WorldWideScience

Sample records for lend empirical support

  1. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  2. Designing an Information System for Decision Support Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of financial and banking activities requires a strong information support to ensure the competitive edge over the other competitors on the market. The exponential growth in the volume of lending financial operations made the use of modern information technology in banking has become fundamental to improving lending activity. Thus, the design and use of a computer system adapted to specific requirements of bank lending will provide opportunities to diversify and modernize the procedures for granting, repayment and credit guarantee to correlate products offer credit demands and customer needs. In this regard, the related objectives of this work are oriented to emphasize the positive impact of the adoption of modern information technologies in decision making in the banking field. The proposed objectives are justified by presenting solutions support system of credit decision which aims to automate ongoing operations specific to a banking allowing bank clerks to process a large number of loan applications in a time very short and to the right decisions and substantiated.

  3. HETEROGENEOUS BANK LENDING RESPONSES TO MONETARY POLICY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kovtun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy affects the regional economy through interest rates and its main parameter the Bank of Russia key rate. But do all the banks in the regions respond uniformly to monetary policy changes? The effects of monetary policy actions can vary across the regions within an economic entity, depending on the regional industrial output, the financial structure, household incomes, lending activity, etc. The analysis of the article aims to determine the monetary policy instruments that influence the development or degradation of the regional banking sector in Russia. This helps to identify the heterogeneous commercial bank responses to changes in conducted monetary policy. In order to assess the effects of macroeconomic shocks and instruments of banking supervision on lending activity, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator and Generalized Least Squares technique were applied. The Taylor rule was used to calculate the desired level of interest rate for the each region and, then, to compare the results with the Central Bank interest rate. The empirical results, described in the context of the regional analysis, demonstrate that Central Bank’s interest rate does not affect the lending activity in most of the regions. Finally, the author summarizes conclusions one can draw from the results and provides recommendations for economic policy makers, based on the results of empirical analysis.

  4. Can Weak Measurement Lend Empirical Support to Quantum Retrocausality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharonov Yakir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum weak measurement is presented as shedding new light on the retrocausality question. It is shown to leave a system almost unaffected while gathering information about it. Next, an EPR experiment is studied where each particle undergoes a few weak measurements along some pre-set spin orientations. These weak outcomes are individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes a strong measurement along a spin orientation freely chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final strong measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction thereby ensues: i Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the spin-orientation to be measured; ii A weak measurement cannot determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and iii Indeed no disentanglement is inflicted by the weak measurements; yet iv The weak measurements’ outcomes agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values. The most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism, namely, that the experimenter’s choice has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenter themselves knows what their choice will be. Causal loops are avoided by this anticipation remaining encrypted until the final outcomes enable to decipher it.

  5. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  6. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  7. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  8. Otolith shape lends support to the sensory drive hypothesis in rockfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, V M; Otero-Ferrer, J L; Gómez-Zurita, J; Venerus, L A; Stransky, C; Imondi, R; Orlov, A M; Ye, Z; Santschi, L; Afanasiev, P K; Zhuang, L; Farré, M; Love, M S; Lombarte, A

    2016-10-01

    The sensory drive hypothesis proposes that environmental factors affect both signalling dynamics and the evolution of signals and receivers. Sound detection and equilibrium in marine fishes are senses dependent on the sagittae otoliths, whose morphological variability appears intrinsically linked to the environment. The aim of this study was to understand if and which environmental factors could be conditioning the evolution of this sensory structure, therefore lending support to the sensory drive hypothesis. Thus, we analysed the otolith shape of 42 rockfish species (Sebastes spp.) to test the potential associations with the phylogeny, biological (age), ecological (feeding habit and depth distribution) and biogeographical factors. The results showed strong differences in the otolith shapes of some species, noticeably influenced by ecological and biogeographical factors. Moreover, otolith shape was clearly conditioned by phylogeny, but with a strong environmental effect, cautioning about the use of this structure for the systematics of rockfishes or other marine fishes. However, our most relevant finding is that the data supported the sensory drive hypothesis as a force promoting the radiation of the genus Sebastes. This hypothesis holds that adaptive divergence in communication has significant influence relative to other life history traits. It has already been established in Sebastes for visual characters and organs; our results showed that it applies to otolith transformations as well (despite the clear influence of feeding and depth), expanding the scope of the hypothesis to other sensory structures. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. This project will support the scaling up of locally-tested interventions aimed at improving the livelihoods of women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It targets special interventions for people who have fallen through the cracks ...

  10. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liu, Li; Leung, Stephen; Du, Jiangze; Wang, Xun; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model) is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  11. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  12. Türkiye’de Banka Kredileri Kanalının İşleyişi Üzerine Ampirik Bir Analiz = Empirical Analysis of the Bank Lending Channel in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Gözde BEŞBALLI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a change in monetary policy on output operates through monetary transmission channels. The transmission channels of monetary policy may be gathered in five main titles: interest rates channel, asset prices channel, exchange rate channel, credit channel (bank lending channel, balance sheet channel and expectation channel. Findings obtained from the analysis of the transmission channels can be used in policy determination.This paper empirically analyzes the bank lending channel, one of the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in Turkey. In this paper, data between 1996:06-2006:09 are examined using VAR methodology. According to the findings, the credit channel in Turkey operates partially.

  13. Payday lending regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Kaufman

    2013-01-01

    To date the debate over payday lending has focused on whether access to such lending is on net beneficial or harmful to consumer welfare. However, payday loans are not one product but many, and different forms of lending may have different welfare implications. The current diversity in payday lending stems from the diverse ways in which states have regulated the industry. This paper attempts to quantify the effects that various regulatory approaches have had on lending terms and usage. Using ...

  14. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the…

  15. Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Waehler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present background on the development of principles for the identification of empirically supported interventions in counseling psychology by the American Psychological Association's Division 17 and include an overview of guiding considerations around which these principles were developed. As a context for these principles, the authors…

  16. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Handzic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  17. Empirical support for a reclassification of eating disorders NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helverskov, J L; Lyng, B; Clausen, L; Mors, O; Frydenberg, M; Thomsen, P H; Rokkedal, K

    2011-01-01

    To explore the empirical support for a reclassification of the eating disorders NOS (EDNOS) category. In a cross-sectional design eight specific subgroups of EDNOS were compared to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) on interview-based data and questionnaire measures. The sample consisted of 965 patients in the age 13-54 years admitted to treatment for an eating disorder. According to the DSM-IV 176(18%) presented with AN, 290(30%) with BN and 499(52%) with EDNOS. Of all EDNOS cases 34% could be reclassified as AN or BN. Three specific subgroups emerged as separate diagnostic entities. A heterogeneous subgroup of 122 patients (13% of all) was proposed as 'true' EDNOS. Implications of the results on the DSM-V are discussed. The results support a broader definition of AN and BN and suggest subgroups of EDNOS as separate diagnostic entities. This results in a substantial reduction of the heterogeneous EDNOS group. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Empirically Supported Interventions for Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    When empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are effectively adapted for use with minority populations, they may be more efficacious. As such, there is a need to adapt existing ESTs for use with diverse sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY). The unique bias-based challenges faced by SGMY require the integration of affirmative practices into ESTs to effectively address the specific needs of this underserved group of youth. The primary purpose of the authors in this article is to present a clearly articulated stakeholder driven model for developing an affirmative adapted version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for use with diverse SGMY. The authors' approach to adaptation follows the "adapt and evaluate" framework for enhancing cultural congruence of interventions for minority groups. A community based participatory research approach, consistent with a stakeholder driven process, is utilized to develop the intervention from the ground up through the voices of the target community. Researchers conducted 3 focus groups with culturally diverse SGMY to explore salient aspects of youths' cultural and SGM identities in order to inform the intervention and ensure its applicability to a wide range of SGMY. Focus group data is analyzed and integrated into an existing group-based CBT intervention. The following themes emerge as critical to affirmative work with diverse SGMY: (1) the interplay between cultural norms, gender norms, sexual orientation, and gender identity; (2) the complex role of religious community within the lives of SGMY; and (3) consideration of extended family and cultural community as youth navigate their SGM identities.

  19. Lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Derviz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parent influence on lending by affiliates of a multinational bank. In the proposed theoretical model, local lending is influenced by shareholder-affiliate manager delegation and precautionary motives. The outcome is either contagion (the loan volume in the affiliate follows the direction of the parent bank country shock or performance-based reallocation of funds (substitution, depending on the degree of manager delegation in the affiliate and the liquidity-sensitivity in theparent bank. Empirical investigation, deliberately conducted on a sample not covering the latest financial crisis, shows that also in “normal” times, multinational banks that are likely to delegate lending decisions or be more liquidity-sensitive are more inclined towards contagionist behavior.

  20. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  1. Lending Video Game Consoles in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This paper will outline the process and discussions undertaken at the University of Denver's University Libraries to implement a lending service providing video game consoles. Faculty and staff at the University Libraries decided to pursue the new lending service, though not a traditional library offering, to support the needs of a video game…

  2. 77 FR 76841 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 32 [Docket ID OCC-2012-0007] RIN 1557-AD59 Lending Limits AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is amending its lending...

  3. 78 FR 37930 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... efforts, and the current lending limits rule recognizes the beneficial effects of netting or collateral in... transaction at issue. For a repurchase agreement or a securities loan where the collateral is cash, exposure... from the other party.\\23\\ For securities lending transactions where the collateral is other securities...

  4. 77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ..., less cash received from the other party. For securities lending transactions where the collateral is...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... OCC-2012-0007] RIN 1557-AD59 Lending Limits AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency...

  5. Study of Government Support System in SMEs: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bux Marri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises have created its own place and value universally, no matter how tough global competition is there in international market. This research work was undertaken to assess the increase in importance of SMEs in growing nations such as Pakistan and to highlight the importance of SMEs. This paper is validated through research work undertaken by domestic and worldwide scholars. Research work was carried out in enterprises of Sindh, province of Pakistan, using questionnaire and personal discussions with business owners/entrepreneurs of enterprises. Their response was very positive on parameters which were focused towards taxation policies (Rebate, government technological support, financial support and loan facilities. In addition to this, the results were further investigated and measured through statistical measures such as mean/average, which indicate that majority of enterprises, were not happy with country\\'s administration in terms of support they receive. Whereas, there are noticeable indications that government\\'s assistance to small and medium enterprises is very necessary at every stage. Enterprises which have received assistance from their governments have proved to be successful in developing nations.

  6. Information Technology Support For Debiasing Group Judgments: An Empirical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbasat; Lim

    2000-09-01

    Human judgments, made by either individuals or groups, have been found to contain biases. One of the most prevalent biases identified is the availability bias, associated with the phenomenon that events which are more available to human memory are correspondingly judged as occurring more frequently or as being more important. This paper is concerned with how to reduce the availability bias in the group context. It reports an experiment in which two computer-based support facilities, electronic brainstorming and electronic mail, were tested for their contributions to reducing the availability bias. A 2 x 2 experimental design was used: electronic brainstorming (available or not) and communication mode (electronic or verbal). Forty teams of three members each were asked to work on a task involving the rating of the importance of a number of items associated with a secretary's task. Both electronic brainstorming and electronic communication helped reduce the availability bias. In both cases, the reduction in bias was due to increased attention paid to items that were found to have low availability in the absence of these support tools. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.

  8. Performance support system in higher engineering education - introduction and empirical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Bastiaens, T.J.; Martinez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The paper defines and empirically validates the concept of performance support system in higher engineering education. The validation of the concept is based upon two studies: a pilot and an experiment, on the effect of performance support system on achievements and attitudes of students. The

  9. Monetary Expansion and the Banking Lending Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000-2012 (totalizing 13 years. The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit.

  10. Monetary Expansion and the Banking Lending Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Fazio, Dimas Mateus; Cavalcanti, André Luiz Cordeiro; Cunha, George Henrrique de Moura

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000-2012 (totalizing 13 years). The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit.

  11. Attachment-Based Family Therapy: A Review of the Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Guy; Russon, Jody; Levy, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) is an empirically supported treatment designed to capitalize on the innate, biological desire for meaningful and secure relationships. The therapy is grounded in attachment theory and provides an interpersonal, process-oriented, trauma-focused approach to treating adolescent depression, suicidality, and trauma. Although a process-oriented therapy, ABFT offers a clear structure and road map to help therapists quickly address attachment ruptures that lie at the core of family conflict. Several clinical trials and process studies have demonstrated empirical support for the model and its proposed mechanism of change. This article provides an overview of the clinical model and the existing empirical support for ABFT. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. Efficacy combined with specified ingredients: a new direction for empirically supported addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard

    2013-05-01

    With the increased need for sanctioning behavioral addiction treatments to guide key stakeholders, focus has shifted to developing and applying criteria for establishing empirically supported treatments (EST). Among the many criteria offered, demonstration of incremental efficacy over a placebo or comparison in at least two independent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has been the gold standard. While necessary, the present EST criteria are not sufficient. The present work: (i) argues for empirically supported specificity in behavioral addiction treatment, (ii) explores the limitations of empirical support for EST efficacy without evidence of specificity and (iii) discusses implications and recommendations for ultimately raising the bar for status as an EST. The authors review relevant literature on ESTs, evidence-based practice and clinical trial design in the addictions and related disciplines. We clarify that the additional bar of specificity does not denote uniqueness in causal processes and we argue that specificity should not be inferred only via the nature of the experimental contrast. Rather, a treatment has specificity if its active ingredients are identified and validated empirically as predictors of subsequent treatment-related outcomes. Within this new definition, there are implications for clinical research and other key stakeholders. A heightened centrality of empirically supported addiction treatment ingredients moving forward will advance clinical knowledge and evaluation methodology at a far greater pace. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Treating Asian American women with eating disorders: multicultural competency and empirically supported treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are occurring among Asian American women, but the vast majority of treatment literature is based on White Western women. Empirically supported treatments are increasingly encouraged for eating disorders, but therapists find little guidance for implementing them in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper reviews eating problems in Asian American women and explores concepts important to cultural competency in therapy. Examples of how cultural adaptations could be made to an empirically supported treatment are illustrated in a case scenario using aspects of C. G. Fairburn's Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders (2008).

  14. Lend Global, Fund Local? Price and Funding Cost Margins in Multinational Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Koetter, M.; Liesegang, C.

    2016-01-01

    In a proposed model of a multinational bank, interest margins determine local lending by foreign affiliates and the internal funding by parent banks. We exploit detailed parent-affiliate-level data of all German banks to empirically test our theoretical predictions in pre-crisis times. Local lending

  15. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  16. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…

  17. Evaluating the Validity of Systematic Reviews to Identify Empirically Supported Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Spencer, Trina D.

    2012-01-01

    The "best available evidence" is one of the three basic inputs into evidence-based practice. This paper sets out a framework for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews that are intended to identify empirically supported interventions as a way of summarizing the best available evidence. The premise of this paper is that the process of…

  18. The Empirically Supported Status of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Matthew F.; Hayes, Louise; Atkins, Paul W. B.; Klausen, Jessica; Duguid, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy that predominantly teaches clients acceptance and mindfulness skills, as well as values clarification and enactment skills. Australian treatment guideline providers have been cautious in recognising ACT as empirically supported. This article reviews evidence…

  19. A new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB): An empirical investigation with a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying

    2016-01-01

    Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved.

  20. Relationship Lending and Firm Innovativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannetti, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of relationship lending on firm innovativeness using a panel of Italian manufacturing firms. In order to disentangle the impact of bank ties on the discovery phase from that in the introduction phase of new technologies, the analysis proceeds in two steps,

  1. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  2. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  3. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans’ data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower’s debt level. PMID:26425854

  4. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  5. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  6. Substance Abuse Counselors’ Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors’ personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Results Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients’ struggles. Discussion Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors’ recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments. PMID:28626597

  7. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three bats species and whole genome mitochondrial analyses reveal patterns of codon bias and lend support to a basal split in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-15

    Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area...

  10. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  11. A model of therapist competencies for the empirically supported interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S; Lyneham, Heidi J; Mufson, Laura H; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2012-06-01

    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist training must be generated and provided. However, before such training can be developed, a good understanding of the therapist competencies needed to implement these ESTs is required. Sburlati et al. (Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 14:89-109, 2011) developed a model of therapist competencies for implementing CBT using the well-established Delphi technique. Given that IPT-A differs considerably to CBT, the current study aims to develop a model of therapist competencies for the implementation of IPT-A using a similar procedure as that applied in Sburlati et al. (Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 14:89-109, 2011). This method involved: (1) identifying and reviewing an empirically supported IPT-A approach, (2) extracting therapist competencies required for the implementation of IPT-A, (3) consulting with a panel of IPT-A experts to generate an overall model of therapist competencies, and (4) validating the overall model with the IPT-A manual author. The resultant model offers an empirically derived set of competencies necessary for effectively treating adolescent depression using IPT-A and has wide implications for the development of therapist training, competence assessment measures, and evidence-based practice guidelines. This model, therefore, provides an empirical framework for the development of dissemination and implementation programs aimed at ensuring that adolescents with depression receive effective care in RCP settings. Key similarities and differences between CBT and IPT-A, and the therapist competencies required for implementing these treatments, are also highlighted throughout this article.

  12. A New Paradigm for Secure Social Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos

    Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.

  13. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  14. Support Vector Regression Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Auto Regression for Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents a SVR model hybridized with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method and auto regression (AR for electric load forecasting. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Australia market are employed for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results confirm the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  15. Does bank ownership affect relationship lending: A developing country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to explore how the type of bank ownership - local private banks, government-owned banks (public banks and foreign banks - can affect relationship lending to small and medium enterprises (SMEs by using a unique data set from Bangladeshi banking sector. We found that private banks differ from government-owned and foreign banks in terms of relationship lending and credit facilities to SMEs. More specifically, our results suggest that unlike government and foreign banks, private banks do consider soft information from relationship lending while setting up the loan spread to SMEs. We can also confirm that exclusive banking relationship or repeated banking with private banks can soften credit conditions (loan maturity and covenants. Moreover, we found empirical evidence that banking relationship is important for private banks in terms of SME credit risk evaluation. Finally, as according to our expectation, the results confirm that regardless of prior relationship, private banks are more depended on collateral-based lending to SMEs than government-owned or foreign banks.

  16. Empirical approach for designing of support system in mechanized coal pillar mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A.; Singh, S.K.; Tewari, S.; Sinha, A. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mechanized room-and-pillar system of coal pillar mining using side dump loading machine or load haul dumper machine, or by continuous miner, is the presently most dominant under ground method of extraction in India. Under this method of extraction, strata control is a major problem affecting safety and productivity of the mine. As per existing Director General of Mine Safety guidelines, systematic support rules must be followed at the depillaring faces irrespective of immediate roof rock type and competency. Therefore, there is a high chance that sometimes these systematic support rules give unnecessarily high support, or sometimes inadequate support, which may lead to roof failure at the face. As a result, there is a big loss of life and material including coal in terms of left-outribs/stooks and other associated mining equipment deployed at the faces. Therefore, in the present paper, authors attempted to develop generalized empirical equations for estimating the required support load density at different places of the face based on geotechnical parameters of the mine and physico-mechanical properties of the immediate roof rocks for designing of support system during mechanized coal pillar mining.

