WorldWideScience

Sample records for lend independent support

  1. Designing an Information System for Decision Support Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of financial and banking activities requires a strong information support to ensure the competitive edge over the other competitors on the market. The exponential growth in the volume of lending financial operations made the use of modern information technology in banking has become fundamental to improving lending activity. Thus, the design and use of a computer system adapted to specific requirements of bank lending will provide opportunities to diversify and modernize the procedures for granting, repayment and credit guarantee to correlate products offer credit demands and customer needs. In this regard, the related objectives of this work are oriented to emphasize the positive impact of the adoption of modern information technologies in decision making in the banking field. The proposed objectives are justified by presenting solutions support system of credit decision which aims to automate ongoing operations specific to a banking allowing bank clerks to process a large number of loan applications in a time very short and to the right decisions and substantiated.

  2. Otolith shape lends support to the sensory drive hypothesis in rockfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, V M; Otero-Ferrer, J L; Gómez-Zurita, J; Venerus, L A; Stransky, C; Imondi, R; Orlov, A M; Ye, Z; Santschi, L; Afanasiev, P K; Zhuang, L; Farré, M; Love, M S; Lombarte, A

    2016-10-01

    The sensory drive hypothesis proposes that environmental factors affect both signalling dynamics and the evolution of signals and receivers. Sound detection and equilibrium in marine fishes are senses dependent on the sagittae otoliths, whose morphological variability appears intrinsically linked to the environment. The aim of this study was to understand if and which environmental factors could be conditioning the evolution of this sensory structure, therefore lending support to the sensory drive hypothesis. Thus, we analysed the otolith shape of 42 rockfish species (Sebastes spp.) to test the potential associations with the phylogeny, biological (age), ecological (feeding habit and depth distribution) and biogeographical factors. The results showed strong differences in the otolith shapes of some species, noticeably influenced by ecological and biogeographical factors. Moreover, otolith shape was clearly conditioned by phylogeny, but with a strong environmental effect, cautioning about the use of this structure for the systematics of rockfishes or other marine fishes. However, our most relevant finding is that the data supported the sensory drive hypothesis as a force promoting the radiation of the genus Sebastes. This hypothesis holds that adaptive divergence in communication has significant influence relative to other life history traits. It has already been established in Sebastes for visual characters and organs; our results showed that it applies to otolith transformations as well (despite the clear influence of feeding and depth), expanding the scope of the hypothesis to other sensory structures. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liu, Li; Leung, Stephen; Du, Jiangze; Wang, Xun; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model) is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  4. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  5. Observational evidence of the complementary relationship in regional evaporation lends strong support for Bouchet's hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge A. Ramirez; Michael T. Hobbins; Thomas C. Brown

    2005-01-01

    Using independent observations of actual and potential evapotranspiration at a wide range of spatial scales, we provide direct observational evidence of the complementary relationship in regional evapotranspiration hypothesized by Bouchet in 1963. Bouchet proposed that, for large homogeneous surfaces with minimal advection of heat and moisture, potential and actual...

  6. 77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... from derivative transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements, securities lending... derivative transaction, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction... derivative transaction, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction...

  7. Building Strength or Lending an Ear in Legal Conflicts: Dependence and Conflict Asymmetry as Distinct Predictors of Needs for Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Maria Anna Jozefa; Giebels, Ellen; Zebel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Being aware of psychological aspects of legal conflicts can benefit the efficiency of legal aid. We propose that needs for support may be particularly dependent upon the experience of asymmetry between conflict parties. We distinguish between two types of asymmetry and examine how they relate to

  8. Parents' Responses to a Kindergarten-Classroom Lending-Library Component Designed to Support Shared Reading at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Yu, SeonYeong; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often recommend that families engage their children in shared book reading to support literacy learning at home. When teachers purposefully provide families with home literacy activities there are benefits for everyone involved. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study that examined parental participation and…

  9. EPICS: operating system independent device/driver support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Originally EPICS input/output controllers (IOCs) were only supported on VME-based systems running the vxWorks operating system. Now IOCs are supported on many systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, Solaris, HPUX, Linux, WIN32, and Darwin. A challenge is to provide operating-system-independent device and driver support. This paper presents some techniques for providing such support. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a set of software tools, libraries, and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed, real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators, telescopes, and other large scientific experiments. An important component of all EPICS-based control systems is a collection of input/output controllers (IOCs). An IOC has three primary components: (1) a real-time database; (2) channel access, which provides network access to the database; and (3) device/driver support for interfacing to equipment. This paper describes some projects related to providing device/driver support on non-vxWorks systems. In order to support IOCs on platforms other than vxWorks, operating-system-independent (OSI) application program interfaces (APIs) were defined for threads, semaphores, timers, etc. Providing support for a new platform consists of providing an operating-system-dependent implementation of the OSI APIs.

  10. Supported Housing and Supported Independent Living in the Netherlands, with a Comparison with England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Visser, Ellen; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    Research into community housing programs for people with severe mental illness is underexposed. The Dutch UTOPIA study describes characteristics of their service users, which may predict their allocation to either supported housing or supported independent living programs. Additionally, a comparison

  11. Direct Lending Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    In its third year, direct lending is working well for college students and administration. It is a simpler, faster, more efficient way of getting loan funds to students that cuts out financial middlemen. It helps students manage their finances better when repaying loans, promotes competition, stimulates program innovation, leads to greater…

  12. Coworking Spaces: A Source of Social Support for Independent Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.

  13. Coworking Spaces: A Source of Social Support for Independent Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eGerdenitsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609. A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.

  14. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...... channel, due to the presence of collateralized borrowers, and (ii) a banking attenuator effect, which crucially arises from the spread in interest rates caused by the introduction of monopolistically competitive financial intermediaries. We show how the classical amplification mechanism explored in models...

  15. Lending Video Game Consoles in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This paper will outline the process and discussions undertaken at the University of Denver's University Libraries to implement a lending service providing video game consoles. Faculty and staff at the University Libraries decided to pursue the new lending service, though not a traditional library offering, to support the needs of a video game…

  16. Learning Algorithms for Audio and Video Processing: Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machine Based Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qi, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose two new machine learning schemes, a subband-based Independent Component Analysis scheme and a hybrid Independent Component Analysis/Support Vector Machine scheme, and apply...

  17. 12 CFR 563e.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 563e.22 Section 563e.22 Banks and... Assessing Performance § 563e.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a savings... community development lending criterion. (b) Performance criteria. The OTS evaluates a savings association's...

  18. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... community development lending criterion. (b) Performance criteria. The OCC evaluates a bank's lending performance pursuant to the following criteria: (1) Lending activity. The number and amount of the bank's home... consider affiliate lending in assessing a bank's performance under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section. (d...

  19. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  20. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  1. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three bats species and whole genome mitochondrial analyses reveal patterns of codon bias and lend support to a basal split in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-15

    Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  4. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... criterion. (b) Performance criteria. The FDIC evaluates a bank's lending performance pursuant to the... consider affiliate lending in assessing a bank's performance under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section. (d... a bank's lending performance as provided in Appendix A of this part. ...

  5. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area...

  6. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  7. Transitioning to employment with a rheumatic disease: the role of independence, overprotection, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Rosenberg, Alan M; Tucker, Lori B; Mosher, Dianne P; Gignac, Monique A M

    2014-12-01

    To examine perceived independence, overprotection, and support, and their association with the employment participation of young adults with rheumatic disease. One hundred and forty-three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%) and juvenile arthritis (45.5%) completed a 30-min online questionnaire of their work and education experiences. Information collected was demographic, health (e.g., pain, fatigue, disease activity), work context (e.g., career satisfaction, helpfulness of job accommodation/benefits, and workplace activity limitations), and psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support, and overprotection). Log-Poisson regression analysis examined factors associated with employment status. Over half of respondents were employed (59%) and 26% were enrolled in school. Respondents reported moderate to high perceptions of independence and social support. However, 27% reported that "quite a bit" to "a great deal" of overprotection characterized their relationships with those closest to them. At the bivariate level, employed participants and those indicating greater perceived independence reported greater social support and less overprotection. Multivariable analysis revealed that being employed was associated with older age, more job accommodations/benefits perceived as being helpful, and greater perceived independence. This is one of the first studies examining the employment of young adults with rheumatic diseases. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial perceptions such as independence and overprotection, in addition to support related to working. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of those close to young adults with rheumatic diseases in supporting independence and encouraging employment.

  8. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  9. A New Paradigm for Secure Social Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos

    Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.

  10. Lending Interest Rates’ Relationships of Malaysia and Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azryani Auzairy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to examine the relationship of Malaysia‟s lending interest rate with other countries which include China, Singapore, United States, Indonesia and Thailand. Those five countries are Malaysia‟s major trading partners. The daily base lending interest rates from 2006 to 2014 were applied to this study. The associations of the interest rates were tested by coefficient correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that Malaysian lending interest rate is significant and positively related to those of China, Thailand and the United States. Among the five countries‟ interest rates, only the changes in interest rates of China, Thailand and the United States would affect Malaysia‟s lending rate. The independence of monetary policy would hardly be expected by the Malaysian authority, Bank Negara, in its decision on lending interest rate. In addition, it may affect the trade finance and money market hedge decisions by the international traders. This study provides an overview and guidance to the government authorities in making more effective decisions related to monetary policy, international trade and foreign exchange exposure in order to strengthen the economy.

  11. Capital Requirements, Monetary Policy, and Aggregate Bank Lending: Theory and Empirical Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Thakor, Anjan V

    1996-01-01

    Capital requirements linked solely to credit risk are shown to increase equilibrium credit rationing and lower aggregate lending. The model predicts that the bank's decision to lend will cause an abnormal run-up in the borrower's stock price and that this reaction will be greater the more capital-constrained the bank. The author provides empirical support for this prediction. The model explains the recent inability of the Federal Reserve to stimulate bank lending by increasing the money suppl...

  12. Interactive learning environments to support independent learning: the impact of discernability of embedded support devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Rob; Valcke, Martin; Portier, Stanley

    2017-01-01

    In this article the effectivity of prototypes of interactive learning environments (ILE) is investigated. These computer-based environments are used for independent learning. In the learning materials, represented in the prototypes, a clear distinction is made between the basic content and embedded

  13. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  14. The impact of monetary policy on bank lending rate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Matemilola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pass-through of the policy rates to bank lending rate is an important subject matter because it measures the effectiveness of monetary policy to control inflation or stabilize the economy. This study investigates the long-run interest rate pass-through of the money market rate to the bank lending rate and asymmetric adjustment of the bank lending rate. The study applies the momentum threshold autoregressive and asymmetric error correction models. The asymmetric error correction results reveal that bank lending rate adjusts to a decrease in the money market rate in South Africa. The findings suggest that the South African commercial banks adjust their lending rate downward but the lending rate appears rigid upward, which supports the customer reaction hypothesis.

  15. Transition to independent practice: a national enquiry into the educational support for newly qualified GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ann; Abouharb, Tareq; Etherington, Clare; Bandura, Induja

    2010-09-01

    The nature of the work that NQGPs are undertaking in their transition to independent practice is changing; current training may not fully prepare them for this new peripatetic role, as indicated by rising numbers of reports of poor performance in this group. Educational support at the time of transition from general practitioner (GP) training to independent practice had previously demonstrated benefits, but many formal schemes have finished. This study aimed to map out the current provision of educational support provided by the UK deaneries for NQGPs and to explore NQGPs' perceptions of the present transition from registrar to independent practitioner. Questionnaire surveys of deanery provision and semi-structured telephone interviews of a purposeful sample of newly qualified GPs across the UK. Interviews were thematically analysed. Deanery provision of educational support to NQGPs varies across the UK. Telephone interviews highlighted the transformation as problematic; NQGPs perceived that independent practice was substantially different from being in a training post - locum work, isolation and accessing educational opportunities were concerns. NQGPs frequently expressed a desire for more formalised relationships with mentors, senior colleagues or peer groups, to support their shift. As NQGPs increasingly find themselves working as locums, lacking the opportunity for stable work-based relationships, and with an increase in medical errors being reported in this group of doctors, it is suggested that there is a need to reconsider the educational support required to facilitate the transition in the early years of independent general practice.

  16. Monitoring Costs and Multinational-Bank Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph de Haas

    2006-01-01

    We use a two-country model to examine how endogenous changes in monitoring intensity and exogenous changes in monitoring efficiency affect multinational-bank lending. First, an endogenous decline in monitoring intensity limits the amount of deposits that banks can attract. This lowers bank lending. Shocks that reduce bank capital relative to firm capital therefore have a stronger negative effect on bank lending compared to a model with exogenous monitoring intensity. Second, international dif...

  17. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model...... in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions...... countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss...

  18. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  19. Dynamic Incentives in Microfinance Group Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential tools of poverty reduction would be the viable expansion of institutional credit facilities to large sections of the people who neither have adequate collateral nor credit history to secure a loan. In this backdrop, social collateral is popularized through the group lending programs to address the credit market problems. Microfinance through group lending is acting as a screening device; the joint liability mechanism creates incentives for internal monitoring. Hence, it has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. It is playing an important role in delivering financial services to the “socially and economically excluded” poor, in general, and women, in particular. The group lending works with various dynamic incentives. One such kind is principle of progressive lending and it plays a vital role in sustaining the groups for the persistent delivery of microfinance services to its members. In progressive lending, a typical borrower receives very small amounts at first, which increases with good repayment conduct or it links new, larger loans to past repayment. This article explores possible theoretical and empirical relationship between progressive lending and its determinants in group lending approach. The primary survey was conducted in 10 villages covering 106 self-help groups and 318 members in Karnataka, India. The empirical results show the progressive lending amount rising up to 698% of the initial loan of the self-help groups.

  20. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  1. 76 FR 28504 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  2. 12 CFR 704.7 - Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.7 Lending. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a lending policy which addresses... analyzing the financial and operational soundness of the borrower and the ability of the borrower to repay...

  3. Collateral Damage: Interlibrary Loan Lending Denials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leykam, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to explore the potential of utilizing interlibrary loan (ILL) data relating to lending denials to improve ILL services while highlighting institutional policies that have a negative impact on lending fulfillment rates. Reasons for denial as well as the types of requests being denied are reviewed. In addition, the author…

  4. 76 FR 18007 - Intermediary Lending Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., which are referenced in the Act's legislative history as bases for the ILP program. Requiring ILP... delinquency by an Eligible Small Business Concern. Finally, ILP Intermediaries will incur some costs of... loan request, lending history, projected lending activity, information regarding current or previous...

  5. Is perceived emotional support beneficial? Well-being and health in independent and interdependent cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko; Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Reyes, Jose Alberto S; Morling, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies show there is little or no association between perceived emotional support and well-being in European American culture. The authors hypothesized that this paradoxical absence of any benefit of perceived support is unique to cultural contexts that privilege independence rather than interdependence of the self. Study 1 tested college students and found, as predicted, that among Euro-Americans a positive effect of perceived emotional support on subjective well-being (positive affect) was weak and, moreover, it disappeared entirely once self-esteem was statistically controlled. In contrast, among Asians in Asia (Japanese and Filipinos) perceived emotional support positively predicted subjective well-being even after self-esteem was controlled. Study 2 extended Study 1 by testing both Japanese and American adults in midlife with respect to multiple indicators of well-being and physical health. Overall, the evidence underscores the central significance of culture as a moderator of the effectiveness of perceived emotional support.

  6. Effect of PVRC damping with independent support motion response spectrum analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.K.; Bezler, P.; Shteyngart, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical Committee for Piping Systems of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) has recommended new damping values to be used in the seismic analyses of piping systems in nuclear power plants. To evaluate the effects of coupling these recommendations with the use of independent support motion analyses methods, two sets of seismic analyses have been carried out for several piping systems. One set based on the use of uniform damping as specified in Regulatory Guide 1.61, the other based on the PVRC recommendations. In each set the analyses were performed using independent support motion time history and response spectrum methods as well as the envelope spectrum method. In the independent response spectrum analyses, 14 response estimates were in fact obtained by considering different combination procedures between the support group contributions and all sequences of combinations between support groups, modes and directions. For each analysis set, the response spectrum results were compared with time history estimates of those results. Comparison tables were then prepared depicting the percentage by which the response spectrum estimates exceeded the time history estimates. By comparing the result tables between both analysis sets, the impact of PVRC damping can be observed. Preliminary results show that the degree of exceedance of the response spectrum estimates based on PVRC damping is less than that based on uniform damping for the same piping problem. Expressed differently the results obtained if ISM methods are coupled with PVRC damping are not as conservative as those obtained using uniform damping

  7. Nod of Approval For Black Lending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Private lending, once obscure and operated underground, gets an unofficial go-ahead from the Central Government When it comes to underground or black market lending, a major source of financing for small and medium-sized business owners, the Chinese Government had taken much the same approach as a legendary hero combating a mythological hydra:decapitating the many heads in an effort to slay the beast. Even now, as the government steps up efforts to tighten credit, the heads of the underground lending realm are sprouting up as fast as they are being cut off,

  8. The social basis of separatism: explaining support for the Puerto Rican Independence Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Arrarás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, particularly in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, comparativists rediscovered the enduring appeal of separatist movements around the globe. Many of the most significant political events of the past decade have revolved around issues of nationalism, ethnicity, irredenta, and the like. In light of these renewed preoccupations, it is surprising that U.S. scholars have largely ignored a nationalist movement closer to home. The Puerto Rican independence movement is by far the most significant separatist tendency under the U.S. flag, and is one of the few major anticolonialist movements to survive into the twenty-first century. Although supporters of Puerto Rican independence have typically drawn only three to five percent support in local elections and in plebiscites on the island’s political status, neither have they disappeared from the political scene. The remarkable durability of the independence movement demands systematic explanation. However, as strange as it may seem, to date there have been no serious scholarly studies of the social bases of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

  9. An automatic speech recognition system with speaker-independent identification support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranica, Alexandru; Burileanu, Corneliu

    2015-02-01

    The novelty of this work relies on the application of an open source research software toolkit (CMU Sphinx) to train, build and evaluate a speech recognition system, with speaker-independent support, for voice-controlled hardware applications. Moreover, we propose to use the trained acoustic model to successfully decode offline voice commands on embedded hardware, such as an ARMv6 low-cost SoC, Raspberry PI. This type of single-board computer, mainly used for educational and research activities, can serve as a proof-of-concept software and hardware stack for low cost voice automation systems.

  10. Multimodal and ubiquitous computing systems: supporting independent-living older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Dowdall, Alan; Lines, Lorna; Hone, Kate

    2004-09-01

    We document the rationale and design of a multimodal interface to a pervasive/ubiquitous computing system that supports independent living by older people in their own homes. The Millennium Home system involves fitting a resident's home with sensors--these sensors can be used to trigger sequences of interaction with the resident to warn them about dangerous events, or to check if they need external help. We draw lessons from the design process and conclude the paper with implications for the design of multimodal interfaces to ubiquitous systems developed for the elderly and in healthcare, as well as for more general ubiquitous computing applications.

  11. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank shall...

  12. Lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Derviz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parent influence on lending by affiliates of a multinational bank. In the proposed theoretical model, local lending is influenced by shareholder-affiliate manager delegation and precautionary motives. The outcome is either contagion (the loan volume in the affiliate follows the direction of the parent bank country shock or performance-based reallocation of funds (substitution, depending on the degree of manager delegation in the affiliate and the liquidity-sensitivity in theparent bank. Empirical investigation, deliberately conducted on a sample not covering the latest financial crisis, shows that also in “normal” times, multinational banks that are likely to delegate lending decisions or be more liquidity-sensitive are more inclined towards contagionist behavior.

  13. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  14. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.

  15. Care and support for older adults in The Netherlands living independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2018-05-01

    The growth in the numbers of older adults needing long-term care has resulted in rising costs which have forced the Dutch government to change its long-term care system. Now, the local authorities have greater responsibility for supporting older adults and in prolonging independent living with increased support provided by the social network. However, it is unclear whether these older adults have such a network to rely upon. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the providers of formal and informal care to older adults, and to assess possible differences between older adults who are frail and those who are not. In addition, we investigated their care and support needs. We used data from a quantitative survey using a cross-sectional design in different regions of the Netherlands from July until September 2014 (n = 181). Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty indicator. To analyse the data chi-square tests, crosstabs and odds ratios were used for dichotomous data and the Mann-Whitney U-Test for nominal data. The number of formal care providers involved was significantly higher (median = 2) for those deemed frail than for those not deemed frail (median = 1), U = 2,130, p older adults deemed to be frail did not have their needs sufficiently addressed by their care network. For a substantial part of this group of older adults, the informal network seems to be unable to support them sufficiently. Additional attention for their needs and wishes is required to implement the policy reforms successfully. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Information from Relationship Lending : Evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, C.; Liao, G.; Yu, X.; Ni, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We study the economic role of banks’ soft information, which evolved from repeated lending relationships, in the context of loan default. Using a proprietary database from one of the largest state-owned commercial banks in China, we find that the bank’s internal credit rating scores play a

  17. Bargaining power and information in SME lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grunert (Jens); L. Norden (Lars)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSmall- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are informationally opaque and bank dependent. In SME lending, banks largely rely on soft information, because the scale and scope of hard information are limited. We analyze whether and how hard and soft information affects the borrower's

  18. 76 FR 18354 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... extent that a creditor imposed charges that were inconsistent with Regulation Z while the account was... amounts charged during the period the account was exempt or to provide disclosures regarding transactions...) amends the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by increasing the threshold for exempt consumer credit...

  19. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lending transactions. 800.303 Section 800.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation in the foreign person of a secured interest in securities or other assets of the U.S...

  20. What Truth in Lending Means to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet discusses the provisions of the Truth in Lending Law. The act requires that creditors state credit charges in a uniform way. The pamphlet provides a brief description of finance charges and annual percentage rates. It also focuses on…

  1. Lending Behavior of Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 19-36 ISSN 2077-429X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multinational bank * Contagion * Substitution * Agency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/derviz-lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  2. 76 FR 11319 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be... Final Rule Congress enacted TILA based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA), also provides that its principal obligation limitations are subject...

  3. 75 FR 81836 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... MDIA is contained in Sections 2501 through 2503 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Public Law 110-289, enacted on July 30, 2008. The MDIA was later amended by the Emergency Economic...

  4. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experien...

  5. Kalimantan energy resource management to support energy independence and industry growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizki Firmansyah Setya Budi; Wiku Lulus Widodo; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of energy resource in Kalimantan such as coal, oil, CBM, gas and nuclear. While the electricity consumption still low. That condition caused by the bad energy planning. The aim of the study are to know the number and the ability of energy resource to supply the energy demand that support the growth of Kalimantan industry. The methodology are collecting and processing data through calculation using MESSAGE Program. The result is energy resource in Kalimantan can support Kalimantan energy independence and industry growth in Kalimantan. The coal resource is 34,814 million ton consumption 835 million ton, gas resource is 31,814 BSCF consumption 3,281 BSCF, Oil resource is 920 MMSTB consumption 4406 MMSTB, CBM resource is 210 TCF consumption 2.1 TCF, U 3 O 8 resource is 12,409 ton consumption zero. Whereas for hydro and biomass, the resource are 256 and 138 MWyr, the maximum consumption 185 and 126 MWyr every year. Oil consumption will exceed the resource so need import from other island or replaced by others energy that have large resource such as gas, CBM, or coal. Potency to make cleaner environment can be done by used nuclear energy. (author)

  6. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons During Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2018-03-01

    Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role. Overall, volunteers were engaged more frequently than family/friends; police considered the volunteers to be more impartial during interviews, whereas family/friends provided a greater level of emotional support to interviewees. Independent support persons need to demonstrate two quite different types of support to people with intellectual disability(ies) during police interviews; these require quite different skill sets and suggest the need for more tailored training and support for these volunteers. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Applying Different Independent Component Analysis Algorithms and Support Vector Regression for IT Chain Store Sales Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting. PMID:25165740

  8. Applying different independent component analysis algorithms and support vector regression for IT chain store sales forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wensheng; Wu, Jui-Yu; Lu, Chi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  9. A decision-support framework for promoting independent living and ageing well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Antonis S; Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Frantzidis, Christos A; Tsatali, Marianna S; Tsolaki, Anthoula C; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence and decision support systems offer a plethora of health monitoring capabilities in ambient assisted living environment. Continuous assessment of health indicators for elderly people living on their own is of utmost importance, so as to prolong their independence and quality of life. Slow varying, long-term deteriorating health trends are not easily identifiable in seniors. Thus, early sign detection of a specific condition, as well as, any likely transition from a healthy state to a pathological one are key problems that the herein proposed framework aims at resolving. Statistical process control concepts offer a personalized approach toward identification of trends that are away from the atypical behavior or state of the seniors, while fuzzy cognitive maps knowledge representation and inference schema have proved to be efficient in terms of disease classification. Geriatric depression is used as a case study throughout the paper, so to prove the validity of the framework, which is planned to be pilot tested with a series of lone-living seniors in their own homes.

  10. Applying Different Independent Component Analysis Algorithms and Support Vector Regression for IT Chain Store Sales Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR, is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA, temporal ICA (tICA, and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  11. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Real Estate Lending and Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each state...

  12. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS § 365.2 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each insured state... extensions of credit that are secured by liens on or interests in real estate, or that are made for the...

  13. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  14. Validity, reliability and support for implementation of independence-scaled procedural assessment in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2016-06-01

    There is no widely used method to evaluate procedure-specific laparoscopic skills. The first aim of this study was to develop a procedure-based assessment method. The second aim was to compare its validity, reliability and feasibility with currently available global rating scales (GRSs). An independence-scaled procedural assessment was created by linking the procedural key steps of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy to an independence scale. Subtitled and blinded videos of a novice, an intermediate and an almost competent trainee, were evaluated with GRSs (OSATS and GOALS) and the independence-scaled procedural assessment by seven surgeons, three senior trainees and six scrub nurses. Participants received a short introduction to the GRSs and independence-scaled procedural assessment before assessment. The validity was estimated with the Friedman and Wilcoxon test and the reliability with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). A questionnaire was used to evaluate user opinion. Independence-scaled procedural assessment and GRS scores improved significantly with surgical experience (OSATS p = 0.001, GOALS p < 0.001, independence-scaled procedural assessment p < 0.001). The ICCs of the OSATS, GOALS and independence-scaled procedural assessment were 0.78, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively, among surgeons. The ICCs increased when the ratings of scrub nurses were added to those of the surgeons. The independence-scaled procedural assessment was not considered more of an administrative burden than the GRSs (p = 0.692). A procedural assessment created by combining procedural key steps to an independence scale is a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment instrument in surgery. In contrast to the GRSs, the reliability of the independence-scaled procedural assessment exceeded the threshold of 0.8, indicating that it can also be used for summative assessment. It furthermore seems that scrub nurses can assess the operative competence of surgical trainees.

  15. A novel WDM passive optical network architecture supporting two independent multicast data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to perform optical multicast overlay of two independent multicast data streams on a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network. By controlling a sinusoidal clock signal and shifting the wavelength at the optical line terminal (OLT), the delivery of the two multicast data, being carried by the generated optical tones, can be independently and flexibly controlled. Simultaneous transmission of 10-Gb/s unicast downstream and upstream data as well as two independent 10-Gb/s multicast data was successfully demonstrated.

