

    2015-11-14

    Responding to concerns regarding the growth of cardiac testing, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) published Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for various cardiac imaging modalities. Single modality cardiac imaging appropriateness has been reported but there have been no studies assessing the appropriateness of multiple imaging modalities in an inpatient environment. A retrospective study of the appropriateness of cardiac tests ordered by the inpatient General Internal Medicine (GIM) and Cardiology services at three Canadian academic hospitals was conducted over two one-month periods. Cardiac tests characterized were transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT), and diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Overall, 553 tests were assessed, of which 99.8% were classifiable by AUC. 91% of all studies were categorized as appropriate, 4% may be appropriate and 5% were rarely appropriate. There were high rates of appropriate use of all modalities by GIM and Cardiology throughout. Significantly more appropriate diagnostic catheterizations were ordered by Cardiology than GIM (93% vs. 82%, p = imaging modalities in this multi-centered study on Cardiology and GIM inpatients in the acute care setting. The rate of appropriate ordering was high across all imaging modalities. We recommend further work towards improving appropriate utilization of cardiac imaging resources focus on the out-patient setting.

  3. Radioactive {sup 210}Po in magnesium supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Environmental Chemistry and Radiochemistry Chair

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium {sup 210}Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between {sup 210}Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g{sup -1} (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from {sup 210}Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year{sup -1} respectively.

  4. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY (SUPPLEMENT I) LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. EIGHTY-TWO UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS AS EDUCATIONAL GAMES, CURRICULUM CHANGE, CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, PROGRAM…

  5. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. SUPPLEMENT III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED. APPROXIMATELY 220 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1963 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS, SHORT-TERM GROUP COUNSELING,…

  6. 15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activities submitted under § 908.4, § 908.5, or § 908.6 is found to contain any material inaccuracies, misstatements, and omissions. A supplemental report must also be made if there are changes in plans for the...

  7. Vitamin A supplementation and risk of atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, Nicholas; Balde, Aliu; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children above six months of age in low-income countries. VAS has been associated with up-regulation of the Th2 response. We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood....

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early pregnancy BP normally falls, climbing slowly ... Resource Centre for Randomised Trials, Institute of Health Sciences, Old Road. Headington, Oxford, UK ... Subgroup analyses were used to test whether these effects ..... Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium supplementation in angiotensin.

  9. Dietary Supplements for ADHD: A Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (345 mg/d) on the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was determined in 63 children, ages 6 to 12 years, at the Mayo Clinic and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

  10. Vitamin C Supplementation Reduces Peroxidative Damage without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...

  11. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more

  12. ∗-supplemented subgroups of finite groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A subgroup H of a group G is said to be M∗-supplemented in G if ... normal subgroups and determined the structure of finite groups by using some ...... [12] Monakhov V S and Shnyparkov A V, On the p-supersolubility of a finite group with a.

  13. Oestrogen supplementation in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2005-02-06

    Feb 6, 2005 ... intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) — a prospective randomised study. ARTICLE. Objective. To investigate the impact of oestrogen supplementation from the early luteal to the late proliferative phase on biochemical and ongoing pregnancy rates in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Methods. Ninety-five ...

  14. Utilization of enzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight (8) week feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of enzyme natuzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk extract as growth inducer in the practical diet for Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets at 0 ml of stalk extract and enzyme (TRT 1), 15 ml (TRT 2) and 30 ...

  15. Effects of supplementation of the synbiotic Ecologic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, E.; Gerritsen, J.; Smidt, H.; Besseling-van der Vaart, I.; Rijkers, G.T.; Garcia Fuentes, A.R.; Masclee, A.A.M.; Troost, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been suggested as dietary strategies to improve intestinal barrier function. This study aimed to assess the effect of two weeks synbiotic supplementation on intestinal permeability under basal and stressed conditions. Secondary aims

  16. Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Rungwe district in Tanzania, to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation on reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle. Cattle used were crossbreds, mainly between Friesian (Bos taurus) and indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (Bos indicus). All animals were managed under ...

  17. Neonatal Vitamin A supplementation | Humphrey | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem throughout the developing world, affecting an estimated 124 million young children and accounting for more than 1 million child deaths each year.' A meta-analysis of eight controlled trials estimated that community-based vitamin A supplementation resulted in a 23% ...

  18. Radioactive 210Po in magnesium supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium 210 Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring 210 Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between 210 Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g -1 (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from 210 Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year -1 respectively.

  19. Main issues in micronutrient supplementation in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammardo, A. M.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    For almost all patients with PKU, a low phenylalanine diet is the basis of the treatment despite a widely varying natural protein tolerance. A vitamin and mineral supplement is essential and it is commonly added to a phenylalanine-free (phe-free) source of L-amino acids. In PKU, many phe-free

  20. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...