  17. The impact of monetary policy on bank lending rate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Matemilola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pass-through of the policy rates to bank lending rate is an important subject matter because it measures the effectiveness of monetary policy to control inflation or stabilize the economy. This study investigates the long-run interest rate pass-through of the money market rate to the bank lending rate and asymmetric adjustment of the bank lending rate. The study applies the momentum threshold autoregressive and asymmetric error correction models. The asymmetric error correction results reveal that bank lending rate adjusts to a decrease in the money market rate in South Africa. The findings suggest that the South African commercial banks adjust their lending rate downward but the lending rate appears rigid upward, which supports the customer reaction hypothesis.

  18. Moving empirically-supported treatment to the workplace: Recruiting addiction program supervisors to help in technology transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A.; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001; Roman and Johnson, 2002; Willenbring et al., 2004). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported treatment (EST) for addicti...

  19. Best Practices for a University Laptop Lending Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Buzzard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The University of Arizona Libraries currently circulates over three hundred pieces of equipment including laptops, netbooks, projectors and iPads. This article describes the best practices and workflows we have developed since 2003 to create a laptop/equipment lending program that is efficient and mindful of financial resources and that our student body loves and continues to support.

  20. A Novel Empirical Mode Decomposition With Support Vector Regression for Wind Speed Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ye; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam; Srikanth, Narasimalu

    2016-08-01

    Wind energy is a clean and an abundant renewable energy source. Accurate wind speed forecasting is essential for power dispatch planning, unit commitment decision, maintenance scheduling, and regulation. However, wind is intermittent and wind speed is difficult to predict. This brief proposes a novel wind speed forecasting method by integrating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector regression (SVR) methods. The EMD is used to decompose the wind speed time series into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Subsequently, a vector combining one historical data from each IMF and the residue is generated to train the SVR. The proposed EMD-SVR model is evaluated with a wind speed data set. The proposed EMD-SVR model outperforms several recently reported methods with respect to accuracy or computational complexity.

  1. Transportability of an empirically supported dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Becker, Carolyn Black; Ramirez, Ana

    2010-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the degree to which positive effects remained when a well studied cognitive dissonance eating disorder prevention program was disseminated through a large national sorority under naturalistic conditions. All participants underwent a 2-session program run by peer facilitators. The sample included 182 undergraduate women from a local chapter of a national sorority at a large public university. Analyses revealed that the program significantly reduced body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, dietary restraint, and the use of the media as a source of information about beauty, and restrained eating. Importantly, effect sizes were maintained at 5-months and 1-year follow-up. These findings demonstrate that empirically supported programs can remain effective when disseminated with careful training in large social systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  3. 76 FR 28504 - Lending and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A. Description: Current OTS regulations for the documentation of loans and investments for safety and soundness purposes...

  4. 12 CFR 32.3 - Lending limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... segregated deposit account in the lending bank, provided a security interest in the deposit has been... as security for the loan or the industrial occupant issues a promissory note to the bank that... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending limits. 32.3 Section 32.3 Banks and...

  5. Vietnamese Civic Organisations: Supporters of or Obstacles to Further Democratisation? Results from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In political science and in development cooperation, civic organisations (COs under authoritarian rule are usually seen as supporters of processes that move towards democratisation. However, these organisations are sometimes criticised for their support of those in power. Within this context, critics refer to the fact that many COs have, for example, authoritarian intra-organisational structures. This characteristic clearly limits their potential to be supporters of democratisation processes. In this paper, we proceed from the assumption that Vietnamese COs can be both supporters of democracy and organisations that help to maintain authoritarian rule; they can sometimes even be both at the same time. COs are “polyvalent” (Kößler. More concretely, what COs are and which role(s they play in the political system is mainly but not exclusively dependent on the impact the state has on them, and is at the same time dependent on the effects that those organisations have on the state.The results from an empirical survey, supported by the German Research Council (2013–2016 and carried out as a co-operation between the Institute of Asian Studies/GIGA Hamburg and the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, suggest the following:- Most Vietnamese COs are hierarchically structured, if not organised in an authoritarian way. They are not “schools of democracy”, in the sense of Tocqueville.- Most Vietnamese COs that have engaged in the welfare provision sector, either willingly or unwillingly, have helped to foster the foundations of authoritarianism.-In the field of economic policies, the COs invited by the state to participate in and contribute to the formulation of policies do help, overall, to secure existing power structures, even though these organisations also help change various economic policies and even though their activities produce some democracy-promoting effects.- In the policy field of gender equality, women’s rights, and rights of

  6. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss...... points may lead to endogeneity bias in empirical work....

  7. Features of Intellectual Property Rights Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fedorovna Maslenkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current situation in lending intellectual property (IP rights in Russia. Furthermore, I investigate the existing legal framework for this type of lending. Special attention is paid to Russian and foreign literature review, including dissertations. The author studied the dynamics of lending trademarks license contracts and based on the official data of Federal Service for Intellectual Property of the Russian Federation archives and intellectual activity of 2009 — 2016. I describe borrowers and lenders as well as Russian regional banks having experience in intellectual property rights lending in 2014 — 2016. The author identified and commented the benefits of implementing such credit for a commercial bank and the company-borrower. Special attention is paid to difficulties and risks for both the lender and the borrower. The author has developed a mechanism of intellectual property rights lending, which describes procedures for parties. The study has defined the preferred algorithms for both the company-borrower and profitable bank. Moreover, I have described the “problem loan”, or late repayment of credit and interest. The paper describes conditions, which are necessary for the successful implementation of the developed credit schemes. I have revealed the impact of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on the status of lending of IP and proposed measures to improve the situation. Recommendations of the author would help to promote secured bank lending of IP rights. This will have positive results for both the borrowers and the regional banks

  8. Military-Economic Role of "Lend-Lease" for the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Grigory G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the empirical analysis of the military-economic significance of Allied supplies to the Soviet Union through the "lend-lease". The author gives the description associated with the process of the formation of "lend-lease" for Soviet-American relations. The article describes the technical implementation of the program "lend-lease" at the initial stage of the great Patriotic war. For the first time in the domestic economic historiography author carries out the brief analysis of the scope of supplies of American products to the Soviet Union outside the program "lend-lease". For the first time also author analyzes the value of deliveries of military goods from the Western countries to the USSR on the base of valuation of Soviet military production in 1941 and 1942 on the basis of the actual exchange rate of Ruble to Dollar.

  9. Going Global: A Model for Evaluating Empirically Supported Family-Based Interventions in New Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Knut; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Fraser, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    The spread of evidence-based practice throughout the world has resulted in the wide adoption of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) and a growing number of controlled trials of imported and culturally adapted ESIs. This article is informed by outcome research on family-based interventions including programs listed in the American Blueprints Model and Promising Programs. Evidence from these controlled trials is mixed and, because it is comprised of both successful and unsuccessful replications of ESIs, it provides clues for the translation of promising programs in the future. At least four explanations appear plausible for the mixed results in replication trials. One has to do with methodological differences across trials. A second deals with ambiguities in the cultural adaptation process. A third explanation is that ESIs in failed replications have not been adequately implemented. A fourth source of variation derives from unanticipated contextual influences that might affect the effects of ESIs when transported to other cultures and countries. This article describes a model that allows for the differential examination of adaptations of interventions in new cultural contexts. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  11. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  12. The Impact of Organizational Structure and Lending Technology on Banking Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Laeven, L.; Ongena, S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent theoretical models argue that a bank’s organizational structure reflects its lending technology. A hierarchically organized bank will employ mainly hard information, whereas a decentralized bank will rely more on soft information. We investigate theoretically and empirically how bank

  13. The Impact of Organizational Structure and Lending Technology on Banking Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Laeven, L.; Ongena, S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical models argue that a bank's organizational structure reflects its lending technology.A hierarchically organized bank will employ mainly hard information, whereas a decentralized bank will rely more on soft information.We investigate theoretically and empirically how bank

  14. Can governments maintain hard budget contraints? : bank lending and financial isolaton in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carare, O.V.; Claessens, C.A.M.F.; Perotti, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical evidence on the impact of reforms in the financial sector in Romania in the period 1993-1995. The methodological framework of the paper is based on a theoretical model of intertemporal bank lending in a transition country with uncertain prospects for stabilization

  15. People-to-People Lending: The Emerging E-Commerce Transformation of a Financial Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Greiner, Martina; Aronson, Jay E.

    This paper provides an overview of the concept of people-to-people (P2P) lending, a relatively new e-commerce phenomenon that has the potential to radically change the structure of the loan segment of the financial industry. P2P lending creates a marketplace of individuals and a social fabric through which these individuals interact. It provides efficient information transfer, thus perhaps creating more perfect markets. P2P lending requires information systems support to make it function, and to provide a social network mechanism that may be crucial for its success. We discuss different P2P lending marketplace models, and how information systems support the creation and management of these new marketplaces, and how they support the individuals involved. We conclude by providing some important research questions and directions, and issues for which further investigation is called.

  16. Peer-to-peer lending and bias in crowd decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uparna, Jayaram; Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Peer-to-peer lending is hypothesized to help equalize economic opportunities for the world’s poor. We empirically investigate the “flat-world” hypothesis, the idea that globalization eventually leads to economic equality, using crowdfinancing data for over 660,000 loans in 220 nations and territories made between 2005 and 2013. Contrary to the flat-world hypothesis, we find that peer-to-peer lending networks are moving away from flatness. Furthermore, decreasing flatness is strongly associated with multiple variables: relatively stable patterns in the difference in the per capita GDP between borrowing and lending nations, ongoing migration flows from borrowing to lending nations worldwide, and the existence of a tie as a historic colonial. Our regression analysis also indicates a spatial preference in lending for geographically proximal borrowers. To estimate the robustness for these patterns for future changes, we construct a network of borrower and lending nations based on the observed data. Then, to perturb the network, we stochastically simulate policy and event shocks (e.g., erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g., Brexit). The simulations project a drift towards rather than away from flatness. However, levels of flatness persist only for randomly distributed shocks. By contrast, loss of the top borrowing nations produces more flatness, not less, indicating how the welfare of the overall system is tied to a few distinctive and critical country–pair relationships. PMID:29590131

  17. Bank ownership, lending, and local economic performance during the 2008–2009 financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nicholas; Feler, Leo

    2017-01-01

    Although government banks are frequently associated with political capture and resource misallocation, they may be well-positioned during times of crisis to provide countercyclical support. Following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, Brazil’s government banks substantially increased lending. Localities in Brazil with a high share of government banks received more loans and experienced better employment outcomes relative to localities with a low share of government banks. While increased government bank lending mitigated an economic downturn, we find that this lending was politically targeted, inefficiently allocated, and reduced productivity growth. PMID:28936027

  18. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank shall...

  19. Empirical methods for the estimation of Southern Ocean CO2: support vector and random forest regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean accounts for 40 % of oceanic CO2 uptake, but the estimates are bound by large uncertainties due to a paucity in observations. Gap-filling empirical methods have been used to good effect to approximate pCO2 from satellite observable variables in other parts of the ocean, but many of these methods are not in agreement in the Southern Ocean. In this study we propose two additional methods that perform well in the Southern Ocean: support vector regression (SVR and random forest regression (RFR. The methods are used to estimate ΔpCO2 in the Southern Ocean based on SOCAT v3, achieving similar trends to the SOM-FFN method by Landschützer et al. (2014. Results show that the SOM-FFN and RFR approaches have RMSEs of similar magnitude (14.84 and 16.45 µatm, where 1 atm  =  101 325 Pa where the SVR method has a larger RMSE (24.40 µatm. However, the larger errors for SVR and RFR are, in part, due to an increase in coastal observations from SOCAT v2 to v3, where the SOM-FFN method used v2 data. The success of both SOM-FFN and RFR depends on the ability to adapt to different modes of variability. The SOM-FFN achieves this by having independent regression models for each cluster, while this flexibility is intrinsic to the RFR method. Analyses of the estimates shows that the SVR and RFR's respective sensitivity and robustness to outliers define the outcome significantly. Further analyses on the methods were performed by using a synthetic dataset to assess the following: which method (RFR or SVR has the best performance? What is the effect of using time, latitude and longitude as proxy variables on ΔpCO2? What is the impact of the sampling bias in the SOCAT v3 dataset on the estimates? We find that while RFR is indeed better than SVR, the ensemble of the two methods outperforms either one, due to complementary strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Results also show that for the RFR and SVR implementations, it is

  20. Empirical methods for the estimation of Southern Ocean CO2: support vector and random forest regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Luke; Kok, Schalk; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean accounts for 40 % of oceanic CO2 uptake, but the estimates are bound by large uncertainties due to a paucity in observations. Gap-filling empirical methods have been used to good effect to approximate pCO2 from satellite observable variables in other parts of the ocean, but many of these methods are not in agreement in the Southern Ocean. In this study we propose two additional methods that perform well in the Southern Ocean: support vector regression (SVR) and random forest regression (RFR). The methods are used to estimate ΔpCO2 in the Southern Ocean based on SOCAT v3, achieving similar trends to the SOM-FFN method by Landschützer et al. (2014). Results show that the SOM-FFN and RFR approaches have RMSEs of similar magnitude (14.84 and 16.45 µatm, where 1 atm = 101 325 Pa) where the SVR method has a larger RMSE (24.40 µatm). However, the larger errors for SVR and RFR are, in part, due to an increase in coastal observations from SOCAT v2 to v3, where the SOM-FFN method used v2 data. The success of both SOM-FFN and RFR depends on the ability to adapt to different modes of variability. The SOM-FFN achieves this by having independent regression models for each cluster, while this flexibility is intrinsic to the RFR method. Analyses of the estimates shows that the SVR and RFR's respective sensitivity and robustness to outliers define the outcome significantly. Further analyses on the methods were performed by using a synthetic dataset to assess the following: which method (RFR or SVR) has the best performance? What is the effect of using time, latitude and longitude as proxy variables on ΔpCO2? What is the impact of the sampling bias in the SOCAT v3 dataset on the estimates? We find that while RFR is indeed better than SVR, the ensemble of the two methods outperforms either one, due to complementary strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Results also show that for the RFR and SVR implementations, it is better to include coordinates as proxy

  1. Effects of Bank Lending on Urban Housing Prices for Sustainable Development: A Panel Analysis of Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable home prices are critical to a healthy housing market and sustainable development. Home prices in many Chinese cities have increased dramatically in past decades. The China’s central bank uses two primary monetary controls on overheated housing prices: the bank lending supply and lending rate. However, little to no evidence informs whether the nation-level bank lending controls are effective at the city level. Unlike extant studies that only focus on nation-level effects of such controls, this research analyzes long-run effects on housing prices at the national, regional, and city levels. The authors perform cross-sectional time-series regressions on empirical data from 35 major Chinese cities for the period 2003 to 2015. Results confirm that controlling lending rates is effective as a long-term measure at the national, regional, and city levels, whereas controlling the lending supply is effective as a short-term measure for many cities. Results also reveal that housing prices cause lending supply changes for many regions in a long run and indicate that credit policy often lags in response to housing price changes. Findings show that the effectiveness of bank lending largely varies at the city level, suggesting city-tailed bank lending rather than the centralized controls at the national level.

  2. Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs) in Perspective: Implications for Counseling Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehler, Charles A.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the movement toward employing only evidence-based treatments or empirically validated treatments (EVTs) in psychological services. Examines the adoption of EVTs and how efficacious treatments must respond successfully to practicing psychologists' applications, scientific certainty, and marketplace demand. Reviews both the merits and…

  3. Attitudes toward empirically-supported treatments among pastoral mental health care providers: exploratory findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Matthew T; Naugle, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the findings of an online survey of pastoral mental health care providers The survey included brief demographic information, and a validated measure of attitudes toward empirically-supported psychological interventions, the Evidence-based Practices Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, 2004). The responses of 55 pastoral providers' are described and compared to national norms (Aarons et al., 2010). Recommendations for future collaboration between EST developers and pastoral clinicians are provided.

  4. Lending Behavior of Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 19-36 ISSN 2077-429X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multinational bank * Contagion * Substitution * Agency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/derviz-lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  5. Bargaining power and information in SME lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grunert (Jens); L. Norden (Lars)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSmall- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are informationally opaque and bank dependent. In SME lending, banks largely rely on soft information, because the scale and scope of hard information are limited. We analyze whether and how hard and soft information affects the borrower's

  6. Information from Relationship Lending : Evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, C.; Liao, G.; Yu, X.; Ni, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We study the economic role of banks’ soft information, which evolved from repeated lending relationships, in the context of loan default. Using a proprietary database from one of the largest state-owned commercial banks in China, we find that the bank’s internal credit rating scores play a

  7. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lending transactions. 800.303 Section 800.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation in the foreign person of a secured interest in securities or other assets of the U.S...

  8. 76 FR 11319 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Loan Mortgage Corporation Act (FHLMCA), 12 U.S.C. 1454(a)(2), should be used in determining whether or... Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act (FHLMCA). Further, the Board believes that it is necessary to... in Lending Act (TILA). The final rule implements Section 1461 of the recently enacted Dodd-Frank Wall...

  9. Tunnel support design by comparison of empirical and finite element analysis of the Nahakki tunnel in mohmand agency, pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Asif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the geological conditions of study area, rock mass strength parameters with suitable support structure propositions for the under construction Nahakki tunnel in Mohmand Agency. Geology of study area varies from mica schist to graphitic marble/phyllite to schist. The tunnel ground is classified and divided by the empisical classification systems like Rock mass rating (RMR, Q system (Q, and Geological strength index (GSI. Tunnel support measures are selected based on RMR and Q classification systems. Computer based finite element analysis (FEM has given yet another dimension to design approach. FEM software Phase2 version 7.017 is used to calculate and compare deformations and stress concentrations around the tunnel, analyze interaction of support systems with excavated rock masses and verify and check the validity of empirically determined excavation and support systems.

  10. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  11. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H

    2015-05-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided.

  12. Determinants of Bank Profitability and Basel Capital Regulation: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ozili, Peterson, K

    2015-01-01

    This study, empirically, investigates the determinants of bank profitability. Overall, I find that the Basel capital regime had no significant effect on bank profitability. This result is significant because it lends support to the view that modified Basel accord in different countries might be aimed to meet other prudential objectives other than the intended objective - to reduce excessive bank risk-taking. Second, after employing NIM and ROA profitability metrics, I find that the determinan...

  13. The Intergenerational Transmission of Automobile Brand Preferences: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Firm Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Soren T. Anderson; Ryan Kellogg; Ashley Langer; James M. Sallee

    2013-01-01

    We document a strong correlation in the brand of automobile chosen by parents and their adult children, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This correlation could represent transmission of brand preferences across generations, or it could result from correlation in family characteristics that determine brand choice. We present a variety of empirical specifications that lend support to the former interpretation and to a mechanism that relies at least in part on state dependence...