  16. Overview and Categorization of Robots Supporting Independent Living of Elderly People: What Activities Do They Support and How Far Have They Developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; De Witte, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, many robots for the elderly have been developed, supporting different activities of elderly people. A systematic review in four scientific literature databases and a search in article references and European projects was performed in order to create an overview of robots supporting independent living of elderly people. The robots found were categorized based on their development stage, the activity domains they claim to support, and the type of support provided (i.e., physical, non-physical, and/or non-specified). In total, 107 robots for the elderly were identified. Six robots were still in a concept phase, 95 in a development phase, and six of these robots were commercially available. These robots claimed to provide support related to four activity domains: mobility, self-care, interpersonal interaction & relationships, and other activities. Of the many robots developed, only a small percentage is commercially available. Technical ambitions seem to be guiding robot development. To prolong independent living, the step towards physical support is inevitable and needs to be taken. However, it will be a long time before a robot will be capable of supporting multiple activities in a physical manner in the home of an elderly person in order to enhance their independent living.

  17. Development of Network Devices Supporting Communication Independence In NPP I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K.-I.; Suh, Y.S.; Park, G.-O.; Park, J.-Y.

    2013-06-01

    As advanced digital I and C systems of nuclear power plants or research reactors are being introduced to replace analog systems, a data communication network is necessary for data exchanges between I and C systems of nuclear power plants or research reactors. Data communication network technology may have significant impact on I and C systems. As the safety I and C system is composed of redundant channels to enhance the performance of the safety functions and data communication system is used to transmit the data generated by the digital I and C systems, communication independence is required to mitigate the risk of safety I and C system failure. Therefore this paper mainly discusses the issues related to the communication independence and the current status of network devices we designed, developed, and validated to satisfy the requirements of function, performance, and communication independence. (authors)

  18. Striking the Right Balance: Police Experience, Perceptions and Use of Independent Support Persons during Interviews Involving People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Spivak, Benjamin; Thomas, Stuart D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). Methods: The sample comprised 229 police…

  19. Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouh, K.H.

    1995-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

  20. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  1. How Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience Support Invention: A Study with German Independent Inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.; Bedenk, Stephan J.; Braun, Anna; Neyer, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    How does invention depend on personality? Do inventors differ from noninventors? This study investigated the personal factors influencing a sample of independent inventors in Germany (N = 69). Standardized psychological questionnaires were employed to assess the Big Five personality dimensions, willingness to take risks, self-concept, and…

  2. Can an Online Tool Support Contemporary Independent Music Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Julia; Upitis, Rena

    2015-01-01

    The body of research examining deliberate practice and self-regulation in musical instruction has grown extensively over the past several decades, while at the same time many practices in the independent music studio remain unchanged and/or under-researched. Compelling evidence indicates that students with high levels of self-regulation experience…

  3. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programmes : evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that

  4. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  5. Appraisal of Priority Sector Lending by Commercial Banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    C Bhujanga Rao

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the performance of priority sector lending by commercial banks in India. The review captures the changing contours of Reserve Bank of India policy on priority sector advances. The paper analyses the trends in priority sector lending for the period 1995-2011, the burden of non-performing assets of commercial bank in priority sector lending and the extent to which priority sector targets are achieved by individual banks. It is observed that the scheduled comm...

  6. Monetary transmission and bank lending in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. We observe significant differences between the responses of corporate and household lending following a monetary shock. We also find that banks hold a buffer stock of securities which they use to offset monetary shocks. The main implication of our study is that a bank lending channel is not likely to be an important transmission mechanism of monetary policy.

  7. Monetary Expansion and the Banking Lending Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Fazio, Dimas Mateus; Cavalcanti, André Luiz Cordeiro; Cunha, George Henrrique de Moura

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000-2012 (totalizing 13 years). The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit.

  8. Humane Orientation and Corruption in Bank Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera-aumpon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural dimensions than Hofstede’s. Using the data covering more than 3000 firms in 32 countries, this paper finds that humane orientation increases the corruption of bank officials. The effect of humane orientation on the corruption of bank officials is not only statistically significant but also economically relevant. The magnitude of its effect is relatively comparable to that of collectivism.

  9. An Analysis of European Online micro-lending Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Ashta; Djamchid Assadi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the paper: With the development of web 2.0, a new kind on lending is taking place on the internet, termed peer to peer lending or social lending. In Europe, this includes commercial lending websites such as Zopa, smava, boober, Kokos, Monetto. At the same time, following the lead of Kiva in the US, European microcredit web platforms are coming up including MyC4 and Babyloan in Europe. The paper examines how the legal design of the online websites differs from the microcredit websit...

  10. A Method for Accounting for Risk in Lending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobylski, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    ..., or decreased to increase competitiveness? Many lending institutions, specifically furniture retailers, do not use scientific methods for determining their risk of payment defaults on loans to customers...

  11. Foster Youth and Social Support: The First RCT of Independent Living Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K. P.; Garcia, Antonio R.; Kim, Minseop; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conduct secondary data analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of Massachusetts' Adolescent Outreach Program for Youths in Intensive Foster Care (Outreach) for increasing social support (SS) among enrolled youth. Participants: 194 youth in intensive foster care under the guardianship of the Massachusetts Department of Children and…

  12. "Curiouser and Curiouser'" Supporting Children's Independent Enquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Debbie; McGrory, Maria; Westgate, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The best science teaching can be identified as that which sets out to support pupils' natural curiosity by equipping them with the investigative skills to make sense of the world around them. This requires a change in the way teachers think and also requires visionary leadership, agency, reflection, and enactment by participating teachers. This…

  13. Interactive Videogame Technologies to Support Independence in the Elderly: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Hannah R; Smith, Stuart T

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the use of videogame technology has increased within the domain of health, in particular to facilitate rehabilitation following a stroke or fall. This review presents an overview of how videogame technologies can be used to address health issues contributing to reduced independence in older adults. Four themes were identified: (1) hardware, (2) software, (3) health issues addressed using videogames, and (4) clinicians' perspectives. Several recommendations have been proposed to build upon the use and integration of videogame technology into rehabilitation and training for older adults. In particular, the use of videogames for health requires an appropriate game classification system for development of games that are appropriate for the physical, cognitive, and social requirements of older adults or those living with a disability.

  14. Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Gentile, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Balsi, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method for the classification of independent components (ICs) extracted from functional MRI (fMRI) data sets. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, each fMRI-IC is associated with an IC-fingerprint, i.e., a representation of the component in a multidimensional space of parameters. These parameters are post hoc estimates of global properties of the ICs and are largely independent of a specific experimental design and stimulus timing. In the second step a machine learning algorithm automatically separates the IC-fingerprints into six general classes after preliminary training performed on a small subset of expert-labeled components. We illustrate this approach in a multisubject fMRI study employing visual structure-from-motion stimuli encoding faces and control random shapes. We show that: (1) IC-fingerprints are a valuable tool for the inspection, characterization and selection of fMRI-ICs and (2) automatic classifications of fMRI-ICs in new subjects present a high correspondence with those obtained by expert visual inspection of the components. Importantly, our classification procedure highlights several neurophysiologically interesting processes. The most intriguing of which is reflected, with high intra- and inter-subject reproducibility, in one IC exhibiting a transiently task-related activation in the 'face' region of the primary sensorimotor cortex. This suggests that in addition to or as part of the mirror system, somatotopic regions of the sensorimotor cortex are involved in disambiguating the perception of a moving body part. Finally, we show that the same classification algorithm can be successfully applied, without re-training, to fMRI collected using acquisition parameters, stimulation modality and timing considerably different from those used for training.

  15. Establishing an independent mobile health programme for chronic disease self-management support in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Piette

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile health (m-health work in low and middle-income countries (LMICs mainly consists of pilot programmes with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: 364 primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. 165 of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly Interactive Voice Response (IVR calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: 37% of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home, and 38% had six or fewer years of education. 82% had a mobile phone; half (45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR programme participants completed 1007 self-management support calls, with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health via IVR increased during programme participation, and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the programme, with 19/20 (95% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programmes can be transferred from higher-resource centres to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among people

  16. Establishing an independent mobile health program for chronic disease self-management support in bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients' ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients' likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among

  17. A platform independent prototype for data and information exchange between decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.; Baig, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A survey amongst participants in the Decision Support System network (DSSNET) community showed that the organization dealing with the Information exchange between participants and stakeholders in nuclear emergency is too disparate to be defined in one well defined procedure or analysis. Looking at the organization of the national emergency response organizations, and especially when modelling the information flow, diversity is the most striking finding: originators of the information are different, decision making organisation can be different, the approval and publishing of information to press and wider public is dealt with in different ways and the responsibilities for the information flow to other authorities differ as well. Moreover, the place of decision support systems (DSS) in the emergency response organization varies for the different countries. This variation can be found in the way one of the 'big three' (RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS) systems is implemented, and even more in the way other, often country-specific systems, are in use and function more integrated with the particular emergency response organization of the country. Hence we can conclude that there is a need to structure the information exchange system, but this has to be flexible enough to work with the above described variety of existing organizations and procedures. Though it may not be feasible to agree on all specifications of information to be exchanged, we can define at least a minimal set. A prototype for data and information exchange is being developed under the EC project MODEM (Monitoring data and Information exchange among decision support systems). It establishes links between the decision support systems RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS. For setting up this data exchange, the use of xml-based data specifications allows a flexible integration with existing applications. The power to include metadata in a structured way allows the use of automated transformation tools and limits the

  18. Debt maturity and relationship lending: An analysis of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Canovas, G.; Koeter-Kant, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes,

  19. Home-mortgage lending trends in New England in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Patricia Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    This brief analysis of home-mortgage lending trends in New England is based on data collected under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). HMDA provides information on mortgage lending trends and includes data by loan purpose, type of loan, income, and the race and ethnicity of borrowers. In this report we focus on home-purchase and refinance loans in New England.

  20. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are SBA's lending criteria... Policies Applying to All Business Loans Credit Criteria for Sba Loans § 120.150 What are SBA's lending... depth of management; (c) Strength of the business; (d) Past earnings, projected cash flow, and future...

  1. Monetary transmission and bank lending in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. We observe significant differences between the responses of corporate and household lending following a monetary shock. We also find that banks hold a buffer stock of securities which they use

  2. Foreigners vs. Natives : Bank Lending Technologies and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Ioannidou, V.; Schäfer, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Do domestic and foreign banks differ in their lending techniques and loan pricing models? Are such differences driven by different clienteles? Using a sample of firms that borrow from both domestic and foreign banks in the same month, we show significant differences in lending techniques

  3. Transforming LEND leadership training curriculum through the maternal and child health leadership competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Betsy P; Couse, Leslie J; Sonnenmeier, Rae M; Kurtz, Alan; Russell, Susan M; Antal, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Leadership Competencies (v 3.0) were used to examine and improve an MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) training curriculum for New Hampshire and Maine. Over 15 % of the nation's children experience neurodevelopmental disabilities or special health care needs and estimates suggest 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Across the Unites States critical shortages of qualified MCH professionals exist, particularly in poor and rural areas. A continued investment in training interdisciplinary leaders is critical. The MCH Leadership Competencies provide an effective foundation for leadership training through identification of requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of MCH leaders. This paper describes a three-step process, which began in 2010 and included utilizing the MCH Leadership Competencies as a tool to reflect on, develop, and evaluate the NH LEND leadership curriculum. Curriculum development was further supported through participation in a multi-state learning collaborative. Through a series of intentional decisions, the curriculum design of NH LEND utilized the competencies and evidence-based principles of instruction to engage trainees in the development of specific MCH content knowledge and leadership skills. The LEND network specifically, and MCH leadership programs more broadly, may benefit from the intentional use of the MCH competencies to assist in curriculum development and program evaluation, and as a means to support trainees in identifying specific leadership goals and evaluating their leadership skill development.

  4. Patients' experiences with technology during inpatient rehabilitation: opportunities to support independence and therapeutic engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fager, Susan Koch; Burnfield, Judith M

    2014-03-01

    To understand individuals' perceptions of technology use during inpatient rehabilitation. A qualitative phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews of 10 individuals with diverse underlying diagnoses and/or a close family member who participated in inpatient rehabilitation. Core themes focused on assistive technology usage (equipment set-up, reliability and fragility of equipment, expertise required to use assistive technology and use of mainstream technologies) and opportunities for using technology to increase therapeutic engagement (opportunities for practice outside of therapy, goals for therapeutic exercises and technology for therapeutic exercises: motivation and social interaction). Interviews revealed the need for durable, reliable and intuitive technology without requiring a high level of expertise to install and implement. A strong desire for the continued use of mainstream devices (e.g. cell phones, tablet computers) reinforces the need for a wider range of access options for those with limited physical function. Finally, opportunities to engage in therapeutically meaningful activities beyond the traditional treatment hours were identified as valuable for patients to not only improve function but to also promote social interaction. Assistive technology increases functional independence of severely disabled individuals. End-users (patients and families) identified a need for designs that are durable, reliable, intuitive, easy to consistently install and use. Technology use (adaptive or commercially available) provides a mechanism to extend therapeutic practice beyond the traditional therapy day. Adapting skeletal tracking technology used in gaming software could automate exercise tracking, documentation and feedback for patient motivation and clinical treatment planning and interventions.

  5. The Potential of Three Computer-Based Communication Activities for Supporting Older Adult Independent Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Heinz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become an increasingly integral part of life. For example, technology allows individuals to stay in touch with loved ones, obtain medical services through telehealthcare, and enjoy an overall higher quality of life. Particularly for older adults, using technology increases the likelihood that they will maintain their independence and autonomy. Long-distance caregiving has recently become a feasible option where caregivers for older adults can access reports and information about their loved one’s patterns that day (e.g., food and medication intake. Technology may be able to offset age-related challenges (e.g., caregiving, accessing healthcare, decreased social networks by applying technology to the needs of older adults. Solutions for meeting such challenges, however, have been less targeted. In addition, the healthcare system is evolving to focus on providing options and services in the home. This has direct implications for older adults, as the majority of healthcare services are utilized by older adults. Research is still at the beginning stages of developing successful technology tools that are compatible with older adult users. Therefore, the design, implementation, and outcome of such computer-based communication activities will be discussed in this paper in order to guide future endeavors in technology marketed for older adults.

  6. Establishing an Independent Mobile Health Program for Chronic Disease Self-Management Support in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D.; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that

  7. E-book lending in digital libraries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is systematic review of e-book lending in digital libraries in order to identify the status of researches in e-book lending, exist research gaps, and their research methods. In this way, systematic review is used for study. Searching in databases in three steps finally showed 36 research resources to be studied. Findings demonstrate that researches on e-book lending are in progress and at the future this domain will be in the spotlight. Also findings showed that subjects such as e-book lending, business models and status of laws in e-book lending are the main fields that need more researches. Moreover study on research methods showed that most of the researches had done by quantitative approach and survey method.

  8. State lends support for industrial parks / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Valitsus kavatseb asutada sihtasutust Ida-Virumaa Tööstusparkide Arendus, mis peaks looma 4000 töökohta. Ühendatakse SA Jõhvi Tööstuspark, SA Narva Tööstuspark ja SA Püssi Tööstusala Arendus

  9. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  10. Ductility prediction of substrate-supported metal layers based on rate-independent crystal plasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpama Holanyo K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are used to predict localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers. The self-consistent scale-transition scheme is used to derive the mechanical behavior of a representative volume element of the metal layer from the behavior of its microscopic constituents (the single crystals. The mechanical behavior of the elastomer substrate follows the neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. The adherence between the two layers is assumed to be perfect. Through numerical results, it is shown that the limit strains predicted by the initial imperfection approach tend towards the bifurcation predictions when the size of the geometric imperfection in the metal layer vanishes. Also, it is shown that the addition of an elastomer layer to a metal layer enhances ductility.

  11. CHALLENGES AROUND DIGITAL BOOK LENDING LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Arévalo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development and expansion of the global market for electronic books and associated models to lending library are still in a developmental state and uncertainty. After a first stage in which major publishers refused to sell licenses loan at present publishers are putting more e-book titles available to libraries, although with some restrictions. The dominant trend is moving inexorably towards greater availability and access to digital titles to libraries. Once this stage about the limited availability of titles are pending other matters as the issue of licensing costs, with different rates offered to the public, which are increased in some cases up to three or more sometimes the retail price, which further complicates the procurement processes for libraries in a time when budgets are limited, hampering the ability of libraries to acquire adequate collection of digital products. Among other issues, technological and commercial that limit many uses they had libraries in the analog context, ownership and possession of the collection, the same stability, portability across platforms, and the difficulties associated with DRM systems digital rights management.

  12. Prereplicative complexes assembled in vitro support origin-dependent and independent DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Kin Fan; Beuron, Fabienne; Frith, David; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Morris, Edward P; Diffley, John F X

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from multiple replication origins. To ensure each origin fires just once per cell cycle, initiation is divided into two biochemically discrete steps: the Mcm2-7 helicase is first loaded into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) as an inactive double hexamer by the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdt1 and Cdc6; the helicase is then activated by a set of “firing factors.” Here, we show that plasmids containing pre-RCs assembled with purified proteins support complete and semi-conservative replication in extracts from budding yeast cells overexpressing firing factors. Replication requires cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 does not by itself promote separation of the double hexamer, but is required for the recruitment of firing factors and replisome components in the extract. Plasmid replication does not require a functional replication origin; however, in the presence of competitor DNA and limiting ORC concentrations, replication becomes origin-dependent in this system. These experiments indicate that Mcm2-7 double hexamers can be precursors of replication and provide insight into the nature of eukaryotic DNA replication origins. PMID:24566989

  13. Sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation independent of circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Irene; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2016-07-01

    Sleep promotes memory, particularly for declarative learning. However, its role in non-declarative, emotional memories is less well understood. Some studies suggest that sleep may influence fear-related memories, and thus may be an important factor determining the outcome of treatments for emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Here, we investigated the effect of sleep deprivation and time of day on fear extinction memory consolidation. Mice were subjected to a cued Pavlovian fear and extinction paradigm at the beginning of their resting or active phase. Immediate post-extinction learning sleep deprivation for 5h compromised extinction memory when tested 24h after learning. Context-dependent extinction memory recall was completely prevented by sleep-manipulation during the resting phase, while impairment was milder during the active phase and extinction memory retained its context-specificity. Importantly, control experiments excluded confounding factors such as differences in baseline locomotion, fear generalization and stress hormone levels. Together, our findings indicate that post-learning sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation in both circadian phases. The lack of correlation between memory efficacy and sleep time suggests that extinction memory may be influenced by specific sleep events in the early consolidation period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    these institutions is vitally important for creating and sustaining an ethos of constitutionalism among the inhabitants of the Republic.The Constitution makes explicit provision for the protection of the judiciary and the other independent state institutions and thereby indirectly for the development of habits of constitutionalism. The constitutional protection and support given to the independent state institutions are very similar to that given to the courts. One important distinction is to be noted. In the case of the courts, the Constitution provides that they "are subject only to the Constitution and the law" and no provision is made for them to be accountable to any other organ of state or any other institution or person, for that matter. By contrast, the independent institutions envisaged in section 181 of the Constitution are expressly made accountable to the National Assembly and are obliged to report on their activities and the performance of their functions to the Assembly at least once a year. While the formal independence of state institutions may at all times be scrupulously recognised by the legislature and the executive, their substantive independence can easily be undermined by fiscal starvation and their ability to function properly impeded by bureaucratic administrative obstruction or obfuscation or even, quite innocently, by a lack of appreciation of what the Constitution demands from public administration in support of these institutions. Adequate financial and administrative resources are required to achieve aspects of judicial independence. All South Africans must still be vigilant to ensure, from the outset, that all state organs develop habits and practices of constitutionalism and that they do not, whether by omission, error, or otherwise endanger the independence of our independent state institutions by neglecting their constitutional obligations.For the Constitutional Court to fulfil its role as the ultimate guardian of the Constitution, it

  15. Integrating Family as a Discipline by Providing Parent Led Curricula: Impact on LEND Trainees' Leadership Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, Bruce L; Bishop, Elizabeth A; Roth, Jenness M

    2017-05-01

    Background While the MCH Leadership Competencies and family as a discipline have been required elements of Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and related Disabilities (LEND) programs for over a decade, little research has been published on the efficacy of either programmatic component in the development of the next generation of leaders who can advocate and care for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) populations. Objective To test the effectiveness of integrating the family discipline through implementation of parent led curricula on trainees' content knowledge, skills, and leadership development in family-centered care, according to the MCH Leadership Competencies. Methods One hundred and two long-term (≥ 300 h) LEND trainees completed a clinical and leadership training program which featured intensive parent led curricula supported by a full-time family faculty member. Trainees rated themselves on the five Basic and Advanced skill items that comprise MCH Leadership Competency 8: Family-centered Care at the beginning and conclusion of their LEND traineeship. Results When compared to their initial scores, trainees rated themselves significantly higher across all family-centered leadership competency items at the completion of their LEND traineeship. Conclusions The intentional engagement of a full-time family faculty member and parent led curricula that include didactic and experiential components are associated with greater identification and adoption by trainees of family-centered attitudes, skills, and practices. However, the use of the MCH Leadership Competencies as a quantifiable measure of program evaluation, particularly leadership development, is limited.

  16. LENDING STRUCTURE AND MARKET RISK EXPOSURES: THE MALAYSIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the linkages between lending structure and market risk exposure. The influence of lending structure is analysed by four measures: the real estate lending, the specialisation index, the short-term lending stability, and the medium-term lending stability. Our findings show that lending structure to some extent affects the market risk exposure to some extend. At the same time, listed bank holding companies showed higher levels of market risk during and after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Meanwhile, the desired effect of bank mergers in terms of reducing market risk exposure did not materialise in this study. Thus, the findings of this study posits at least two implications; (1 policy makers should react accordingly in the decision-making process towards achieving the expected result of the monetary policy transmission mechanism, and (2 banks and investors should account the impact of lending structures in addition to the significance effect of loan expansion and management efficiency when determining market risk exposure of bank holding companies.

  17. MACRO ECONOMICS FACTORS AND BANK LENDING BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofikoh Rokhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influencing macro economics factor in lending distribution and observes the comparison of each factor based on lending type which are investment, working capital and domestic consumption lending. Using data of Indonesian commercial banks between 2003-2011 and a balanced panel method, it finds that bank liquidity and inflation rate have significant negative effect, while number of banks has strong positive influence to stimulate lending distribution. Moreover, saving rate and GDP growth were found not meaningfully contributed to change investment lending distribution, but they significantly influenced the other lending distribution. Lastly, reserve requirement and exchange rate did not significantly influence all lending type.Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDP.JEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51AbstrakStudi ini meneliti faktor ekonomi makro yang mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman dan mengamati perbandingan masing-masing faktor berdasarkan jenis pinjaman yaitu pinjaman investasi, modal kerja dan konsumsi. Dengan menggunakan data dari bank-bank komersial di Indonesia antara 2003-2011, dengan menggunakan analisis data panel, ditemukan bahwa likuiditas perbankan dan tingkat inflasi berpengaruh negatif signifikan, sedangkan jumlah bank berpengaruh positif dan kuat untuk mendorong distribusi pinjaman pada semua jenis pinjaman. Selain itu, tingkat tabungan dan pertumbuhan PDB ditemukan tidak bermakna dalam kontribusinya untuk mempengaruhi distribusi kredit investasi, tetapi secara signifikan mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman lainnya. Terakhir, GWM dan nilai tukar tidak signifikan mempengaruhi semua tiga kategori jenis pinjaman. Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDPJEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51

  18. Response margins investigation of piping dynamic analyses using the independent support motion method and PVRC [Pressure Vessel Research Committee] damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Wang, Y.K.; Reich, M.

    1988-03-01

    An evaluation of Independent Support Motion (ISM) response spectrum methods of analysis coupled with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) recommendation for damping, to compute the dynamic component of the seismic response of piping systems, was completed. Response estimates for five piping/structural systems were developed using fourteen variants of the ISM response spectrum method, the Uniform Support Motions response spectrum method and the ISM time history analysis method, all based on the PVRC recommendations for damping. The ISM/PVRC calculational procedures were found to exhibit orderly characteristics with levels of conservatism comparable to those obtained with the ISM/uniform damping procedures. Using the ISM/PVRC response spectrum method with absolute combination between group contributions provided consistently conservative results while using the ISM/PVRC response spectrum method with square root sum of squares combination between group contributions provided estimates of response which were deemed to be acceptable

  19. Exploring the critical factors influencing online lending intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Online lending (P2P lending) is a type of internet finance mainly used to meet the financial needs of small and medium-sized enterprises and groups of individuals. It is a supplement to the traditional financial system. Method: This paper uses PPDai.com - the most influential online lending platform in China - as a research object to study the leading factors that affect lenders' loan trust and perception of information asymmetry. It also studies the impacts of these factors on le...

  20. Money Lending Law and Regulation of Consumer Credit in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Money lending is an indispensible consumer credit device in Nigeria as it is elsewhere. ... (borrowers), but that they also unduly fetter the lenders, which development is bad for modern business efficacy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. 78 FR 17766 - Interagency Guidance on Leveraged Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... high-level principles related to safe-and-sound leveraged lending activities, including underwriting considerations, assessing and documenting enterprise value, risk management expectations for credits awaiting distribution, stress- testing expectations, pipeline portfolio management, and risk management expectations for...

  2. Effect of Information Asymmetry and Relationship Lending on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Information Asymmetry and Relationship Lending on Financial ... from small- business- friendly financial institutions, hypotheses postulated by the ... a model of transaction costs of financial contracting that put into consideration the ...

  3. 12 CFR 560.170 - Records for lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... practices that: (a) Ensure that the institution can make an informed lending decision and can assess risk on... that any claims against a borrower, guarantor, security holders, and collateral are legally enforceable...

  4. Financial and estimating indicators for assessment of mortgage lending value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benvenuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a calculation criteria for the determination of the mortgage lending value which originates from the application of the financial method (direct capitalisation, by adopting a capitalisation rate calculated by means of the Debt Coverage Ratio (DCR, taking into consideration the criteria set out by the mortgage lending value, that is (i prudent appreciation of the future marketability, (ii normal and local market conditions, (iii current use and (iv long-term sustainability of the property.

  5. Models of sequential decision making in consumer lending

    OpenAIRE

    Kanshukan Rajaratnam; Peter A. Beling; George A. Overstreet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we introduce models of sequential decision making in consumer lending. From the definition of adverse selection in static lending models, we show that homogenous borrowers take-up offers at different instances of time when faced with a sequence of loan offers. We postulate that bounded rationality and diverse decision heuristics used by consumers drive the decisions they make about credit offers. Under that postulate, we show how observation of early decisions in a seq...

  6. "Lines of Credit and Relationship Lending in Small Firm Finance"

    OpenAIRE

    Allen N. Berger; Gregory E. Udell

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the role of relationship lending using a data set on small firm finance. The abilities to acquire private information over time about borrower quality and to use this information in designing debt contracts largely define the unique nature of commercial banking. Recently, a theoretical literature on relationship lending has appeared which provides predictions about how loan interest rates evolve over the course of a bank-borrower relationship. The study focuses on small, m...