  1. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  2. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  3. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  4. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  5. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.110 Supplemental financing. (a) Except in the case of financial hardship as determined by the Administrator, and following certain mergers, consolidations, and transfers of systems... merger, consolidation, or transfer of system substantially in its entirety, and the provisions of 7 CFR...

  6. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  7. Alzheimer's disease dietary supplements in websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmour, Nicole; Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Zimmerman, Emma; Gauthier, Serge; Racine, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Consumer demand for health information and health services has rapidly evolved to capture and even propel the movement to online health information seeking. Seventeen percent (52 million) of health information internet users will look for information about memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Fox Pew Internet & American life project: Online health search. Report. Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Online-Health-Search-2006.aspx 2006, Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/HealthTopics.aspx 2011). We examined the content of the 25 most frequently retrieved websites marketing AD dietary supplements. We found that the majority of websites and their products claimed AD-related benefits, including improvement and enhancement of function, treatment for AD, prevention of AD, maintenance of function, delayed progression of AD, and decreased symptoms. Supplements were described as effective, natural, powerful or strong, dependable and pure or of high quality. Peer reviewed references to proper scientific studies were infrequent on websites. Statements highlighting the risks of dietary supplements were as common as statements mitigating or minimizing these risks. Different strategies were used to promote supplements such as popular appeals and testimonials. Further enforcement of relevant policy is needed and preparation of clinicians to deal with requests of patients and caregivers is indicated.

  8. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  9. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... nutritional needs of the participant. The food packages are as follows: (1) Food Package I—Infants birth...

  10. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many years to boost, even by small margins, their strength and per- formance. ... training or competition routine, even if the rationale for using these products is not .... Dietary supplements adulterated with sibutramine, an anti-obesity agent, which do .... for weight loss and athletic performance: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003 ...

  11. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  12. 21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., modifications to manufacturing procedures or methods of manufacture that affect the safety and effectiveness of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PMA supplements. 814.39 Section 814.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  13. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  14. The Appropriate Use of Neurostimulation of the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System for the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Ischemic Diseases : The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deer, Timothy R.; Mekhail, Nagy; Provenzano, David; Pope, Jason; Krames, Elliot; Leong, Michael; Levy, Robert M.; Abejon, David; Buchser, Eric; Burton, Allen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Candido, Kenneth; Caraway, David; Cousins, Michael; de Jongste, Micheal; Diwan, Sudhir; Eldabe, Sam; Gatzinsky, Kliment; Foreman, Robert D.; Hayek, Salim; Kim, Philip; Kinfe, Thomas; Kloth, David; Kumar, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed; Lad, Shivanand P.; Liem, Liong; Linderoth, Bengt; Mackey, Sean; McDowell, Gladstone; McRoberts, Porter; Poree, Lawrence; Prager, Joshua; Raso, Lou; Rauck, Richard; Russo, Marc; Simpson, Brian; Slavin, Konstantin; Staats, Peter; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Verrills, Paul; Wellington, Joshua; Williams, Kayode; North, Richard

    Introduction: The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) of the International Neuromodulation Society (INS) evaluated evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of neurostimulation to treat chronic pain, chronic critical limb ischemia, and refractory angina and recommended

  15. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  16. CPD Appropriations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The datasets are the full-year allocations for HUD's Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD) formula programs: Community Development Block Grants (CDBG);...

  17. Constrained Appropriations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    cultures of media consumption which unify and divide Brazil's (urban) youth, attention is also given to an  understanding of the relationship between young people and media, as developed in concrete attempts to increase the cultural competences of young, ‘disprivileged' media consumers. The contribution......  A discussion of the contingent character of young Brazilian's media culture is the focus of my contribution's theoretical approach. Thus, while giving recognition to young people's active agency in the creation of media-centred lifestyles and youth cultures, I will seek to demonstrate...

  18. Appropriate technology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    was not the primary target species and fetched a much lower price. Fortunately, in recent decades both the ... even if they have low market value, may nonetheless be vital components of the marine ecosystem. Bert Allsopp ... First, the catch of non-target species is being reduced through the use of “excluder” devices on ...

  19. Collaborative Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Michael; Neureiter, Katja; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2016-01-01

    Previous workshops and papers have examined how individual users adopt and adapt technologies to meet their own local needs, by “completing design through use.” However, there has been little systematic study of how groups of people engage collaboratively in these activities. This workshop opens ...

  20. Appropriate Pupilness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    for football are selected. The article opens up for a microanalysis of everyday practices at the margins and at the core of what this article terms `pupilness'. The concept of intersectionality is suggested as a useful analytical tool to understand the multiple activities of pupils in everyday school life...