  14. PROMOTING RURAL DESTINATION BUCOVINA VIA FACEBOOK. AN EMPIRICAL IDENTIFICATION OF SUPPORTING ONLINE MARKETING INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel STANCIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The villages of Bucovina possess a particular charm, mainly through the orthodox churches with heritage value, the deep spiritual character sent both to local communities and tourists, the architecture based on wood handicraft, the manner in which traditions, local customs and crafts are still preserved, the multicultural character, and, not least, the outstanding hospitality of the hosts.Continuous improvement of performance in rural tourism refers to an integrated approach of specific elements in the destination Bucovina, online marketing becoming more present in everyday practice of small entrepreneurs in local tourism. From an empirical point of view, promotion of rural tourism on Facebook and YouTube represents an easy initiative accessible to the general public, which has the ability to create the foundation of a competitive tourism.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-in Check-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Pyle, Daniel; Charlton, Cade T.; Sabey, Christian V.; Lund, Emily M.; Ross, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions play an important role within the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports framework, bridging the gap between schoolwide Tier 1 interventions and individualized Tier 3 supports. Check-in Check-out (CICO) is a promising Tier 2 intervention for addressing mild problem behavior and potentially preventing the need for more…

  16. Humane Orientation and Corruption in Bank Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Siwapong Dheera-aumpon

    2017-01-01

    Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4360 - Lending and leasing limit violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending and leasing limit violations. 614.4360... OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4360 Lending and leasing limit violations. (a) Each loan, except... and leasing limit on the date the loan is made, and at all times thereafter. Except as provided for in...

  18. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Real Estate Lending and Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each state...

  19. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS § 365.2 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each insured state... extensions of credit that are secured by liens on or interests in real estate, or that are made for the...

  20. Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)

  1. Clinical experiences in conducting empirically supported treatments for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkodny, Lauren E; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) predominantly derives from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, there may be unique or complex issues encountered in practice, but not necessarily in the context of a controlled clinical trial. Therefore, launching a systematic dialogue between researcher and practicing clinician can be instrumental in augmenting evidence-based therapies through identification of variables that promote and interfere with clinical effectiveness. Through an initiative sponsored by the American Psychological Association's Divisions 12 (Society for Clinical Psychology) and 29 (Psychotherapy), this study aimed to examine clinical experiences conducting CBT for GAD. The participants were 260 psychotherapists who completed an online survey on assessment and therapeutic intervention utilization and their experience of factors that limit successful GAD treatment and symptom reduction. The majority of respondents reported 20 years or less experience using ESTs for GAD, typically treating clients in outpatient clinics, treatment centers, and private practice. Some of the most commonly used interventions address clients' maladaptive cognitions and elevated anxiety and muscle tension typical of GAD. Approximately one half of respondents reported incorporating integrative techniques into treatment. Factors perceived as limiting effective GAD treatment included severity and chronicity of GAD, presence of comorbid conditions, stressful home and work environments, client motivation and resistance to treatment, and issues encountered when executing therapy techniques. This study provides researchers with clinically derived directions for future empirical investigation into enhancing efficacy of GAD treatment. © 2013.

  2. An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Empirical Evaluation of an Activity-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Cooperation in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Software engineering (SE) is predominantly a team effort that needs close cooperation among several people who may be geographically distributed. It has been recognized that appropriate tool support is a prerequisite to improve cooperation within SE teams. In an effort to contribute to this line...

  4. Conditional Election and Partisan Cycles in Government Support to the Agricultural Sector: An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of elections and government ideology on public funding to the agricultural sector using a panel model for more than 70 democratic countries from 1975-2009.We find that support for agriculture increases prior to elections, and that right-wing governments redistribute more income

  5. Conditional election and partisan cycles in government support to the agricultural sector : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the effect of elections and government ideology on public funding to the agricultural sector using a panel model for more than 70 democratic countries from 1975-2009. We find that support for agriculture increases prior to elections, and that right-wing governments redistribute more

  6. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  7. An empirical study on the effects of human resource supporting strategies on job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential functions of human resource management is to take care of skilled employees. The process is normally divided into two categories: first category includes different activities such as having health and safety in working centers, performing healthy and sport programs and some other similar activities to save and improve employees' physical characteristics. The second group includes other important issues normally called benefit packages, which includes good health insurance and retiring plans. Whenever an organization provides good benefit package and supporting programs, there is a better job satisfaction among employee. In this paper, the effects of related services to support employee to reach job satisfaction and employee activities in one of Iranian banks called Mellat bank is investigated using 276 random samples. The results show that employees are relatively satisfied from the benefit package of the bank and they were relatively happy on working for such organization.

  8. Supporting developers in addressing maintenance aspects: an empirical study in the industrial equipment manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, W.

    2016-01-01

    Addressing maintenance aspects has become increasingly important in development projects of industrial equipment. Developers of such equipment need to address the maintenance aspects in order to achieve competitive equipment and service offerings. This research focuses on the identification of the maintenance aspects that are relevant to be addressed in development projects and on how developers can successfully do this. The ultimate goal of the research is to support developers in addressing...

  9. Do pressures to publish increase scientists' bias? An empirical support from US States Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The growing competition and "publish or perish" culture in academia might conflict with the objectivity and integrity of research, because it forces scientists to produce "publishable" results at all costs. Papers are less likely to be published and to be cited if they report "negative" results (results that fail to support the tested hypothesis. Therefore, if publication pressures increase scientific bias, the frequency of "positive" results in the literature should be higher in the more competitive and "productive" academic environments. This study verified this hypothesis by measuring the frequency of positive results in a large random sample of papers with a corresponding author based in the US. Across all disciplines, papers were more likely to support a tested hypothesis if their corresponding authors were working in states that, according to NSF data, produced more academic papers per capita. The size of this effect increased when controlling for state's per capita R&D expenditure and for study characteristics that previous research showed to correlate with the frequency of positive results, including discipline and methodology. Although the confounding effect of institutions' prestige could not be excluded (researchers in the more productive universities could be the most clever and successful in their experiments, these results support the hypothesis that competitive academic environments increase not only scientists' productivity but also their bias. The same phenomenon might be observed in other countries where academic competition and pressures to publish are high.

  10. Conners 3-Self-Report Scale: An empirical support to the dimensionality of the content scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Viola Angela; Donati, Maria Anna; Primi, Caterina

    2018-02-01

    The Conners' Rating Scales are one of the most used instruments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nonetheless, in the latest edition, the Inattention scale was not statistically supported. This study examined the dimensionality of the Italian version of the Conners 3-Self-Report scale testing both a five-factor structure including Inattention and a four-factor model combining Inattention and Learning Problems. Moreover, the generalizability of the detected structure through measurement invariance was verified. The Italian version of the scale was completed by 971 children (53% males, mean age: 12.76 years) randomly split in a calibration sample ( n = 464) and a validation sample ( n = 507). Confirmatory factor analyses detected a five-factor structure (i.e. Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Learning Problems, Defiance/Aggression, and Family Relations), and measurement invariance was confirmed. Findings provided statistical evidence for the Inattention subscale, supporting the Conners 3-Self-Report Scale as effectively aimed to assess the two dimensions of ADHD and its main comorbid difficulties.

  11. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON USABILITY OF CROSSING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY DISABLED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Fujita, Motohiro; Matsuura, Kazuma; Fukuzono, Kazuyuki

    This paper evaluates the adjustment process for crossing support system for visually disabled at signalized intersections with the use of pedestrian traffic signals in concert with visible light communication (VLC) technology through outdoor experiments. As for the experiments, we put a blindfold on sighted people by eye mask in order to analyze the behavior of acquired visually disabled. And we used a full-scale crosswalk which is taking into consideration the crossing slope, the bumps at the edge of a crosswalk between the roadway and the sidewalkand crosswalk line. From the results of the survey, it is found that repetitive use of the VLC system decreased the number of lost their bearings completely and ended up standing immobile and reduced the crossing time for each person. On the other hand, it is shown that the performance of our VLC system is nearly equal to the existing support system from the view point of crossing time and the number of standing immobile and we clarified the effect factor for guidance accuracy by the regression analyses. Then we broke test subjects down into patterns by cluster analysis, and explained the walking characteristics for each group as they used the VLC system. In addition, we conducted the additional surveys for the quasi-blind subjects who had difficulty walking by using VLC system and visually impaired users. As a result, it is revealed that guidance accuracy was improved by providing the information about their receiving movement at several points on crosswalk and the habit of their walks for each user.

  12. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  13. Integrating empirically supported therapies for treating personality disorders: a synthesis of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Margo; Darke, Juliet L

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the theoretical foundations and components of an intensive group treatment program for individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. The Chrysalis Community Day Treatment Program integrates aspects of three empirically supported therapies: Transference-Focused Psychotherapy and Mentalization-Based Therapy, both psychodynamic psychotherapies, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, a cognitive-behavioral therapy. Each of these modalities is structured for the treatment of individuals suffering from the symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and each of the treatments addresses problems that occur across a wide spectra of beliefs, capacities, and behaviors. The program is comprised of expressive, psycho-educational and skills-training groups, and participants attend three days per week, for 15 weeks. Preliminary evaluation is promising, reflecting decreases in self-injurious behavior, suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalizations, and psychiatric symptoms at a one-year follow-up.

  14. Empirical evolution of a framework that supports the development of nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sally; Jordan, Helen L; Kinney, Sharon; Hamilton, Bridget; Newall, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to refine a framework for developing competence, for graduate nurses new to paediatric nursing in a transition programme. A competent healthcare workforce is essential to ensuring quality care. There are strong professional and societal expectations that nurses will be competent. Despite the importance of the topic, the most effective means through which competence develops remains elusive. A qualitative explanatory method was applied as part of a mixed methods design. Twenty-one graduate nurses taking part in a 12-month transition programme participated in semi-structured interviews between October and November 2013. Interviews were informed by data analysed during a preceding quantitative phase. Participants were provided with their quantitative results and a preliminary model for development of competence and asked to explain why their competence had developed as it had. The findings from the interviews, considered in combination with the preliminary model and quantitative results, enabled conceptualization of a Framework for Developing Competence. Key elements include: the individual in the team, identification and interpretation of standards, asking questions, guidance and engaging in endeavours, all taking place in a particular context. Much time and resources are directed at supporting the development of nursing competence, with little evidence as to the most effective means. This study led to conceptualization of a theory thought to underpin the development of nursing competence, particularly in a paediatric setting for graduate nurses. Future research should be directed at investigating the framework in other settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Empirical guidelines for forest management decision support systems based on the past experiences of the expert's community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS have been developed world wide to account for a broad range of forest ecosystems, management goals and organizational frameworks (e.g. the wiki page of the FORSYS project reports 62 existing FMDSSs from 23 countries. The need to enhance the collaboration among this diverse community of developers and users fostered the rise of new group communication processes that could capture useful knowledge from past experiences in order to efficiently provide it to new FMDSS development efforts.Material and methods: This paper presents and tests an exploratory process aiming to identify the empirical guidelines assisting developers and users of FMDSS. This process encompasses aDelphi survey built upon the consolidation of the lessons-learned statements that summarize the past experiences of the experts involved in the FORSYS project. The experts come from 34 countries and have diverse interests, ranging from forest planners, IT developers, social scientists studying participatory planning, and researchers with interests in knowledge management and in quantitative models for forest planning.Main results: The proposed 37 empirical guidelines that group 102 lessons-learned cover a broad range of issues including the DSS development cycle, involvement of the stakeholders, methods, models and knowledge-based techniques in use.Research highlights: These results may be used for improving new FMDSS development processes, teaching and training and further suggest new features of FMDSS and future research topics. Furthermore, the guidelines may constitute a knowledge repository that may be continuously improved by a community of practice.Keywords: Forest management; guidelines; guidelines definition process; lessons learned; decision support systems; system architecture; knowledge management; participatory planning; Delphi.

  16. Empirical guidelines for forest management decision support systems based on the past experiences of the expert's community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Ficko, A.; Kangas, A.; Rosset, C.; Ferreti, F.; Rasinmaki, J.; Packalen, T.; Gordom, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the study: Decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS) have been developed world wide to account for a broad range of forest ecosystems, management goals and organizational frameworks (e.g. the wiki page of the FORSYS project reports 62 existing FMDSSs from 23 countries). The need to enhance the collaboration among this diverse community of developers and users fostered the rise of new group communication processes that could capture useful knowledge from past experiences in order to efficiently provide it to new FMDSS development efforts. Material and methods: This paper presents and tests an exploratory process aiming to identify the empirical guidelines assisting developers and users of FMDSS. This process encompasses a Delphi survey built upon the consolidation of the lessons-learned statements that summarize the past experiences of the experts involved in the FORSYS project. The experts come from 34 countries and have diverse interests, ranging from forest planners, IT developers, social scientists studying participatory planning, and researchers with interests in knowledge management and in quantitative models for forest planning. Main results: The proposed 37 empirical guidelines that group 102 lessons-learned cover a broad range of issues including the DSS development cycle, involvement of the stakeholders, methods, models and knowledge based techniques in use. Research highlights: These results may be used for improving new FMDSS development processes, teaching and training and further suggest new features of FMDSS and future research topics. Furthermore, the guidelines may constitute a knowledge repository that may be continuously improved by a community of practice. (Author)

  17. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...... the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived...

  18. Humane Orientation and Corruption in Bank Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera-aumpon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural dimensions than Hofstede’s. Using the data covering more than 3000 firms in 32 countries, this paper finds that humane orientation increases the corruption of bank officials. The effect of humane orientation on the corruption of bank officials is not only statistically significant but also economically relevant. The magnitude of its effect is relatively comparable to that of collectivism.

  19. A Method for Accounting for Risk in Lending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobylski, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    ..., or decreased to increase competitiveness? Many lending institutions, specifically furniture retailers, do not use scientific methods for determining their risk of payment defaults on loans to customers...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER'S BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA MIRELA STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory.This paper aims at presenting the consumer hypostasis resulted from lending activities, identifying its purposes and risks.

  1. Early Intervention Programs for Children and Families: Theoretical and Empirical Bases Supporting their Social and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal period and the early years of life have an extraordinary importance on the physical and psychological well-being not only in the infancy, but throughout the life cycle. There is strong empirical evidence that early life is highly vulnerable to the negative effects of adverse experiences or toxic stress as maternal prenatal anxiety or child maltreatment. Research in the field of developmental neurobiology provides important keys about the mechanisms across these experiences affect the process of child development provoking alterations and dysfunctions in brain architecture. Such alterations tend to be persistent and increase the risk of physical, cognitive, social and emotional problems along infancy, adolescence and adulthood. The evidences clearly support the need and social relevancy of implementing early intervention preventive programs for children and families who are at risk for experiencing toxic stress. Such policies and programs should begin as early as possible in order to reduce or avoid the need of most costly and less effective remediation programs.

  2. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualou Liang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD- based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP, collected from the middle temporal (MT visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI.

  3. Debt maturity and relationship lending: An analysis of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Canovas, G.; Koeter-Kant, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes,

  4. Home-mortgage lending trends in New England in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Patricia Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    This brief analysis of home-mortgage lending trends in New England is based on data collected under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). HMDA provides information on mortgage lending trends and includes data by loan purpose, type of loan, income, and the race and ethnicity of borrowers. In this report we focus on home-purchase and refinance loans in New England.

  5. Lending relationships and credit rationing : the impact of securitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbo Valverde, S.; Degryse, H.A.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    Do lending relationships mitigate credit rationing? Does securitization influence the impact of lending relationships on credit rationing? If so, is its impact differently in normal periods versus crisis periods? This paper combines several unique data sets to address these questions. Employing a

  6. money lending law and regulation of consumer credit in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    otherwise of the Moneylenders Laws of Nigeria as consumer credit laws, and opines that not ... attraction of money lending; a very significant consumer credit facility. Money lending is not the only consumer credit facility available. Consumer goods can also be acquired .... The natural reaction was to seek to regulate usury.

  7. Transforming LEND leadership training curriculum through the maternal and child health leadership competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Betsy P; Couse, Leslie J; Sonnenmeier, Rae M; Kurtz, Alan; Russell, Susan M; Antal, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Leadership Competencies (v 3.0) were used to examine and improve an MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) training curriculum for New Hampshire and Maine. Over 15 % of the nation's children experience neurodevelopmental disabilities or special health care needs and estimates suggest 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Across the Unites States critical shortages of qualified MCH professionals exist, particularly in poor and rural areas. A continued investment in training interdisciplinary leaders is critical. The MCH Leadership Competencies provide an effective foundation for leadership training through identification of requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of MCH leaders. This paper describes a three-step process, which began in 2010 and included utilizing the MCH Leadership Competencies as a tool to reflect on, develop, and evaluate the NH LEND leadership curriculum. Curriculum development was further supported through participation in a multi-state learning collaborative. Through a series of intentional decisions, the curriculum design of NH LEND utilized the competencies and evidence-based principles of instruction to engage trainees in the development of specific MCH content knowledge and leadership skills. The LEND network specifically, and MCH leadership programs more broadly, may benefit from the intentional use of the MCH competencies to assist in curriculum development and program evaluation, and as a means to support trainees in identifying specific leadership goals and evaluating their leadership skill development.

  8. The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauk, Emanuel; Benedek, Mathias; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a necessary condition for high-level creativity. While earlier research mostly supported the threshold hypothesis, it has come under fire in recent investigations. The threshold hypothesis is commonly investigated by splitting a sample at a given threshold (e.g., at 120 IQ points) and estimating separate correlations for lower and upper IQ ranges. However, there is no compelling reason why the threshold should be fixed at an IQ of 120, and to date, no attempts have been made to detect the threshold empirically. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential and of creative achievement by means of segmented regression analysis in a sample of 297 participants. Segmented regression allows for the detection of a threshold in continuous data by means of iterative computational algorithms. We found thresholds only for measures of creative potential but not for creative achievement. For the former the thresholds varied as a function of criteria: When investigating a liberal criterion of ideational originality (i.e., two original ideas), a threshold was detected at around 100 IQ points. In contrast, a threshold of 120 IQ points emerged when the criterion was more demanding (i.e., many original ideas). Moreover, an IQ of around 85 IQ points was found to form the threshold for a purely quantitative measure of creative potential (i.e., ideational fluency). These results confirm the threshold hypothesis for qualitative indicators of creative potential and may explain some of the observed discrepancies in previous research. In addition, we obtained

  9. State lends support for industrial parks / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Valitsus kavatseb asutada sihtasutust Ida-Virumaa Tööstusparkide Arendus, mis peaks looma 4000 töökohta. Ühendatakse SA Jõhvi Tööstuspark, SA Narva Tööstuspark ja SA Püssi Tööstusala Arendus

  10. CHALLENGES AROUND DIGITAL BOOK LENDING LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Arévalo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development and expansion of the global market for electronic books and associated models to lending library are still in a developmental state and uncertainty. After a first stage in which major publishers refused to sell licenses loan at present publishers are putting more e-book titles available to libraries, although with some restrictions. The dominant trend is moving inexorably towards greater availability and access to digital titles to libraries. Once this stage about the limited availability of titles are pending other matters as the issue of licensing costs, with different rates offered to the public, which are increased in some cases up to three or more sometimes the retail price, which further complicates the procurement processes for libraries in a time when budgets are limited, hampering the ability of libraries to acquire adequate collection of digital products. Among other issues, technological and commercial that limit many uses they had libraries in the analog context, ownership and possession of the collection, the same stability, portability across platforms, and the difficulties associated with DRM systems digital rights management.