  7. Lending Sociodynamics and Drivers of the Financial Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Hawkins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We extend sociodynamic modeling of the financial business cycle to the Euro Area andJapan. Using an opinion-formation model and machine learning techniques we find stable modelestimation of the financial business cycle using central bank lending surveys and a few selectedmacroeconomic variables. We find that banks have asymmetric response to good and bad economicinformation, and that banks adapt to their peers’ opinions when changing lending policies.

  8. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Yiping; Ma, Hui

    2011-01-01

    As we know, borrowing and lending risk-free assets arise extensively in the theory and practice of finance. However, little study has ever investigated them in fuzzy portfolio problem. In this paper, the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to...

  9. Marketing-Mix of Online Social Lending Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Djamchid Assadi; Meredith Hudson

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of microfinance in developing countries and its evolution to a business model in developed nations, microfinance has fully transitioned to the internet, taking the distinctive form of social lending. However, the marketing trends of emerging peer-to-peer micro-lending websites have been largely unexplored during its rise to recognition due to most studies focusing on financial, economic, political and humanitarian issues in context to microfinance. However, based on a sample of ...

  10. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  11. Managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the demand-control-support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Hugo; Nyberg, Anna; Bernin, Peggy; Hyde, Martin; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Jäppinen, Paavo; Väänänen, Ari; Theorell, Töres

    2010-01-01

    Research on health effects of managerial leadership has only taken established work environment factors into account to a limited extent. We therefore investigated the associations between a measure of Attentive Managerial Leadership (AML), and perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue, adjusting for the dimensions of the Demand-Control-Support model. Blue- and white-collar workers from Finland, Germany and Sweden employed in a multi-national forest industry company (N=12,622). Cross-sectional data on leadership and health from a company-wide survey analysed with logistic regression in different subgroups. AML was associated with perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue after controlling for the Demand-Control-Support model. Lack of AML was significantly associated with a high stress level in all subgroups (OR=1.68-2.67). Associations with age-relative self-rated health and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue were weaker, but still significant, and in the expected direction for several of the subgroups studied, suggesting an association between lack of AML and negative health consequences. The study indicates that managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the Demand-Control-Support model and should be considered in future studies of health consequences for employees, and in work environment interventions.

  12. Model-Independent Evaluation of Tumor Markers and a Logistic-Tree Approach to Diagnostic Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of using individual tumor markers hardly meet the clinical requirement. This challenge gave rise to many efforts, e.g., combing multiple tumor markers and employing machine learning algorithms. However, results from different studies are often inconsistent, which are partially attributed to the use of different evaluation criteria. Also, the wide use of model-dependent validation leads to high possibility of data overfitting when complex models are used for diagnosis. We propose two model-independent criteria, namely, area under the curve (AUC and Relief to evaluate the diagnostic values of individual and multiple tumor markers, respectively. For diagnostic decision support, we propose the use of logistic-tree which combines decision tree and logistic regression. Application on a colorectal cancer dataset shows that the proposed evaluation criteria produce results that are consistent with current knowledge. Furthermore, the simple and highly interpretable logistic-tree has diagnostic performance that is competitive with other complex models.

  13. A hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis with K-means clustering and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  14. 75 FR 66553 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Conduct, the current standard for appraisal independence for loans purchased by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac... loans the GSEs would purchase. The HVCC is based on an agreement between the GSEs, New York State..., bribe, or intimidate a person, appraisal management company, firm, or other entity conducting or...

  15. 12 CFR 32.3 - Lending limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... techniques, or other appropriate methods, to independently verify the reliability of the credit information... period after its occurrence, or a requirement of good faith on the part of the bank. (5) Loans to or... union. (8) Loans to the Student Loan Marketing Association. Loans or extensions of credit to the Student...

  16. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.

  17. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  18. Service tailoring: a method and tool for user-centric creation of integrated IT-based homecare services to support independent living of elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of supporting independent living of elderly people through IT-based homecare services. Independent living is seen as one way to deal with the consequences of an aging population (especially in industrialized countries), which include rising healthcare expenditures

  19. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  20. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  1. BANK LENDING EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai LEOVEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of global nuisance of banking and financial sector during the international financial crisis continues to have overwhelming implications in the current period, which requires careful research of monetary and financial phenomena locally and globally. In this sense, this article aims to highlight key aspects of the Romanian investment environment in the context of international economic environment and monetary policy transmission mechanisms in the Romanian economy. Following this approach, the study focuses on analyzing the financial position of banks operating in Romania, the evolution of lending by type of entity and positive/negative aspects about the impact of monetary policy measures and the NBR regulations on bank lending. The study shows conclusively the positive and the negative effects of lending evolution on the Romanian economy, on the solvency and bankruptcy risk of Romanian companies and on the behavior of debtors and creditors in credit relationships.

  2. Bank Lending Policy, Credit Scoring and Value at Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Tor; Roszbach, Kasper

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we apply a bivariate probit model to investigate the implications of bank lending policy. In the first equation we model the bank´s decision to grant a loan, in the second the probability of default. We confirm that banks provide loans in a way that is not consistent with default risk minimization. The lending policy must thus either be inefficient or be the result of some other type of optimizing behavior than expected profit maximization. Value at Risk, being a value weighted ...

  3. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to measure investment risk. The conventional probabilistic mean variance model can be transformed to a linear programming problem under possibility distributions. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modeling idea and the impact of borrowing and lending on optimal decision making.

  4. The group-lending model and social closure: microcredit, exclusion, and health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage.

  5. The Group-lending Model and Social Closure: Microcredit, Exclusion, and Health in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-01-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage. PMID:19761085

  6. Reasons in Support of Data Security and Data Security Management as Two Independent Concepts: A New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Kamkarhaghighi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Any information which is generated and saved needs to be protected against accidental or intentional losses and manipulations if it is to be used by the intended users in due time. As such, information managers have adopted numerous measures to achieve data security within data storage systems, along with the spread of information technology. Background: The “data security models” presented thus far have unanimously highlighted the significance of data security management. For further clarification, the current study first introduces the “needs and improvement” cycle; the study will then present some independent definitions, together with a support umbrella, in an attempt to shed light on the data security management. Findings: Data security focuses on three features or attributes known as integrity, identity of sender(s) and identity of receiver(s). Management in data security follows an endless evolutionary process, to keep up with new developments in information technology and communication. In this process management develops new characteristics with greater capabilities to achieve better data security. The characteristics, continuously increasing in number, with a special focus on control, are as follows: private zone, confidentiality, availability, non-repudiation, possession, accountability, authenticity, authentication and auditability. Conclusion: Data security management steadily progresses, resulting in more sophisticated features. The developments are in line with new developments in information and communication technology and novel advances in intrusion detection systems (IDS). Attention to differences between data security and data security management by international organizations such as the International Standard Organization (ISO), and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is necessary if information quality is to be enhanced. PMID:27857823

  7. Reasons in Support of Data Security and Data Security Management as Two Independent Concepts: A New Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Sajjadi, Samad; Kamkarhaghighi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Any information which is generated and saved needs to be protected against accidental or intentional losses and manipulations if it is to be used by the intended users in due time. As such, information managers have adopted numerous measures to achieve data security within data storage systems, along with the spread of information technology. The "data security models" presented thus far have unanimously highlighted the significance of data security management. For further clarification, the current study first introduces the "needs and improvement" cycle; the study will then present some independent definitions, together with a support umbrella, in an attempt to shed light on the data security management. Data security focuses on three features or attributes known as integrity, identity of sender(s) and identity of receiver(s). Management in data security follows an endless evolutionary process, to keep up with new developments in information technology and communication. In this process management develops new characteristics with greater capabilities to achieve better data security. The characteristics, continuously increasing in number, with a special focus on control, are as follows: private zone, confidentiality, availability, non-repudiation, possession, accountability, authenticity, authentication and auditability. Data security management steadily progresses, resulting in more sophisticated features. The developments are in line with new developments in information and communication technology and novel advances in intrusion detection systems (IDS). Attention to differences between data security and data security management by international organizations such as the International Standard Organization (ISO), and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is necessary if information quality is to be enhanced.

  8. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Jantsje H; Assländer, Lorenz; van Kordelaar, Joost; de Kam, Digna; Mergner, Thomas; Schouten, Alfred C

    2018-01-01

    The Independent Channel (IC) model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II) to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a humanoid robot. This

  9. Evidence in Support of the Independent Channel Model Describing the Sensorimotor Control of Human Stance Using a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H. Pasma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Independent Channel (IC model is a commonly used linear balance control model in the frequency domain to analyze human balance control using system identification and parameter estimation. The IC model is a rudimentary and noise-free description of balance behavior in the frequency domain, where a stable model representation is not guaranteed. In this study, we conducted firstly time-domain simulations with added noise, and secondly robot experiments by implementing the IC model in a real-world robot (PostuRob II to test the validity and stability of the model in the time domain and for real world situations. Balance behavior of seven healthy participants was measured during upright stance by applying pseudorandom continuous support surface rotations. System identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the balance behavior with the IC model in the frequency domain. The IC model with the estimated parameters from human experiments was implemented in Simulink for computer simulations including noise in the time domain and robot experiments using the humanoid robot PostuRob II. Again, system identification and parameter estimation were used to describe the simulated balance behavior. Time series, Frequency Response Functions, and estimated parameters from human experiments, computer simulations, and robot experiments were compared with each other. The computer simulations showed similar balance behavior and estimated control parameters compared to the human experiments, in the time and frequency domain. Also, the IC model was able to control the humanoid robot by keeping it upright, but showed small differences compared to the human experiments in the time and frequency domain, especially at high frequencies. We conclude that the IC model, a descriptive model in the frequency domain, can imitate human balance behavior also in the time domain, both in computer simulations with added noise and real world situations with a

  10. 13 CFR 120.931 - 504 Lending limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 504 Lending limits. 120.931 Section 120.931 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development... enumerated in § 120.862(b) applies to the Project). [68 FR 57988, Oct. 7, 2003] ...

  11. Optimal Joint Liability Lending and with Costly Peer Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carli, Francesco; Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes an optimal group loan contract with costly peer monitoring. Using a fairly standard moral hazard framework, we show that the optimal group lending contract could exhibit a joint-liability scheme. However, optimality of joint-liability requires the involvement of a group

  12. Joint liability lending and the peer selection effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, S; Ghatak, M; Lensink, R

    2005-01-01

    We show that the joint liability lending contracts derived in Ghatak (2000) violate an ex post incentive-compatibility constraint which says that the amount of joint liability cannot exceed the amount of individual liability. We derive and characterise optimal separating joint liability contracts

  13. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, van R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  14. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  15. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and reporting requirements to monitor compliance with the savings association's real estate lending... institutions' business plans and, when undertaken in a prudent manner, will not be subject to examiner... policies and strategic plan. Factors that should be considered include: • The size and financial condition...

  16. 78 FR 18795 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... of credit at account opening. The consumer is also required to pay a cash advance fee that is equal... amount equal to any fees the consumer was required to pay with respect to the account that exceed 25... Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act, and the Official Interpretations of the regulation...

  17. Lending Officers' Decisions to Recommend Innovative Agricultural Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Wm. Alex; Zey-Ferrell, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Path analysis examines an analytical model of decision making by lending officers of 211 Texas banks when recommending agricultural technology to farmer-clients. Model analyzes effects of loan officers' ascribed/achieved personal characteristics and perceptions of organizational constraints during three stages of decision process: using…

  18. Management control of credit risk in the bank lending process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Management control of credit risk in the bank lending processA casestudy to explore improvements from a managerial perspectiveAt the start of this project -back in 1998- new technologies and ideas were emerging among a new generation of financial engineering professionals who have been applying

  19. EIB lends EUR 300 million for CERN's major collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The European Investment Bank (EIB) is lending EUR 300 million to finance the final phase of construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The EIB loan will also help to finance the instrumentation to record and analyse the high-energy particle collisions at the LHC" (1 page).

  20. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  1. Does bank ownership affect relationship lending: A developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to explore how the type of bank ownership - local private banks, government-owned banks (public banks and foreign banks - can affect relationship lending to small and medium enterprises (SMEs by using a unique data set from Bangladeshi banking sector. We found that private banks differ from government-owned and foreign banks in terms of relationship lending and credit facilities to SMEs. More specifically, our results suggest that unlike government and foreign banks, private banks do consider soft information from relationship lending while setting up the loan spread to SMEs. We can also confirm that exclusive banking relationship or repeated banking with private banks can soften credit conditions (loan maturity and covenants. Moreover, we found empirical evidence that banking relationship is important for private banks in terms of SME credit risk evaluation. Finally, as according to our expectation, the results confirm that regardless of prior relationship, private banks are more depended on collateral-based lending to SMEs than government-owned or foreign banks.

  2. 78 FR 25818 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0039] RIN 3170-AA28 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Final rule; official interpretations. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) issues this final...

  3. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    .... Reasons for the Proposed Rule Congress enacted TILA based on findings that economic stability would be... and Regulation Z Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and competition among consumer credit providers would be strengthened by the...

  4. 75 FR 58469 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be... 2503 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Public Law 110-289, enacted on July 30, 2008. The MDIA was later amended by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Public Law 110-343...

  5. SSI's independent consequence calculations in support of the regulatory review of the SR-Can safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulan Xu; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Woerman, Anders; Marklund, Lars; Klos, Richard; Shaw, George

    2008-03-01

    With the publication of the SR-Can report at the end of 2006, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) have presented a complete assessment of long-term safety for a KBS-3 repository. The SR-Can project demonstrates progress in SKB's capabilities in respect of the methodology for assessment of long-term safety in support of a licence application for a final repository. According to SKB's plans, applications to construct a geological repository will be submitted in 2009, supported by post-closure safety assessments. Project CLIMB (Catchment LInked Models of radiological effects in the Biosphere) was instituted in 2004 to provide SSI with an independent modelling capability when reviewing SKB's assessments. Modelling in CLIMB covers all aspects of performance assessment (PA) from nearfield releases to radiological consequences in the surface environment. This review of SR-Can provides the first opportunity to apply the models and to compare the CLIMB approach with developments at SKB. The aim of the independent calculations is to investigate key aspects of the PA models and so to better understand the assessment methodology used by SKB. Independent modelling allows critical review issues to be addressed by the application of alternative models and assumptions. Three reviews are undertaken here: - Reproduction of selected cases from SR-Can in order to demonstrate an adequate understanding of the PA model from details given in the SR-Can documentation. - Alternative conceptualisation of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the surface system. Two modelling approaches have been used: GEMA (the Generic Ecosystem Modelling Approach) is a traditional compartmental model similar to that used by SKB in SR-Can but with additional functionality and flexibility. The second approach takes continuous transport models to investigate contaminant migration through the Quaternary deposits into the surface drainage system. - The final strand of the CLIMB investigation

  6. SSI's independent consequence calculations in support of the regulatory review of the SR-Can safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulan Xu; Dverstorp, Bjoern (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Woerman, Anders; Marklund, Lars (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (SE)); Klos, Richard (Aleksandria Sciences, Sheffield (GB)); Shaw, George (Univ. of Nottingham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    With the publication of the SR-Can report at the end of 2006, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) have presented a complete assessment of long-term safety for a KBS-3 repository. The SR-Can project demonstrates progress in SKB's capabilities in respect of the methodology for assessment of long-term safety in support of a licence application for a final repository. According to SKB's plans, applications to construct a geological repository will be submitted in 2009, supported by post-closure safety assessments. Project CLIMB (Catchment LInked Models of radiological effects in the Biosphere) was instituted in 2004 to provide SSI with an independent modelling capability when reviewing SKB's assessments. Modelling in CLIMB covers all aspects of performance assessment (PA) from nearfield releases to radiological consequences in the surface environment. This review of SR-Can provides the first opportunity to apply the models and to compare the CLIMB approach with developments at SKB. The aim of the independent calculations is to investigate key aspects of the PA models and so to better understand the assessment methodology used by SKB. Independent modelling allows critical review issues to be addressed by the application of alternative models and assumptions. Three reviews are undertaken here: - Reproduction of selected cases from SR-Can in order to demonstrate an adequate understanding of the PA model from details given in the SR-Can documentation. - Alternative conceptualisation of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the surface system. Two modelling approaches have been used: GEMA (the Generic Ecosystem Modelling Approach) is a traditional compartmental model similar to that used by SKB in SR-Can but with additional functionality and flexibility. The second approach takes continuous transport models to investigate contaminant migration through the Quaternary deposits into the surface drainage system. - The final strand of the CLIMB

  7. The Development of Strategic Bank Lending Industries in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Markovna Kramarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that, in the context of globalization, improved credit support for strategic sectors of the economy (for example, shipbuilding can be achieved through the creation of a banking consortium based around leasing. A dialectical method of resolution of system tasks is selected as the methodological approach. Methods used include: comparative cost analysis of the strategic lending industry supporting the formation and development of a banking consortium; integrated method at the condition modeling of making and implementation of a lease agreement, which allowed to accommodate the interests for both parties of such agreement; optimization method to select the conditions of a lease agreement; classification and analytical method to clarify the classification of lease. The study proved and developed a plan of creation a banking consortium, including options of interaction of such consortium with potential customers based on a lease agreement. The process of functioning of the lease agreement in order to optimize it for both a bank consortium-lessor and a lessee is modeled. The significant advantages of leasing compared to the traditional lending for both parties of leasing, especially when ensuring long-term projects are summarized. The results of the research can be applied in the strategic lending industries development and can reduce the level of banking risks. Applying the results of the research in the social aspect can maintain and increase the number of jobs including the banking sector. The value of the work leis in the fact that the author has developed a new approach to achive the credit support for strategic sectors of the economy through the creation of the banking consortium based around leasing, which allows to protect the interests of both parties.

  8. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  9. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  10. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    OpenAIRE

    Eijkel, van, R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts in the highest monitoring effort. Moreover, monitoring efforts differ between group members due to free-riding: one member reduces her level of monitoring if the other increases her monitoring effor...

  11. Micro-lending for small farmers in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Shahidur; Sharma, Manohar; Zeller, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    It has been long hypothesized that lack of access to credit is the main reason why, despite higher profitability of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), farmers in developing countries continue to allocate a portion of their land to traditional crop varieties. The empirical testing of this hypothesis has generated a large body of literature with differing conclusions. This paper re-examines the issue in the context of a specially designed group-based lending program for small farmers in Bangladesh...

  12. Cross-selling lending and underwriting : scope economies and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...

  13. The Internet, Bank Structure and Small Business Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Steven G. Craig; Polly T. Hardee

    2002-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has opened many opportunities for bankers to access new customers, increase convenience and expand product ranges in many markets, including that of small businesses. Yet anecdotal evidence reveals that smaller banks are reluctant to employ Internet technology in the small business market for fear of damaging the customer relationship developed through personal contact. These smaller, more simply structured banks tend to specialize in small business lending, possess...

  14. Collateral and its Substitutes in Emerging Markets' Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Menkhoff; Doris Neuberger; Ornsiri Rungruxsirivorn

    2011-01-01

    Due to opaque information and weak enforcement in emerging loan markets, the need for collateral is high, whereas borrowers lack adequate assets to pledge as collateral. How is this puzzle solved? We find for a representative sample from Northeast Thailand that indeed most loans do not include any tangible assets as collateral. Instead, lenders enforce collateral-free loans through third-party guarantees and relationship lending, but also through modifying loan terms, such as reducing loan si...

  15. How Collateral Laws Shape Lending and Sectoral Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Calomiris, Charles W.; Larrain, Mauricio; Liberti, José; Sturgess, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of cross-country differences in collateral laws regarding movable assets on lending and sectoral allocation of resources. Using micro-level loan data for a sample of emerging market countries we show that loan-to-values of loans collateralized with movable assets are on average 21 percentage points higher in countries with strong-collateral laws relative to immovable assets. Further, stronger collateral laws tilt collateral composition away from immovable to...

  16. Reserve requirements and the bank lending channel in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fungácová , Zuzana; Nuutilainen , Riikka; Weill , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how reserve requirements influence the transmission of monetary policy through the bank lending channel in China while also taking into account the role of bank ownership. The implementation of Chinese monetary policy is characterized by the reliance on the reserve requirements as a regular policy tool with frequent adjustments. Using a large dataset of 170 Chinese banks for the period 2004–2013, we analyze the reaction of loan supply to changes in reserve requirements. We...

  17. On the roles of different foreign currencies in European bank lending

    OpenAIRE

    Krogstrup, Signe; Tille, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    We draw on a new data set on the use of Swiss francs and other currencies by European banks to assess the patterns of foreign currency bank lending. We show that the patterns differ sharply across foreign currencies. The Swiss franc is used predominantly for lending to residents, especially households. It is sensitive to the interest rate differential, exchange rate developments, funding availability, and to some extent international trade. Lending in other currencies is more used in lending ...

  18. PRUDENTIAL CONSTRAINS OF BANKS LENDING ACTIVITIES AFTER FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ercegovac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Both economic practice and economic theory are interested in analyzing the role of financial sector in promoting the economic development and economic growth. Commercial banks are the most important financial institutions in bank-based economies. The lending activities of commercial banks are limited by regulatory framework, management decisions and credit capacities of borrowers. Regulatory framework has been limited lending potentials of commercial banks because of capital requirements and liquidity management costs. Information asymmetry and adverse selection in decision-making enforce commercial banks to implement credit rationing process even in case of social significance of investment projects. Social responsibility of commercial banks cannot be measured according to the risk-taking activities. Banking financial intermediations have to keep the value of savings deposits under control and protect the stability of financial system. This paper will analyze the risk structure and prudential constrains of bank lending activities. To employ the credit capacity of commercial banks, it is necessary to extend guarantee schemes or promote the alternative financing opportunities in sharing the risk of accelerated growth.

  19. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... § 560.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart....S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and all...

  20. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions

  1. The Impact of Federal Preemption of State Antipredatory Lending Laws on the Foreclosure Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Quercia, Roberto G.; Reid, Carolina K.; White, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    State antipredatory lending laws (APLs) are designed to protect borrowers against predatory lending that can increase the risk of default and deplete the home equity held by borrowers. Federal regulators instituted preemption that limited the scope and reach of state antipredatory lending regulations for certain lenders. Based on the variation in…

  2. Emerging new practices in technology to support independent community access for people with intellectual and cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Steven E; Davies, Daniel K; Wehmeyer, Michael L; Lachapelle, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The concept of community access is a multidimensional term, which may involve issues related to physical access, knowledge and information, power and control, relationships and communications, advocacy, participation and quality of life [21]. This paper discusses historical and emerging practices and interventions related to physical access to community and community based information for individuals with cognitive disabilities such as intellectual disability, autism or traumatic brain injury. While much societal attention has been paid to features of independent community access for populations such as individuals with hearing, vision or physical disabilities, less attention has focused on independent community access for people with intellectual and other significant cognitive disabilities. Attitudes and actions by families and professional service communities are often mixed for some individuals in this population. The somewhat limited research base in these areas is explored, including a case study review and results from several promising feasibility studies. The paper concludes with comments concerning future prospects and recommendations for improving independent community access for persons with significant cognitive disabilities.

  3. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... appraiser shall be engaged directly by the regulated institution or its agent, and have no direct or...

  4. The effects of scaffolding in the classroom : support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Janneke; Volman, Monique; Oort, Frans; Beishuizen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Teacher scaffolding, in which teachers support students adaptively or contingently, is assumed to be effective. Yet, hardly any evidence from classroom studies exists. With the current experimental classroom study we investigated whether scaffolding affects students’ achievement, task effort, and

  5. Improving Work Outcome in Supported Employment for Serious Mental Illness: Results From 2 Independent Studies of Errorless Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F

    2018-01-13

    Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  6. Supporting Rape Survivors Through the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme: An Exploration of English and Welsh Independent Sexual Violence Advisors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olivia; Galey, Jessica

    2018-07-01

    English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice. The study, while exploratory, therefore, highlights the need for further discussion about rape survivor compensation.

  7. LENDING IN FOREIGN CURRENCY AND CURRENT CHALLENGES AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘARGU Alina Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Member States of the EU, that we selected for the analysis (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania have recorded a significant expansion of lending in foreign currency, which was one of the major factors of the accelerated growth of loans to economy. Such developments have led to an increase of indebtedness in foreign currency of the non-financial private sector, especially of the households and of the accumulation of major macroeconomics and financial imbalances. The issue of lending in foreign currency, the determinants of increasing the share of loans in foreign currency and the risks generated at the level of financial stability are the subject of numerous studies, including: Basso, Calvo-Gonzales and Jurgilas (2007; Rosenberg and Tirpak (2008; Csajbók-Andras et al. (2010; Zettelmeyer, Nagy and Jeffrey (2010. Another significant issue addressed in the specialized literature regarding foreign currency loans refers to the role of monetary policy in limiting growth of these loans. Thus, in addition to those noted studies we remark other studies, such as: Kiss et al. (2006; Sirtaine and Skamnelos (2007; Hilbers et al. (2006; Brzoza-Brzezina et al. (2010. Our paper complements the specialized literature on the approached subject, in particular, by highlighting and discussing current issues of high interest for policymakers, both at national and European level regarding lending in foreign currency. The extremely negative implications of lending in foreign currency on financial stability in most countries under review, outlined clearly in the context of the current crisis, determined the focus of the policymakers concern, both at European and national level, regarding the issue of foreign currency loans, which became one of the most discussed issues on the agenda of the monetary-financial authorities. The aim of our research is to

  8. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy may hold the key to explaining the effects of policy on the economy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of the bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Australia. In this paper, we found that the effectiveness of monetary policy varies with the size of the bank as well as the type of the loan. For different asset size and different kinds of loans, the effect of monetary policy is different. Thus, policy has distribu...

  9. Correlates of lending needles/syringes among HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret; Purcell, David W; Latkin, Carl A; Malow, Robert; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H

    2007-11-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined the correlates of lending needles/syringes with HIV-negative and unknown status injection partners. HIV-positive IDUs (N=738) from 4 cities in the United States who reported injection drug use with other IDUs in the past 3 months participated in an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. Eighteen percent of study participants self-reported having lent their needles to HIV-negative or unknown status injection partners. Multivariate analyses showed that 6 variables were significantly associated with this high-risk injecting practice. Older IDUs, high school graduates, and those reporting more supportive peer norms for safer drug use were less likely to lend needles/syringes. Admission to a hospital for drug treatment in the past 6 months, having injected with >1 person in the past 3 months, and having more psychiatric symptoms were all associated with more risk. These findings underscore the need for a continued prevention focus on HIV-positive IDUs that recognizes the combination of drug use, mental health factors, and social factors that might affect this high-risk injecting practice, which could be associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission.

  10. Internalized stigma as an independent risk factor for substance use problems among primary care patients: Rationale and preliminary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Watkins, Katherine E; Ober, Allison J; Osilla, Karen C; Ewing, Brett

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about internalized stigma among primary care patients, and whether the presence of internalized stigma is related to the severity of substance use problems independent of substance use-related variables. We sought to examine the relationship between internalized stigma and substance use problems among primary care patients with opioid or alcohol use disorders (OAUDs). We present baseline data from 393 primary care patients who were enrolled in a study of collaborative care for OAUDs. Regression analyses examined the relationship between internalized stigma and substance use problems, controlling for demographics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quantity/frequency of use. The majority of participants reported thinking, at least sometimes, that they "have permanently screwed up" their lives (60%), and felt "ashamed" (60%), and "out of place in the world" (51%) as a result of their opioid or alcohol use. Higher internalized stigma was significantly related to more substance use problems (β=2.68, p<0.01), even after the effects of covariates were accounted for. Stigma added 22%, out of 51% total variance explained, leading to a significant improvement in prediction of substance use problems. Among this group of primary care patients with OAUDs, rates of internalized stigma were comparable to those reported in specialty substance use treatment settings. Consistent with extant specialty care literature, our results suggest that internalized stigma may be a unique contributor that is associated with treatment outcomes, such as substance use problems, among primary care patients with OAUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The status of bank lending to SMES in the Middle East and North Africa region : the results of a joint survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems than private banks. On another hand, credit guarantee schemes are a popular form of support to SME finan...