  11. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  12. Instructional Supports for Students with Special Education Needs in French as a Second Language Education: A Review of Canadian Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Muhling, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    With the view to responding to a call for information on instructional supports for students with special education needs (SSEN) in French as a second language (FSL) education, this article reviews the empirical literature from three Canadian contexts: core French, intensive French and French immersion. More specifically, we developed this…

  13. 12 CFR 614.4351 - Computation of lending and leasing limit base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of lending and leasing limit base... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4351 Computation of lending and leasing limit base. (a) Lending and leasing limit base. An institution's lending and leasing limit base is composed of...

  14. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  15. Integrating Family as a Discipline by Providing Parent Led Curricula: Impact on LEND Trainees' Leadership Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, Bruce L; Bishop, Elizabeth A; Roth, Jenness M

    2017-05-01

    Background While the MCH Leadership Competencies and family as a discipline have been required elements of Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and related Disabilities (LEND) programs for over a decade, little research has been published on the efficacy of either programmatic component in the development of the next generation of leaders who can advocate and care for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) populations. Objective To test the effectiveness of integrating the family discipline through implementation of parent led curricula on trainees' content knowledge, skills, and leadership development in family-centered care, according to the MCH Leadership Competencies. Methods One hundred and two long-term (≥ 300 h) LEND trainees completed a clinical and leadership training program which featured intensive parent led curricula supported by a full-time family faculty member. Trainees rated themselves on the five Basic and Advanced skill items that comprise MCH Leadership Competency 8: Family-centered Care at the beginning and conclusion of their LEND traineeship. Results When compared to their initial scores, trainees rated themselves significantly higher across all family-centered leadership competency items at the completion of their LEND traineeship. Conclusions The intentional engagement of a full-time family faculty member and parent led curricula that include didactic and experiential components are associated with greater identification and adoption by trainees of family-centered attitudes, skills, and practices. However, the use of the MCH Leadership Competencies as a quantifiable measure of program evaluation, particularly leadership development, is limited.

  16. The evolution of environmental concerns in economywide policies and adjustment lending: Experience from the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Stein

    1993-07-01

    In this report, following a brief overview of some generic issues and empirical evidence relating to the linkages between economic growth, energy use and environmental impacts, a review of energy sector adjustment lending activities in developing and Eastern European countries is carried out. Following that a more specific discussion of the direct and indirect environmental impacts of these policies is presented, both in general terms, but also illustrated by means of how specific energy project packages are being designed in response to the said policy changes. Perhaps the most significant role of such policy reforms is that it impacts economywide on all economic activities; both the decisions regarding input substitution and output focus of existing plants and services, as well as the decisions regarding choice of technology, design and location of new investments in all sectors of the economy. It can be concluded from the reviewed studies that getting the prices right helps the environment, but it is not enough. It undoubtedly helps the environment to correct for market failures and have prices reflect the full resource costs, because it lessens the incentive to exploit resources wastefully. This is comforting because it suggests that what has been advocated for a long time on pure efficiency grounds irrespective to environmental management reasons. What has been missing, however, is a full acknowledgement of the crucial role of supportive institutional reforms and administrative strengthening required to actually succeed with the economic reforms. Examples will be presented on how such reforms can contribute to facilitate the adjustment process by simultaneously improving allocative efficiency and generating desperately needed public revenue.

  17. The evolution of environmental concerns in economywide policies and adjustment lending: Experience from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Stein

    1993-01-01

    In this report, following a brief overview of some generic issues and empirical evidence relating to the linkages between economic growth, energy use and environmental impacts, a review of energy sector adjustment lending activities in developing and Eastern European countries is carried out. Following that a more specific discussion of the direct and indirect environmental impacts of these policies is presented, both in general terms, but also illustrated by means of how specific energy project packages are being designed in response to the said policy changes. Perhaps the most significant role of such policy reforms is that it impacts economywide on all economic activities; both the decisions regarding input substitution and output focus of existing plants and services, as well as the decisions regarding choice of technology, design and location of new investments in all sectors of the economy. It can be concluded from the reviewed studies that getting the prices right helps the environment, but it is not enough. It undoubtedly helps the environment to correct for market failures and have prices reflect the full resource costs, because it lessens the incentive to exploit resources wastefully. This is comforting because it suggests that what has been advocated for a long time on pure efficiency grounds irrespective to environmental management reasons. What has been missing, however, is a full acknowledgement of the crucial role of supportive institutional reforms and administrative strengthening required to actually succeed with the economic reforms. Examples will be presented on how such reforms can contribute to facilitate the adjustment process by simultaneously improving allocative efficiency and generating desperately needed public revenue

  18. 12 CFR 560.170 - Records for lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... practices that: (a) Ensure that the institution can make an informed lending decision and can assess risk on... that any claims against a borrower, guarantor, security holders, and collateral are legally enforceable...

  19. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Yiping; Ma, Hui

    2011-01-01

    As we know, borrowing and lending risk-free assets arise extensively in the theory and practice of finance. However, little study has ever investigated them in fuzzy portfolio problem. In this paper, the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to...

  20. Financial and estimating indicators for assessment of mortgage lending value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benvenuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a calculation criteria for the determination of the mortgage lending value which originates from the application of the financial method (direct capitalisation, by adopting a capitalisation rate calculated by means of the Debt Coverage Ratio (DCR, taking into consideration the criteria set out by the mortgage lending value, that is (i prudent appreciation of the future marketability, (ii normal and local market conditions, (iii current use and (iv long-term sustainability of the property.

  1. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  2. The risk management in bank lending technology corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimova Liana Irikovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a systematic method of structural transformation systems the original algorithm of risk management in banking technology lending entities was developed (businesses and companies. The essence of risk management is to reduce the errors I and II when deciding on the conditions of lending to borrowers (loan size and parameters of the cash flow for repayment on the basis of an objective assessment of the creditworthiness of borrowers. Application tools - neural network model with a clear description.

  3. Sequential lending with dynamic joint liability in micro-finance

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Roy Chowdhury, Prabal; Sengupta, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of sequential lending in groups in micro-finance that centers on the notion of dynamic incentives, in particular the simple idea that default incentives should be relatively uniformly distributed across time. In a framework that allows project returns to accrue over time, as well as strategic default, we show that sequential lending can help resolve problems arising out of coordinated default, thus improving project efficiency vis-a-vis individual l...

  4. Empirical Study of the Role of Government Support and Success Factors in Industry-University-Institute Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…

  5. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  6. Responsible Lending in Banks of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Erina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify basic principles of responsible lending in lending agreements between banks and individuals in Latvia, as well as in the existing legislation in the Baltic States that regulates this process. In order to obtain research results, the authors performed qualitative analysis of scientific literature on the issues of responsible lending; legislation that regulates mortgage lending in the Baltic States; successful experience of banks in other countries; information available on home pages of banks about commercial bank loan volumes for mortgage loans with different types of real estate asset backing; information included in loan agreements of four commercial banks in Latvia and its compliance with the laws and regulations. Loan borrower evaluation stages for review of a new loan application were developed. On the basis of loan agreement analysis, the authors elaborated a formula of monthly loan payments for bank customers who experience unfavourable financial conditions. As a result of the research, the authors came to a conclusion that in Latvia and Estonia there is no legislation that directly regulates mortgage loans. During the research the authors also faced some restrictions, as not all banks in Latvia, which continue lending activities, are willing to give information included in loan agreements.

  7. Cross-prefecture expansion of regional banks in Japan and its effects on lending-based income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumine Kondo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether Japanese regional banks entering the banking market in other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, can increase their lending-based income. To stimulate local economies and support local small- and medium-sized enterprises, the current Japanese Government’s policies for regional banks require these banks to engage in region-based relationship banking practices. In this study, three lending-based income measures were used as dependent variables, and estimation was made using panel data from Japanese regional banks. As a result, it was determined that regional banks that enter markets in other prefectures experience positive effects in all three lending-based income measures. Moreover, it was determined that regional banks whose headquarters are located in non-urban areas derive greater benefit from their loan businesses upon entry into other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, where economic activity is more vibrant than regional banks whose headquarters are located in urban areas.

  8. Global Maps of Lunar Neutron Fluxes from the LEND Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The latest neutron spectrometer measurements with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are presented. It covers more than 1 year of mapping phase starting on 15 September 2009. In our analyses we have created global maps showing regional variations in the flux of thermal (energy range neutrons (>0.5 MeV), and compared these fluxes to variances in soil elemental composition, and with previous results obtained by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS). We also processed data from LEND collimated detectors and derived a value for the collimated signal of epithermal neutrons based on the comparative analysis with the LEND omnidirectional detectors. Finally, we have compared our final (after the data reduction) global epithermal neutron map with LPNS data.

  9. BANK LENDING EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai LEOVEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of global nuisance of banking and financial sector during the international financial crisis continues to have overwhelming implications in the current period, which requires careful research of monetary and financial phenomena locally and globally. In this sense, this article aims to highlight key aspects of the Romanian investment environment in the context of international economic environment and monetary policy transmission mechanisms in the Romanian economy. Following this approach, the study focuses on analyzing the financial position of banks operating in Romania, the evolution of lending by type of entity and positive/negative aspects about the impact of monetary policy measures and the NBR regulations on bank lending. The study shows conclusively the positive and the negative effects of lending evolution on the Romanian economy, on the solvency and bankruptcy risk of Romanian companies and on the behavior of debtors and creditors in credit relationships.

  10. Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Schvetsov, V. N.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Russian-made instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) is young brother of another Russian instrument HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), which continues to perform well in its fifth year of science measurements onboard NASA Mars Odyssey. LEND and HEND have similar types of neutron sensors, and valuable science data from HEND about Martian water resources has proved adequate selection of these sensors for purposes of orbital neutron spectroscopy of the planet. The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) has been selected for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to provide the global search of hydrogen distribution through 1-2 meters of lunar subsurface from 50 km circular polar orbit of LRO. The most important property of LEND is its capability to provide high spatial resolution mapping of epithermal neutrons with collimated neutron detectors. LEND is able to detect hydrogen-rich spot at a pole with about 100 ppm of hydrogen with spatial resolution of 5 km (Half Width Half Maximum) and to produce global mapping of hydrogen content with resolution of 5-20 km. If hydrogen is associated with water, detection limit of 100 ppm of hydrogen corresponds to ~ 0.1 wt% of water in the regolith. Neutron radiation from the regolith could have as large an impact on astronaut safety as energetic charged particles from Galactic Comic Rays and Solar Particle Events. LEND will have a full set of sensors for thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons to provide data for neutron component of radiation environment in the broad range of more than 9 decades of energy.

  11. Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Different Borrowing and Lending Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    the returns of each assets are assumed to be fuzzy variables, then following the mean-variance approach, a new possibilistic portfolio selection model with different interest rates for borrowing and lending is proposed, in which the possibilistic semiabsolute deviation of the return is used to measure investment risk. The conventional probabilistic mean variance model can be transformed to a linear programming problem under possibility distributions. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modeling idea and the impact of borrowing and lending on optimal decision making.

  12. Bank Lending, Inflation, and China's Stock Market (2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. K. Burdekin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 surge in bank lending in China was accompanied by allegations of substantial funds being funneled into the nation's stock and property markets. This paper uses 2004–2010 People's Bank survey data to examine the possible linkages between banking activity and the stock market as well as the associated inflation risks. In general, stock market strength in China seems to be accompanied by rising inflationary concerns, increased bank lending activity, and reduced banker confidence that stable conditions will be maintained. This suggests that the Shanghai market could serve as a useful indicator variable for Chinese monetary policy.

  13. The unique effects of general and specific support in health care technology: An empirical examination of the principle of compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigino, Matthew B; Dunford, Benjamin B

    2016-01-01

    The principle of compatibility suggests that specific attitudes should target specific behaviors. The attitude-behavior relationship is contingent upon the consistency between the two. This aim of this study was to examine the strength of relationships involving general versus specific support perceptions and attitudes regarding smart pump technology in hospitals. Specifically, we hypothesized that organizational support perceptions would be more strongly related to general positive work attitudes than it would to smart pump satisfaction. We also hypothesized that smart pump-specific support would be more strongly related to smart pump satisfaction than it would to general positive work attitudes. Data were collected in a cross-sectional field study via online surveys at two large, public hospital systems in the Midwestern United States, one in Iowa (n = 311 nurses) and one in Wisconsin (n = 346 nurses). Because nurses in one system had more experience with smart pump technology than nurses in the other system, analyses were run separately to compare results across the two sites. Consistent with the principle of compatibility, hierarchical regression revealed across both sites that smart pump support had a stronger relationship with smart pump satisfaction whereas general organizational support perceptions had a stronger relationship with general positive work attitudes. In addition, moderation effects were present in one sample where high levels of the noncompatible support (e.g., smart pump-specific support on positive workplace attitudes) buffered low levels of compatible support. Our findings highlight the contextual importance of support in regard to the growing technological transformations that health care systems currently experience. When specific forms of support are provided for specific technologies, end-users will generally respond more favorably compared to when general support is the only available resource.

  14. Empirical study of the degrees to which social support, social status and gender affect the academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.

  15. Empirical study of the degrees to which social support, social status and gender affect the academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.

  16. Infrastructure and inequality: An empirical evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amien Makmuri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to study the empirical relationship between infrastructure and income inequality in Indonesia. It uses regression analysis with panel data set covering 32 provinces in the period of 2007–2013 in order to estimate whether the infrastructure has positive or negative effects on income inequality. We use a conventional income inequality measure, Gini index. The model is estimated by simple pooled OLS, fixed-effect and random-effect models. To overcome the endogeneity problem, infrastructures quantity and quality indicators enter the regressions with one-year lag. We find that road and telecommunication quantities tend to boost income inequality, while electricity quantity, airport quantity, and airport quality have a favorable impact on the distribution of income and help to alleviate income inequality. Whereas, when these different categories of infrastructure are formed as synthetic indices, the relation between these indices and income inequality lends support to the idea that infrastructure increases income inequality.

  17. Influencing factors of public support for modern coal-fired power plant projects: An empirical study from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Feng; Lyu, Tao; Pan, Li; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of clean coal technology, modern coal-fired power plants have achieved the similar emission standards as gas power plants. However, due to the impressions of high pollution and high emission in traditional coal-fired power plants, such projects are often opposed by local residents, which hinder the promotion of this technology. This manuscript aims to investigate public attitudes toward these projects and to analyze the influencing mechanisms of the factors of public support. The conceptual model was built with sense of place, trust and environmental attitude as the independent variables, benefit and cost perceptions as the mediating variables and public support as the dependent variable. The model was tested and modified by structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sense of place had a slight indirect impact (−0.043) on public support through benefit perception, whereas trust had a direct impact (0.332) on public support and indirect impacts (0.298) through benefit and cost perceptions. Environmental attitude had indirect impacts on public support through benefit perception (0.180) and cost perception (−0.115). In addition, policy suggestions on decision-making, project publicity and compensation strategy are proposed to enhance public support for similar projects. - Highlights: • This manuscript aims at eliminating the NIMBY effects on modern coal-fired power plant project. • A SEM model is proposed to explore how potential factors affect public support. • Trust is the dominant influencing factor to improve public support with both direct and indirect impacts. • Environmental attitude can also have positive effect on public support through rational compensation plans.

  18. Daily Peak Load Forecasting Based on Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily peak load forecasting is an important part of power load forecasting. The accuracy of its prediction has great influence on the formulation of power generation plan, power grid dispatching, power grid operation and power supply reliability of power system. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct a suitable model to realize the accurate prediction of the daily peak load. A novel daily peak load forecasting model, CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the model uses the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN algorithm to decompose the daily peak load sequence into multiple sub sequences. Then, the model of modified grey wolf optimization and support vector machine (MGWO-SVM is adopted to forecast the sub sequences. Finally, the forecasting sequence is reconstructed and the forecasting result is obtained. Using CEEMDAN can realize noise reduction for non-stationary daily peak load sequence, which makes the daily peak load sequence more regular. The model adopts the grey wolf optimization algorithm improved by introducing the population dynamic evolution operator and the nonlinear convergence factor to enhance the global search ability and avoid falling into the local optimum, which can better optimize the parameters of the SVM algorithm for improving the forecasting accuracy of daily peak load. In this paper, three cases are used to test the forecasting accuracy of the CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM model. We choose the models EEMD-MGWO-SVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, MGWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, GWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, SVM (Support Vector

  19. Empirical study of ill-supported activities in variation risk identification and assessment in early stage product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Kristian; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ebro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    medical device company by interviewing six key employees that work in the variation risk identification and assessment process. It is found that there are several ill-supported activities, and that the project teams rely heavily on tolerance experts’ assistance and experience in order to identify...... definition of the projects; and implementing statistical information in the calculations. It is suggested these areas should be supported further....

  20. Management control of credit risk in the bank lending process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Management control of credit risk in the bank lending processA casestudy to explore improvements from a managerial perspectiveAt the start of this project -back in 1998- new technologies and ideas were emerging among a new generation of financial engineering professionals who have been applying

  1. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  2. 77 FR 66748 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    .... Regulation Z currently requires that issuers consider the consumer's independent ability to pay, regardless... contains notices to the public of #0;the proposed issuance of rules and regulations. The purpose of these... 1026 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0039] RIN 3170-AA28 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of...

  3. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  4. 13 CFR 120.931 - 504 Lending limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 504 Lending limits. 120.931 Section 120.931 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development... enumerated in § 120.862(b) applies to the Project). [68 FR 57988, Oct. 7, 2003] ...

  5. Securitization and Lending Standards : Evidence from the Wholesale Loan Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Marques-Ibanez, D.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of securitization activity on banks’ lending standards using evidence from pricing behavior on the syndicated loan market. We find that banks more active at originating asset-backed securities are also more aggressive on their loan pricing practices. This suggests that

  6. Banking on Solar: New Opportunities for Lending (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. solar industry is a $13.7 billion market with roughly 450,000 systems in place. Bank and credit union lending for solar system deployment represents a valuable new opportunity for lenders to expand their consumer and commercial customer relationships, bring on new relationships and open a new asset class category.

  7. interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to deepen the financial sector, there is the need to improve financial infrastructure which will enhance commercial bank .... Proponents of this theory lean on the supply-lending relationship between growth and .... extending their services and they vary directly with interest rates. These costs include administrative ...

  8. Interest Rates and Lending Behaviour 1984 - 1997 Experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rates and lending behaviour are not as predicted. These contradictory outcomes are explained using the new institutional school. The timing and sequencing of the reform programme is also analyzed to check whether it might have influenced the results. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.9(1) 2000: 31-42 ...

  9. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, van R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  10. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  11. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act, 12 U.S.C. 1454(a)(2), the coverage threshold set forth in... Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The proposed rule would implement Section 1461 of the recently enacted Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Section 1461...

  12. REGIONAL FEATURES OF THE GLOBAL MARKET OF SYNDICATED LENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Moroz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore and analyze of current market trends in the global market of syndicated lending, characterized its regional structure, identify its specific features and characteristics in different regions of the world and defining the main directions of further development of the global market of syndicated lending. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources from different countries concerning the development of syndicated loans. Data was also obtained from the websites of leading credit rating agencies, exploring the development of syndicated lending. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the development of syndicated lending in the world were used. Results. The development of syndicated loan market in recent years is characterized by: rapid growth of the volume and number of transactions; international nature; determining influence the US and Western Europe to market dynamics; active actions of international financial institutions in the developing countries markets; simplification of credit agreements conditions; consolidation of basic parameters of the loan – the total transaction amount and term of the loan. The dynamics of the global market of syndicated lending and its profitability determines the ratio between the leveraged and investment grade loans, which development depends on the overall market situation. Based on the analyzed of main factors it was found that in the short term the market will continue to grow, however quite slowly. Practical implications. Research of the syndicated loan market makes it possible to understand more about the mechanism of functioning of the modern financial sector. In our opinion, special attention should be paid to markets in developing countries which have considerable growth potential. Value /originality. It is first time we have grouped countries due to the main aspects of syndicated lending, such as: the amount of

  13. The determination of the structure of γ-alumina using empirical and first principle calculations and supporting experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paglia, G.; Buckely, C.E.; O'Connor, B.H.; Van Riessen, A.; Rohl, A.L.; Gale, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Because of its hardness, abrasion resistance, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and good electrical insulation, alumina (AI 2 O 3 ) is a material of high technological and industrial significance. Alumina exists in a variety of metastable structures including the γ, η, θ, K, and χ aluminas, as well as its stable α alumina phase. The crystal structure of the γ-phase in alumina has attracted considerable attention over the past 40 years, with various reports attributing either a cubic or tetragonal structure to this phase. Consensus on the definitive structure of γ-alumina (γ-AI 2 O 3 ) has yet to be reached. Rapid advancement has occurred in the field of computational materials science in recent times. Huge advances in computing power during this period have made ft possible to apply the laws of quantum mechanics to the study of macroscopic properties of real materials at the atomic level. Predicting the properties of materials by theoretical means complements the traditional experimental approaches. This research is directed at determining the structure of γ-Al 2 O 3 using theoretical first principles and empirical computational techniques combined with experimental methods. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the problems associated with determining the structure of γ-AI 2 O 3 and to outline the methodology being applied to solve it. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  14. Empirical study of ill-supported activities in variation risk identification and assessment in early stage product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Kristian; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ebro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings from an industrial case study about the support of activities related to identifying and assessing variation-related issues in the design during the concept- and embodiment design stages. The case study investigates a large world-leading mechanical...... medical device company by interviewing six key employees that work in the variation risk identification and assessment process. It is found that there are several ill-supported activities, and that the project teams rely heavily on tolerance experts’ assistance and experience in order to identify...... definition of the projects; and implementing statistical information in the calculations. It is suggested these areas should be supported further....

  15. Dynamic Interaction: A Measurement Development and Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge Based Systems and Web 2.0 Decision Support Mashups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Brandon Alan

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the organizational and consumer need for knowledge based support in unstructured domains, by developing a measurement scale for dynamic interaction. Addressing this need is approached and evaluated from two different perspectives. The first approach is the development of Knowledge Based…

  16. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  17. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…

  18. A Strategy for Maintaining Public Opinion Support on a Controversial Issue: An Empirical Test of Resistance Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, James L.; Harris, Allen C.

    To extend the resistance-to-persuasion literature into a context relevant to public relations, a study examined the reactions of 147 Michigan State University students after viewing edited versions of President Ronald Reagan's televised address of February 26, 1986. Reagan's address, concerning his request for public support of an increase in…

  19. The Development of Strategic Bank Lending Industries in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Markovna Kramarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that, in the context of globalization, improved credit support for strategic sectors of the economy (for example, shipbuilding can be achieved through the creation of a banking consortium based around leasing. A dialectical method of resolution of system tasks is selected as the methodological approach. Methods used include: comparative cost analysis of the strategic lending industry supporting the formation and development of a banking consortium; integrated method at the condition modeling of making and implementation of a lease agreement, which allowed to accommodate the interests for both parties of such agreement; optimization method to select the conditions of a lease agreement; classification and analytical method to clarify the classification of lease. The study proved and developed a plan of creation a banking consortium, including options of interaction of such consortium with potential customers based on a lease agreement. The process of functioning of the lease agreement in order to optimize it for both a bank consortium-lessor and a lessee is modeled. The significant advantages of leasing compared to the traditional lending for both parties of leasing, especially when ensuring long-term projects are summarized. The results of the research can be applied in the strategic lending industries development and can reduce the level of banking risks. Applying the results of the research in the social aspect can maintain and increase the number of jobs including the banking sector. The value of the work leis in the fact that the author has developed a new approach to achive the credit support for strategic sectors of the economy through the creation of the banking consortium based around leasing, which allows to protect the interests of both parties.

  20. Forecasting of Energy Consumption in China Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For social development, energy is a crucial material whose consumption affects the stable and sustained development of the natural environment and economy. Currently, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Therefore, establishing an appropriate energy consumption prediction model and accurately forecasting energy consumption in China have practical significance, and can provide a scientific basis for China to formulate a reasonable energy production plan and energy-saving and emissions-reduction-related policies to boost sustainable development. For forecasting the energy consumption in China accurately, considering the main driving factors of energy consumption, a novel model, EEMD-ISFLA-LSSVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, is proposed in this article. The prediction accuracy of energy consumption is influenced by various factors. In this article, first considering population, GDP (Gross Domestic Product, industrial structure (the proportion of the second industry added value, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, carbon emissions intensity, total imports and exports and other influencing factors of energy consumption, the main driving factors of energy consumption are screened as the model input according to the sorting of grey relational degrees to realize feature dimension reduction. Then, the original energy consumption sequence of China is decomposed into multiple subsequences by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for de-noising. Next, the ISFLA-LSSVM (Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm model is adopted to forecast each subsequence, and the prediction sequences are reconstructed to obtain the forecasting result. After that, the data from 1990 to 2009 are taken as the training set, and the data from 2010 to 2016 are taken as the test set to make an

  1. Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Amini Yekta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As the second largest producer of cement after Egypt in the Middle East, Iran planned to increase production from 33 million ton/yr (Mt/yr currently to 70 Mt/yr by 2021 due to increase in local demand and also to compete in export markets (Dehqan, 2002. Thus, Iran is experiencing some changes in workforce participation in order to achieve high level of organisational performance and effectiveness. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support on the job satisfaction of Iranian employees. Data were collected through questionnaire from 136 employees working in Tehran Cement Company. Consideration leadership behavior was found to have significant impact on both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction whereas perceived organisational support was significantly related to extrinsic job satisfaction. Interestingly, the interaction of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support were not significantly related to job satisfaction. The implications to human resource development for organizations that want to increase employee commitment is to focus on improving the quality of the supportive relationships between the employees and both the leader and the organisation.As the second largest producer of cement after Egypt in the Middle East, Iran planned to increase production from 33 million ton/yr (Mt/yr currently to 70 Mt/yr by 2021 due to increase in local demand and also to compete in export markets (Dehqan, 2002. Thus, Iran is experiencing some changes in workforce participation in order to achieve high level of organisational performance and effectiveness. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support on the job satisfaction of Iranian employees. Data were collected through questionnaire from 136 employees working in Tehran Cement Company. Consideration leadership behavior was found to have significant

  2. Effects and processes linking social support to caregiver health among HIV/AIDS-affected carer-child dyads: a critical review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that social support may be an important resource for the mental and physical health of caregivers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, especially in HIV-endemic areas of the developing world. Drawing from theory on social relations and health, in this paper we argue that it is important to assess not only the existence and direction of associations, but also the effects and processes explaining these. We refer to House et al's (in Annu Rev Sociol 14;293-318, 1988) theoretical framework on social support structures and processes as a guide to present and discuss findings of a systematic review of literature assessing the relationship between social support and health among caregivers living with HIV or caring for HIV/AIDS-affected children. Findings confirm the importance of social support for health among this population, but also expose the absence of empirical work deriving from the developing world, as well as the need for further investigation on the biopsychosocial processes explaining observed effects.

  3. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination. PMID:25360060

  4. Models of sequential decision making in consumer lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanshukan Rajaratnam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we introduce models of sequential decision making in consumer lending. From the definition of adverse selection in static lending models, we show that homogenous borrowers take-up offers at different instances of time when faced with a sequence of loan offers. We postulate that bounded rationality and diverse decision heuristics used by consumers drive the decisions they make about credit offers. Under that postulate, we show how observation of early decisions in a sequence can be informative about later decisions and can, when coupled with a type of adverse selection, also inform credit risk. We show through two examples how lenders may use such information in setting their offer rates.

  5. Incentive-Based Lending Capacity, Competition and Regulation in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, Gabriella

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies moral hazard in banking due to delegated monitoring in an environment of aggregate risk and examines its implications for credit market equilibrium and regulation, in a model where banks are price competitors for loans and deposits. It provides a rationale for an incentive-based lending capacity positively linked to the bank’s capital and profit margin, for an oligopolistic market structure wherever banks have market power, and for capital requirements. Social-welfare-maxim...

  6. Trends in the Funding and Lending Behaviour of Australian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Stewart; Benn Robertson; Alexandra Heath

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Australian banking system, highlighting ways in which it differs from other major banking systems. It draws together themes from previous work conducted at the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), and outlines the role the banking system plays in the transmission of monetary policy and the transformation of risk. The paper also discusses some more recent trends, including the increased focus on deposit funding and potential changes in the determination of lending rates du...

  7. Cross-selling lending and underwriting : scope economies and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...

  8. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions

  9. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... § 560.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart....S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and all...

  10. The Impact of Federal Preemption of State Antipredatory Lending Laws on the Foreclosure Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Quercia, Roberto G.; Reid, Carolina K.; White, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    State antipredatory lending laws (APLs) are designed to protect borrowers against predatory lending that can increase the risk of default and deplete the home equity held by borrowers. Federal regulators instituted preemption that limited the scope and reach of state antipredatory lending regulations for certain lenders. Based on the variation in…

  11. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  12. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  13. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  14. The status of bank lending to SMES in the Middle East and North Africa region : the results of a joint survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems than private banks. On another hand, credit guarantee schemes are a popular form of support to SME finan...

  15. Empirical research and logotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to outline suggestions for future logotherapy applications and research. Empirical studies are available on logotherapy constructs, but additional research is sorely needed. The psychometrics of logotherapy measures need to be expanded. Carefully conducted experimental studies may aid in refining long-standing logotherapy concepts and supporting or refuting new ones.

  16. BEHAVIOR OF FUNDING AND LENDING PRICING OF INDONESIAN BANKS: EVIDENCE FROM AGGREGATE POST CRISIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenartomo Soepomo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to reveal the behavior of lending and funding pricing (deposit interest rate and loan interestrate of Indonesian banks after the great crisis in 1998. Specifically the research design aimed to uncover theform of interaction (state of equilibrium and factors that might influence the state of equilibrium. We used amodel developed by Niehans (1978 and De Grauwe (1982 as a point of departure to address the researchproblem. There were 12 variables used in a simultanous equation econometric model that would be estimated byusing 4 different techniques namely GMM TS, GMM CS, 3SLS and SUR. Two variables namely price ofdeposit and price of loan were treated as endogenous. We also considered the impact of deposit insuranceadoption that was took place in September 2005.The empirical findings showed that the slopes of DD and LLequation were largely consistent with the hypotheses. The parameters were positive and statistically significant.However the numerical value of LL slope that was greater than the other one and comparable to DD slopehad raised a concern for the stability attainment. The most important variables (based on their magnitude andstatistical significance found to affect the constellation were business prospect, system size, exchange rate,operational cost and profitability. In the second tier of importance, we found that monetary policy instruments(policy rate differential and base money supply, quality of loan, capital and total liquidity affected the systemin various degrees.

  17. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  18. 76 FR 60600 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Supplemental Quarterly Report (Small Business Lending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... requirements for banks participating in the Small Business Lending Fund to report information about the level and type of loans they are making to small businesses on a quarterly basis. DATES: Written comments... (Small Business Lending Fund, SBLF) AGENCY: Office of Domestic Finance, Treasury. [[Page 60601

  19. 12 CFR 723.3 - What are the requirements for construction and development lending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements for construction and development lending? 723.3 Section 723.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS... development lending? Except as provided in § 723.4 or unless your Regional Director grants a waiver, loans...

  20. 5The effect of funding strategy on the lending patterns of banks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated funds to diversify into non-interest income-generating activities. 66According to Kashyap et al. (2002), lending involves acquiring costly information about opaque borrowers, and extending credit based on this information. All sectors of the economy are affected by bank lending, since banks serve as a major ...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing Lending...

  2. Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders - Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Thi Thu Tra; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  3. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  4. Credit Booms and Lending Standards : Evidence from the Subprime Mortgage Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell’Ariccia, G.; Igan, D.; Laeven, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper links the current subprime mortgage crisis to a decline in lending standards associated with the rapid expansion and changes in the structure of this market. We show that lending standards declined more in areas that experienced faster credit growth. We also find that the entry of new

  5. Bank lending, macroeconomic conditions and financial uncertainty: Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the interrelations between bank lending, macroeconomic conditions and financial uncertainty for an emerging economy, Malaysia. Adopting time series techniques of cointegration, causality and vector autoregressions (VARs, we arrive at the following main results. We note long run positive relations between real output and both real bank credits and real stock prices. However, with slow adjustment of real output in responses to credit expansion or stock price increase and weak exogeneity of the latter two variables, both credits and stock prices can be persistently higher than their fundamental values. The phenomenon can be detrimental since it heightens market uncertainty. Our results suggest that heightened market uncertainty is negatively related to output in the long run and, on the basis of dynamics analysis, it is likely to depress real output, real credit and real stock prices. At the same time, we note significant dynamic impacts of interest rate shocks on other variables. Taken together, these results have important implications for macroeconomic performance and stability for the case of Malaysia.

  6. Government chartered banks step up oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, P.

    1994-01-01

    International government chartered banks are playing an increasingly prominent role in lending for world oil and gas development projects. The main players are the World Bank's International Finance Corp. (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), US Export-Import Bank, and Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC). Those institutions and similar ones are the catalysts for a large number of projects in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in other nations that are seeking to develop oil and gas resources and build processing plants, pipelines, and distribution networks. Banks also are taking a greater degree of interest in the environmental aspects of projects. In country after country, especially in the developing world, barriers to foreign investment in domestic petroleum sectors are falling. Oil and gas law reforms are under way on each continent. The paper discusses the major players, the World Bank grouped, the Romanian example, the Ex-Im Bank, OPIC, the emphasis on FSU, environmental issues, and new sources of capital in developing countries

  7. Agricultural lending decision: a tobit regression analysis | Olagunju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from a survey of loan applicants and bank officials from Union Bank of Nigeria and First Bank of Nigeria in south-western Nigeria, this paper empirically evaluated the determinants of loan approval decision and the size of the loan given using a Tobit regression model. With a multi-stage sampling technique, data ...

  8. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  9. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the ...... much used notion of an imperial market economy.  Roman imperial government was to weak to provide the institutional supports needed by a well functioning laissez-faire economy....

  10. The reaction of bank lending to monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Takeda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel'' of monetary policy transmission in Brazil. Disaggregated monthly data of the Brazilian banks balance sheets from December 1994 to December 2001 are analyzed. In addition to the short-term interest rate, we consider the effects of another monetary policy instrument frequently used in Brazil, represented by reserve requirements on overall banks deposits - demand, savings, and time deposits. Dynamic panel data techniques are employed. Our results suggest that the impact of reserve requirements is relevant and stronger for larger banks loans. This finding results from the progressive reserve rates required from banks, which affect to a greater extent banks with larger deposit volumes.Este artigo avalia o canal de empréstimos bancários na transmissão da política monetária. A análise foca os dados mensais desagregados do balanço patrimonial dos bancos comerciais brasileiros de dezembro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Em adição à taxa básica de juros de curto prazo, este estudo considera também os efeitos de um outro instrumento de política monetária usado freqüentemente no Brasil, representado pelos recolhimentos compulsórios sobre os depósitos à vista, de poupança e a prazo. A partir de técnicas de análise de dados em painel dinâmico, os resultados dos testes sugerem que o impacto dos compulsórios é relevante e é mais forte sobre os empréstimos dos grandes bancos, conclusão que decorre de recolhimentos compulsórios de caráter progressivo, que afetam mais fortemente os bancos com maiores volumes de depósitos.

  11. The impact of SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee on bank efficiency in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Wen Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how small and medium-size enterprises’ (SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee affect Korean banks’ efficiency, by employing the stochastic frontier approach on 14 banks over the period 2001–2010. When lending increases to SMEs, the findings indicate that banks’ cost efficiency decreases due to information asymmetry. However, the increased proportion of credit guarantee can improve their cost efficiency. This proves that South Korea’s credit guarantee system can indeed share SMEs’ credit risk of lending in order to help raise bank efficiency.

  12. Online peer-to-peer lending and its implications for small business credit financing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Henrik; Hagerud, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This thesis seeks to explore how the emergence of online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending will impact small businesses lending in Norway. Increasing attention has been drawn to small businesses and their apparent struggle to obtain appropriate credit financing. At the same time, online P2P lending, part of the new wave of financial technologies, has been held up as a potential remedy for this credit rationing. Our research involves two main parts. First, we study the extent to whi...

  13. Online peer-to-peer lending and its implications for small business credit financing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Henrik; Hagerud, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Strategy - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 This thesis seeks to explore how the emergence of online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending will impact small businesses lending in Norway. Increasing attention has been drawn to small businesses and their apparent struggle to obtain appropriate credit financing. At the same time, online P2P lending, part of the new wave of financial technologies, has been held up as a potential remedy for this cr...

  14. Screening in new credit markets: can individual lenders infer borrower creditworthiness in peer-to-peer lending?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Khwaja, A.I.; Luttmer, E.F.P.; Shue, K.

    2009-01-01

    The current banking crisis highlights the challenges faced in the traditional lending model, particularly in terms of screening smaller borrowers. The recent growth in online peer-to-peer lending marketplaces offers opportunities to examine different lending models that rely on screening by multiple

  15. 78 FR 23171 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...' exposure to collateral- based lending, potentially harmful prepayment penalties and other harms. The price... Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of... Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) (2013 Escrows Final Rule),\\1\\ issued on January 10...

  16. ANALYSIS OF MORTGAGE LENDING IN BANKS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Kharabara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is a mortgage market that occupies one of the major places among the financial mechanisms of economic stimulation and stable development of the economy. The mortgage market occupies one of the main places of financial mechanisms and economic incentives for the sustainable economic development. Mortgage lending covers the provision of long-term bank loans for the purchase, construction of residential real estate, as well as for repairs or to develop their own small businesses, where the collateral for such loans is real estate. Distinctive features of mortgages include: mortgages, like any collateral, in fact, is a way to ensure proper implementation of the other (main liabilities – loan or credit agreement, lease, contract, compensation, etc.; the subject of a mortgage is always real estate. Real estate includes land plots and everything that is firmly associated with them: buildings, perennial plants, etc.; mortgaged property remains in the possession of the debtor; the agreement between the creditor and the debtor on the establishment of a mortgage is formalized by a special document – the mortgage, which is also subject to state registration. The mortgage crediting is the method of accumulation of financial resources, effective instrument of bank activity, and an important factor in economic development of the country on the whole. Research results are market of the real estate and financial services development, to the revival of fund market, here the mortgage crediting is capable not only of activating reforms in industries of the economy but also gradually providing the decision of housing problems of the population. Practical consequences consist in the solution of problems that are related to the market for mortgage services of Ukraine’s development from 2006 to 2016. Value/originality. Analysis of the mortgage market in Ukraine shows that in recent years, its scope, dynamics, and trends do not meet the needs of either

  17. SALES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ADDITIONAL SERVICES ON THE RETAIL LENDING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Krasko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main issues of design sales management system for additional services on the retail lending market. Attention is concentrated on developing effective system architecture and conceptual provisions of the development.