  12. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  13. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  14. Kiva.org: Crowd-Sourced Microfinance & Cooperation in Group Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2008 Kiva.org announced the creation of “Lending Teams,” or cohesive open or closed membership groups established and categorized according to scope. These Lending Teams introduce forms of cooperative many-to-one and many-to-many group lending, based on tenuous concepts of identity. Groups vary according to category, size, scope, and activity, and this impacts participatory vitality of crowd-sourced lending. Looking specifically at Kiva.org as a prominent online community for p...

  15. Who Gets the Credit? And Does it Matter? Household vs Firm Lending Across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Büyükkarabacak, B.; Rioja, F.; Valev, N.

    2009-01-01

    While theory predicts different effects of household credit and enterprise credit on the economy, the empirical literature has mainly used aggregate measures of overall bank lending to the private sector. We construct a new dataset from 45 developed and developing countries, decomposing bank lending

  16. Who gets the credit? And does it matter? Household vs firm lending across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Büyükkarabacak, B.; Rioja, F.; Valev, N.

    2012-01-01

    While theory predicts different effects of household credit and enterprise credit on the economy, the empirical literature has mainly used aggregate measures of overall bank lending to the private sector. We construct a new dataset from 45 developed and developing countries, decomposing bank lending

  17. 12 CFR 528.2 - Nondiscrimination in lending and other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination in lending and other services. 528.2 Section 528.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2 Nondiscrimination in lending and other services. (a) No savings association...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4100 - Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lending through Federal land bank associations. (a) Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks may delegate authority to make credit decisions to Federal land bank associations that demonstrate the ability... Farm Credit Bank and each agricultural credit bank lending through Federal land bank associations shall...

  19. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  20. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  1. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending...

  2. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... packaging that contains the computer program which is lent by a nonprofit library for nonprofit purposes. (b...

  3. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  4. Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders - Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Thi Thu Tra; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  5. Credit Booms and Lending Standards : Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell’Ariccia, G.; Igan, D.; Laeven, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper links the current subprime mortgage crisis to a decline in lending standards associated with the rapid expansion and changes in the structure of this market. We show that lending standards declined more in areas that experienced faster credit growth. We also find that the entry of new

  6. Lend Global, Fund Local? Price and Funding Cost Margins in Multinational Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Koetter, M.; Liesegang, C.

    2016-01-01

    In a proposed model of a multinational bank, interest margins determine local lending by foreign affiliates and the internal funding by parent banks. We exploit detailed parent-affiliate-level data of all German banks to empirically test our theoretical predictions in pre-crisis times. Local lending

  7. Independent Calculations for the SR Can Assessment. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter; Bond, Alex; Benbow, Steven (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB))

    2008-03-15

    SKB has published the SR-Can assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel at either the Forsmark or Laxemar sites. This is the final assessment prior to a formal regulatory submission. A number of independent calculations have been undertaken in support of SKI's review of SR-Can. The types of calculations are: 1. direct checks of specified SKB calculations; 2. reproduction of SKB computer calculations with independent codes, to ensure that what SKB has done is properly understood, and to check that the calculations are properly documented; and 3. independent calculations to investigate particular aspects of the safety case. The data used by SKB in its Performance Assessment calculations have not been subject to detailed review. The independent calculations provide information on: 1. where independent calculations have been able to provide support for the arguments put forward by SKB; 2. areas where insufficient information has been provided by SKB to enable a third party to reproduce the SR-Can calculations; and 3. areas where calculations lead to questions about the validity of SKB's arguments. The timescale for the production of the present report has been determined by the timescales for SKI's review of the SR-Can assessment. As a result, some of the independent calculations referred to have not been fully documented, and this will be carried out in 2008. The following conclusions have been drawn. 1. SKB has worked hard to respond to criticisms of previous performance assessments, and SR-Can is an impressive piece of work. 2. In several areas either insufficient or inconsistent information has been presented so that a full reproduction of SKB's calculations has not been possible. This is an important area where SKB will need to improve the presentation of its assessment for SR-Site. 3. There are several areas where SKB's description of post-closure repository evolution needs to be further reviewed. Overall SKB have given only limited

  8. Fostering intentional interdisciplinary leadership in developmental disabilities: the North Carolina LEND experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Angela; Margolis, Lewis H; Umble, Karl; Chewning, Linda

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the effects of interdisciplinary leadership training on a retrospective cohort (2001-2009) of the University of North Carolina MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (UNC-CH LEND) program, including LEND graduates who were selected to participate in a focused Interdisciplinary Leadership Development Program (ILDP) in addition to their LEND training. Specifically, the study examined graduates' reports of the relationship between LEND training and their attitudes/beliefs about interdisciplinary practice, as well as their reported use of interdisciplinary skills in their post-fellowship practice settings. Using a post-test design, participants in the LEND and ILDP programs were contacted to complete an on-line survey. Using a Conceptual Model guided by EvaluLEAD, respondents were asked to rate the influence of the UNC-LEND training program on their attitudes/beliefs and skills using a 5-point Likert scale, as well as through open-ended descriptions. The 49 LEND respondents represented a 56% overall response rate from years 2001-2009. ILDP participants reported greater agreement with interdisciplinary attitudes/beliefs and more frequent use of interdisciplinary skills than did the non-participants. Graduates of LEND as well as ILDP reported the influence of training through a range of qualitative responses. Response examples highlight the influence of LEND training to promote outcomes at the individual, organizational and systems level. Findings from this study illustrate that MCHB funded LEND training has a strong influence on the future employment and interdisciplinary practices of graduates for the MCH workforce as well as services for individuals with developmental disabilities, their families and systems of care.

  9. Government chartered banks step up oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, P.

    1994-01-01

    International government chartered banks are playing an increasingly prominent role in lending for world oil and gas development projects. The main players are the World Bank's International Finance Corp. (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), US Export-Import Bank, and Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC). Those institutions and similar ones are the catalysts for a large number of projects in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in other nations that are seeking to develop oil and gas resources and build processing plants, pipelines, and distribution networks. Banks also are taking a greater degree of interest in the environmental aspects of projects. In country after country, especially in the developing world, barriers to foreign investment in domestic petroleum sectors are falling. Oil and gas law reforms are under way on each continent. The paper discusses the major players, the World Bank grouped, the Romanian example, the Ex-Im Bank, OPIC, the emphasis on FSU, environmental issues, and new sources of capital in developing countries

  10. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue contains the molecular machinery to support T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, F; Patel, P; Sanderson, J D; Spencer, J

    2009-11-01

    A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) is a secreted cytokine member of the tumor necrosis factor family. It is a B-cell survival factor that also induces class switch recombination (CSR) toward immunoglobulin A (IgA), independent of T cells. It is therefore an important contributor to the maintenance of the mucosal immunological barrier, which has been linked to a putative extrafollicular inductive phase of the IgA response in lamina propria. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on microdissected tissue from normal human gut, we observed APRIL expression, together with TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor) and BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen), in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), lamina propria, and in the epithelium of stomach, small and large intestine, and rectum. However, no activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression (an absolute requirement for class switching) was detected in lamina propria by IHC or qRT-PCR. APRIL and its receptors were only observed alongside AID in GALT, showing that GALT contains the apparatus to support both T-independent and T-dependent routes to IgA CSR.

  11. Effects of body weight-support treadmill training on postural sway and gait independence in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Escudero, Felipe; Rivera-Lillo, Gonzalo; Torres-Castro, Rodrigo; Varas-Díaz, Gonzalo

    2017-10-23

    To examine the effects of a six-week body weight-support treadmill training (BWSTT) program on center-of-mass control and gait independence in chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) patients. Descriptive. Clinica Los Coihues. Neurorehabilitation center in Santiago, Chile. 17 chronic iSCI patients and 17 healthy subjects. An instrumented sway (ISway) test was performed before and after the implementation of a six-week BWSTT program. The standing balance of participants was measured by Normalized jerk (NJ) and root mean square (RMS). These values were used to assess the standing balance of participants, and were correlated with the scores obtained on the Walking Index Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) II test. Significant differences were found in standing balance (i.e., through NJ) after the BWSTT program (P = 0.016), but no significant differences were found in RMS values for postural sway (P = 0.693). None of the patients obtained improved WISCI II scores pre- vs. post-intervention. While a BWSTT program can improve center-of-mass control in iSCI patients, no effects were recorded for gait independence. National Clinical Trials, registry number NCT02703883.

  12. The Design of New Technology Supporting Wellbeing, Independence and Social Participation, for Older Adults Domiciled in Residential Homes and/or Assisted Living Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cahill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify and validate the requirements for new technology supporting wellness, independence and social participation for older people domiciled in residential homes and/or assisted-living communities. Method: This research adopts a stakeholder evaluation approach to requirements elicitation and user interface design. Specifically, the study design combines several qualitative human–machine interaction (HMI design frameworks/methods, including realist ethnography, scenario-based design, persona-based design, and participatory design. Findings: New technology should reflect positive values around ageing and link to psychosocial models of successful ageing, and biopsychosocial models of health and wellbeing. Resident autonomy, wellness and social participation cannot be conceptualized outside an understanding of the relationships older adults have with others. The design remit for this technology is to enable a resident experience that is similar to living at home. New technologies should facilitate wellness and communication/connection, and not simply risk assessment. New technology provides an opportunity to bridge existing information gaps between care planning, care assessments and daily care. Overall this technology needs to be intuitive and uphold the resident’s dignity and rights. Person-to-person interaction is central to care delivery. The introduction of new technology should enhance this interaction, and not threaten it. Conclusions: Future assisted-living (AL technology should be premised by biopsychosocial models of wellness and support relationships between older adults and members of the personal and professional community. New assisted-living technology affords the possibility for improved social relationships, enhanced wellbeing, better quality of care, and independence. Such technologies require careful consideration in relation to adapting to age/condition and managing issues

  13. SuperTRI: A new approach based on branch support analyses of multiple independent data sets for assessing reliability of phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiquet, Anne; Li, Blaise; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2009-09-01

    Supermatrix and supertree are two methods for constructing a phylogenetic tree by using multiple data sets. However, these methods are not a panacea, as conflicting signals between data sets can lead to misinterpret the evolutionary history of taxa. In particular, the supermatrix approach is expected to be misleading if the species-tree signal is not dominant after the combination of the data sets. Moreover, most current supertree methods suffer from two limitations: (i) they ignore or misinterpret secondary (non-dominant) phylogenetic signals of the different data sets; and (ii) the logical basis of node robustness measures is unclear. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new approach, called SuperTRI, which is based on the branch support analyses of the independent data sets, and where the reliability of the nodes is assessed using three measures: the supertree Bootstrap percentage and two other values calculated from the separate analyses: the mean branch support (mean Bootstrap percentage or mean posterior probability) and the reproducibility index. The SuperTRI approach is tested on a data matrix including seven genes for 82 taxa of the family Bovidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia), and the results are compared to those found with the supermatrix approach. The phylogenetic analyses of the supermatrix and independent data sets were done using four methods of tree reconstruction: Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and unweighted and weighted maximum parsimony. The results indicate, firstly, that the SuperTRI approach shows less sensitivity to the four phylogenetic methods, secondly, that it is more accurate to interpret the relationships among taxa, and thirdly, that interesting conclusions on introgression and radiation can be drawn from the comparisons between SuperTRI and supermatrix analyses.

  14. Development, validation, and utility of an instrument to assess core competencies in the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baum, Katherine T; Bevans, Katherine B; Blum, Nathan J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Competency Measure (CCM), an instrument designed to assess professional competencies as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and targeted by Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) programs. The CCM is a 44-item self-report measure comprised of six subscales to assess clinical, interdisciplinary, family-centered/cultural, community, research, and advocacy/policy competencies. The CCM was developed in an iterative fashion through participatory action research, and then nine cohorts of LEND trainees (N = 144) from 14 different disciplines completed the CCM during the first week of the training program. A 6-factor confirmatory factor analysis model was fit to data from the 44 original items. After three items were removed, the model adequately fit the data (comparative fit indices = .93, root mean error of approximation = .06) with all factor loadings exceeding .55. The measure was determined to be quite reliable as adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found for each subscale. The instrument's construct validity was supported by expected differences in self-rated competencies among fellows representing various disciplines, and the convergent validity was supported by the pattern of inter-correlations between subscale scores. The CCM appears to be a reliable and valid measure of MCHB core competencies for our sample of LEND trainees. It provides an assessment of key training areas addressed by the LEND program. Although the measure was developed within only one LEND Program, with additional research it has the potential to serve as a standardized tool to evaluate the strengths and limitations of MCHB training, both within and between programs.

  15. Independent technical support for the frozen soil barrier installation and operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1 Site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    TEPCO is implementing a number of water countermeasures to limit the releases and impacts of contaminated water to the surrounding environment. The diverse countermeasures work together in an integrated manner to provide different types, and several levels, of protection. In general, the strategy represents a comprehensive example of a “defense in depth” concept that is used for nuclear facilities around the world. One of the key countermeasures is a frozen soil barrier encircling the damaged reactor facilities. The frozen barrier is intended to limit the flow of water into the area and provide TEPCO the ability to reduce the amount of contaminated water that requires treatment and storage. The National Laboratory team supports the selection of artificial ground freezing and the incorporation of the frozen soil barrier in the contaminated water countermeasures -- the technical characteristics of a frozen barrier are relatively well suited to the Fukushima-specific conditions and the need for inflow reduction. Further, our independent review generally supports the TEPCO/Kajima design, installation strategy and operation plan.

  16. The reaction of bank lending to monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Takeda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel'' of monetary policy transmission in Brazil. Disaggregated monthly data of the Brazilian banks balance sheets from December 1994 to December 2001 are analyzed. In addition to the short-term interest rate, we consider the effects of another monetary policy instrument frequently used in Brazil, represented by reserve requirements on overall banks deposits - demand, savings, and time deposits. Dynamic panel data techniques are employed. Our results suggest that the impact of reserve requirements is relevant and stronger for larger banks loans. This finding results from the progressive reserve rates required from banks, which affect to a greater extent banks with larger deposit volumes.Este artigo avalia o canal de empréstimos bancários na transmissão da política monetária. A análise foca os dados mensais desagregados do balanço patrimonial dos bancos comerciais brasileiros de dezembro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Em adição à taxa básica de juros de curto prazo, este estudo considera também os efeitos de um outro instrumento de política monetária usado freqüentemente no Brasil, representado pelos recolhimentos compulsórios sobre os depósitos à vista, de poupança e a prazo. A partir de técnicas de análise de dados em painel dinâmico, os resultados dos testes sugerem que o impacto dos compulsórios é relevante e é mais forte sobre os empréstimos dos grandes bancos, conclusão que decorre de recolhimentos compulsórios de caráter progressivo, que afetam mais fortemente os bancos com maiores volumes de depósitos.

  17. Online peer-to-peer lending and its implications for small business credit financing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Henrik; Hagerud, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Strategy - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 This thesis seeks to explore how the emergence of online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending will impact small businesses lending in Norway. Increasing attention has been drawn to small businesses and their apparent struggle to obtain appropriate credit financing. At the same time, online P2P lending, part of the new wave of financial technologies, has been held up as a potential remedy for this cr...

  18. Handling Uncertainty in Social Lending Credit Risk Prediction with a Choquet Fuzzy Integral Model

    OpenAIRE

    Namvar, Anahita; Naderpour, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    As one of the main business models in the financial technology field, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending has disrupted traditional financial services by providing an online platform for lending money that has remarkably reduced financial costs. However, the inherent uncertainty in P2P loans can result in huge financial losses for P2P platforms. Therefore, accurate risk prediction is critical to the success of P2P lending platforms. Indeed, even a small improvement in credit risk prediction would be o...

  19. The impact of SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee on bank efficiency in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Wen Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how small and medium-size enterprises’ (SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee affect Korean banks’ efficiency, by employing the stochastic frontier approach on 14 banks over the period 2001–2010. When lending increases to SMEs, the findings indicate that banks’ cost efficiency decreases due to information asymmetry. However, the increased proportion of credit guarantee can improve their cost efficiency. This proves that South Korea’s credit guarantee system can indeed share SMEs’ credit risk of lending in order to help raise bank efficiency.

  20. Online peer-to-peer lending and its implications for small business credit financing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Henrik; Hagerud, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This thesis seeks to explore how the emergence of online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending will impact small businesses lending in Norway. Increasing attention has been drawn to small businesses and their apparent struggle to obtain appropriate credit financing. At the same time, online P2P lending, part of the new wave of financial technologies, has been held up as a potential remedy for this credit rationing. Our research involves two main parts. First, we study the extent to whi...

  1. Screening in new credit markets: can individual lenders infer borrower creditworthiness in peer-to-peer lending?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Khwaja, A.I.; Luttmer, E.F.P.; Shue, K.

    2009-01-01

    The current banking crisis highlights the challenges faced in the traditional lending model, particularly in terms of screening smaller borrowers. The recent growth in online peer-to-peer lending marketplaces offers opportunities to examine different lending models that rely on screening by multiple

  2. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  3. ANALYSIS OF MORTGAGE LENDING IN BANKS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Kharabara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is a mortgage market that occupies one of the major places among the financial mechanisms of economic stimulation and stable development of the economy. The mortgage market occupies one of the main places of financial mechanisms and economic incentives for the sustainable economic development. Mortgage lending covers the provision of long-term bank loans for the purchase, construction of residential real estate, as well as for repairs or to develop their own small businesses, where the collateral for such loans is real estate. Distinctive features of mortgages include: mortgages, like any collateral, in fact, is a way to ensure proper implementation of the other (main liabilities – loan or credit agreement, lease, contract, compensation, etc.; the subject of a mortgage is always real estate. Real estate includes land plots and everything that is firmly associated with them: buildings, perennial plants, etc.; mortgaged property remains in the possession of the debtor; the agreement between the creditor and the debtor on the establishment of a mortgage is formalized by a special document – the mortgage, which is also subject to state registration. The mortgage crediting is the method of accumulation of financial resources, effective instrument of bank activity, and an important factor in economic development of the country on the whole. Research results are market of the real estate and financial services development, to the revival of fund market, here the mortgage crediting is capable not only of activating reforms in industries of the economy but also gradually providing the decision of housing problems of the population. Practical consequences consist in the solution of problems that are related to the market for mortgage services of Ukraine’s development from 2006 to 2016. Value/originality. Analysis of the mortgage market in Ukraine shows that in recent years, its scope, dynamics, and trends do not meet the needs of either

  4. P2P Lending Risk Contagion Analysis Based on a Complex Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two major channels of P2P lending risk contagion in China—direct risk contagion between platforms and indirect risk contagion with other financial organizations as the contagion medium. Based on this analysis, the current study constructs a complex network model of P2P lending risk contagion in China and performs dynamics analogue simulations in order to analyze general characteristics of direct risk contagion among China’s online P2P lending platforms. The assumed conditions are that other financial organizations act as the contagion medium, with variations in the risk contagion characteristics set under the condition of significant information asymmetry in Internet lending. It is indicated that, compared to direct risk contagion among platforms, both financial organizations acting as the contagion medium and information asymmetry magnify the effect of risk contagion. It is also found that the superposition of media effects and information asymmetry is more likely to magnify the risk contagion effect.

  5. Historical Painting and Portraits of Independence Heroes in Colombia during the Nineteenth Century: Lack of Public Support and Importance of Private Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Robledo Páez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study historical painting and portraits of founding fathers and independence heroes produced in Colombia during the 19th century. These paintings have usually been analyzed from iconographic and iconological perspectives; however, they are presented here as cultural objects that undergo specific production, diffusion, reception and appropriation processes. To shine some light on these topics, we examined different document collections from the General Archive of the Nation (Colombia and the Historical Archive of the National Museum (Colombia, as well as the press and legislation of the time. It was found that the minimal state support of pictorial production would have discouraged the elaboration of historical paintings in Colombia. We discovered that although portrait painting was occasionally encouraged by the Government throughout the 19th century, most of the portraits were the result of private initiatives. This situation, however, didn’t prevent their exhibition in public spaces and an increase in their circulation. In conclusion, the absence of wide ranging projects for an official production of that type of paintings leads us to relativize the role of representation in the creation of Colombia’s national narrative, particularly in the National Museum.

  6. The causal effect of restrictive bank lending on employment growth: A matching approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Michael; Wiegand, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Does restrictive bank lending cause lower employment growth at the firm-level or does it reflect firm characteristics that drive the deterioration of employment figures? Applying propensity score matching, we estimate the treatment effect of restrictive bank lending on employment growth. Combining balance sheet information and survey data on a firm's current and expected future business situation, we rule out the impact of firm heterogeneity. We find that credit constraints have a significant...

  7. International banking conglomerates and the transmission of lending shocks across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Reint; Radev, Deyan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how solvency and wholesale funding shocks to 84 OECD parent banks affect the lending of 375 foreign subsidiaries. We find that parent solvency shocks are more important than wholesale funding shocks for subsidiary lending. Furthermore, we find that parent undercapitalization does not affect the transmission of shocks, while wholesale shocks transmit to foreign subsidiaries of parents that rely primarily on wholesale funding. We also find that transmission is affected by the str...

  8. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: evidence from Australia(new version)

    OpenAIRE

    liu, luke

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We found the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan.

  9. 77 FR 19417 - Proposed Guidance on Leveraged Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... assessing a sponsor's economic incentive to provide financial support. Given the specialized knowledge... theory provides three approaches for valuing closely held businesses--asset, income, and market. Asset... support as well as the economic incentive, capacity, and stated intent to continue to support the...

  10. Peer-to-peer lending and bias in crowd decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Uzzi, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Peer-to-peer lending is hypothesized to help equalize economic opportunities for the world's poor. We empirically investigate the "flat-world" hypothesis, the idea that globalization eventually leads to economic equality, using crowdfinancing data for over 660,000 loans in 220 nations and territories made between 2005 and 2013. Contrary to the flat-world hypothesis, we find that peer-to-peer lending networks are moving away from flatness. Furthermore, decreasing flatness is strongly associated with multiple variables: relatively stable patterns in the difference in the per capita GDP between borrowing and lending nations, ongoing migration flows from borrowing to lending nations worldwide, and the existence of a tie as a historic colonial. Our regression analysis also indicates a spatial preference in lending for geographically proximal borrowers. To estimate the robustness for these patterns for future changes, we construct a network of borrower and lending nations based on the observed data. Then, to perturb the network, we stochastically simulate policy and event shocks (e.g., erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g., Brexit). The simulations project a drift towards rather than away from flatness. However, levels of flatness persist only for randomly distributed shocks. By contrast, loss of the top borrowing nations produces more flatness, not less, indicating how the welfare of the overall system is tied to a few distinctive and critical country-pair relationships.

  11. Valuation of Urban Commercial Properties in Nigeria for Secured Lending: Issues and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namnso Bassey Udoekanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation for secured lending is required when an interest in real property is used as security for a loan. The outcome of such valuation will help the lending institution to achieve commercial prudence in lending as well as avoid taking undue risk. This paper examines the issues and developments in the valuation of urban commercial properties in Nigeria for secured lending purposes. It argues that due to the volatile nature of the Nigerian economy, coupled with the linkage between the economy and commercial property markets, the maximum amount of loan to be granted by lenders in the country using interest in commercial property as collateral should be based on the Mortgage Lending Value (MLV and not the Market Value (MV of the property, although the market value should also be reported in the valuation. A case study is used to demonstrate the valuation. It further contends that since the inputs for determining the MLV of a commercial property must be derived from long-term trends in the property and financial markets, it is more stable than MV when used to determine the maximum amount of mortgage loan to be granted by a lender. It concludes that the stability of the MLV makes it more reliable than the MV in achieving commercial prudence in mortgage lending as it fits into the long-term nature of mortgage loan repayment.

  12. The Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in A Dual Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy on bank lending in a dual banking system, i.e. Malaysia. Making use of an unbalanced panel data set of 38 Islamic and conventional banks covering mostly 2001-2014, we find evidence that variations in monetary policy affect lending growth of Islamic banks and, to some extent, conventional banks. The results further reveal that, in conformity with studies using aggregate Islamic financing data, the Islamic financing growth reacts more strongly to monetary policy changes. Moreover, we find no marked difference between full-fledged Islamic banks and Islamic bank subsidiaries in their responses to monetary policy. While we also document some evidence indicating the significant relations between bank-specific variables and lending growth, the bank-specific variables do not seem to have any role in impacting the potency of the bank lending channel. Finally, we find that lending growth is directly related to economic growth, suggesting procyclicality of bank lending/financing in Malaysia. These results have important implications for effective implementation of monetary policy and further development of Islamic banks in Malaysia.

  13. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  14. Nomenclature and traceability debate for biosimilars: small-molecule surrogates lend support for distinguishable nonproprietary names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jingdong; Skup, Martha; Alexander, Emily; Tundia, Namita; Macaulay, Dendy; Wu, Eric; Mulani, Parvez

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the traceability of adverse events (AEs) for branded and generic drugs with identical nonproprietary names and to consider potential implications for the traceability of AEs for branded and biosimilar biologics. Adverse event reports in the Food and Drug Administration AE Reporting System (FAERS) were compared with those in a commercial insurance claims database (Truven Health MarketScan(®)) for 2 drugs (levetiracetam and enoxaparin sodium) with manufacturing or prescribing considerations potentially analogous to those of some biosimilars. Monthly rates of branded- and generic-attributed AEs were estimated pre- and post-generic entry. Post-entry branded-to-generic AE relative rate ratios were calculated. In FAERS, monthly AE rate ratios during the post-generic period showed a pattern in which AE rates for the branded products were greater than for the generic products. Differences in rates of brand- and generic-attributed AEs were statistically significant for both study drugs; the AE rate for the branded products peaked at approximately 10 times that of the generic levetiracetam products and approximately 4 times that of the generic enoxaparin sodium products. In contrast, monthly ratios for the MarketScan data were relatively constant over time. Use of the same nonproprietary name for generic and branded products may contribute to poor traceability of AEs reported in the FAERS database due to the significant misattribution of AEs to branded products (when those AEs were in fact associated with patient use of generic products). To ensure accurate and robust safety surveillance and traceability for biosimilar products in the United States, improved product identification mechanisms, such as related but distinguishable nonproprietary names for biosimilars and reference biologics, should be considered.

  15. Economic policy uncertainty, credit risks and banks lending decisions: Evidence from Chinese commercial banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinwei Chi; Wenjing Li

    2017-01-01

    Using data for Chinese commercial banks from 2000 to 2014, this paper examines the effects of economic policy uncertainty(EPU) on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions. The results reveal significantly positive connections among EPU and non-performing loan ratios, loan concentrations and the normal loan migration rate. This indicates that EPU increases banks’ credit risks and negatively influences loan size, especially for joint-equity banks. Given the increasing credit risks generated by EPU, banks can improve operational performance by reducing loan sizes. Further research indicates that the effects of EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions are moderated by the marketization level, with financial depth moderating the effect on banks’ credit risks and strengthening it on lending decisions.