  18. Gendered Lending Practices: Enabling South African Women Entrepreneurs to Access Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Derera; Pepukayi Chitakunye; Charles O'Neill; Amandeep Tarkhar-Lail

    2014-01-01

    This study explores gendered lending and marketing practices of start-up capital to women entrepreneurs in South Africa. A multi-method research design, comprising of 6 in-depth interviews with experts, and a survey of 50 women entrepreneurs was adopted using convenience and snowball sampling techniques, respectively. The findings revealed that women entrepreneurs are experiencing gendered discriminatory practices embedded in lending practices used by financial institutions, thereby discourag...

  19. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Marconatto, Diego A. B.; Barin-Cruz, Luciano; Pedrozo, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lending groups (LGs) and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs) is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian) and developing countries with different stocks of soci...

  20. The Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in A Dual Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy on bank lending in a dual banking system, i.e. Malaysia. Making use of an unbalanced panel data set of 38 Islamic and conventional banks covering mostly 2001-2014, we find evidence that variations in monetary policy affect lending growth of Islamic banks and, to some extent, conventional banks. The results further reveal that, in conformity with studies using aggregate Islamic financing data, the Islamic financing growth reacts more strongly to monetary policy changes. Moreover, we find no marked difference between full-fledged Islamic banks and Islamic bank subsidiaries in their responses to monetary policy. While we also document some evidence indicating the significant relations between bank-specific variables and lending growth, the bank-specific variables do not seem to have any role in impacting the potency of the bank lending channel. Finally, we find that lending growth is directly related to economic growth, suggesting procyclicality of bank lending/financing in Malaysia. These results have important implications for effective implementation of monetary policy and further development of Islamic banks in Malaysia.

  1. Incorporating life course theory and social determinants of health into the LEND curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Karen; Towle, Patricia O; Levitz, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe strategies for revising LEND curricula to incorporate a stronger focus on life course theory and social determinants of health (LCT/SDOH). The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) includes a central focus on LCT/SDOH and states that a goal of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) training is to "Prepare and empower MCH leaders to promote health equity…and reduce disparities in health and health care." Two LEND programs engaged in a comprehensive process to strengthen LCT/SDOH in their curricula that included choosing content and themes and developing instructional strategies congruent with MCH Leadership Competencies and with the learning needs of LEND trainees. We describe: key elements of LCT/SDOH; the relationship of these to children with disabilities and to the MCH Leadership Competencies; LCT/SDOH resources for the LEND curriculum; a collaborative curriculum revision process for faculty; and LCT/SDOH content and themes for the LEND Curriculum and strategies for incorporating them. We present the results of our work in a format that may be used by other LEND programs undertaking curriculum revision to incorporate LCT/SDOH.

  2. Valuation of Urban Commercial Properties in Nigeria for Secured Lending: Issues and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namnso Bassey Udoekanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation for secured lending is required when an interest in real property is used as security for a loan. The outcome of such valuation will help the lending institution to achieve commercial prudence in lending as well as avoid taking undue risk. This paper examines the issues and developments in the valuation of urban commercial properties in Nigeria for secured lending purposes. It argues that due to the volatile nature of the Nigerian economy, coupled with the linkage between the economy and commercial property markets, the maximum amount of loan to be granted by lenders in the country using interest in commercial property as collateral should be based on the Mortgage Lending Value (MLV and not the Market Value (MV of the property, although the market value should also be reported in the valuation. A case study is used to demonstrate the valuation. It further contends that since the inputs for determining the MLV of a commercial property must be derived from long-term trends in the property and financial markets, it is more stable than MV when used to determine the maximum amount of mortgage loan to be granted by a lender. It concludes that the stability of the MLV makes it more reliable than the MV in achieving commercial prudence in mortgage lending as it fits into the long-term nature of mortgage loan repayment.

  3. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  4. Dissociation-focused Victim Support and Coping with Traumatic Memory: an empirical search for evidence sustaining the potential of downward comparison based interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, F.W.; Blaauw, E.; Wisman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Some victims are highly susceptible to develop traumatic memories. A basic model of traumatic memory and its theoretical implications for coping assistance offered by victim support is outlined. The main focus of victim support from this perspective is to initiate and facilitate a process of

  5. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. METHODS: A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. RESULTS: One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599, while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.

  6. Risks of lending to small enterprises in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranisavljević Duško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the major risks of lending to small enterprises and entrepreneurs in Serbia, this paper analyzes this problem and presents the concrete activities that commercial banks should undertake to mitigate these risks. After analyzing the business environment in Serbia and the current lending practice, we have concluded that in the process of approving loan applications, without exception, the following analyses and activities need to be undertaken: verification of the client's status, financial analysis of the entrepreneurial business, analysis of the entrepreneur's business operations, assessment of how regularly the entrepreneur settles his liabilities, analysis of risks entailed by the bank's offer (i.e. the set of products, evaluation of loan collaterals, currency risk of lending to the business, and risks of lending to a start-up entrepreneurial business. Similar studies were conducted in the United States, yet this particular analysis focuses on the needs and practices of the banking sector in Serbia, with the aim of suggesting to commercial banks to implement the above stated activities and analyses persistently and comprehensively, putting them ahead of accelerated lending procedures, acquisitions and sound, short-term business results.

  7. Simulating Pre-Asymptotic, Non-Fickian Transport Although Doing Simple Random Walks - Supported By Empirical Pore-Scale Velocity Distributions and Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, S.; Jia, N.; Bijeljic, B.; Nowak, W.

    2016-12-01

    Pre-asymptotic characteristics are almost ubiquitous when analyzing solute transport processes in porous media. These pre-asymptotic aspects are caused by spatial coherence in the velocity field and by its heterogeneity. For the Lagrangian perspective of particle displacements, the causes of pre-asymptotic, non-Fickian transport are skewed velocity distribution, statistical dependencies between subsequent increments of particle positions (memory) and dependence between the x, y and z-components of particle increments. Valid simulation frameworks should account for these factors. We propose a particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulation technique that can use empirical pore-space velocity distributions as input, enforces memory between subsequent random walk steps, and considers cross dependence. Thus, it is able to simulate pre-asymptotic non-Fickian transport phenomena. Our PTRW framework contains an advection/dispersion term plus a diffusion term. The advection/dispersion term produces time-series of particle increments from the velocity CDFs. These time series are equipped with memory by enforcing that the CDF values of subsequent velocities change only slightly. The latter is achieved through a random walk on the axis of CDF values between 0 and 1. The virtual diffusion coefficient for that random walk is our only fitting parameter. Cross-dependence can be enforced by constraining the random walk to certain combinations of CDF values between the three velocity components in x, y and z. We will show that this modelling framework is capable of simulating non-Fickian transport by comparison with a pore-scale transport simulation and we analyze the approach to asymptotic behavior.

  8. Economic policy uncertainty, credit risks and banks’ lending decisions: Evidence from Chinese commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinwei Chi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using data for Chinese commercial banks from 2000 to 2014, this paper examines the effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions. The results reveal significantly positive connections among EPU and non-performing loan ratios, loan concentrations and the normal loan migration rate. This indicates that EPU increases banks’ credit risks and negatively influences loan size, especially for joint-equity banks. Given the increasing credit risks generated by EPU, banks can improve operational performance by reducing loan sizes. Further research indicates that the effects of EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions are moderated by the marketization level, with financial depth moderating the effect on banks’ credit risks and strengthening it on lending decisions.

  9. Insolation Effects on the Lunar Hydrogen Budget: Correlated Observations of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LEND, LOLA and Diviner Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Litvak, M.; Milikh, G. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.

    2012-12-01

    In this research we correlate the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Diviner radiometer temperature maps that characterize the Moon's thermal environment with maps derived from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA). In previous research, we found evidence that the Moon's Hydrogen budget was broadly influenced by insolation effects. In that analysis we implemented a transformation of LOLA's topography maps, thereby isolating poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes. We then integrated the LEND epithermal neutron maps over these regions and found that the epithermal neutron count rates were significantly lower in poleward-facing slopes vs. equivalent equator-facing slopes, yielding a localized "epithermal contrast". This result suggests higher H / H2O concentrations in poleward-facing slopes vs. comparable equator-facing slopes. It is also consistent with findings in terrestrial and Martian environments indicating similar H / H2O slope contrasts. In support of that finding we determined that the epithermal neutron rates over east and west-facing slopes were as predicted equivalent. The above effects were also similar for both North and South Poles. Together, this support indicated surface insolation is an important factor governing the Moon's Hydrogen budget. Temperature effects of insolation are primarily a function of a cosine process a = i cos Θ, which predicts the effective solar irradiation a, incident to a given surface as a function of its angular orientation Θ, to the source solar irradiation, i. Θ is locally a function of several variables including combined: seasonal, diurnal, topographic, latitude and regolith compositional effects which induces locally dependent and time variable temperature conditions. The Moons low obliquity and increased latitude predictably attenuate solar irradiation, which is well correlated with decreased near-surface temperatures towards the poles. Importantly, topographic

  10. COLLATERAL IN SMES’ LENDING: BANKS’ REQUIREMENTS VS CUSTOMERS’ EXPECTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BADULESCU

    2011-01-01

    SMEs’ support and importance in developing economies should not be only declarative. Searching for funding, managers encounter various obstacles arising from information asymmetry, lack of experience, severe market conditions, and insufficient or unsatisfactory collaterals for banks (OECD 2006; Badulescu and Badulescu 2010; OECD 2000 and 2004; Lin and Sun 2006; Toivanen and Cresy, 2000). The collateral issue is extensively discussed in literature – preventing moral hazard, the alignment the i...

  11. Macroeconomics and FinTech: Uncovering Latent Macroeconomic Effects on Peer-to-Peer Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Jessica; Lim, Lek-Heng; Wong, Ken Sze-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending is a fast growing financial technology (FinTech) trend that is displacing traditional retail banking. Studies on P2P lending have focused on predicting individual interest rates or default probabilities. However, the relationship between aggregated P2P interest rates and the general economy will be of interest to investors and borrowers as the P2P credit market matures. We show that the variation in P2P interest rates across grade types are determined by three macro...

  12. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  13. Observational drawing biases are predicted by biases in perception: Empirical support of the misperception hypothesis of drawing accuracy with respect to two angle illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrofsky, Justin; Kozbelt, Aaron; Cohen, Dale J

    2015-01-01

    We tested the misperception hypothesis of drawing errors, which states that drawing accuracy is strongly influenced by the perceptual encoding of a to-be-drawn stimulus. We used a highly controlled experimental paradigm in which nonartist participants made perceptual judgements and drawings of angles under identical stimulus exposure conditions. Experiment 1 examined the isosceles/scalene triangle angle illusion; congruent patterns of bias in the perception and drawing tasks were found for 40 and 60° angles, but not for 20 or 80° angles, providing mixed support for the misperception hypothesis. Experiment 2 examined shape constancy effects with respect to reproductions of single acute or obtuse angles; congruent patterns of bias in the perception and drawing tasks were found across a range of angles from 29 to 151°, providing strong support for the misperception hypothesis. In both experiments, perceptual and drawing biases were positively correlated. These results are largely consistent with the misperception hypothesis, suggesting that inaccurate perceptual encoding of angles is an important reason that nonartists err in drawing angles from observation.

  14. Financial incentives research and lending market impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.F.; Bryant, P.S.; Cour, E.E.; Kouchoukos, P.C.

    1977-11-01

    The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration has been authorized by recent legislation to enter into loan guaranty and interest assistance agreements related to specific energy programs. These loan guaranty programs are designed to encourage the private sector to participate in the development of alternative energy sources and the conservation of energy. Two programs are currently authorized: one dealing with geothermal energy; the other dealing with electric and hybrid vehicles. A third program currently under consideration by the Congress addresses the conversion of organic waste products into alternative fuels. An introductory overview provides a brief summary of: energy legislation, ERDA loan guaranty programs, basis of and purpose for the investigation, and scope. Subsequent sections of this report address related background information; methodology employed; data collection and analysis of the information obtained; and specific recommendations based upon the results of the analysis. Supporting information and reference data are included as appendices. (MCW)

  15. On the suitability of group lending model in South Sudan's small and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of this mode of SME funding in selected jurisdictions, namely Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burundi, and Colombia underscores such a position. The socio-economic, legal and political environment of the three jurisdictions studied in this paper where group lending has been successful closely mirror that of ...

  16. 75 FR 50936 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit... sound operation of System institutions by strengthening their risk management practices and abilities to... the establishment of consistent, uniform and prudent concentration risk management policies by System...

  17. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or Agency), through the FCA Board (Board...

  18. 76 FR 29992 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... (collectively loan) concentration risks. We expect this final rule will increase the safe and sound operation of...

  19. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  20. Banking Competition and Soft Budget Constraints: How Market Power can Threaten Discipline in Lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2012-01-01

    n imperfectly competitive credit markets, banks can face a tradeoff between exploiting their market power and enforcing hard budget constraints. As market power rises, banks eventually find it too costly to discipline underperforming borrowers by stopping their projects. Lending relationships become

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the early years of the loan, particularly in subprime loans. 5. Interest rate increases upon default... Lending Standards A. Avoidance of Particular Loan Terms, Conditions, and Features B. Prudent Consideration of Certain Loan Terms, Conditions and Features C. Enhanced Care To Avoid Abusive Loan Terms...

  2. Social Capital and the Repayment of Microfinance Group Lending. A Case Study of Pro Mujer Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postelnicu, Luminita; Hermes, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how social networks of group borrowers come into play in joint liability group lending. We use a large and original dataset containing 802 mapped social networks of borrowers from Pro Mujer Mexico. This is the first paper to look at external ties, i.e. social ties with

  3. The effect of funding strategy on the lending patterns of banks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employ a panel dataset of banks from 2005 to 2011, to analyse the impact of funding sources on three sets of lending patterns employed by banks: Primary, secondary and tertiary economic sectors. The result shows that banks in Ghana use internally generated funds to finance loans to the primary and secondary ...

  4. 12 CFR 31.2 - Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 12 CFR part 215. (b) Enforcement. The Comptroller of the Currency administers and enforces... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements. 31.2 Section 31.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  5. Group lending and the role of the group leader : Theory and evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Remco van; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the strategic monitoring behaviour within a group lending setting. We develop a theoretical model, showing that monitoring efforts of group members differ from each other in equilibrium, as a result of the asymmetry between these members in terms of the future

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... policy and set limits for real estate loans by type and geographic market (e.g., limits on higher risk... procedures, including documentation, disbursement, collateral inspection, collection, and loan review... expertise and size of the lending staff. • The need to avoid undue concentrations of risk. • Compliance with...

  7. 76 FR 53362 - Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... marketing activities, and to farm-related businesses. The Farm Credit banks collectively issue debt securities in the national and international money markets through the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding...-AI91 Approval of Farm Credit System Lending Institutions in FHA Mortgage Insurance Programs AGENCY...

  8. 13 CFR 120.1900 - When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the Secondary Market... Market Broker-Dealers (SISMBD Loan Program) § 120.1900 When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end? The last date on which a loan under this program can be approved is February 16, 2011, unless...

  9. A History of Toy Lending Libraries in the United States Since 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E.

    This paper traces the history of the toy library, a facility or program created to loan toys to children, parents, child care providers, teachers, and play therapists. Types of toy lending libraries are the community toy library, the supplemental toy library, the cooperative neighborhood toy library, and the mobile toy library. The first toy…

  10. The limitations of using the existing TAM in adoption of clinical decision support system in hospitals: An empirical study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Esmaeilzadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM has been widely used to study user acceptance of new computer technologies. Previous studies claimed that future technology acceptance research should explore other additional explanatory variables, which may affect the originally proposed constructs of the TAM. The use of information technology in the health care sector and especially in hospitals offers great potential for improving the performance of physicians, increasing the quality of services and also reducing the organizational expenses. However, the main challenge that arises according to the literature is whether healthcare professionals are willing to adopt and use clinical information technology while performing their tasks. Although adoption of various information technologies has been studied using the technology acceptance model (TAM, the study of technology acceptance for professional groups (such as physicians has been limited. Physician adoption of clinical information technology is important for its successful implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to gain a better insight about factors affecting physicians’ acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS in a hospital setting. The results reflect the importance of perceived threat to professional autonomy, perceived interactivity with clinical IT, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in determining physicians’ intention to use CDSS.

  11. 75 FR 28814 - Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-43] Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages AGENCY... To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages. OMB Approval...

  12. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  13. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Les femmes ont accompli de grands progrès dans les sphères de l'économie et de la politique, mais elles n'ont pas encore rejoint les hommes. Voir davantageChiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer ...

  14. A New Twist on Empirically Supported Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Beutler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de un estudio experimental diseñado para desarrollar y validar un modelo integrador de intervenciones psicológicas. La psicoterapia prescriptiva basa sus procedimientos en principios de cambios meta-teóricos. Este enfoque enfatiza la adecuación o correspondencia de las intervenciones psicológicas a las características del paciente, planteando que esta correspondencia incrementa el poder predictivo de las contribuciones iniciales de los factores del paciente, tipos de intervención y alianza terapéutica de cara al resultado terapéutico. Este estudio piloto, en una muestra de 40 pacientes con trastornos del estado de ánimo y consumo excesivo de sustancias, confirmó que la correspondencia entre las características del paciente y las intervenciones psicológicas beneficia sustancialmente la eficacia del tratamiento, especialmente a los seis meses de finalizar el tratamiento. Los resultados sugieren que las características del paciente influyen en su pronóstico, que las intervenciones como tal influyen de forma modesta y que la alianza terapéutica incrementa el poder predictivo. Con todo, la adecuación de las intervenciones al paciente parece tener un valor predictivo superior al resto de variables, en particular para la depresión y la sensación de bienestar.

  15. IDENTIFYING BANK LENDING CHANNEL IN INDONESIA: A VECTOR ERROR CORRECTION APPROACH WITH STRUCTURAL BREAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhsyim Afandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a question whether monetary policy works through bank lending channelrequired a monetary-induced change in bank loans originates from the supply side. Mostempirical studies that employed vector autoregressive (VAR models failed to fulfill thisrequirement. Aiming to offer a solution to this identification problem, this paper developed afive-variable vector error correction (VEC model of two separate bank credit markets inIndonesia. Departing from previous studies, the model of each market took account of onestructural break endogenously determined by implementing a unit root test. A cointegrationtest that took account of one structural break suggested two cointegrating vectors identifiedas bank lending supply and demand relations. The estimated VEC system for both marketssuggested that bank loans adjusted more strongly in the direction of the supply equation.