  16. How signaling and search costs affect information asymmetry in P2P lending: the economics of big data

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jiaqi; Yu, Wayne; Zhao, J. Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, online Peer-to-Peer (P2P) lending platforms have transformed the lending industry, which has been historically dominated by commercial banks. Information technology breakthroughs such as big data-based financial technologies (Fintech) have been identified as important disruptive driving forces for this paradigm shift. In this paper, we take an information economics perspective to investigate how big data affects the transformation of the lending industry. By identifying ho...

  17. Lending booms, reserves, and the sustainability of short-term debt - inferences from the pricing of syndicated bank loans

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Mody, Ashoka

    1999-01-01

    Academics pay little attention to international bank lending, focusing instead on rapidly growing market segments such as the international bond market and derivative credit instruments. The authors argue for paying more attention to international bank lending. Why? Three reasons. First, the syndicated bank loan is one of the workhorses of international capital markets. Second, international bank lending is especially important for private-sector borrowers, whose participation in internationa...

  18. Macroeconomics and FinTech: Uncovering Latent Macroeconomic Effects on Peer-to-Peer Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Jessica; Lim, Lek-Heng; Wong, Ken Sze-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending is a fast growing financial technology (FinTech) trend that is displacing traditional retail banking. Studies on P2P lending have focused on predicting individual interest rates or default probabilities. However, the relationship between aggregated P2P interest rates and the general economy will be of interest to investors and borrowers as the P2P credit market matures. We show that the variation in P2P interest rates across grade types are determined by three macro...

  19. COLLATERAL IN SMES’ LENDING: BANKS’ REQUIREMENTS VS CUSTOMERS’ EXPECTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BADULESCU

    2011-01-01

    SMEs’ support and importance in developing economies should not be only declarative. Searching for funding, managers encounter various obstacles arising from information asymmetry, lack of experience, severe market conditions, and insufficient or unsatisfactory collaterals for banks (OECD 2006; Badulescu and Badulescu 2010; OECD 2000 and 2004; Lin and Sun 2006; Toivanen and Cresy, 2000). The collateral issue is extensively discussed in literature – preventing moral hazard, the alignment the i...

  20. The evolution of environmental concerns in economywide policies and adjustment lending: Experience from the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Stein

    1993-07-01

    In this report, following a brief overview of some generic issues and empirical evidence relating to the linkages between economic growth, energy use and environmental impacts, a review of energy sector adjustment lending activities in developing and Eastern European countries is carried out. Following that a more specific discussion of the direct and indirect environmental impacts of these policies is presented, both in general terms, but also illustrated by means of how specific energy project packages are being designed in response to the said policy changes. Perhaps the most significant role of such policy reforms is that it impacts economywide on all economic activities; both the decisions regarding input substitution and output focus of existing plants and services, as well as the decisions regarding choice of technology, design and location of new investments in all sectors of the economy. It can be concluded from the reviewed studies that getting the prices right helps the environment, but it is not enough. It undoubtedly helps the environment to correct for market failures and have prices reflect the full resource costs, because it lessens the incentive to exploit resources wastefully. This is comforting because it suggests that what has been advocated for a long time on pure efficiency grounds irrespective to environmental management reasons. What has been missing, however, is a full acknowledgement of the crucial role of supportive institutional reforms and administrative strengthening required to actually succeed with the economic reforms. Examples will be presented on how such reforms can contribute to facilitate the adjustment process by simultaneously improving allocative efficiency and generating desperately needed public revenue.

  1. The evolution of environmental concerns in economywide policies and adjustment lending: Experience from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Stein

    1993-01-01

    In this report, following a brief overview of some generic issues and empirical evidence relating to the linkages between economic growth, energy use and environmental impacts, a review of energy sector adjustment lending activities in developing and Eastern European countries is carried out. Following that a more specific discussion of the direct and indirect environmental impacts of these policies is presented, both in general terms, but also illustrated by means of how specific energy project packages are being designed in response to the said policy changes. Perhaps the most significant role of such policy reforms is that it impacts economywide on all economic activities; both the decisions regarding input substitution and output focus of existing plants and services, as well as the decisions regarding choice of technology, design and location of new investments in all sectors of the economy. It can be concluded from the reviewed studies that getting the prices right helps the environment, but it is not enough. It undoubtedly helps the environment to correct for market failures and have prices reflect the full resource costs, because it lessens the incentive to exploit resources wastefully. This is comforting because it suggests that what has been advocated for a long time on pure efficiency grounds irrespective to environmental management reasons. What has been missing, however, is a full acknowledgement of the crucial role of supportive institutional reforms and administrative strengthening required to actually succeed with the economic reforms. Examples will be presented on how such reforms can contribute to facilitate the adjustment process by simultaneously improving allocative efficiency and generating desperately needed public revenue

  2. The Membrane-anchored Serine Protease Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) Supports Epidermal Development and Postnatal Homeostasis Independent of Its Enzymatic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Diane E; Szabo, Roman; Friis, Stine

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine protease prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is part of a cell surface proteolytic cascade that is essential for epithelial barrier formation and homeostasis. Here, we report the surprising finding that prostasin executes these functions independent of its own enzymatic activity. ...

  3. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  4. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  5. Duty of Care and Autonomy: How Support Workers Managed the Tension between Protecting Service Users from Risk and Promoting Their Independence in a Specialist Group Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R.; Redley, M.; Holland, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the UK those paid to support adults with intellectual disabilities must manage two potentially conflicting duties that are set out in policy documents as being vital to their role: protecting service users (their duty of care) and recognising service users' autonomy. This study focuses specifically on the support of people with the…

  6. 12 CFR 614.4351 - Computation of lending and leasing limit base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adjustments: (1) Where one institution invests in another institution in connection with the sale of a loan... the purchasing institution. (2) Stock protected under section 4.9A of the Act may be included in the lending and leasing limit base until January 1, 1998. (3) Any amounts of preferred stock not eligible to...

  7. The Impact of Organizational Structure and Lending Technology on Banking Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Laeven, L.; Ongena, S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models argue that a bank's organizational structure reflects its lending technology.A hierarchically organized bank will employ mainly hard information, whereas a decentralized bank will rely more on soft information.We investigate theoretically and empirically how bank

  8. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other

  9. Link About It: Information Asymmetry, Knowledge Pooling and Syndication in Project Finance Lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, Gaby; Bos, Jaap; Kleimeier, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    In a collaborative setting, banks have an additional way to deal with asymmetric information between themselves and their borrowers: by pooling information. We explore the extent to which lead arrangers in the project finance syndicated lending market strategically choose their new partners in order

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... board of directors. Real estate lending is an integral part of many institutions' business plans and... both internal and external factors in the formulation of its loan policies and strategic plan. Factors... institution's board of directors. (See additional reporting requirements described under “Exceptions to the...

  11. Can governments maintain hard budget contraints? : bank lending and financial isolaton in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carare, O.V.; Claessens, C.A.M.F.; Perotti, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical evidence on the impact of reforms in the financial sector in Romania in the period 1993-1995. The methodological framework of the paper is based on a theoretical model of intertemporal bank lending in a transition country with uncertain prospects for stabilization

  12. Interbank Lending Decisions in An Economic Downturn: An Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interbank lending is one mechanism that can make shock, which is accepted by one bank spread to other banks (contagion. There are several researchers that focused their research on analyzing the effect of interbank lending to systemic risk. However, there is a few research that analyzed the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior, especially on the bank interbank lending to the systemic risk. In this research, the author creates an agent-based  simulation of the banking system to analyze the effect of banks’ decision maker’s behavior to systemic risk in economic downturn condition. The preliminary result from this research is for an economic downturn in a long time period, the banking system with a low net worth to the asset's ratio threshold will produce more default bank than the banking system with a high net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. However, for an economic downturn in small time period, banking system which all bank in their system has the higher net worth to assets ratio threshold will have the default bank first than the banking system which has the lower net worth to the asset's ratio threshold. Keywords: agent-based simulation, banker behavior, interbank lending, economic downturn

  13. 13 CFR 120.1900 - When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end? 120.1900 Section 120.1900 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of an SBA Direct Loan Program for Systemically Important Secondary...

  14. 12 CFR 31.2 - Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 12 CFR part 215. (b) Enforcement. The Comptroller of the Currency administers and enforces... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements. 31.2 Section 31.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or Agency), through the FCA Board (Board...

  16. 76 FR 29992 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... (collectively loan) concentration risks. We expect this final rule will increase the safe and sound operation of...

  17. 75 FR 50936 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit... sound operation of System institutions by strengthening their risk management practices and abilities to... the establishment of consistent, uniform and prudent concentration risk management policies by System...

  18. Banking Competition and Soft Budget Constraints: How Market Power can Threaten Discipline in Lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2012-01-01

    n imperfectly competitive credit markets, banks can face a tradeoff between exploiting their market power and enforcing hard budget constraints. As market power rises, banks eventually find it too costly to discipline underperforming borrowers by stopping their projects. Lending relationships become

  19. Identifying the mechanism : is there a bank lending channel of monetary transmission in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, J

    The paper investigates the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in the Netherlands. The Johansen approach is used to identify supply and demand relationships in the credit market, and it is concluded from the short-run dynamics that this market is demand-determined. In this way,

  20. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  1. Group lending and the role of the group leader : Theory and evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Remco van; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the strategic monitoring behaviour within a group lending setting. We develop a theoretical model, showing that monitoring efforts of group members differ from each other in equilibrium, as a result of the asymmetry between these members in terms of the future

  2. 7 CFR 4280.23 - Requirements for lending from Revolving Loan Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security and recovery of loan losses must provide for the pro rata recovery and distribution between the... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for lending from Revolving Loan Fund... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural...

  3. Nothing special about banks : Competition and bank lending in Britain 1885-1925

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, Fabio; Dwarkasing, Narly; Moore, Lyndon

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of increasing bank concentration on bank loan contracts in a lightly regulated environment. This environment allows us to abstract from possible confounding effects of regulation to focus on the “pure” effects of competition on bank lending. We study over 30,000 British

  4. 78 FR 4725 - Escrow Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., based on findings that economic stability... Current Mortgage Origination Market Even with the economic downturn and tightening of credit standards...'' numbered 7, 10, 11, and 12, maintained by the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the United States...

  5. Empirical Analysis of Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Asuquo Akabom

    2012-11-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are the major instruments of the recent banking reforms in Nigeria.The effects and the implications of the reforms on the lending practices of merged banks to small businesses were considered in this study. These effects were divided into static and dynamic effects (restructuring, direct and external). Data were collected by cross-sectional research design and were subsequently analyzed by the ordinary least square (OLS) method.The analyses show that bank size, financial characteristics and deposit of non-merged banks are positively related to small business lending. While for the merged banks, the reverse is the case. From the above result, it is evident that merger and acquisition have not only static effect on small business lending but also dynamic effect, therefore, given the central position of small businesses in the current government policy on industrialization in Nigeria, policy makers in Nigeria, should consider both the static and dynamic effects of merger and acquisition on small business lending in their policy thrust.

  6. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  7. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  8. Independence From Parenteral Nutrition and Intravenous Fluid Support During Treatment With Teduglutide Among Patients With Intestinal Failure Associated With Short Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iyer, Kishore R; Kunecki, Marek; Boullata, Joseph I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In phase III clinical studies, treatment with teduglutide was associated with clinically meaningful reductions (≥20% from baseline) in parenteral support (PS; parenteral nutrition and/or intravenous fluids) requirements in adult patients with intestinal failure associated with short...

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  10. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  11. Curriculum Development for Promoting Students' Life Management Skills related to their Independence at Social and Vocational Aspects in Special Support Classes of Lower Secondary School : Practice study of "the food processing" in the carrier management

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Tomoko; Wakamatsu, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    I reconsidered the work learning to bring up life management skills aimed at the social and vocational independence of the students with the mental disabilities in special support class and newly conducted with educational practice based on the subject "carrier management". In this study, we took up the practice of "food processing" and analyzed the students' behavior and description by adapting an evaluation standard, which involved the point of view of the evaluation and basic, transferable...

  12. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  13. IDENTIFYING BANK LENDING CHANNEL IN INDONESIA: A VECTOR ERROR CORRECTION APPROACH WITH STRUCTURAL BREAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhsyim Afandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a question whether monetary policy works through bank lending channelrequired a monetary-induced change in bank loans originates from the supply side. Mostempirical studies that employed vector autoregressive (VAR models failed to fulfill thisrequirement. Aiming to offer a solution to this identification problem, this paper developed afive-variable vector error correction (VEC model of two separate bank credit markets inIndonesia. Departing from previous studies, the model of each market took account of onestructural break endogenously determined by implementing a unit root test. A cointegrationtest that took account of one structural break suggested two cointegrating vectors identifiedas bank lending supply and demand relations. The estimated VEC system for both marketssuggested that bank loans adjusted more strongly in the direction of the supply equation.

  14. Lending Competition and Relationship Banking: Evidence from Japanese Prefectural Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Yoshiaki; Yamori, Nobuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether more competition among banks increases relationship banking, which is predicted to improve credit availability for informationally opaque firms in theory, is a controversial issue in the banking literature. By using firm-level survey data in Japan, this paper provides evidence for the negative correlation between lending competition and the provision of relationship banking . This paper raises the question whether fierce interbank competition is always beneficial for...

  15. Relationship lending, hierarchical distance and credit tightening: Evidence from the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cotugno; S. Monferrà; G. Sampagnaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the firms’ credit availability during the 2007–2009 financial crisis using a dataset of 5331 bank–firm relationships provided by borrowers’ credit folders of three Italian banks. It aims to test whether a strong lender–borrower relationship can produce less credit rationing for borrowing firms even during a credit crunch period. The results show that exclusivity of the relationship can mitigate the firm credit rationing. We also verify the influence of lending organization...

  16. Computer Simulation Lends New Insights Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    current, ICl,sw is needed to terminate VF. There are several drugs that block ICl,sw. 5. DISCUSSION Exposure to CN has immediate consequences ...the search on the requirements on the means of pharmacological intervention to counter the effect of cyanide-caused cardiac toxicity . Of special...COMPUTER SIMULATION LENDS NEW INSIGHTS INTO CYANIDE-CAUSED CARDIAC TOXICITY C.K. Zoltani* U.S. Army Research Laboratory Computational and

  17. In lands of foreign currency credit, bank lending channels run through?

    OpenAIRE

    Ongena, Steven; Schindele, Ibolya; Vonnák, Dzsamila

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the differential impact of domestic and foreign monetary policy on the local supply of bank credit in domestic and foreign currencies. We analyze a novel, supervisory dataset from Hungary that records all bank lending to firms including its currency denomination. Accounting for time-varying firm-specific heterogeneity in loan demand, we find that a lower domestic interest rate expands the supply of credit in the domestic but not in the foreign currency. A lower foreign interest rat...

  18. Do capital buffers mitigate volatility of bank lending? A simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Heid, Frank; Krüger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Critics claim that capital requirements can exacerbate credit cycles by restricting lending in an economic downturn. The introduction of Basel 2, in particular, has led to concerns that risksensitive capital charges are highly correlated with the business cycle. The Basel Committee is contemplating a revision of the Basel Accord by introducing counter-cyclical capital buffers. Others claim that capital buffers are already large enough to absorb fluctuations in credit risk. We address the ques...

  19. The Sharing Economy and Collaborative Finance: the Case of P2p Lending in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Uyen, Tran Dinh; Ha, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer Online Lending (P2PO) has received increasing attention over the last years, not only because of its disruptive nature and its disintermediation of nearly all major banking functions, but also because of its rapid growth and expanding breadth of services. This model offers a new way of investing in addition to investing in traditional channels such as banking or financial company. The transaction process is done online, the personal information and terms of mobilization are compl...

  20. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Sven C. Berger; Fabian Gleisner

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer) lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reduci...

  1. The Evolution and the Effects of Bank Lending and Arrears in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the early stages of the economic crisis that hit Romania, significant imbalances occurred in all industries. Its effects had a more dramatic impact in the banking system; especially concerning bank lending which was not only adversely affected by the crisis but it was the crisis itself. In this regard, we conducted an analysis of the credit system in Romania, the implications of non-performing loans on bank performance.

  2. Determinants of default in p2p lending: the Mexican case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Canfield

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available P2P lending is a new method of informal finance that uses the internet to directly connect borrowers with on-line communities. With a unique dataset provided by Prestadero, the largest on-line lending platform with national presence in Mexico, this research explores the effect of credit scores and other variables related to loan and borrower´s traits, in determining default behavior in P2P lending. Moreover, using a logistic regression model, it tested whether investors might benefit from screening loan applicants by gender after controlling for loan quality. The results showed that information provided by the platform is relevant for analyzing credit risk, yet not conclusive. In congruence with the literature, on a scale going from the safest to the riskiest, loan quality is positively associated with default behavior. Other determinants for increasing the odds of default are the payment-to-income ratio and refinancing on the same platform. On the contrary loan purpose and being a female applicant reduce such odds. No categorical evidence for differential default behavior was found for gender´s case-discrimination, under equal credit conditions. However it was found that controlling for loan quality, women have longer loan survival times than men. This is one of the first studies about debt crowdfunding in Latin America and Mexico. Implications for lenders, researchers and policy-makers are also discussed.

  3. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  4. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  5. CCR9 interactions support ovarian cancer cell survival and resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Erica L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is more often used to treat ovarian cancer (OvCa, which provides modest survival advantage primarily due to chemo-resistance and up regulated anti-apoptotic machineries in OvCa cells. Therefore, targeting the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance in OvCa cell may improve therapeutic outcomes. We have shown that ovarian cancer cells express CC chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9. Others have also shown that CCL25, the only natural ligand for CCR9, up regulates anti-apoptotic proteins in immature T lymphocytes. Hence, it is plausible that CCR9-mediated cell signals might be involved in OvCa cell survival and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanisms of CCR9-mediated inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OvCa cells. Methods Cell proliferation, vibrant apoptosis, and TUNEL assays were performed with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25 to determine the role of the CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin resistance. In situ Fast Activated cell-based ELISA (FACE assays were performed to determine anti-apoptotic signaling molecules responsible for CCL25-CCR9 mediated survival. Results Our results show interactions between CCR9 and CCL25 increased anti-apoptotic signaling cascades in OvCa cells, which rescued cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Specifically, CCL25-CCR9 interactions mediated Akt, activation as well as GSK-3β and FKHR phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest the CCR9-CCL25 axis plays an important role in reducing cisplatin-induced apoptosis of OvCa cells.

  6. 17 CFR 240.3a5-3 - Exemption from the definition of “dealer” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects securities lending transactions, and any securities lending services in connection with such... replaced within one business day by another lending or borrowing transaction involving the same securities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from the definition...

  7. Pre-agreement assessment as a responsible lending tool in South Africa, the EU and Belgium :Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlia Maritha van Heerden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsible lending has become a very pertinent issue on the agenda of credit regulators across the globe who seek to combat the causes of consumer over-indebtedness. In this context the use of "pre-agreement assessment" as a tool to filter out those instances where, based on a consumer's creditworthiness or ability to repay, credit should not be granted to such a consumer, is a feature common to the lending regimes of various jurisdictions. This contribution consists of two parts: Part 1 provides a critical discussion of the reckless credit provisions of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005. Part 2 details the responsible lending measures contained in the EU Consumer Credit Directive and the EU Mortgage Credit Directive and provides an appraisal of the responsible lending measures introduced by Belgium, being a jurisdiction that has always been very pro-active in the context of consumer credit protection.

  8. Pre-Agreement Assessment as a Responsible Lending Tool in South-Africa, the EU and Belgium: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlia M van Heerden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsible lending has become a very pertinent issue on the agenda of credit regulators across the globe who seek to combat the causes of consumer over-indebtedness. In this context the use of "pre-agreement assessment" as a tool to filter out those instances where, based on a consumer's creditworthiness or ability to repay, credit should not be granted to such a consumer, is a feature common to the lending regimes of various jurisdictions. This contribution consists of two parts: Part 1 provides a critical discussion of the reckless credit provisions of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005. Part 2 details the responsible lending measures contained in the EU Consumer Credit Directive and the EU Mortgage Credit Directive and provides an appraisal of the responsible lending measures introduced by Belgium, being a jurisdiction that has always been very pro-active in the context of consumer credit protection.

  9. Who receives bank loans? A study of lending officers' assessments of loans to growing small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Volker

    2004-01-01

    This thesis explores factors that influence lending officers' assessments of credit requests from growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Building on asymmetric information theory, factors identified in previous research are grouped into the theoretical categories of risk-assessment, risk-alignment, and risk-shifting. Hypotheses are developed as to what influences lending officers' credit assessments. In addition, it is hypothesized that risk-taking proclivity interacts with other ...

  10. Public lending to private hedge funds is inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public funds include federally insured deposits held under the custody of private banks, central bank loans and taxpayer funds. The principal finding of this paper is that lending such public funds through a private banking system to private hedge funds allied with the banks is inefficient, unstable, fundamentally unfair (unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable. This finding is akin to the unanimously agreeable safe central banking policy (Acharya, 1991-2016 which, in dynamic general equilibrium, (a eliminates federal guarantee of bank deposits, (b offers every business enterprise and household an option to keep in the central bank any part of its deposits it wants to be held absolutely safely, (c completely deregulates all private banks without any privilege to rob public or private wealth like too-big-to-fail or too-big-to-be-jailed status or the power of market making and clearing. Safe central banking is the only way to make private banks responsible to hold sufficient capital to attract uninsured private deposits like the trading houses currently do. The private banks will then have complete freedom to lend their uninsured deposits to private hedge funds. The Volker Rule (NYT, January 30, 2010, incorporated in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, is an infeasible and unworkable band-aid for the moral-hazard driven systemic robbery of wealth creators wrought by the government-ordained private banking custody of public funds. The established systemic moral-hazard problem can be efficiently and constitutionally resolved only through unanimously agreeable safe central banking. Current proposals on overhauling of Fannie and Freddie made by various pundits of systemic robbery amount to a gargantuan amount of public lending to private hedge funds and, hence, inefficient, unstable, unconstitutional and unanimously disagreeable.

  11. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Berger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reducing information asymmetries, predominantly for borrowers with less attractive risk characteristics. Our findings may be surprising given the replacement of a bank by an electronic marketplace.

  12. From lending to learning the development and extension of public libraries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Beirne, Rónán

    2010-01-01

    From Lending to Learning provides a theoretical overview and practical guide to the functional area of delivering learning services within public libraries. It traces the development of public library service delivery and critically appraises the inherent tension between offering an educational-focused or leisure-focused library. The current and future policy directions are explored against the backdrop of the emerging learning society. A general overview of recent developments in learning theory is followed by an insight into the learning landscape. The issues and practicalities of setting up

  13. Peer-to-Peer Lending in Surabaya: How It Drives Regional Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahardhika, Galih Satria

    2017-01-01

    Financial technology, or so called as “Fintech”, has been remarked as a disruptive idea that changed our current financial system. In Indonesia, one of the emerging financial practices related to Fintech is the online-based peer-to-peer lending (P2PL). This research has two objectives: to explore current scheme of P2PL in Surabaya and to learn how P2PL drives the economy of Surabaya. To meet the objectives, numbers of existing papers are being reviewed related to the matter of P2PL and Micro,...

  14. Decision support system for Wamakersvallei Winery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to lend decision support to management a a wine cellar in three areas of expertise, with Wamakersvallei Winery serving as a special case study. This decision support system is to be delivered in the form of Excel spreadsheet...

  15. Baltics support Kosovo independence / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Balti riigid teatasid päev pärast Kosovo iseseisvuse väljakuulutamist, et toetavad riigi iseseisvust. Eriarvamusi pretsedendi suhtes on venelaste esindajate hulgas ning Euroopa riikide vahel. Baltimaade liidrite põhjendused

  16. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  17. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  18. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. B. Marconatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lending groups (LGs and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian and developing countries with different stocks of social capital (individual, network and institutional and the influences of this interaction on LG effectiveness. In order to do so, we applied the institutional perspective of O. Williamson to build a theoretical framework to examine the interaction of all these conditions, allowing for analysis of their main relations within the microfinance context. Based on this framework, we propose on the one hand that in developing and Anglo-Saxon developed nations, stocks of both individual and network social capital are the most important for an LG’s effectiveness. However, in Anglo-Saxon countries, these two stocks of social capital are complemented by formal contracting devices. In communitarian developed countries, on the other hand, the stocks of institutional social capital have a stronger positive impact on LG dynamics.

  19. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  20. Where does the Buck Stop? Community Attitudes to Over-lending and Over-spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Brien

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the results of focus groups and a national survey aimed at discoveringhow ordinary Australians feel about lending and borrowing practices, in the context of highlevels of consumer debt. This research, carried out by The Australia Institute in 2007, found astrong community belief that lenders and regulators, rather than individual consumers, wereprimarily responsible for excessive debt. Many Australians reported feeling uncomfortableabout the way that credit is pushed on vulnerable and ill-informed consumers; advertising andmarketing were believed to be partly responsible for poor financial decision-making. Theauthors propose a number of practical policies to improve the environment in whichconsumers make financial decisions, including a more helpful disclosure regime.

  1. An Exploratory Study On Bank Lending To SME Sector In Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokey Wangmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors used by the banks to determine the outcome of loan applications of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in Bhutan. Inaccessibility to financing is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Bhutanese SMEs. This exploratory study is built on in-depth interview of 6 credit officials to understand the lending behaviour of banks towards SMEs. Thematic Analysis revealed that the bank loan accessibility was a function of firm and owner characteristics. The collateral and internal finance was found to be vital in determining SMEs accessibility to bank loans. SMEs inadequate financial information was a serious problem for the banks. Firm age size and industry sector had a positive correlation with bank loan accessibility. The age and educational qualification of borrowers were also found to have a positive relationship while the gender of the owner did not have any effect on bank loan accessibility.

  2. Does gender affect funding success at the peer-to-peer credit markets? Evidence from the largest German lending platform

    OpenAIRE

    Barasinska, Nataliya; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2010-01-01

    Studies of peer-to-peer lending in the USA find that female borrowers have better chances of getting funds than males. Is differential treatment of borrowers of different sexes a common feature of peer-to-peer lendingmarkets or is it subject to specific businessmodels, ways of fixing loan contracts and even national financial systems? We aim at answering this question by providing evidence on loan procurement at the largest German peer-to-peer lending platform Smava.de. Our results show that ...