  16. The Evolution and the Effects of Bank Lending and Arrears in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the early stages of the economic crisis that hit Romania, significant imbalances occurred in all industries. Its effects had a more dramatic impact in the banking system; especially concerning bank lending which was not only adversely affected by the crisis but it was the crisis itself. In this regard, we conducted an analysis of the credit system in Romania, the implications of non-performing loans on bank performance.

  17. ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL TREATMENTS SPECIFIC FOR THE LENDING OF POPULATION THROUGH PAWNSHOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLENDEA MARIAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that in recent years, due to economic conditions in our country, lending tohouseholds through pawnshops experienced significant growth, in the next article we tried to highlight, both interms of tax and accounting, the activity of these businesses. Thus, we have presented the possibilities that apawnshop has in choosing VAT regime, either normal or used goods regime, and ending the paper by presentingthe accounting involved in the work of pawnshops.

  18. Bank Restructuring, Competition, and Lending Supply: Evidence from the Spanish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Mansilla-Fernández, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the effects of the bank restructuring process performed in Spain between 2010 and 2016. First, we create a unique dataset by combining information from Bankscope and the Table of Public Financial Assistance released by the Bank of Spain. Second, we investigate whether these reforms affected (i) the stability, (ii) the degree of competition, and (iii) lending and liquidity supply of the Spanish banking industry. The main results suggest that the restructuring process redu...

  19. The Variations of Neutron Component of Lunar Radiation Background from LEND LRO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Bodnarik, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L.G.; Harshman, K.; Livengood, T. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Lunar neutron flux data measured by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on board NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) were analyzed for the period 2009-2014.We have re-evaluated the instrument's collimation capability and re-estimated the neutron counting rate measured in the Field of View (FOV) of the LEND collimated detectors, and found it to be 1.070.1counts per second. We derived the spectral density of the neutron flux for various lunar regions using our comprehensive numerical model of orbital measurements. This model takes into account the location of the LEND instrument onboard LRO to calculate the surface leakage neutron flux and its propagation to the instrument detectors. Based on this we have determined the lunar neutron flux at the surface to be approx. 2 neutrons/ [sq cm/ sec] in the epithermal energy range, 0.4e V to 1keV. We have also found variations of the lunar neutron leakage flux with amplitude as large as a factor of two, by using multi-year observations to explore variations in the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux during the 23rd-24th solar cycles.

  20. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today. PMID:27478254

  1. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  2. Determinants of default in p2p lending: the Mexican case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Canfield

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available P2P lending is a new method of informal finance that uses the internet to directly connect borrowers with on-line communities. With a unique dataset provided by Prestadero, the largest on-line lending platform with national presence in Mexico, this research explores the effect of credit scores and other variables related to loan and borrower´s traits, in determining default behavior in P2P lending. Moreover, using a logistic regression model, it tested whether investors might benefit from screening loan applicants by gender after controlling for loan quality. The results showed that information provided by the platform is relevant for analyzing credit risk, yet not conclusive. In congruence with the literature, on a scale going from the safest to the riskiest, loan quality is positively associated with default behavior. Other determinants for increasing the odds of default are the payment-to-income ratio and refinancing on the same platform. On the contrary loan purpose and being a female applicant reduce such odds. No categorical evidence for differential default behavior was found for gender´s case-discrimination, under equal credit conditions. However it was found that controlling for loan quality, women have longer loan survival times than men. This is one of the first studies about debt crowdfunding in Latin America and Mexico. Implications for lenders, researchers and policy-makers are also discussed.

  3. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  4. Pre-Agreement Assessment as a Responsible Lending Tool in South-Africa, the EU and Belgium: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlia M van Heerden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsible lending has become a very pertinent issue on the agenda of credit regulators across the globe who seek to combat the causes of consumer over-indebtedness. In this context the use of "pre-agreement assessment" as a tool to filter out those instances where, based on a consumer's creditworthiness or ability to repay, credit should not be granted to such a consumer, is a feature common to the lending regimes of various jurisdictions. This contribution consists of two parts: Part 1 provides a critical discussion of the reckless credit provisions of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005. Part 2 details the responsible lending measures contained in the EU Consumer Credit Directive and the EU Mortgage Credit Directive and provides an appraisal of the responsible lending measures introduced by Belgium, being a jurisdiction that has always been very pro-active in the context of consumer credit protection.

  5. Judging Borrowers by the Company They Keep: Friendship Networks and Information Asymmetry in Online Peer-to-Peer Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Mingfeng Lin; Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala; Siva Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    We study the online market for peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, in which individuals bid on unsecured microloans sought by other individual borrowers. Using a large sample of consummated and failed listings from the largest online P2P lending marketplace, Prosper.com, we find that the online friendships of borrowers act as signals of credit quality. Friendships increase the probability of successful funding, lower interest rates on funded loans, and are associated with lower ex post default rates....

  6. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...

  7. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  8. Empires, Nations, and Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.

  9. From lending to learning the development and extension of public libraries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Beirne, Rónán

    2010-01-01

    From Lending to Learning provides a theoretical overview and practical guide to the functional area of delivering learning services within public libraries. It traces the development of public library service delivery and critically appraises the inherent tension between offering an educational-focused or leisure-focused library. The current and future policy directions are explored against the backdrop of the emerging learning society. A general overview of recent developments in learning theory is followed by an insight into the learning landscape. The issues and practicalities of setting up

  10. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Berger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reducing information asymmetries, predominantly for borrowers with less attractive risk characteristics. Our findings may be surprising given the replacement of a bank by an electronic marketplace.

  11. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal......A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... experience. In a range of innovative and insightful contributions, some of the foremost scholars of the field challenge the way we think about narrative, memory and identity after empire. This book was originally published as a special issue of Life Writing....

  12. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. B. Marconatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lending groups (LGs and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian and developing countries with different stocks of social capital (individual, network and institutional and the influences of this interaction on LG effectiveness. In order to do so, we applied the institutional perspective of O. Williamson to build a theoretical framework to examine the interaction of all these conditions, allowing for analysis of their main relations within the microfinance context. Based on this framework, we propose on the one hand that in developing and Anglo-Saxon developed nations, stocks of both individual and network social capital are the most important for an LG’s effectiveness. However, in Anglo-Saxon countries, these two stocks of social capital are complemented by formal contracting devices. In communitarian developed countries, on the other hand, the stocks of institutional social capital have a stronger positive impact on LG dynamics.

  13. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  14. The Impact of Non-performing Loans on Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from the Italian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana CUCINELLI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the bank lending behavior during financial crisis, in particular whether an increase of credit risk during this period can lead banks to reduce their lending activity. A second object is to investigate whether cooperative and commercial banks show different behaviors. The analysis is based on a sample of Italian banks (listed and no listed, an example of a country undergoing a credit crunch. The sample consists of 488 listed and unlisted Italian banks observed 2007-2013. Unlisted banks are included because they are the most numerous in the Italian banking system. Findings show a negative impact of credit risk on bank lending behavior, with regard to both credit risk measures: the nonperforming loans and the loan loss provision ratio.

  15. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...

  16. Empirical comparison of theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.

    1990-01-01

    The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. An Exploratory Study On Bank Lending To SME Sector In Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokey Wangmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors used by the banks to determine the outcome of loan applications of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in Bhutan. Inaccessibility to financing is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Bhutanese SMEs. This exploratory study is built on in-depth interview of 6 credit officials to understand the lending behaviour of banks towards SMEs. Thematic Analysis revealed that the bank loan accessibility was a function of firm and owner characteristics. The collateral and internal finance was found to be vital in determining SMEs accessibility to bank loans. SMEs inadequate financial information was a serious problem for the banks. Firm age size and industry sector had a positive correlation with bank loan accessibility. The age and educational qualification of borrowers were also found to have a positive relationship while the gender of the owner did not have any effect on bank loan accessibility.

  18. Where does the Buck Stop? Community Attitudes to Over-lending and Over-spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Brien

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the results of focus groups and a national survey aimed at discoveringhow ordinary Australians feel about lending and borrowing practices, in the context of highlevels of consumer debt. This research, carried out by The Australia Institute in 2007, found astrong community belief that lenders and regulators, rather than individual consumers, wereprimarily responsible for excessive debt. Many Australians reported feeling uncomfortableabout the way that credit is pushed on vulnerable and ill-informed consumers; advertising andmarketing were believed to be partly responsible for poor financial decision-making. Theauthors propose a number of practical policies to improve the environment in whichconsumers make financial decisions, including a more helpful disclosure regime.

  19. Carbon Risk Analysis Of The South African Banks’ Lending To The JSE100 CDP Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bimha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a pertinent concern over the continued lending to companies that are still pursuing projects that increase the amount of carbon emissions in the atmosphere. South Africa has most of its energy generation being done through coal thermal powered turbines. More so there are a number of new power stations being built in South Africa that are coal powered. Coal on the other hand is deemed as having the highest amount of carbon that contributes to the greenhouse effect which in turn affects the climate leading to climate change consequences. There is also a growing concern on the uptake of renewable energy initiatives by companies that are deemed carbon intensive. Banks are being castigated for not using their economic transformation role to champion the agenda of combating climate change caused by carbon emissions. In this study, the extent of lending in the short and long term to carbon intensive companies by South African banks is examined. Using a sample of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange top 100 companies that participate in Carbon Disclosure Project, an analysis is done through four carbon metrics –carbon intensity, carbon dependency, carbon exposure, carbon risk. The analysis used public information from the banks’ websites, South African Reserve Bank reports and other public databases that contain sustainability information of the JSE100 companies. The analysis was done by comparing the carbon metrics of the recognized seven (7 sectorial industry catergories (SIC on the JSE, mainly Energy & Materials, Industrials, Consumer Staples, Consumer Discretionary, Financials, IT & Telecoms and Health Care. The major finding of the research is that there is a high carbon risk in short term loans compared to long term loans across the JSE100 companies that are analysed. More so, the Energy & Materials sector seem to have the highest carbon risk compared to the other sectors.

  20. An Effective Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Entropy to Evaluate Entrepreneurship Orientation of Online P2P Lending Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to measure the entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. The limitations of existing methods for calculating entropy of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs are significantly improved by a new entropy measure of IVIFS considered in this paper, and then the essential properties of the proposed entropy are introduced. Moreover, an evaluation procedure is proposed to measure entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. Finally, a case is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  1. The Empire Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    The authors argue that it is possible to partly automate the process of abstract control of fairness of clauses in online consumer contracts. The authors present a theoretical and empirical argument for this claim, including a brief presentation of the software they have designed. This type...

  2. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  3. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  4. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...

  5. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  6. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  7. Developing a green lending model for renewable energy project (case study electricity from biogas fuel at Palm Oil Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, development initiatives solely aimed to generate economic growth has been placed under scrutiny, particularly amidst the rampant discussion on the quality decline of the environment, growing social divide and climate change along with its implications thereof. Considerations of the negative impacts brought about by the economic development process prompted the move to adopt the sustainable financing model that gives precedence to economic, environmental and social aspects. We introduced Green Lending Model for Renewable Energy Project (Case Study Electricity From Biogas at Palm Oil Industry) based on sustainability financing, which is used as variable to implementing financial institutions’ lending policies. There are two major trends in the literature relating to sustainability and the banking industry: external and internal practices. The external practices strand analyzes the relevance of sustainability to the bank’s communication with shareholders and other stakeholders, and how investors use it as a measure to help achieve optimal portfolio allocation. The internal practices literature, more relevant to the present work, studies how sustainability criteria are integrated into risk management models and lending practices. Its first implementation is in the Palm Oil industry at South Sumatera. The results explained that sustainability is not related to profit either from a short- or long-term perspective. The Sustainable Green Lending Model is related to the Equator Principles and its application is driven to project financing. It also related with short- and long-term risks and opportunities, instead of short-term sustainability impacts.

  8. Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for high-resolution mapping of neutron emission of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Golovin, D V; Litvak, M L; Konovalov, A A; Kozyrev, A S; Malakhov, A V; Mokrousov, M I; Tretyakov, V I; Troshin, V S; Uvarov, V N; Varenikov, A B; Vostrukhin, A A; Shevchenko, V V; Shvetsov, V N; Krylov, A R; Timoshenko, G N; Bobrovnitsky, Y I; Tomilina, T M; Grebennikov, A S; Kazakov, L L; Sagdeev, R Z; Milikh, G N; Bartels, A; Chin, G; Floyd, S; Garvin, J; Keller, J; McClanahan, T; Trombka, J; Boynton, W; Harshman, K; Starr, R; Evans, L

    2008-08-01

    The scientific objectives of neutron mapping of the Moon are presented as 3 investigation tasks of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Two tasks focus on mapping hydrogen content over the entire Moon and on testing the presence of water-ice deposits at the bottom of permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles. The third task corresponds to the determination of neutron contribution to the total radiation dose at an altitude of 50 km above the Moon. We show that the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) will be capable of carrying out all 3 investigations. The design concept of LEND is presented together with results of numerical simulations of the instrument's sensitivity for hydrogen detection. The sensitivity of LEND is shown to be characterized by a hydrogen detection limit of about 100 ppm for a polar reference area with a radius of 5 km. If the presence of ice deposits in polar "cold traps" is confirmed, a unique record of many millions of years of lunar history would be obtained, by which the history of lunar impacts could be discerned from the layers of water ice and dust. Future applications of a LEND-type instrument for Mars orbital observations are also discussed.

  9. "Lawfully Made under This Title": The Implications of "Costco v. Omega" and the First Sale Doctrine on Library Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    While initially it seems that libraries would have no interest in a case involving a big-box company and a luxury watch manufacturer, the outcome of "Costco v. Omega" will have important implications for libraries' ability to lend the foreign-printed, imported materials in their collections that were lawfully acquired.

  10. 13 CFR 120.714 - How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entity that is not an Intermediary may apply to SBA for a grant to provide marketing, management and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)? 120.714 Section 120.714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  11. Shocks to Bank Lending, Risk-Taking, Securitization, and Their Role for U.S. Business Cycle Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peersman, G.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Shocks to bank lending, risk-taking and securitization activities that are orthogonal to real economy and monetary policy innovations account for more than 30 percent of U.S. output variation. The dynamic effects, however, depend on the type of shock. Expansionary securitization shocks

  12. 78 FR 6407 - Ability-to-Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... September 2006 specifically advised creditors that layering risks in nontraditional mortgage loans to... implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Regulation Z currently prohibits a creditor from making a higher...-Frank Act), which generally require creditors to make a reasonable, good faith determination of a...

  13. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  14. Empires, Modernisation and Modernities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In examining four recent books, this essay explores some key facets of contemporary scholarship on empire and the making of the modern world. Drawing on Dipesh Chakrabarty’s arguments about the often contingent relationship between modernisation as a set of material and institutional transformations and modernity as a cultural sensibility, it argues that the unfolding of the modern was messy, uneven, and remained in process until the age of decolonisation. The essay suggests that the range of modern formations that emerged out of empire-building were profoundly imprinted by local socio-political patterns and the weight of precolonial cultural traditions, meaning that modernisation never played out as an entirely homogenising force.

  15. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers using empirical methods to study issues in public and social economics. My first paper, co-authored with Julian Betts, analyzes the performance of San Diego's charter schools using fixed-effect methods on panel student data. We find that charter school performance in San Diego varies by subject matter, grades served, school type and years of operation. In many cases, we find that charter school performance is indistinguishable from that of tradit...

  16. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  17. Military Personnel: DOD's Predatory Lending Report Addressed Mandated Issues, but Support Is Limited for Some Findings and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S

    2007-01-01

    ... (see the list of related GAO products at the end of this report). In conducting our review, we limited the scope of our work to the types of loans that DOD identified as being predatory in its mandated 2006 report...

  18. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design/methodology/approach This r......Purpose Reviews on foreign market entry mode are limited by their methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to overcome some of these limitations by systematically assessing the empirical support for central relationships in the empirical literature. Design....../methodology/approach This review provides a systematic assessment of empirical support through a simple quantitative procedure using transparent criteria for article selection. In total, 1217 statistical tests from 119 studies published in 44 different scientific journals in the period 1997-2013 are examined across a range...

  19. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  20. E-books and interlibrary loan an academic centric model for lending

    CERN Document Server

    Vigen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Ironically, digitally born documents do not fit into existing frameworks of interlibrary lending. In most cases this is because publishers consider them too easy to exchange. In practice, this means that digital documents are often being printed and scanned before being shipped off to a requesting library. This system of circumvention is inefficient - at many levels - and generates a vast pool of activity from which neither authors nor publishers benefit. With the changing paradigm of document delivery, publishers of electronic journals are trying to get their share of the market by offering articles on a 'pay-as-you-go' basis, though at rates many times greater to what is being offered by document delivery services operated by libraries. Instead of joining forces in the digital era, libraries and publishers are fighting a battle which is sometimes described by librarians as the fight between the Good and the Evil. However, new models are emerging which leave room for both library and publisher in the future ...

  1. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  2. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  3. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  4. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  5. An analysis of the macroeconomic conditions required for SME lending: Evidence from Turkey and other emerging market countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing small and medium enterprises (SMEs with access to external finance has been a major concern for many governments and international organizations for three decades. In recent years the experiences of emerging market countries suggest that a paradigm shift is taking place in SME finance. Particularly in fast-growing emerging market countries such as Turkey, banks are increasingly targeting SMEs as a new line of banking business. This research analyzes how macroeconomic factors have contributed to increased commercial bank lending to SMEs in six emerging market countries: Turkey, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and Poland. Based on time series and panel data analysis, we find that a high GDP growth rate and increased competition in the banking sector have contributed to increased banking sector credit to SMEs. The findings also reveal that curbing the high inflation rate and reducing government domestic borrowing have significantly encouraged bank lending to the SME segment.

  6. Bank Foreign Lending, Mandatory Disclosure Rules, and the Reaction of Bank Stock Prices to the Mexican Debt Crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smirlock, Michael; Kaufold, Howard

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Mexican debt mora torium in August 1982 on bank valuation. The Mexican default resulted in the passage of regulations requiring public disclosure of bank fo reign-lending exposure. The authors find that, even in the absence of public disclosure regulations, investors were able to discriminate a mong banks with different levels of exposure. Copyright 1987 by the University of Chicago.

  7. Implementing an Event-Driven Enterprise Information Systems Architecture: Adoption Factors in the Example of a Micro Lending Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sookoo, Kavish; Belle, Jean-Paul,; Seymour, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Part 7: EIS-Practices; International audience; Event-driven architecture (EDA) is an architectural approach for enabling communication between distributed enterprise information systems. EDA enables organisations to be adaptable, flexible and robust in the management of business processes and ultimately achieving agility. This paper reviews definitions, concepts and adoption criteria for an EDA and a case study investigates the adoption of the EDA in a micro lending organisation exploring the...

  8. The impact of the European insolvency regulation on lenders, lending decisions, the structuring of transactions and enforcement of security

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis seeks to shed light on the issue of how far secured creditor rights are protected in EU cross-border insolvencies by focusing on the perspective and position of English lenders. The main thread throughout is the legal concerns faced by lenders when lending to a company incorporated in England and Wales which operates across the European Union and has assets and creditors spread across various Member States. The initial stages of the structuring of a cross-border security arrangeme...