  3. An Effective Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Entropy to Evaluate Entrepreneurship Orientation of Online P2P Lending Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to measure the entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. The limitations of existing methods for calculating entropy of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs are significantly improved by a new entropy measure of IVIFS considered in this paper, and then the essential properties of the proposed entropy are introduced. Moreover, an evaluation procedure is proposed to measure entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. Finally, a case is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  4. Carbon Risk Analysis Of The South African Banks’ Lending To The JSE100 CDP Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bimha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pertinent concern over the continued lending to companies that are still pursuing projects that increase the amount of carbon emissions in the atmosphere. South Africa has most of its energy generation being done through coal thermal powered turbines. More so there are a number of new power stations being built in South Africa that are coal powered. Coal on the other hand is deemed as having the highest amount of carbon that contributes to the greenhouse effect which in turn affects the climate leading to climate change consequences. There is also a growing concern on the uptake of renewable energy initiatives by companies that are deemed carbon intensive. Banks are being castigated for not using their economic transformation role to champion the agenda of combating climate change caused by carbon emissions. In this study, the extent of lending in the short and long term to carbon intensive companies by South African banks is examined. Using a sample of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange top 100 companies that participate in Carbon Disclosure Project, an analysis is done through four carbon metrics –carbon intensity, carbon dependency, carbon exposure, carbon risk. The analysis used public information from the banks’ websites, South African Reserve Bank reports and other public databases that contain sustainability information of the JSE100 companies. The analysis was done by comparing the carbon metrics of the recognized seven (7 sectorial industry catergories (SIC on the JSE, mainly Energy & Materials, Industrials, Consumer Staples, Consumer Discretionary, Financials, IT & Telecoms and Health Care. The major finding of the research is that there is a high carbon risk in short term loans compared to long term loans across the JSE100 companies that are analysed. More so, the Energy & Materials sector seem to have the highest carbon risk compared to the other sectors.

  5. On independence in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'independence' is a common key word used by almost all stake holders in the field of nuclear safety regulation. The intention is to persuade the public that it can have more confidence and trust in the persons in charge, if their competence and judgment cannot be altered by any kind of political issue or personal interest. However, it is possible to discuss the reality of this claimed quality: how is it possible to verify that the organization that claim 'independence' really respect it? National expertise Institutions can show that they are independent from the industry, but can they claim total independence from the government? NGO have build a large part of their constituency on 'independence' from industry and governments, but are they independent from the ideological forces -sometimes very powerful - that support them? How can we achieve to make this noble word really meaningful? We will show through different examples, that 'independence' is by definition a fragile and versatile challenge, rather than a durable label. It has to be refreshed regularly and thoroughly. Risk communication, in that context, must respect principles which will build independence as a solid asset, and keep a certain distance with mere marketing purposes or candid wishful thinking

  6. Adjustment of interbank lending in pre- and post-regulation periods: Empirical analysis of Vietnamese commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Thanh Tung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the interbank lending adjustment during the period when Vietnamese commercial banks are compliant with some parts of the Basel regulation framework. A pilot regulation period has started in 2011 and full application will be effective by the end of 2018. Partial adjustment models and variance decomposition are used for the analyses. In the analysis of the quarterly released financial statements of Vietnamese commercial banks in the period from 2008/Q1 to 2015/Q4, the empirical evidence showed that throughout the period, lending to non-bank and high liquidity assets contributed to the adjustment in both long run and short run with a negative association. In addition, the loan loss allowance contributed to the adjustment in the post-regulation period only with a positive association. These highly contributing factors also show a potential shock after the adjustment of the interbank lending. The results imply there is a need for interbank lending portfolio report and an efficient control over the IRB of Vietnamese commercial banks.

  7. Shocks to Bank Lending, Risk-Taking, Securitization, and Their Role for U.S. Business Cycle Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peersman, G.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Shocks to bank lending, risk-taking and securitization activities that are orthogonal to real economy and monetary policy innovations account for more than 30 percent of U.S. output variation. The dynamic effects, however, depend on the type of shock. Expansionary securitization shocks

  8. 13 CFR 120.714 - How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entity that is not an Intermediary may apply to SBA for a grant to provide marketing, management and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)? 120.714 Section 120.714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  9. Developing a green lending model for renewable energy project (case study electricity from biogas fuel at Palm Oil Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, development initiatives solely aimed to generate economic growth has been placed under scrutiny, particularly amidst the rampant discussion on the quality decline of the environment, growing social divide and climate change along with its implications thereof. Considerations of the negative impacts brought about by the economic development process prompted the move to adopt the sustainable financing model that gives precedence to economic, environmental and social aspects. We introduced Green Lending Model for Renewable Energy Project (Case Study Electricity From Biogas at Palm Oil Industry) based on sustainability financing, which is used as variable to implementing financial institutions’ lending policies. There are two major trends in the literature relating to sustainability and the banking industry: external and internal practices. The external practices strand analyzes the relevance of sustainability to the bank’s communication with shareholders and other stakeholders, and how investors use it as a measure to help achieve optimal portfolio allocation. The internal practices literature, more relevant to the present work, studies how sustainability criteria are integrated into risk management models and lending practices. Its first implementation is in the Palm Oil industry at South Sumatera. The results explained that sustainability is not related to profit either from a short- or long-term perspective. The Sustainable Green Lending Model is related to the Equator Principles and its application is driven to project financing. It also related with short- and long-term risks and opportunities, instead of short-term sustainability impacts.

  10. Military Personnel: DOD's Predatory Lending Report Addressed Mandated Issues, but Support Is Limited for Some Findings and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S

    2007-01-01

    ... (see the list of related GAO products at the end of this report). In conducting our review, we limited the scope of our work to the types of loans that DOD identified as being predatory in its mandated 2006 report...

  11. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  12. BEHAVIOR OF FUNDING AND LENDING PRICING OF INDONESIAN BANKS: EVIDENCE FROM AGGREGATE POST CRISIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenartomo Soepomo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to reveal the behavior of lending and funding pricing (deposit interest rate and loan interestrate of Indonesian banks after the great crisis in 1998. Specifically the research design aimed to uncover theform of interaction (state of equilibrium and factors that might influence the state of equilibrium. We used amodel developed by Niehans (1978 and De Grauwe (1982 as a point of departure to address the researchproblem. There were 12 variables used in a simultanous equation econometric model that would be estimated byusing 4 different techniques namely GMM TS, GMM CS, 3SLS and SUR. Two variables namely price ofdeposit and price of loan were treated as endogenous. We also considered the impact of deposit insuranceadoption that was took place in September 2005.The empirical findings showed that the slopes of DD and LLequation were largely consistent with the hypotheses. The parameters were positive and statistically significant.However the numerical value of LL slope that was greater than the other one and comparable to DD slopehad raised a concern for the stability attainment. The most important variables (based on their magnitude andstatistical significance found to affect the constellation were business prospect, system size, exchange rate,operational cost and profitability. In the second tier of importance, we found that monetary policy instruments(policy rate differential and base money supply, quality of loan, capital and total liquidity affected the systemin various degrees.

  13. Short-term lending: Payday loans as risk factors for anxiety, inflammation and poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W

    2018-08-01

    While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices. Using data from a study of debt and health among adults in Boston, MA (n=286), we test whether short-term borrowing is associated with a range of emotional and physical health indicators. We find that short-term loans are associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein levels, and self-reported symptoms of physical health, sexual health, and anxiety, after controlling for several socio-demographic covariates. We discuss these findings within the contexts of regulatory shortcomings, psychosocial stress, and racial and economic credit disparities. We suggest that within the broader context of financial debt and health, short-term loans should be considered a specific risk to population health.

  14. E-books and interlibrary loan an academic centric model for lending

    CERN Document Server

    Vigen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Ironically, digitally born documents do not fit into existing frameworks of interlibrary lending. In most cases this is because publishers consider them too easy to exchange. In practice, this means that digital documents are often being printed and scanned before being shipped off to a requesting library. This system of circumvention is inefficient - at many levels - and generates a vast pool of activity from which neither authors nor publishers benefit. With the changing paradigm of document delivery, publishers of electronic journals are trying to get their share of the market by offering articles on a 'pay-as-you-go' basis, though at rates many times greater to what is being offered by document delivery services operated by libraries. Instead of joining forces in the digital era, libraries and publishers are fighting a battle which is sometimes described by librarians as the fight between the Good and the Evil. However, new models are emerging which leave room for both library and publisher in the future ...

  15. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  16. An analysis of the macroeconomic conditions required for SME lending: Evidence from Turkey and other emerging market countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing small and medium enterprises (SMEs with access to external finance has been a major concern for many governments and international organizations for three decades. In recent years the experiences of emerging market countries suggest that a paradigm shift is taking place in SME finance. Particularly in fast-growing emerging market countries such as Turkey, banks are increasingly targeting SMEs as a new line of banking business. This research analyzes how macroeconomic factors have contributed to increased commercial bank lending to SMEs in six emerging market countries: Turkey, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and Poland. Based on time series and panel data analysis, we find that a high GDP growth rate and increased competition in the banking sector have contributed to increased banking sector credit to SMEs. The findings also reveal that curbing the high inflation rate and reducing government domestic borrowing have significantly encouraged bank lending to the SME segment.

  17. The impact of the European insolvency regulation on lenders, lending decisions, the structuring of transactions and enforcement of security

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis seeks to shed light on the issue of how far secured creditor rights are protected in EU cross-border insolvencies by focusing on the perspective and position of English lenders. The main thread throughout is the legal concerns faced by lenders when lending to a company incorporated in England and Wales which operates across the European Union and has assets and creditors spread across various Member States. The initial stages of the structuring of a cross-border security arrangeme...

  18. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  19. Beauty premium: Event-related potentials evidence of how physical attractiveness matters in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Fan, Bonai; Dai, Shenyi; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-02-15

    Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors. In the current study, we investigated how potential borrowers' facial attractiveness influenced lenders' attitudes toward borrowers' repayment behavior at the brain level by using event-related potentials. At the priming stage, photos of attractive borrowers induced smaller N200 amplitude than photos of unattractive borrowers. Meanwhile, at the feedback stage, compared with the condition of repaying on time, breach of repayment from unattractive borrowers induced larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, which was a frontal-central negative deflection and would be enhanced by the unexpected outcome. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitude was also elicited by the condition of not repaying on time. These differences in the FRN and P300 amplitudes were not observed between negative and positive feedback from attractive borrowers. Therefore, our findings suggest that the beauty premium phenomenon is present in online peer-to-peer lending and that lenders were more tolerant toward attractive borrowers' dishonest behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  1. Does firm performance affect board independence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed some light on the antecedents of board independence. Specifically, it attempts to test the conceptual frameworks which make different predictions about the effect of firm performance on the level of board independence. The results provide support for the perspective that appointing more independent members to the boards may merely represent firms’ attempts to comply with institutional pressures. It is found that higher blockholder shareholdings lead to lower independence on the board, and audit and remuneration committees. Moreover, larger firms have relatively more independent directors sitting on nomination and remuneration committees.

  2. Should the joint provision of credit insurance with unsecured lending be prohibited? An examination of the UK payment protection insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    John Ashton; Robert S. Hudson

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the recent UK regulatory decision to introduce a blanket ban on the joint provision of consumer lending and credit insurance was justified. This case has wide regulatory implications following international concerns that the sale of credit insurance has been detrimental to customers due to overpriced credit insurance and a possible cross subsidy from credit insurance to unsecured lending. To explore this issue a theoretical model is developed considering why a cros...

  3. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  4. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  5. The Impact of the Basel III Liquidity Regulations on the Bank Lending Channel: A Luxembourg case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Giordana; Ingmar Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the Basel III liquidity regulations, namely the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and the Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), on the bank lending channel in Luxembourg. For this aim we built, based on individual bank data, time series of the LCR and NSFR for a sample of banks covering between 82% and 100% of total assets of the banking sector. Additionally, we simulated the optimal balance sheet adjustments needed to adhere to the regulations. We extend the exis...

  6. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  7. Features of financial support of reproduction processes in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the financing of reproduction processes in agriculture, arising from the specific production in the industry. Considered and analyzed the main sources of financial resources for the implementation of the reproduction processes in the agricultural sector, including bank lending, leasing, public financial support.

  8. Examination of bariatric surgery Facebook support groups: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koball, Afton M; Jester, Dylan J; Domoff, Sarah E; Kallies, Kara J; Grothe, Karen B; Kothari, Shanu N

    2017-08-01

    Support following bariatric surgery is vital to ensure long-term postoperative success. Many individuals undergoing bariatric surgery are turning to online modalities, especially the popular social media platform Facebook, to access support groups and pages. Despite evidence suggesting that the majority of patients considering bariatric surgery are utilizing online groups, little is known about the actual content of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a content analysis of bariatric surgery support groups and pages on Facebook. Online via Facebook, independent academic medical center, United States. Data from bariatric surgery-related Facebook support groups and pages were extracted over a 1-month period in 2016. Salient content themes (e.g., progress posts, depression content, eating behaviors) were coded reliably (all κ> .70). More than 6,800 posts and replies were coded. Results indicated that seeking recommendations (11%), providing information or recommendations (53%), commenting on changes since surgery (19%), and lending support to other members (32%) were the most common types of posts. Content surrounding anxiety, eating behaviors, depression, body image, weight bias, and alcohol was found less frequently. Online bariatric surgery groups can be used to receive support, celebrate physical and emotional accomplishments, provide anecdotal accounts of the "bariatric lifestyle" for preoperative patients, and comment on challenges with mental health and experiences of weight bias. Providers should become acquainted with the content commonly found in online groups and exercise caution in recommending these platforms to information-seeking patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized intervention trial to reduce the lending of used injection equipment among injection drug users infected with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Mary H; Hagan, Holly; Kapadia, Farzana; Golub, Elizabeth T; Bonner, Sebastian; Campbell, Jennifer V; Coady, Micaela H; Garfein, Richard S; Pu, Minya; Thomas, Dave L; Thiel, Thelma K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a peer-mentoring behavioral intervention designed to reduce risky distributive injection practices (e.g., syringe lending, unsafe drug preparation) among injection drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A randomized trial with a time-equivalent attention-control group was conducted among 418 HCV-positive injection drug users aged 18 to 35 years in 3 US cities. Participants reported their injection-related behaviors at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared with the control group, intervention-group participants were less likely to report distributive risk behaviors at 3 months (odds ratio [OR]=0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27, 0.79) and 6 months (OR=0.51; 95% CI=0.31, 0.83), a 26% relative risk reduction, but were no more likely to cite their HCV-positive status as a reason for refraining from syringe lending. Effects were strongest among intervention-group participants who had known their HCV-positive status for at least 6 months. Peer mentoring and self-efficacy were significantly increased among intervention-group participants, and intervention effects were mediated through improved self-efficacy. This behavioral intervention reduced unsafe injection practices that may propagate HCV among injection drug users.

  10. Independent power project finance rating criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, D.; Chew W.; Moulton, C.

    1992-01-01

    Continuing growth of project financing for non-utility generators in the US and abroad has led to growing focus on their credit strength. In general, the financings remain relatively risky and would likely be rated below investment grade, because of various factors: loose power purchase arrangements, poor match between power pricing and fuel costs, aggressive leverage, troubled operating performance. But S and P believes some projects have the credit strength to support investment grade ratings. As traditional financing markets for these projects --- bank lending and private placements with highly specialized institutional investors --- have contracted, project sponsors and developers are considering broader markets. These include institutional investors without specialized focus on power project finance. In these markets, distinctions among projects may lead to greater liquidity and efficiency in developing the pricing and terms under which projects can be financed. This paper reports that ratings are most appropriate for projects seeking permanent financing as they enter commercial operations. They also may be useful for projects which have been operating for some time and for some very strong projects which are raising construction financing. To guide both project developers and investors in project financing, S and P has developed the following approach for rating these types of financings

  11. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  12. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  13. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  14. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Weinstock, E.V.; Carew, J.F.; Cerbone, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  15. Probiotic treatment reduces depressive-like behaviour in rats independently of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Anders; Elfving, Betina; Hokland, Marianne; Wegener, Gregers; Lund, Sten

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for ten weeks and treated with either a multi-species probiotic formulation or vehicle for the last five weeks. Independently of diet, probiotic treatment markedly reduced depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test by 34% (95% CI: 22-44%). Furthermore, probiotic treatment skewed the cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells towards IFNγ, IL2 and IL4 at the expense of TNFα and IL6. In addition, probiotics lowered hippocampal transcript levels of factors involved in HPA axis regulation (Crh-r1, Crh-r2 and Mr), whereas HFD increased these levels. A non-targeted plasma metabolomics analysis revealed that probiotics raised the level of indole-3-propionic acid, a potential neuroprotective agent. Our findings clearly support probiotics as a potential treatment strategy in MDD. Importantly, the efficacy was not attenuated by intake of a "Western pattern" diet associated with MDD. Mechanistically, the HPA axis, immune system and microbial tryptophan metabolism could be important in this context. Importantly, our study lend inspiration to clinical trials on probiotics in depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members.

  17. Managing Operational Risk Related to Microfinance Lending Process using Fuzzy Inference System based on the FMEA Method: Moroccan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaoui Youssef Lamrani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing operational risk efficiently is a critical factor of microfinance institutions (MFIs to get a financial and social return. The purpose of this paper is to identify, assess and prioritize the root causes of failure within the microfinance lending process (MLP especially in Moroccan microfinance institutions. Considering the limitation of traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA method in assessing and classifying risks, the methodology adopted in this study focuses on developing a fuzzy logic inference system (FLIS based on (FMEA. This approach can take into account the subjectivity of risk indicators and the insufficiency of statistical data. The results show that the Moroccan MFIs need to focus more on customer relationship management and give more importance to their staff training, to clients screening as well as to their business analysis.

  18. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  19. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  20. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  1. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  2. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  3. Lack of supportive leadership behavior predicts suboptimal self-rated health independent of job strain after 10 years of follow-up: findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Herr, Raphael M; Jarczok, Marc N; Baumert, Jens; Lukaschek, Karoline; Emeny, Rebecca T; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-04-23

    Emerging cross-sectional research has identified lack of supportive leadership behavior (SLB) as a risk factor for workforce health. However, prospective evidence is hitherto lacking. SLB denotes support in difficult situations, recognition and feedback on work tasks. This study aims to determine the effect of SLB on suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) after 10 years considering potential moderators such as ages, sex, occupation and job strain. The sample included 884 employed participants drawn from the population-based prospective MONICA/KORA Study. SLB, SRH, as well as job strain were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of SLB at baseline on suboptimal SRH at follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle (alcohol, smoking, physical activity), socioeconomic status as well as for SRH and job strain at baseline. Lack of SLB was associated with suboptimal SRH at baseline [OR 2.00, (95% CI 1.19-3.46)] and at follow-up [OR 2.33, (95% CI 1.40-3.89)]. Additional adjustment for job strain did not substantially alter this association [OR 2.06, (95% CI 1.20-3.52)]. However, interactions between SLB and job strain as well as gender became evident, indicating moderating influences on the association between SLB and SRH. Lack of supportive leadership was associated with suboptimal SRH at 10 years' follow-up in men, even if SRH at baseline and other risk factors were taken into account. This effect is likely to be moderated by job strain.

  4. RIPE [robot independent programming environment]: A robot independent programming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Lennox, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Remote manual operations in radiation environments are typically performed very slowly. Sensor-based computer-controlled robots hold great promise for increasing the speed and safety of remote operations; however, the programming of robotic systems has proven to be expensive and difficult. Generalized approaches to robot programming that reuse available software modules and employ programming languages which are independent of the specific robotic and sensory devices being used are needed to speed software development and increase overall system reliability. This paper discusses the robot independent programming environment (RIPE) developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment that facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. An architecture based on hierarchies of distributed multiprocessors provides the computing platform for a layered programming structure that models applications using software objects. These objects are designed to support model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, and robust communication

  5. European Experience and Ukrainian Realities in the Policy of Financial Support Entrepreneurial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Savchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - We want to provide recommendations to bridge the gap in access to financing of the entrepreneurial sector in Ukraine based on the analysis of European experience, EBF approaches, financial funds for SMEs and the current state of the credit market in Ukraine. Design/methodology/approach - We used the general scientific methods of knowledge, conceptual tenets of the theory of market economy, abstract logical analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, historical (to determine the nature and causes of bank investment in SMEs, refine categories and terms; formalization, systems analysis (to determine factors of investment banking, institutional and legal environment; statistical, retrospective analysis. The results of surveys conducted by the EBF on the issues of support and development of SMEs are used, own research of 120 Ukrainian SMEs, which was conducted during the period from January to July 2016. The nature of the research questions was reinforced by the decision to survey only SMEs. Independent reporting (from entrepreneurs or CEOs was used to account for both business activity and the external sources of information. Findings - Policy initiatives should primarily be developed at the national level in the field of lending to SMEs based on the European experience and Ukrainian realities; it is necessary to develop an understanding of the need for access to certain types of information; SMEs are the main providers and the most valuable source of credit information. Research implications/limitations - When using the methods of calculation creditworthiness perhaps to take into account the methods for assessing the quality of management, the image of the enterprise, ISO certificates. Originality/value/contribution - Based on the cross-country comparison of the EU and Ukraine, highlight the necessity of focusing on some legal unification of SME lending procedures for the development of a culture of sustainable entrepreneurship

  6. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  7. Keeping Score: Direct Student Lending. An Evaluation Prepared for the Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Iowa Student Loan Liquidity Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William

    This paper provides recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program designed to assess direct lending as a replacement for the current federal student loan program. It offers a list of principles which the demonstration project should address. Recommendations include: (1) maintenance of student…

  8. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  9. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  10. The power of listening: Lending an ear to the partner during dyadic coping conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Rebekka; Bradbury, Thomas N; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bodenmann, Guy

    2018-06-04

    Although active, responsive listening is widely assumed to be essential for well-functioning intimate relationships, the manner in which this important behavior might promote closeness remains unknown. To test the prediction that listening may be especially influential when partners disclose experiences of stress, we instructed 365 heterosexual couples to hold two 8-min conversations in which each partner discussed a stressful personal experience while the other partner was asked to respond as he or she ordinarily would. We coded expressions of stress and listening behavior at 10-s intervals during these conversations, applied actor-partner multilevel models to compute a variable capturing the covariation between one partner's stress expression and the other partner's listening behavior, and then used that variable in regression analyses to predict observed dyadic coping behaviors, self-reports of the quality of dyadic coping in general, and self-reports of relationship satisfaction. Attentive listening while the other partner expressed stress was significantly linked with better dyadic coping behaviors and higher relationship satisfaction. Partners displaying less attentive listening during the partner's stress expression also engaged in more problem-oriented coping and more negative dyadic coping. Because attentive listening during disclosure of stress covaries in expected ways with support provision and judgments of relationship quality, appreciating the context-specific effects of active listening merits careful consideration as an intervention target in couple therapy and in relationship education programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  12. The Status of Bank Lending to SMEs in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Results of a Joint Survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems...

  13. Comparing BV solutions of rate independent processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 121-146 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : variational inequalities * rate independence * convex sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2014 http://www.heldermann.de/JCA/JCA21/JCA211/jca21006.htm

  14. BV solutions of rate independent differential inclusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2014), s. 607-619 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : differential inclusion * stop operator * rate independence * convex set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144138

  15. Reckless lending: how Canada's Export Development Corporation puts people and environment at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the negative impacts of several projects financed by Canada's Export Development Corporation (EDC), how these investments put people and the environment at risk, and highlights the need for ensuring that EDC, an agency of the Canadian Government, is compelled to uphold public policies and international standards protecting human rights, the environment and the social needs of communities. By way of proving its case, authors of this report describe several international projects --the Three Gorges Dam in China; the Urra Hydro Project in Colombia; the Marcopper Mine in the Philippines; the BioBio Dam in Chile; the Ok Tedi Copper Mine in Papua New Guinea; the Yacyreta Dam in Argentina and Paraguay; and CANDU reactors in Argentina, China, Romania, South Korea and Turkey -- as proof of human rights violations and environmental disasters in which EDC has been an accessory. It is emphasized that unlike the World Bank and the U.S. export credit agencies, EDC is not required to undertake environmental assessment, or to take into account the impact on human rights or communities of project which they help to finance. The authors recommend amendments to the Export Development Act that would require the EDC to disclose information about proposed project at least 60 days before approval by the Board, including description of the project, the terms of financing, along with any environmental, social and human rights information collected. EDC should be required to establish an autonomous accountability mechanism, using the mechanisms of the World Bank Group as a model to track and guide EDC's policy implementation, and to receive and address complaints from external parties affected by EDC-supported activities. EDC should require social, environmental and human rights assessments, using World Bank standards and methodology as the base, and ensure implementation of recommendations by separately specifying them in the contract. EDC should not be

  16. The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Parkhitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.

  17. Kanosa- Lending an Ear to the Body and Mind Secrets of Rural Women:Thoughts on Health and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satlaj Dighe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the text Kanosa - Grameen Streechya Sharir ani Manatil Gupitancha, translated as ‘Lending an Ear to the Secrets of Body and Mind of the Rural Woman’ by Dr. Rani Bang. The original text provides detailed information on various life-cycle health experiences of women; illness categories (nosography; health practices; sexualities; diets and local life-worlds of health and bodily experiences based on the in depth discussions with local women. In the context of current trends and prevailing ideologies in the community health sector of India, our critical review highlights the significance of the approach adopted by Dr. Rani Bang in locating health as an integral part of culture.We seek to introduce important discussions in Bang’s text on ethnophysiology, local categories of diseases and their implications on modern community health interventions, as ell as the definitions of the normal, abnormal and pathological as provided by the local community. In light of these discussions, we  examine certain characteristics of the modern Indian community health sector such as its inability to work with local epistemologies of health and illness and its philosophical reliance on Cartesian dualism and western notions of personhood. Certain features of community health such as complete separation of fertility and sexuality as well as the exclusively nutritional approach to dietary phenomena are also reviewed with reference to Kanosa and other significant literature. 

  18. ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES SPECIFIC TO EXPORTS OF GOODS ON ITS OWN BEHALF WITH LONG-TERM COMMERCIAL LENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu - Popa Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that, under increasingly fierce global competition, no country can remain passive on the results arising from international commercial transactions, developing countries and thus foreign trade companies have developed in turn, financial and institutional mechanisms aimed at continuous improvement of their position in global trade, the context in which the export of complex goods, of high values is performed, operation that requires a great financial of those entities, covered by financing of the international delivery from bank loans whose repayment term is longer than one year. Looking from this perspective, the scientific approach made at the entities carrying out foreign trade activities is aimed at developing accounting models specific to the export made on its own behalf with long-term commercial lending, procedures that will be formulated in congruence with the level and structure of the foreign price, the delivery term of the goods and the settlement term of debts or receivables, so that the accounting analysis should enable us to draw relevant conclusions that will help guide the management decisions to adopt those forms to achieve external transactions that are deemed to be the best.

  19. The difference between lending interest rate and funds interest rate. Link with sustainable banking. Particularities of Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gheorghe Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article, is trying to capture the way difference between active and passive interest rates influence macroeconomic sustainable development in a country. However the theory is limited on this area and the author is intending to merge practical aspects with conceptual terms. The role of banks in an economy is very important, as all inflows and outflows are done through financial institutions. Bank sustainability is the area of study and practice that captures the contribution of banks in sustainable development of a country. Banking instruments are the means by which banks are present and act in the economy. Banking techniques are the mechanisms of banking instruments. The most important banking instruments are the loans and the deposits. So banks take deposits from different entities and use them as resource to finance other entities. A bank is considered contributing to sustainable development, if lending divisions allocates resources to investments that bring long-term welfare to the community not only for today people, but for future generations. Therefore, we can establish a correlation between banking sustainability and sustainable development through the evolution of banking instruments. Looking to detail, bank sustainability is highly affected by the local macroeconomic issues, but also from global influences.

  20. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  1. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  2. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  3. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  4. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  5. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  6. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  7. Supporting English Language Arts Standards within the Context of Early Singing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    Music teachers may integrate a variety of English language arts content standards into their curriculum to enhance students' music experiences while also supporting their language development. John M. Feierabend and Melanie Champagne's picture book adaptation of "My Aunt Came Back" lends itself to multiple singing and discussion…

  8. Independent Schools Examine Ways to Support Students' Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Two-thirds of high school students get less than eight to 10 hours of sleep per night according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sleep deprivation in teens has been linked to poor academic performance, reduced immunity, obesity, ADD-like symptoms, and even drug and alcohol use. For years, experts have said that early school…

  9. Kuues lend / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi kultruuriakadeemia teatrikunsti VI lennu diplomilavastused: Dario Fo "Müsterium buff", lavastaja Peeter Raudsepp; Anton Tshehhovi "Kolm õde", lavastaja-koreograaf Oleg Titov; Janusz Glowacki "Fortinbras jõi end täis", lavastajad Kalju Komissaarov ja Sven Heiberg. Lühidalt uutest diplomeeritud lavastajatest - Jaanika Juhanson ja Kati Kivitar

  10. Ohtlik lend / Iain Carson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carson, Iain

    2006-01-01

    Majanduslikesse raskustesse sattunud Euroopa tsiviillennukite tootjat Airbus, mis kuulub Prantsuse-Saksa-Hispaania emafirmale European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), ootab ees natsionaliseerimine kolme riigi poolt

  11. Lending bureaucracy voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus; Hazel, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    with institutional power. Methodologically, the chapter makes a case for the detailed study of social interaction in transient multilingual communities as a window on linguistic and social change, which may, as one avenue of future research, stimulate cross-fertilization between sociolinguistics and the emerging......This study explores how English, used in the context of university internationalisation, is habitually called upon to verbalize concepts and practices which are intimately tied to local settings but which do not necessarily have direct equivalents in English. Focusing on institutional encounters...... at a Danish university, the study illustrates how speakers negotiate expressions for local bureaucratic terms and procedures as well as their meaning, and argues that such instances of joint meaning making carry the potential to contribute to the hyper-local emergent register of English found in the setting...

  12. Supermani lend / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Kuidas sündis legendaarne fantastiline seiklusfilm "Superman" : režissöör Richard Donner : nimiosas Christopher Reeve : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1978. Järgneb 14. veebr. 2005, lk. 38 ; 28. veebr. 2005, lk. 38

  13. A best practice in education and support services for independent living of intellectually disabled youth and adults in Mexico La mejor práctica en servicios educativos y de apoyo para la vida independiente para jóvenes y adultos con discapacidad intelectual en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Katz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a best practice in the field of intellectual disability, a program for independent living offered by the Center for Integral Training and Development (CADI per its abbreviation in Spanish for people with intellectual disability in Mexico. A detailed description of an effective program that fosters autonomy, social inclusion and high quality of life in people with intellectual disability is presented. The program encompasses four areas: a a therapeutic academic area that teaches applied living skills; b development of social skills; c development of vocational skills, and d skills for independent living. The program is divided into three levels: a initiation to independent living, where clients develop basic abilities for autonomy, b community integration and social independence, which provides clients with the skills necessary for social inclusion and economic independence, and c practical and psychological support, which offers counseling for resolving psychological issues and enables subjects to maintain their autonomy.Este artículo describe una "mejor práctica" en la capacitación para el logro de vida independiente, inclusión social y alta calidad de vida en personas con discapacidad intelectual. Se describe en detalle del programa ofrecido por el Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo Integral (CADI, en México. Dicho programa tiene cuatro áreas: 1 área académico-terapéutica para el desarrollo de destrezas prácticas para la vida independiente; 2 área para el desarrollo personal y de habilidades sociales; 3 área para el desarrollo de habilidades laborales; y 4 área para el desarrollo de habilidades aplicadas a la vida independiente. El programa se divide en tres niveles: a iniciación a la vida independiente, donde se desarrollan las habilidades básicas necesarias para el logro de su autonomía; b integración comunitaria e independencia social que provee a los clientes las destrezas necesarias para su

  14. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  15. Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Budi Utami

    2010-01-01

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

  16. Deafblind people, communication, independence, and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Marion

    2013-10-01

    This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of 28 deafblind people in 6 different countries, obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues. However, the similarities in experiences between countries were stronger than the differences. In particular, barriers to communication and inadequate support, with resulting problems of isolation and depression, were found in all the countries. Equally, deafblind people in all the countries were interested in being involved in and contributing to society and supporting other people, particularly through organizations of blind and deafblind people. This runs counter to the tendency to present deafblind and other disabled people purely as recipients of support rather than also as active participants in society. However, there were some differences in the support available in the different countries.

  17. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  18. Independent component analysis: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Hyv?rinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in th...

  19. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  20. Risk perception about medication sharing among patients: a focus group qualitative study on borrowing and lending of prescription analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotic F

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Filipa Markotic,1 Davorka Vrdoljak,2 Marijana Puljiz,3 Livia Puljak,4 1Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, 3Family Medicine Clinic, Health Centre Imotski, Kamenmost, 4Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: One form of self-medication is sharing of medications, defined as borrowing or lending medications in situations where the receiver of these drugs is not the individual to whom the medications were allocated. Objective: To explore experiences and opinions of patients about sharing prescription analgesics, reasons for sharing prescription analgesics, the way in which patients choose to share those medications, their awareness of risk regarding sharing prescription analgesics, and how they estimated the potential risk.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by focus group discussions with 40 participants led by a moderator trained in focus group methodology using a semi-structured moderator guide. Adults aged ≥18 years who had received a prescription for an analgesic at least once in a lifetime were included. Six separate focus groups were conducted to discuss participants’ perception of risks associated with sharing of prescription analgesics among patients. Additionally, participants filled out two questionnaires on demographic data, their own behavior regarding sharing analgesics, and their attitudes about risks associated with sharing prescription analgesics.Results: In a questionnaire, 55% of the participants indicated that they personally shared prescription analgesics, while subsequently in the focus group discussions, 76% confessed to such behavior. Participants recognized certain risks related to sharing of prescription analgesics, mentioned a number of reasons for engaging in such behavior, and indicated certain positive

  1. Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T A; Chin, G; Sagdeev, R Z; Mitrofanov, I G; Boynton, W V; Evans, L G; Litvak, M L; McClanahan, T P; Sanin, A B; Starr, R D; Su, J J

    2015-07-15

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), on the polar-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, has detected suppression in the Moon's naturally-occurring epithermal neutron leakage flux that is consistent with the presence of diurnally varying quantities of hydrogen in the regolith near the equator. Peak hydrogen concentration (neutron flux suppression) is on the dayside of the dawn terminator and diminishes through the dawn-to-noon sector. The minimum concentration of hydrogen is in the late afternoon and dusk sector. The chemical form of hydrogen is not determinable from these measurements, but other remote sensing methods and anticipated elemental availability suggest water molecules or hydroxyl ions. Signal-to-noise ratio at maximum contrast is 5.6 σ in each of two detector systems. Volatiles are deduced to collect in or on the cold nightside surface and distill out of the regolith after dawn as rotation exposes the surface to sunlight. Liberated volatiles migrate away from the warm subsolar region toward the nearby cold nightside surface beyond the terminator, resulting in maximum concentration at the dawn terminator. The peak concentration within the upper ~1 m of regolith is estimated to be 0.0125 ± 0.0022 weight-percent water-equivalent hydrogen (wt% WEH) at dawn, yielding an accumulation of 190 ± 30 ml recoverable water per square meter of regolith at each dawn. Volatile transport over the lunar surface in opposition to the Moon's rotation exposes molecules to solar ultraviolet radiation. The short lifetime against photolysis and permanent loss of hydrogen from the Moon requires a resupply rate that greatly exceeds anticipated delivery of hydrogen by solar wind implantation or by meteoroid impacts, suggesting that the surface inventory must be continually resupplied by release from a deep volatile inventory in the Moon. The natural distillation of water from the regolith by sunlight and its capture on the cold night surface may

  2. Web Services for Telegeriatric and Independent Living of the Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... “Smart Home” technologies can help foster a safe and independent living ..... with care services and other relevant organizational bodies). To support ..... National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web–based injury ...

  3. Verification of Linear (In)Dependence in Finite Precision Arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3-4 (2014), s. 323-328 ISSN 1661-8289 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : linear dependence * linear independence * pseudoinverse matrix * finite precision arithmetic * verification * MATLAB file Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  5. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P

    2010-01-01

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  6. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  7. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  8. The Independent Payment Advisory Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    The Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) is a vastly powerful component of the president's health care reform law, with authority to issue recommendations to reduce the growth in Medicare spending, providing recommendations to be considered by Congress and implemented by the administration on a fast track basis. Ever since its inception, IPAB has been one of the most controversial issues of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), even though the powers of IPAB are restricted and multiple sectors of health care have been protected in the law. IPAB works by recommending policies to Congress to help Medicare provide better care at a lower cost, which would include ideas on coordinating care, getting rid of waste in the system, providing incentives for best practices, and prioritizing primary care. Congress then has the power to accept or reject these recommendations. However, Congress faces extreme limitations, either to enact policies that achieve equivalent savings, or let the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) follow IPAB's recommendations. IPAB has strong supporters and opponents, leading to arguments in favor of or against to the extreme of introducing legislation to repeal IPAB. The origins of IPAB are found in the ideology of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the impetus of exploring health care costs, even though IPAB's authority seems to be limited to Medicare only. The structure and operation of IPAB differs from Medicare and has been called the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) on steroids. The board membership consists of 15 full-time members appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate with options for recess appointments. The IPAB statute sets target growth rates for Medicare spending. The applicable percent for maximum savings appears to be 0.5% for year 2015, 1% for 2016, 1.25% for 2017, and 1.5% for 2018 and later. The IPAB Medicare proposal process involves

  9. Independent production and Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known statement of factorization of inclusive cross-sections in case of independent production of particles (or clusters, jets etc.) and the conclusion of Poisson distribution over their multiplicity arising from it do not follow from the probability theory in any way. Using accurately the theorem of the product of independent probabilities, quite different equations are obtained and no consequences relative to multiplicity distributions are obtained. 11 refs

  10. A domain-independent descriptive design model and its application to structured reflection on design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Hammer, D.K.; Kroes, P.A.; van Aken, Joan Ernst; van Aken, J.E.; Dorst, C.H.; Bax, M.F.T.; Basten, T

    2006-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that to be domain independent, the

  11. They all do it, will you? Event-related potential evidence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haihong; Dan, MengHan; Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia

    2018-05-14

    As herding is a typical characteristic of human behavior, many researchers have found the existence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending through empirical surveys. However, the underlying neural basis of this phenomenon is still unclear. In the current study, we studied the neural activities of herding at decision-making stage and feedback stage using event-related potentials (ERPs). Our results showed that at decision-making stage, larger error related negativity (ERN) amplitude was induced under low-proportion conditions than that of high-proportion conditions. Meanwhile, during feedback stage, negative feedback elicited larger feedback related negativity (FRN) amplitude than that of positive feedback under low-proportion conditions, however, there was no significant FRN difference under high-proportion conditions. The current study suggests that herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending is related to individual's risk perception and is possible to avoid negative emotions brought by failed investments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147 ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs- Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  13. Food Independence of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Vladimirovich Tyutyunik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with such basic definitions as food security, food independence and food self- sufficiency of the region. The author shows the ambiguity problem of interpretations of these terms in the Russian legislation, which is especially evident in the transition from the national to the regional level. Using the example of legislative acts of some of the Russian Federation’s subjects the study demonstrates the incorrect use of mentioned terms. In author’s opinion, regional authorities in the Russian Federation must introduce amendments to the legislative documents concerning food security. To be more concrete, the regional authorities should either deny the goal of food independence for a particular region, or specify that the goal of reaching food independence for the region does not mean food self-sufficiency, but just import substitution on the regional level

  14. Supplying safety and energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  15. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  16. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  17. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  18. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  19. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  20. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  1. Türkiye’de Banka Kredi Kanalının İşleyişi: Ampirik Bir Analiz(Processing of Bank Lending Channel in Turkey: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman PEKER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processing of bank lending channel in Turkey was tested with the help of vector auto regression (VAR method by using 1990:01-2008:11 period monthly data. Processing of bank lending channel was investigated on the basis of two different monetary policy variables. According to the empirical findings of the study, on the contrary overnight interest rate, money supply was found to be a more effective monetary policy variable. In case of controling money supply, Central Bank can operate effectively bank credit channels and therefore the amount of output and inflation is going to be directed more easily. In this context it can be said that the processing of the bank lending channel is effective in Turkey.

  2. 78 FR 6407 - Ability-to-Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., and child support; (7) the monthly debt-to-income ratio or residual income; and (8) credit history... concerns were heightened as mortgage delinquencies and foreclosure rates increased dramatically, caused in... to repay.\\6\\ Subprime products were sold primarily to consumers with poor or no credit history...

  3. Quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on ventromedial hypothalamic and preoptic-area proteins in female rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished using in vitro 35S-methionine and 35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region

  4. Online Crowdfunding Campaign for an Independent Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Kivikangas, Inessa

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years online reward-model crowdfunding platforms have become a popular tool for raising funds among independent game developers. Big success of several brilliant indie titles brought to the online crowdfunding platforms Kickstarter and Indiegogo hundreds of hopeful independent developers. However, apart from creating an excellent game indie developers have to be able to reach out to their audience and capture attention of potential supporters and gaming media. Time and e...

  5. Considerations on establishment of an independent TSO in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Kholrul

    2010-01-01

    To strengthen the national safety infrastructure is absolutely needed for countries those are embarking to nuclear power. Establishment of an independent technical support organization (TSO) is one of the important steps in strengthening the safety infrastructure. TSO is dedicated to provide independent scientific and technical advices to the regulatory body in conducting regulatory process effectively. Indonesia is one of the countries who have already had a function o fTSO within its Regulatory Body's organization ('internal TSO'). So, the independence of TSO is remarkably questioned. In this case, an independent TSO could be achieved by excluding the internal TSO or strengthening, its legal position in a different organisation. In addition, since the TSO might also be needed by the executing body, a hybrid organization of TSO with dual-function is being considered. Present paper provides some considerations regarding the establishment of independent TSO in Indonesia. (author)

  6. Field development finance for independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, oil and gas reserves are in decline, and independents own relatively little of them, say 13 percent of the oil reserves and 22 percent of the gas reserves. Over the five years 1989-93, the oil reserves of majors declined by 4.5 percent, while those of independents rose 17 percent; each experienced a rise in gas reserves of 6-7 percent. Partly because of this gentle decline in world reserves, but much more because of the decline in oil and gas commodity prices, the value of the reserves, expressed in terms of future production, has been declining substantially. In 1993, when these data were last recorded, the discounted future net cash flows in the United States were 40 percent below their 1990 peak of $135 billion, and foreign net cash flows were 35 percent lower than the 1990 peak of $140 billion. (author)

  7. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  8. [Accreditation of Independent Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Formas reificadas de referenciação relativas a personagens de narrativas afiliadas ao lendário amazônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliud Luis Maia MOURA

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é analisar, a partir dos pressupostos da Linguística Textual e do Sociocognitivismo, formas reificadas de referenciação relativas a personagens de narrativas afiliadas ao lendário amazônico. Tomo como fundamento teórico as postulações de Marcuschi (2007, Fillmore (1976, 1977, 1982, 1985, Feltes (2007, Goffman (1974, 1988, Tomasello (1988, 1992a, 1995a, 2003, Koch (2004, 2006, Geertz (2008, Ferreira (1986, Abbagnano (1962, para os quais, sob diversas perspectivas teóricas, as formas-processos referencial-reificatórios são resultados de reconstruções sociocognitivas e culturais de entidades e eventos em mobilização nas narrativas em estudo.

  10. Board Independence and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Reporting in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulyasmin Binti Ju Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of board independence on corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting by publicly listed companies in Malaysia. Content analysis was used to determine the extent of CSR reporting. A reporting index consisting of 51 items was developed based on six themes: General, Community, Environment, Human Resources, Marketplace and Other. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression was used to examine the relationship between board independence and firm CSR reporting. The results indicate that the association between board independence and company CSR reporting is industry specific. Overall, the empirical evidence partially supports agency theory.

  11. Türkiye’de Banka Kredileri Kanalının İşleyişi Üzerine Ampirik Bir Analiz = Empirical Analysis of the Bank Lending Channel in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Gözde BEŞBALLI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a change in monetary policy on output operates through monetary transmission channels. The transmission channels of monetary policy may be gathered in five main titles: interest rates channel, asset prices channel, exchange rate channel, credit channel (bank lending channel, balance sheet channel and expectation channel. Findings obtained from the analysis of the transmission channels can be used in policy determination.This paper empirically analyzes the bank lending channel, one of the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in Turkey. In this paper, data between 1996:06-2006:09 are examined using VAR methodology. According to the findings, the credit channel in Turkey operates partially.

  12. Un modello econometrico per il credito bancario alle famiglie in Italia (An econometric model for bank lending to households in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Casolaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro presenta la stima di un modello econometrico per il credito bancario alle famiglie in Italia nel periodo 1984-2003. Il modello si compone di due equazioni: prestiti per l’acquisto di abitazioni e altri prestiti alle famiglie (tipicamente credito al consumo e finanziamenti in conto corrente. Entrambe le equazioni evidenziano uno stretto legame con l’andamento congiunturale dell’economia e il livello dei tassi di interesse reali; i mutui alle famiglie sono influenzati anche dalla dinamica del mercato immobiliare e di quello azionario. Il lavoro verifica l’esistenza di cambiamenti strutturali nelle equazioni in relazione alle trasformazioni intervenute nel mercato del credito nella seconda parte degli anni novanta e scompone il contributo alla crescita del credito alle famiglie tra i diversi fattori.  This paper presents the estimation of an econometric model for bank lending to households in Italy in the period 1984-2003. The model consists of two equations: loans for house purchase and other loans to households (typically consumer credit and loans in the current account. Both equations show a close relationship with the economic trend and the level of real interest rates; household mortgages are also influenced by the dynamics of the housing market and the equity market. The work verifies the existence of structural changes in the equations in relation to the changes occurred in the credit market in the second half of the nineties and breaks down the contribution to growth in lending to households between the different factors.  JEL Codes: D12, G21Keywords: credito bancario, famiglie, prestiti, modello econometrico

  13. The relevance of financial information and contents of the new audit report for lending decisions of commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trpeska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the importance of financial information and information contained in the ISA’s New Audit Report effective from 2016 for lenders as capital providers. We base our findings on a survey conducted in September of 2016 with corporate loan officers for medium-large corporate clients in Macedonia. The results show that the annual report of the company, except for the management report and notes to the financial statements, has consistently high importance and usability for respondents’ decision making. Various accounting ratios related to liquidity, financial stability and profitability of the company are considered very important and regularly used in credit analysis. However, respondents were not consistent in their shared perceptions regarding high importance of projected profits and historical information on operating cash flows. All loan officers gave high importance to the information found in existent auditor’s report format regardless of the form of expressed opinion. Also, information on key audit matters, additional information on going concern and related auditor’s judgement, procedures related to fraud risk were considered of high importance. Lenders rated as less important the disclosure of the name of engagement partner, auditor’s statement on independence and compliance with ethical requirements and the level of materiality used in the audit.

  14. Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women.

  15. Blockbuster genres in Danish independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2013-01-01

    is a certain reluctance towards supporting specific international blockbuster genres such as horror, the gangster drama and action film. Throughout the past decade, Danish independent cinema – motivated by for instance the alternative film school Super16 and self-governing film-milieus around Denmark – has...... genres and styles in the search for what is missing in Danish cinema. This works for some directors, principally, by directly reacting against the institutional and economic dominance and protectionism of primarily The Danish Film Institute. Indirectly, the some of the filmmakers seem to react against...... ‘what is allowed’ in Danish film culture. Thus, they actually define themselves as being non-mainstream by focussing on international mainstream genres. By way of examples from the Danish indie scene and interviews with noteworthy indie filmmakers, this article draws attention to a still fairly...

  16. The Faroe Islands: Options for Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Faroe Islands are currently at a crossroads in their constitutional status. Discussions concerning changes in the current constitutional status are ongoing and several analyses about possible trajectories of future development are being proposed. Argued in a context of Faroese nationalism, this article tries to assess these trajectories in the future jurisdictional and political development of the Faroe Islands in terms of three possible scenarios: independence or full sovereignty (as is Iceland; a freely associated statehood (as are Niue and the Cook Islands in relation to New Zealand; or a confederation, probably involving changes at both the central level of the Danish state and the European Union level. This article argues that the most likely future development is that of a state in free association with Denmark. Meanwhile, island politics can change very quickly and the traditional cleavages in Faroese politics are liable to changing degrees of public support.

  17. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  18. 5 Tips for Creating Independent Activities Aligned with the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Promoting independence in all students is one important part of education. It can be difficult for educators to identify meaningful tasks that students with severe disabilities can complete with full independence. By incorporating visual supports into a student's independent work, the teacher is providing the student with an opportunity to…

  19. Tech Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2002-01-01

    Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

  20. Multiple Independent File Parallel I/O with HDF5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. C.

    2016-07-13

    The HDF5 library has supported the I/O requirements of HPC codes at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL) since the late 90’s. In particular, HDF5 used in the Multiple Independent File (MIF) parallel I/O paradigm has supported LLNL code’s scalable I/O requirements and has recently been gainfully used at scales as large as O(106) parallel tasks.

  1. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  2. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  3. Ergodic theory independence and dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the ergodic theory and topological dynamics of actions of countable groups. It is organized around the theme of probabilistic and combinatorial independence, and highlights the complementary roles of the asymptotic and the perturbative in its comprehensive treatment of the core concepts of weak mixing, compactness, entropy, and amenability. The more advanced material includes Popa's cocycle superrigidity, the Furstenberg-Zimmer structure theorem, and sofic entropy. The structure of the book is designed to be flexible enough to serve a variety of readers. The discussion of dynamics is developed from scratch assuming some rudimentary functional analysis, measure theory, and topology, and parts of the text can be used as an introductory course. Researchers in ergodic theory and related areas will also find the book valuable as a reference.

  4. Loss of Financial Management Independence After Brain Injury: Survivors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kathryn; Woods, Lindsay; Engel, Lisa; Bottari, Carolina; Dawson, Deirdre R; Nalder, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences of brain injury survivors after a change in financial management (FM) independence. Using a qualitative descriptive design, 6 participants with acquired brain injury were recruited from a community brain injury organization and participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) trajectory of FM change, involving family members as key change agents; (2) current FM situation, involving FM strategies such as automatic deposits and restricted budgets; and (3) the struggle for control, in which survivors desired control while also accepting supports for FM. This study identifies some of the challenges brain injury survivors face in managing their finances and the adjustment associated with a loss of FM independence. Occupational therapists should be aware of clients' experiences when supporting them through a change in independence. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. On the joint entropy of d-wise-independent variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2016), s. 333-343 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : d-wise-independent variables * entropy * lower bound Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145838

  6. Independent Living Services and the Educational Motivation of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriamiatoe, Osarumen Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the components of independent living training and services to determine their effectiveness in preparing foster youth in Tennessee for adulthood, and whether the youth's perceived effectiveness of these services affected their educational motivation. Support factors (i.e., family, financial,…

  7. A linear-algebraic tool for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanaka, K.; Studený, Milan; Takemura, A.; Sei, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2015), s. 150-167 ISSN 1309-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence inference * Automated theorem proving Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/studeny-0450036.pdf

  8. Independent School Leadership: Heads, Boards, and Strategic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Troy; Campbell, Stephen; Ostroff, David

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and assess factors that contribute to effective independent school governance at the board of trustees level. A review of extant literature reveals two major challenges: (a) definitions and standards of board effectiveness are inconsistent, and (b) there is very little empirical evidence to support existing definitions…

  9. Independent Study Workbooks for Proofs in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lara; Brown, Gavin; Dunning, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale research project based on workbooks designed to support independent study of proofs in a first course on abstract algebra. We discuss the lecturers' aims in designing the workbooks, and set these against a background of research on students' learning of group theory and on epistemological beliefs and study habits…

  10. Human-Derived Disturbance Estimation and Compensation (DEC) Method Lends Itself to a Modular Sensorimotor Control in a Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Vittorio; Mergner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The high complexity of the human posture and movement control system represents challenges for diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of neurological patients. We envisage that engineering-inspired, model-based approaches will help to deal with the high complexity of the human posture control system. Since the methods of system identification and parameter estimation are limited to systems with only a few DoF, our laboratory proposes a heuristic approach that step-by-step increases complexity when creating a hypothetical human-derived control systems in humanoid robots. This system is then compared with the human control in the same test bed, a posture control laboratory. The human-derived control builds upon the identified disturbance estimation and compensation (DEC) mechanism, whose main principle is to support execution of commanded poses or movements by compensating for external or self-produced disturbances such as gravity effects. In previous robotic implementation, up to 3 interconnected DEC control modules were used in modular control architectures separately for the sagittal plane or the frontal body plane and successfully passed balancing and movement tests. In this study we hypothesized that conflict-free movement coordination between the robot's sagittal and frontal body planes emerges simply from the physical embodiment, not necessarily requiring a full body control. Experiments were performed in the 14 DoF robot Lucy Posturob (i) demonstrating that the mechanical coupling from the robot's body suffices to coordinate the controls in the two planes when the robot produces movements and balancing responses in the intermediate plane, (ii) providing quantitative characterization of the interaction dynamics between body planes including frequency response functions (FRFs), as they are used in human postural control analysis, and (iii) witnessing postural and control stability when all DoFs are challenged together with the emergence of inter

  11. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  13. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  14. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  15. 公共出借權計畫之本質與價值 The Essence of an Public Lending Right System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-yeou Chiu

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Stocks, titles, loan estimates and grants make the payment of Public Lending Right, plus with the hybrid system of estimates mentioned. PLR is growing but more complicated than ever. Nevertheless, some of the reasons for convincing people of realizing PLR are controversial. To be sure, the PLR-related issues are full of the academic value. While government, library, author, reader, and bookshop working together with a rational correlation, PLR certainly becomes harmonious and be a well designed policy. The case of the UK PLR has been introduced and given a meaningful thinking to us. The positive attitudes of library toward PLR system and the emphasis on the relationship between publishing market and library are of importance. Non-book material and digital information are also the future of PLR implement. Taiwan's PLR system and payment, if to be employed, should simply begin with and be recognized as a culture policy to evade the difficulties of immediately revising the copyright or other national policies.

  16. Promoting gender equality in access to microcredit through flexible lending approaches of female targeting MFIs: Evidence from Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Mukamana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to loans is one of the most important areas of focus by many development practitioners for reducing the existing gender gap in access to productive resources. Microfinance Institutions which target females as key clients were promoted for their lending approaches which avoid previous discriminatory practices that excluded women in the financial system. The current study examines the role of Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda in promoting equality in access to microcredit between female and male borrowers. The results of the study are generated by analyzing quantitative data collected from 244 females and 94 males using the questionnaire and qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The study findings revealed that Duterimbere has been able to adapt its requirements to the specific needs of poor women. A significant number of poor women have been able to join the MFI through group solidarity, a method that has upgraded their borrowing capacity to the level of getting individual loans on equal basis as male peers. This study recommends further research that should go beyond access to loan and consider the dynamics of power relations about utilization of the loan received by female and male borrowers.

  17. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  18. Supporting Families to Support Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2018-01-01

    Collaboration between students' families and the school is an essential component to promoting student mental and behavioral health. Many schools structure their mental health services using a Multi-Tiered System of Supports that offers three different tiers of support from universal supports to personalized help for students with serious…

  19. Estimation from PET data of transient changes in dopamine concentration induced by alcohol: support for a non-parametric signal estimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, C C; Yoder, K K; Normandin, M D; Morris, E D [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kareken, D A [Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Bouman, C A [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); O' Connor, S J [Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)], E-mail: emorris@iupui.edu

    2008-03-07

    We previously developed a model-independent technique (non-parametric ntPET) for extracting the transient changes in neurotransmitter concentration from paired (rest and activation) PET studies with a receptor ligand. To provide support for our method, we introduced three hypotheses of validation based on work by Endres and Carson (1998 J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18 1196-210) and Yoder et al (2004 J. Nucl. Med. 45 903-11), and tested them on experimental data. All three hypotheses describe relationships between the estimated free (synaptic) dopamine curves (F{sup DA}(t)) and the change in binding potential ({delta}BP). The veracity of the F{sup DA}(t) curves recovered by nonparametric ntPET is supported when the data adhere to the following hypothesized behaviors: (1) {delta}BP should decline with increasing DA peak time, (2) {delta}BP should increase as the strength of the temporal correlation between F{sup DA}(t) and the free raclopride (F{sup RAC}(t)) curve increases, (3) {delta}BP should decline linearly with the effective weighted availability of the receptor sites. We analyzed regional brain data from 8 healthy subjects who received two [{sup 11}C]raclopride scans: one at rest, and one during which unanticipated IV alcohol was administered to stimulate dopamine release. For several striatal regions, nonparametric ntPET was applied to recover F{sup DA}(t), and binding potential values were determined. Kendall rank-correlation analysis confirmed that the F{sup DA}(t) data followed the expected trends for all three validation hypotheses. Our findings lend credence to our model-independent estimates of F{sup DA}(t). Application of nonparametric ntPET may yield important insights into how alterations in timing of dopaminergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathologies of addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  20. Model-independent cosmological constraints from growth and expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Shafieloo, Arman; Kim, Hyungjin

    2018-05-01

    Reconstructing the expansion history of the Universe from Type Ia supernovae data, we fit the growth rate measurements and put model-independent constraints on some key cosmological parameters, namely, Ωm, γ, and σ8. The constraints are consistent with those from the concordance model within the framework of general relativity, but the current quality of the data is not sufficient to rule out modified gravity models. Adding the condition that dark energy density should be positive at all redshifts, independently of its equation of state, further constrains the parameters and interestingly supports the concordance model.

  1. Roadway supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassen, P

    1980-01-01

    Support systems in stone drifts and tunnels are discussed. Timber supports, steel arches, cold-bent sheet-metal arches, shotcrete and combined support arrangements are described. Brickwork and reinforced concrete are also covered. Supports in roadways leading to the face and in-seam roads are discussed including timber supports, steel arches, articulated arches on timber chocks, support accessories and the withdrawal and reshaping of arches. The subject of strata bolting, the aims of strata bolting, methods of strata bolting, systems of rock-bolting, end plates and wire mesh, and bolt and anchorage monitoring are also discussed. Injection techniques, injection parameters, injection methods, grouts, includes an example of the application of injection techniques are covered and combined injection/dowelling arrangements are examined. (55 refs.) (In French)

  2. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated

  3. Microenvironmental independence associated with tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander R A; Hassanein, Mohamed; Branch, Kevin M; Lu, Jenny; Lobdell, Nichole A; Maier, Julie; Basanta, David; Weidow, Brandy; Narasanna, Archana; Arteaga, Carlos L; Reynolds, Albert B; Quaranta, Vito; Estrada, Lourdes; Weaver, Alissa M

    2009-11-15

    Tumor-microenvironment interactions are increasingly recognized to influence tumor progression. To understand the competitive dynamics of tumor cells in diverse microenvironments, we experimentally parameterized a hybrid discrete-continuum mathematical model with phenotypic trait data from a set of related mammary cell lines with normal, transformed, or tumorigenic properties. Surprisingly, in a resource-rich microenvironment, with few limitations on proliferation or migration, transformed (but not tumorigenic) cells were most successful and outcompeted other cell types in heterogeneous tumor simulations. Conversely, constrained microenvironments with limitations on space and/or growth factors gave a selective advantage to phenotypes derived from tumorigenic cell lines. Analysis of the relative performance of each phenotype in constrained versus unconstrained microenvironments revealed that, although all cell types grew more slowly in resource-constrained microenvironments, the most aggressive cells were least affected by microenvironmental constraints. A game theory model testing the relationship between microenvironment resource availability and competitive cellular dynamics supports the concept that microenvironmental independence is an advantageous cellular trait in resource-limited microenvironments.

  4. The Road to Independently Understandable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.; Robinson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The turn of the 21st century was a pivotal time in the Earth and Space Science information ecosystem. The Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) had existed for nearly a decade and ambitious new standards were just emerging. The U.S. Federal Geospatial Data Committee (FGDC) had extended many of the concepts from CSDGM into the International community with ISO 19115:2003 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) had migrated their Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model into an international standard (ISO 14721:2003). The OAIS model outlined the roles and responsibilities of archives with the principle role being preserving information and making it available to users, a "designated community", as a service to the data producer. It was mandatory for the archive to ensure that information is "independently understandable" to the designated community and to maintain that understanding through on-going partnerships between archives and designated communities. Standards can play a role in supporting these partnerships as designated communities expand across disciplinary and geographic boundaries. The ISO metadata standards include many capabilities that might make critical contributions to this goal. These include connections to resources outside of the metadata record (i.e. documentation) and mechanisms for ongoing incorporation of user feedback into the metadata stream. We will demonstrate these capabilities with examples of how they can increase understanding.

  5. 77 FR 76841 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... measuring the appropriate credit exposures of derivatives transactions and securities financing transactions... a credit exposure arising from a derivative transaction or securities financing transaction on or... derivative transactions or securities financing transactions from January 1, 2013 to July 1, 2013 in order to...

  6. 78 FR 37930 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... provision will be removed when the rule's temporary exception period for derivative and securities financing... than credit derivatives, and two methods for securities financing transactions.\\11\\ Unless required to... exposure arising from all derivative transactions and the same method for all securities financing...

  7. Lending and Credit Monitoring Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica IOAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a bank’s activities depend to a significant extent on the quality of the credit portfolio that it holds, as well as on the credit tracking and control system. The purpose and functioning of such inter-banking systems differs from one bank to another. Loans require an increasingly efficient type of internal surveillance of activity. Following the clients’ behavior and performances, as well as their entire activity is a particularly important phase and absolutely necessary in the course of a loan. The purpose of this activity is, generally, that of identifying, as early as possible, of clues about any problems that may appear during the course of the loan, so as to make possible, as early as can be, the taking of remedial measures with a view to anticipate the deterioration of the loan’s debt. An open communication between the bank and the loan’s beneficiary is an essential condition for an efficient tracking program. Another basic element is the rigorous and complete filling out of the credit papers. The credit files are the backbone of the of the loan monitoring process because these contain all of the documents which may offer to the credit officer, accounting expert, as well as other interested parties a permanent, chronological record of the loan relation.

  8. Lending conspiracy alleged by Slesers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Peaministri kandidaat Ainars Slesers väitis telesaates "900 sekundit", et Läti valitsusel on sõlmitud rahvusvaheliste kreeditoridega salalepe, mille kohaselt erastatakse pärast parlamendivalimisi riigiettevõtted. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis ütles ajakirjale "Ir", et valitsusel ei ole selliseid plaane

  9. Comparative Study of Crowdfunding and Lending in Book Publishing%图书出版众筹模式与借贷模式的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旸; 甘浩辰

    2016-01-01

    本文采用成本收益的分析思想,将图书出版融资模式划分为众筹与传统借贷模式,比较两种模型的差异,并采用实际案例检验收益区别。结果发现,对于发起人而言,众筹的利润低于传统借贷产生的利润。只有当图书众筹市场规模与图书传统市场规模相等时,众筹的利润才略微高于传统借贷的利润。由此可见,现阶段的图书众筹模式在收益上并不具备显著优势,本文据此对众筹模式未来的发展提出了相关建议。%The book publishing financing models can be dividedinto crowdfunding model and traditional lending model. We use cost-beneift analysis to compare the difference between these two models and exam-ine the benefit by using real case study. The result shows that, from the promoter’s point ofview, the benefit of crowdfunding is lower than traditional lending’s.Only when the book crowdfunding market size is equal to the total book market size, the benefit of crowdfunding is slightly higher than lending’s. In conclusion, the book crowdfunding model, at this stage, does not have signiifcant advantage in beneift. According to the result, this paper provides related proposals for the future development of crowdfunding.

  10. In Lands of Foreign Currency Credit, Bank Lending Channels Run Through? The Effects of Monetary Policy at Home and Abroad on the Currency Denomination of the Supply of Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ongena; Ibolya Schindele; Dzsamila Vonnak

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the differential impact of domestic and foreign monetary policy on the local supply of bank credit in domestic and foreign currencies. We analyze a novel, supervisory dataset from Hungary that records all bank lending to firms including its currency denomination. Accounting for time-varying firm-specific heterogeneity in loan demand, we find that a lower domestic interest rate expands the supply of credit in the domestic but not in the foreign currency. A lower foreign interest rat...

  11. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: A scenario-based comparison of domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Slavnicu, S. D.; Slavnicu, E.; Vamanu, B.

    2004-01-01

    The article reports selective results of a comparison between RODOS - an emerging decision support system for the management of nuclear emergencies in Europe developed by an international research consortium under EEC aegis, and a resident software package developed and maintained for similar purposes at IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Reproducible similarity patterns obtained in the output data distributions provide for simple normalising procedures that may ensure convergent radiological assessments. When properly consolidated on a sufficient scenario casuistry, such procedures could lend a certain resilience to domestic decision support tools over the interim lead time required by the full implementation of RODOS, or other major league, internationally accepted reference systems. (authors)

  12. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  13. Supporting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  14. Supporting Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Info. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., and T. Jenkins. Abiotic Hydrolysis of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers as a...

  15. Supporting Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Information. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., T. Jenkins, and E. Weber. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H...

  16. Calibrating EASY-Care independence scale to improve accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background there is currently limited support for the reliability and validity of the EASY-Care independence scale, with little work carried out in low- or middle-income countries. Therefore, we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Objective we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Methods three primary care physicians administered EASY-Care comprehensive geriatric assessment for 150 frail and/or dependent older people in the primary care setting. A Mokken model was applied to investigate hierarchical scaling properties of EASY-Care independence scale, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the scale was also examined. Results we found that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and is a strong hierarchical scale, hence providing strong evidence for unidimensionality. However, two items in the scale (unable to use telephone and manage finances) had much lower item Loevinger H coefficients than others. Exclusion of these two items improved the overall internal consistency of the scale. Conclusions the strong performance of the EASY-Care independence scale among community-dwelling frail older people is encouraging. This study confirms that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and a strong hierarchical scale. PMID:27496925

  17. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  18. Calibration and Propagation of Uncertainty for Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Troy Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kress, Joel David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bhat, Kabekode Ghanasham [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-30

    This document reports on progress and methods for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of the Independence model developed at UT Austin. The Independence model is an advanced thermodynamic and process model framework for piperazine solutions as a high-performance CO2 capture solvent. Progress is presented in the framework of the CCSI standard basic data model inference framework. Recent work has largely focused on the thermodynamic submodels of Independence.

  19. Advanced practice nurses: starting an independent practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, V A; Lambert, C E

    1996-01-01

    Independent or private practice is the delivery of nursing services provided by nurses over which nurses have full control. With a changing healthcare system, nurses are in a prime position to negotiate the delivery of appropriate, acceptable, and cost-effective health care as independent practitioners. This article addresses the mission and goals of independent practice, community need, business structure of the practice, housing the practice, legal considerations, financing the practice, marketing issues, clientele, record keeping, and reimbursement.

  20. Data-driven model-independent searches for long-lived particles at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Andrea; Curtin, David; Lubatti, H. J.; Russell, Heather; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-12-01

    Neutral long-lived particles (LLPs) are highly motivated by many beyond the Standard Model scenarios, such as theories of supersymmetry, baryogenesis, and neutral naturalness, and present both tremendous discovery opportunities and experimental challenges for the LHC. A major bottleneck for current LLP searches is the prediction of Standard Model backgrounds, which are often impossible to simulate accurately. In this paper, we propose a general strategy for obtaining differential, data-driven background estimates in LLP searches, thereby notably extending the range of LLP masses and lifetimes that can be discovered at the LHC. We focus on LLPs decaying in the ATLAS muon system, where triggers providing both signal and control samples are available at LHC run 2. While many existing searches require two displaced decays, a detailed knowledge of backgrounds will allow for very inclusive searches that require just one detected LLP decay. As we demonstrate for the h →X X signal model of LLP pair production in exotic Higgs decays, this results in dramatic sensitivity improvements for proper lifetimes ≳10 m . In theories of neutral naturalness, this extends reach to glueball masses far below the b ¯b threshold. Our strategy readily generalizes to other signal models and other detector subsystems. This framework therefore lends itself to the development of a systematic, model-independent LLP search program, in analogy to the highly successful simplified-model framework of prompt searches.

  1. Independent review of the SaskPower rate proposal of August 2004 : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, J.D.; Buhr, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an independent review of SaskPower's request for an increase in rates effective September 1, 2004 and September 1, 2005. With the exception of manufacturing customers, whose rate increase will be phased in over four years, these rate changes will result in a 9 per cent system average increase in 2004 and a 1.8 per cent system average increase in 2005. The report presents an introduction and description of the terms of reference for this review; a financial outlook and comparisons; system operational analysis; an analysis of expenditures; revenue requirement; cost of service issues; and rate design. The report also presents a summary and recommendations on cost of service and rate design issues. The report concluded that the scope of this review does not lend itself to a definitive conclusion on the appropriateness of the cost of service model and its application by SaskPower. Several areas needing further attention include: net fuel and purchased power allocations to different classes; allocation of rate base and in particular distribution rate base to various classes; target ratios for revenue to revenue requirements and the subsequent return on rate base percentages for each class; and demand/energy/customer components of revenue requirements compared to billing revenues. refs., 31 tabs., 1 fig., 6 appendices

  2. Datacube Interoperability, Encoding Independence, and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter; Hirschorn, Eric; Maso, Joan

    2017-04-01

    representations. Further, CIS 1.1 offers a unified model for any kind of regular and irregular grids, also allowing sensor models as per SensorML. Encodings include ASCII formats like GML, JSON, RDF as well as binary formats like GeoTIFF, NetCDF, JPEG2000, and GRIB2; further, a container concept allows mixed representations within one coverage file utilizing zip or other convenient package formats. Through the tight integration with the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), a lossless "transport" from sensor into coverage world is ensured. The corresponding service model of WCS supports datacube operations ranging from simple data extraction to complex ad-hoc analytics with WPCS. Notably, W3C is working has set out on a coverage model as well; it has been designed relatively independently from the abovementioned standards, but there is informal agreement to link it into the CIS universe (which allows for different, yet interchangeable representations). Particularly interesting in the W3C proposal is the detailed semantic modeling of metadata; as CIS 1.1 supports RDF, a tight coupling seems feasible.

  3. Systems analysis-independent analysis and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badin, J.S.; DiPietro, J.P. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Program is supporting research, development, and demonstration activities to overcome the barriers to the integration of hydrogen into the Nation`s energy infrastructure. Much work is required to gain acceptance of hydrogen energy system concepts and to develop them for implementation. A systems analysis database has been created that includes a formal documentation of technology characterization profiles and cost and performance information. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, system developers can understand and address important issues and thereby assure effective and timely commercial implementation. This project builds upon and expands the previously developed and tested pathway model and provides the basis for a consistent and objective analysis of all hydrogen energy concepts considered by the DOE Hydrogen Program Manager. This project can greatly accelerate the development of a system by minimizing the risk of costly design evolutions, and by stimulating discussions, feedback, and coordination of key players and allows them to assess the analysis, evaluate the trade-offs, and to address any emerging problem areas. Specific analytical studies will result in the validation of the competitive feasibility of the proposed system and identify system development needs. Systems that are investigated include hydrogen bromine electrolysis, municipal solid waste gasification, electro-farming (biomass gasifier and PEM fuel cell), wind/hydrogen hybrid system for remote sites, home electrolysis and alternate infrastructure options, renewable-based electrolysis to fuel PEM fuel cell vehicle fleet, and geothermal energy used to produce hydrogen. These systems are compared to conventional and benchmark technologies. Interim results and findings are presented. Independent analyses emphasize quality, integrity, objectivity, a long-term perspective, corporate memory, and the merging of technical, economic, operational, and programmatic expertise.

  4. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  5. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  6. Tricks of the trade: Sharing ideas about independent hydro development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Preparation and patience are the keys to developing independent hydropower projects in Canada. Several individuals who have experience breaking into the business share their advice. Opportunities for independent hydro developers to contribute to electricity production in Canada are increasing, thanks to government and utility support. Site selection, costs, environmental regulations, native rights issues, project approval processes, and time lines are all important issues

  7. Variation in central bank independence across countries : Some provisional empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deHaan, J; vantHag, GJ

    1995-01-01

    In this paper seven hypotheses to explain variation in central bank independence across countries are tested. The predictions based upon the theory that delegation of authority by politicians to the central bank is used as a commitment device are not supported: central bank independence is not

  8. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  9. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  10. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  11. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...

  12. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  13. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  14. An architecture for device independent interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving device independence for software applications is required for all but a small number of critical real time applications. Device independence is achieved by establishing protocols and building protocol interpreters for the specific devices. Data structures containing pointers to functions provide a flexible architecture for implementing protocol translation. 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  16. 48 CFR 3.103 - Independent pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent pricing. 3.103 Section 3.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 3.103 Independent pricing. ...

  17. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  18. Central bank independence and financial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that central bank independence (CBI) may not only be beneficial for reaching the objective of price stability, but also for maintaining financial stability. Greater independence from external pressure implies that central banks are less politically constrained in acting to prevent

  19. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit performed by an independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period. In either case, the... of the auditor's report. At least 30 days prior to beginning the attestation engagement, the...

  20. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  1. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  2. 11 CFR 104.4 - Independent expenditures by political committees (2 U.S.C. 434(b), (d), and (g)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... whether the independent expenditure is made in support of, or in opposition to, the candidate involved. In... of State for the State in which the candidate is seeking election. (3) For independent expenditures... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Independent expenditures by political...

  3. Decision U99113 - Proceeding No. 990277: Board review of the Independent Assessment Team's report of power purchase arrangements and other determinations. Phase two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    On July 9, 1999, pursuant to section 45.9(1)(b) of the Electric Utilities Act, the Independent Assessment Team (IAT) filed for approval with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUA/the Board) a report setting out its determinations on deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta. Included in the report were copies of the Power Purchase Arrangements (PPAs) for Regulated Generating Units listed in part 1 of the Schedule in the EUA. In filing its report, the IAT also advised the Board that, because of time pressures, the report might contain errors that would have to be corrected. The report did not include the Hydro PPA, which was subsequently filed on August 10,1999. Upon receipt of the IAT's filing, the Board reviewed its legislative authority under section 45.91 of the EUA and concluded that the section lends itself to the consideration of two questions, and, as a result, the Board developed a two phase approach to dealing with a request for variance. In phase 1, the Board would address the question of whether it should have had a variance hearing for the power purchase arrangements or other determinations made by the IAT. The Board considered that at this stage an applicant would need to satisfy the Board that there was a concern about the PPAs of sufficient importance that to require a formal process of review. If the first question was answered affirmatively, then in phase 2 the Board would address the second question of whether it should vary the power purchase arrangements and other determinations made by the ITA. Having regard to the evidence and argument presented and considered and having regard to its own knowledge and findings therein, the Board was not satisfied by those parties making the requests that the ITA did not carry out its duties in accordance with the EUA or that the PPAs and relevant determinations of the ITA are obviously unreasonable, and are not supported adequately by economic analysis, or are not in the public interest. The

  4. Reflections on independence in nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2008-07-01

    To examine factors that influence the ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice as independent primary care providers. Extensive literature search on CINAHL, OVID, MEDLINE, Internet journal sources, and professional association Web sites. The legal authority for NPs to practice independently is recognized; however, the ability to put that authority into practice is undermined by the historical failure of political, professional, and social entities to recognize NPs as providers capable of providing primary care autonomously. Nonrecognition is responsible for complex reimbursement policies (both federal and state) that economically and professionally restrain the NP role; hence, NPs remain in a financially dependent relationship despite 40 years of proven safe practice. NPs must articulate their independence as practitioners more vociferously in order to meet society's healthcare requirements, as well as to attain professional fulfillment and forge collegial relationships. NPs will never be seen as members of a profession by either themselves or others without the practicality of independence and autonomy. Although legal independence is a fact, real practice independence in the pragmatic sense is contingent upon reimbursement. Without fiscal sustainability, practice independence is an impossibility. And, without professional autonomy, NPs will have only an employee's voice in the dynamic healthcare system in which they are really key players in providing healthcare services to the poor and undeserved populations.

  5. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  6. Architecture independent environment for developing engineering software on MIMD computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valimohamed, Karim A.; Lopez, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Engineers are constantly faced with solving problems of increasing complexity and detail. Multiple Instruction stream Multiple Data stream (MIMD) computers have been developed to overcome the performance limitations of serial computers. The hardware architectures of MIMD computers vary considerably and are much more sophisticated than serial computers. Developing large scale software for a variety of MIMD computers is difficult and expensive. There is a need to provide tools that facilitate programming these machines. First, the issues that must be considered to develop those tools are examined. The two main areas of concern were architecture independence and data management. Architecture independent software facilitates software portability and improves the longevity and utility of the software product. It provides some form of insurance for the investment of time and effort that goes into developing the software. The management of data is a crucial aspect of solving large engineering problems. It must be considered in light of the new hardware organizations that are available. Second, the functional design and implementation of a software environment that facilitates developing architecture independent software for large engineering applications are described. The topics of discussion include: a description of the model that supports the development of architecture independent software; identifying and exploiting concurrency within the application program; data coherence; engineering data base and memory management.

  7. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  8. Capital Investment by Independent and System-Affiliated Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Nathan W; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C

    2015-01-01

    Capital expenditures are a critical part of hospitals' efforts to maintain quality of patient care and financial stability. Over the past 20 years, finding capital to fund these expenditures has become increasingly challenging for hospitals, particularly independent hospitals. Independent hospitals struggling to find ways to fund necessary capital investment are often advised that their best strategy is to join a multi-hospital system. There is scant empirical evidence to support the idea that system membership improves independent hospitals' ability to make capital expenditures. Using data from the American Hospital Association and Medicare Cost Reports, we use difference-in-difference methods to examine changes in capital expenditures for independent hospitals that joined multi-hospital systems between 1997 and 2008. We find that in the first 5 years after acquisition, capital expenditures increase by an average of almost $16,000 per bed annually, as compared with non-acquired hospitals. In later years, the difference in capital expenditure is smaller and not statistically significant. Our results do not suggest that increases in capital expenditures vary by asset age or the size of the acquiring system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Capital Investment by Independent and System-Affiliated Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Nathan W.; Smith, Dean G.; Wheeler, John R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Capital expenditures are a critical part of hospitals’ efforts to maintain quality of patient care and financial stability. Over the past 20 years, finding capital to fund these expenditures has become increasingly challenging for hospitals, particularly independent hospitals. Independent hospitals struggling to find ways to fund necessary capital investment are often advised that their best strategy is to join a multi-hospital system. There is scant empirical evidence to support the idea that system membership improves independent hospitals’ ability to make capital expenditures. Using data from the American Hospital Association and Medicare Cost Reports, we use difference-in-difference methods to examine changes in capital expenditures for independent hospitals that joined multi-hospital systems between 1997 and 2008. We find that in the first 5 years after acquisition, capital expenditures increase by an average of almost $16 000 per bed annually, as compared with non-acquired hospitals. In later years, the difference in capital expenditure is smaller and not statistically significant. Our results do not suggest that increases in capital expenditures vary by asset age or the size of the acquiring system. PMID:26105571

  10. On Independence for Capacities with Law of Large Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weihuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces new notions of Fubini independence and Exponential independence of random variables under capacities to fit Ellsberg's model, and finds out the relationships between Fubini independence, Exponential independence, MacCheroni and Marinacci's independence and Peng's independence. As an application, we give a weak law of large numbers for capacities under Exponential independence.

  11. Massively Parallel Dimension Independent Adaptive Metropolis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets. The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non

  12. Materialism, status consumption, and consumer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.

  13. Quantum background independence in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1994-01-01

    Not only in physical string theories, but also in some highly simplified situations, background independence has been difficult to understand. It is argued that the ''holomorphic anomaly'' of Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa gives a fundamental explanation of some of the problems. Moreover, their anomaly equation can be interpreted in terms of a rather peculiar quantum version of background independence: in systems afflicted by the anomaly, background independence does not hold order by order in perturbation theory, but the exact partition function as a function of the coupling constants has a background independent interpretation as a state in an auxiliary quantum Hilbert space. The significance of this auxiliary space is otherwise unknown. (author). 23 refs

  14. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

    1984-01-01

    Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

  15. Update on the independent radiation monitor (IRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroening, P.M.; Mucha, R.

    1976-01-01

    The new independent radiation monitor (IRM), unlike its predecessor, is a reliable and sensitive safety device for any radiation therapy room. It shows unequivocally that the beam is on, and it is inexpensive and simple to construct

  16. Quantum cryptography: The power of independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, Artur

    2018-02-01

    Device-independent quantum cryptography promises unprecedented security, but it is regarded as a theorist's dream and an experimentalist's nightmare. A new mathematical tool has now pushed its experimental demonstration much closer to reality.

  17. What is Happening with Independent System Operators?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K. L.

    1999-02-01

    Emerging independent system operators (ISOs) appear to have many advantages for the wind power industry. This paper compares some past research on wind and transmission issues with some of the developments in ISO design and implementation.

  18. Kernel-based tests for joint independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Niklas; Bühlmann, Peter; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    if the $d$ variables are jointly independent, as long as the kernel is characteristic. Based on an empirical estimate of dHSIC, we define three different non-parametric hypothesis tests: a permutation test, a bootstrap test and a test based on a Gamma approximation. We prove that the permutation test......We investigate the problem of testing whether $d$ random variables, which may or may not be continuous, are jointly (or mutually) independent. Our method builds on ideas of the two variable Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) but allows for an arbitrary number of variables. We embed...... the $d$-dimensional joint distribution and the product of the marginals into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space and define the $d$-variable Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (dHSIC) as the squared distance between the embeddings. In the population case, the value of dHSIC is zero if and only...

  19. Opening A New Independent Pharmacy 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Elabed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful.   Type: Student Project

  20. NMFS Fishery-Independent Survey System (FINSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishery Independent Survey System (FINSS) is a national system that characterizes NMFS ocean observation activities, stock and ecosystem data collections during...