  9. Beauty premium: Event-related potentials evidence of how physical attractiveness matters in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Fan, Bonai; Dai, Shenyi; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-02-15

    Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors. In the current study, we investigated how potential borrowers' facial attractiveness influenced lenders' attitudes toward borrowers' repayment behavior at the brain level by using event-related potentials. At the priming stage, photos of attractive borrowers induced smaller N200 amplitude than photos of unattractive borrowers. Meanwhile, at the feedback stage, compared with the condition of repaying on time, breach of repayment from unattractive borrowers induced larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, which was a frontal-central negative deflection and would be enhanced by the unexpected outcome. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitude was also elicited by the condition of not repaying on time. These differences in the FRN and P300 amplitudes were not observed between negative and positive feedback from attractive borrowers. Therefore, our findings suggest that the beauty premium phenomenon is present in online peer-to-peer lending and that lenders were more tolerant toward attractive borrowers' dishonest behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  11. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  12. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  13. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  14. Topographically Induced Thermal Effects on Lunar Hydrogen Distributions: Correlated Observations from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether water exists on the Moon's surface has long been an enigma to Lunar researchers. Largely, this was due to the thermally extreme lunar surface environment that would seem to preclude any long term maintenance, manufacture, transport or accumulation of hydrogen (H) volatiles over most of the lunar surface. As a result, for many years the cold permanent shadow regions (PSR) in the bottoms of craters near the lunar poles appeared to provide the basic conditions at least for maintenance of lunar hydrogen. Importantly, recent discoveries indicate that there is some hydrogen at the poles. However, the picture of the lunar hydrogen budget may be more complex than the PSR hypothesis has suggested. This evidence comes from observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that inclici1te 1) some H concentrations lie outside PSR and 2) though a few of the larger PSR's have high hydrogen, PSR does not appear to be an independent factor influencing the large-scale suppression of polar epithermals observed by LEND and the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. In this research we investigate the possibility that the thermal contrast between pole-facing and equator facing-slopes is a factor influencing the surface distributions of lunar H. We perform this bulk correlated observation and study by developing a thermal proxy from slope data of the Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) digital elevation model (DEM) which is registered with the collimated LEND epithermal map. From the LOLA transforms we impose a thermal functional decomposition and systematic statistical analysis of the LEND epithermal map. Our hypothesis testing suggests in most high latitude bands studied> +/- 45 deg: Epithermal rates in pole-facing slopes are significantly lower than epithermal rates in equivalent equator-facing slopes. As a control study, we find that there is no statistically significant difference between

  15. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  16. Features of financial support of reproduction processes in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the financing of reproduction processes in agriculture, arising from the specific production in the industry. Considered and analyzed the main sources of financial resources for the implementation of the reproduction processes in the agricultural sector, including bank lending, leasing, public financial support.

  17. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Correlated observations of LEND and Second Order Insolation Effects Derived from LOLA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mazarico, E.; Droege, G.; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) LEND Team; LOLA Team

    2011-12-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H). This postulate was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, we have recently reported two results that have challenged the PSR hypothesis. 1) that higher lunar H distributions are only weakly correlated to the PSR condition. 2) We suggest a relationship between higher H in the context of pole-facing slopes relative to equator facing slopes. Correlated observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) have been performed indicating pole-facing slopes have 0.01 to 0.02 cps lower epithermal count rates than their equivalent equator-facing slopes. These bulk observations were hypothesis tested and indicate a significant and consistent relationship between topographically modulated insolation effects derived from specialized transformations of LOLA digital elevation models (DEM)'s and LEND maps for latitudes > 60 deg latitude. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. We also compare results to second order modeling results derived from long-term LOLA numerical modeling of insolation conditions on the Moon. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  18. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  19. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  20. An Empirical Analysis of Humanitarian Warehouse Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander de Leeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify characteristics of current warehouse locations of humanitarian organizations (based on public information and to relate those to the model developed by Richardson, de Leeuw and Dullaert (2016. This paper is based on desk research. Public data such as (annual reports and databases are used to determine the features of the location in empirical terms. We find that a significant proportion of our sample co-locates their products at UNHRD premises. This suggests that organizations prefer to cluster their warehouse activities, particularly when there is no fee involved for using the warehouse (as is the case in the UNHRD network. The geographic map of the current warehouses, together with the quantified location factors, provides an overview of the current warehouse locations. We found that the characteristics of the current warehouse locations are aligned with literature on location selection factors. Current location can be characterized by infrastructure characteristics (in particular closeness to airport and safety concerns and by the low occurrence of disasters. Other factors that were considered by us but were not supported by empirical evidence were labor quality and availability as well as the political environment. In our study we were only able to use a limited sample of warehouses. We also focused our research on countries where two or more organizations have their warehouses located. We did not account for warehouse sizes or the kinds of products stored in our analysis.

  1. American World Empire or Declining Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Boswell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gowan challenges the usefulness of world-system theory in accounting for the emergence of an American world empire. His argument is based on one fundamental assumption, that of overwhelming U.S. power in the contemporary period. The assumption, however, is flawed. The U.S. is clearly an uncontested military superpower, a world leader with the ability to project its power and interests around the world. But its economic hegemony is in decline, and it is no longer the overwhelming presence it once was in the world-economy. Moreover, Gowan is unable to support his thesis that the U.S. is becoming an empire over Europe. Although the U.S. occupation and administration of Iraq is an example of colonial imperialism, there is no evidence to show that the U.S. has begun to establish a core-wide empire. On the contrary, U.S. political control over Europe has declined to its lowest level in the post-WWII period. The persuasiveness of world-system theory in explaining the changing global political economy remains strong.

  2. Loss given default determinants in a commercial bank lending: an emerging market case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Poljšak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the loss given default (LGD determinants in case of a typical loan portfolio consisting of SME loans in a commercial bank operating in one of the quickly developing banking markets, i.e. in Slovenia. Accurate LGD estimates of defaulted bank claims are important for provisioning reserves for credit losses, calculating adequate risk capital and determining fair pricing risky bank loans. While most of the empirical literature in the field concentrates on corporate bond markets to estimate losses in the event of default, we use a unique individual bank data set on SME loan losses. Due to the proprietary nature of data only few studies of this kind have been published so far and to our knowledge none of them covers the Eastern European banking markets. In the first stage of the analysis we estimate the LGD variable by applying the discounted cash flow approach, while in the second stage we analyse its determinants by using the ordinal regression analysis. Our findings suggest that reliable LGD estimates can be produced by discounting expected loan related future cash flows and that explanatory factors, such as type of collateral, type of industrial sector, last available loan rating, size of the debt and loan maturity satisfactorily explicate variability of the LGD variable in the specific banking market. All the results are not only relevant to the impairment policy determination and capital adequacy calculation in the specific bank, but also to the evaluation of SME loans characteristics in developing markets.

  3. Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L

    2009-11-01

    Academic dishonesty, whether in the form of plagiarism or cheating on tests, has received renewed attention in the past few decades as pervasive use of the Internet and a presumed deterioration of ethics in the current generation of students has led some, perhaps many, to conclude that academic dishonesty is reaching epidemic proportions. What is lacking in many cases, including in the nursing profession, is empirical support of these trends. This article attempts to provide some of that empirical data and supports the conclusion that cheating is a significant issue in all disciplines today, including nursing. Some preliminary policy implications are also considered. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  5. Managing Operational Risk Related to Microfinance Lending Process using Fuzzy Inference System based on the FMEA Method: Moroccan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaoui Youssef Lamrani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing operational risk efficiently is a critical factor of microfinance institutions (MFIs to get a financial and social return. The purpose of this paper is to identify, assess and prioritize the root causes of failure within the microfinance lending process (MLP especially in Moroccan microfinance institutions. Considering the limitation of traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA method in assessing and classifying risks, the methodology adopted in this study focuses on developing a fuzzy logic inference system (FLIS based on (FMEA. This approach can take into account the subjectivity of risk indicators and the insufficiency of statistical data. The results show that the Moroccan MFIs need to focus more on customer relationship management and give more importance to their staff training, to clients screening as well as to their business analysis.

  6. Equine-related treatments for mental disorders lack empirical support: a systematic review of empirical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Zawilinski, Laci L; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-12-01

    Equine-related treatments (ERT) for mental disorders are becoming increasingly popular for a variety of diagnoses; however, they have been subjected only to limited systematic investigation. To examine the quality of and results from peer-reviewed research on ERT for mental disorders and related outcomes. Peer-reviewed studies (k = 14) examining treatments for mental disorders or closely related outcomes were identified from databases and article reference sections. All studies were compromised by a substantial number of threats to validity, calling into question the meaning and clinical significance of their findings. Additionally, studies failed to provide consistent evidence that ERT is superior to the mere passage of time in the treatment of any mental disorder. The current evidence base does not justify the marketing and utilization of ERT for mental disorders. Such services should not be offered to the public unless and until well-designed studies provide evidence that justify different conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  8. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  9. Empirical support for optimal virulence in a castrating parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Helge Jensen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off hypothesis for the evolution of virulence predicts that parasite transmission stage production and host exploitation are balanced such that lifetime transmission success (LTS is maximised. However, the experimental evidence for this prediction is weak, mainly because LTS, which indicates parasite fitness, has been difficult to measure. For castrating parasites, this simple model has been modified to take into account that parasites convert host reproductive resources into transmission stages. Parasites that kill the host too early will hardly benefit from these resources, while postponing the killing of the host results in diminished returns. As predicted from optimality models, a parasite inducing castration should therefore castrate early, but show intermediate levels of virulence, where virulence is measured as time to host killing. We studied virulence in an experimental system where a bacterial parasite castrates its host and produces spores that are not released until after host death. This permits estimating the LTS of the parasite, which can then be related to its virulence. We exposed replicate individual Daphnia magna (Crustacea of one host clone to the same amount of bacterial spores and followed individuals until their death. We found that the parasite shows strong variation in the time to kill its host and that transmission stage production peaks at an intermediate level of virulence. A further experiment tested for the genetic basis of variation in virulence by comparing survival curves of daphniids infected with parasite spores obtained from early killing versus late killing infections. Hosts infected with early killer spores had a significantly higher death rate as compared to those infected with late killers, indicating that variation in time to death was at least in part caused by genetic differences among parasites. We speculate that the clear peak in lifetime reproductive success at intermediate killing times may be caused by the exceptionally strong physiological trade-off between host and parasite reproduction. This is the first experimental study to demonstrate that the production of propagules is highest at intermediate levels of virulence and that parasite genetic variability is available to drive the evolution of virulence in this system.

  10. Empirical estimates of the NAIRU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies have found that the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) has been fluctuating in OECD countries around a constant mean of several percentage points over the past decades. This mean is calculated from the constant terms carried over from the wage and price growth...

  11. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  12. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  13. Symmetry, empirical significance, and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    The article proposes a novel approach to the much discussed question of which symmetries have ‘direct empirical significance’ and which do not. The approach is based on a development of a recently proposed framework by Hilary Greaves and David Wallace, who claim that, contrary to the standard

  14. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  15. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

  16. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  17. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  18. Empirical deck for phased construction and widening [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The most common method used to design and analyze bridge decks, termed the traditional : method, treats a deck slab as if it were made of strips supported by inflexible girders. An : alternative the empirical method treats the deck slab as a ...

  19. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  20. Making the Case for Case Studies in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.

    2017-01-01

    This is a contribution to the scholarly discussion concerning the limited use of the case study qualitative method in support of legal research. It demonstrates the use of the case study qualitative method in the context of an empirical legal research project, which examines stakeholder

  1. Seeking Empirical Validity in an Assurance of Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Sherry L.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Lirely, Roger; Doty, H. Harold

    2014-01-01

    Business schools have established measurement tools to support their assurance of learning (AoL) systems and to assess student achievement of learning objectives. However, business schools have not required their tools to be empirically validated, thus ensuring that they measure what they are intended to measure. The authors propose confirmatory…

  2. The Socratic Method: Empirical Assessment of a Psychology Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence R.; Stephenson, Paul L.; Bellamy, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Although students make some epistemological progress during college, most graduate without developing meaning-making strategies that reflect an understanding that knowledge is socially constructed. Using a pre-test-post-test design and a within-subjects 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA, this study reports on empirical findings which support the Socratic…

  3. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your... assets. (iii) The transaction is permitted under 12 CFR 9.18(b)(8)(iii) for defaulted fixed-income... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a...

  4. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  5. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, Stephen; Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li....../develop for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize...

  6. The Myth of Global Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay openly questions the new phantom that is going all around the world, called the Marxism-Globalism. The critiques are exposed through the reading of one of the most discussed book in these last years: Empire, written by Richard Hardt y Toni Negri. According to the author of current essay, the difference between Marxism-Leninism and the Marxism-Globalism, is that the first of them brought with it the promise of total security (no properties, no State, no social classes, and the second one brought the dammed promise of total globality (Capitalism Empire, in which we find, in the right hand, the world market spirit, and, in the left hand, the globalities of postmodernism.

  7. Empirical distribution function under heteroscedasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2011), s. 497-508 ISSN 0233-1888 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Robustness * Convergence * Empirical distribution * Heteroscedasticity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-0365534.pdf

  8. Corruption and Education: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Dridi

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is widely believed to be detrimental to economic performance. However, little empirical evidence has been presented to assess its consequences on education.Using various education indicators, this paper aims to examine the effects of corruption on education both from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. The cross - country regression analysis shows a strong link between corruption and secondary school enrollment rates, but the relationship between corruption and education ...

  9. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that experienced consumers have higher but more specialized demand towards high-end products. The second essay investigates a consumer’s choice of considering a product before purchase. Because considera...

  10. Empirical research on Waldorf education

    OpenAIRE

    Randoll, Dirk; Peters, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Waldorf education began in 1919 with the first Waldorf School in Stuttgart and nowadays is widespread in many countries all over the world. Empirical research, however, has been rare until the early nineties and Waldorf education has not been discussed within educational science so far. This has changed during the last decades. This article reviews the results of surveys during the last 20 years and is mainly focused on German Waldorf Schools, because most investigations have been done in thi...

  11. The empirical war on drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In a special issue of the journal Addictions (1995) academics, researchers and health care professionals debated the status of the empirical in socially orientated drugs research. A number of researchers noted that our knowledge and understanding of drugs and drug users has changed significantly since the 1990s. Post AIDS this shift is identified as a consequence of the development of qualitative research methods. The qualitative turn in drugs research has involved a shift away form traditional epidemiological approaches and the pursuit of more socially focused methods. Whilst qualitative research has yielded important empirical data on risk behavior the pursuit of these methods has not been without controversy. In addressing the debate on methods in the drugs field this article investigates the effects of social science methods for research on injecting drug use. In so doing I examine what counts and what gets left out of research on injecting beaviour. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT) I suggest Bruno Latour's methodological approach offers critical insights for addressing the empirical objects of injecting drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way.

  13. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  14. The Status of Bank Lending to SMEs in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Results of a Joint Survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems...

  15. Empirical Investigation of Critical Transitions in Paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, E. M.; Mukhin, D.; Gavrilov, A.; Feigin, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we apply a new empirical method for the analysis of complex spatially distributed systems to the analysis of paleoclimate data. The method consists of two general parts: (i) revealing the optimal phase-space variables and (ii) construction the empirical prognostic model by observed time series. The method of phase space variables construction based on the data decomposition into nonlinear dynamical modes which was successfully applied to global SST field and allowed clearly separate time scales and reveal climate shift in the observed data interval [1]. The second part, the Bayesian approach to optimal evolution operator reconstruction by time series is based on representation of evolution operator in the form of nonlinear stochastic function represented by artificial neural networks [2,3]. In this work we are focused on the investigation of critical transitions - the abrupt changes in climate dynamics - in match longer time scale process. It is well known that there were number of critical transitions on different time scales in the past. In this work, we demonstrate the first results of applying our empirical methods to analysis of paleoclimate variability. In particular, we discuss the possibility of detecting, identifying and prediction such critical transitions by means of nonlinear empirical modeling using the paleoclimate record time series. The study is supported by Government of Russian Federation (agreement #14.Z50.31.0033 with the Institute of Applied Physics of RAS). 1. Mukhin, D., Gavrilov, A., Feigin, A., Loskutov, E., & Kurths, J. (2015). Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability. Scientific Reports, 5, 15510. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep155102. Ya. I. Molkov, D. N. Mukhin, E. M. Loskutov, A.M. Feigin, (2012) : Random dynamical models from time series. Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 85, n.3.3. Mukhin, D., Kondrashov, D., Loskutov, E., Gavrilov, A., Feigin, A., & Ghil, M. (2015). Predicting Critical Transitions in ENSO models. Part II

  16. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  17. Life Quality Index – an empirical or a normative concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Life Quality Index introduced by Nathwani, Lind and Pandey is a social indicator that by invariance serves the purpose of allocating a balanced and ethically reasonable part of the Gross Domestic Product of a country to life saving initiatives. In the attempts to understand the reasoning behind...... and available OECD-data show that the theory quite well represents the data for several countries. From the logical analysis of the theory it can be concluded that the empirical evidence cannot support the invariance principle of the LQI for money allocation as an empirically verified rule, but only...

  18. The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Parkhitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.

  19. The difference between lending interest rate and funds interest rate. Link with sustainable banking. Particularities of Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gheorghe Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article, is trying to capture the way difference between active and passive interest rates influence macroeconomic sustainable development in a country. However the theory is limited on this area and the author is intending to merge practical aspects with conceptual terms. The role of banks in an economy is very important, as all inflows and outflows are done through financial institutions. Bank sustainability is the area of study and practice that captures the contribution of banks in sustainable development of a country. Banking instruments are the means by which banks are present and act in the economy. Banking techniques are the mechanisms of banking instruments. The most important banking instruments are the loans and the deposits. So banks take deposits from different entities and use them as resource to finance other entities. A bank is considered contributing to sustainable development, if lending divisions allocates resources to investments that bring long-term welfare to the community not only for today people, but for future generations. Therefore, we can establish a correlation between banking sustainability and sustainable development through the evolution of banking instruments. Looking to detail, bank sustainability is highly affected by the local macroeconomic issues, but also from global influences.

  20. Empirical and theoretical challenges in aboveground-belowground ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W.H. van der Putten,; R.D. Bardgett; P.C. de Ruiter

    2009-01-01

    from an empirical perspective and in specific ecological settings or contexts. Belowground interactions operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Due to the relatively low mobility and high survival of organisms in the soil, plants have longer lasting legacy effects belowground than aboveground....... Our current challenge is to understand how aboveground-belowground biotic interactions operate across spatial and temporal scales, and how they depend on, as well as influence, the abiotic environment. Because empirical capacities are too limited to explore all possible combinations of interactions...... and environmental settings, we explore where and how they can be supported by theoretical approaches to develop testable predictions and to generalise empirical results. We review four key areas where a combined aboveground-belowground approach offers perspectives for enhancing ecological understanding, namely...

  1. Toward an empirical classification for the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, T A; Frances, A J; Pincus, H A; Davis, W W; First, M B

    1991-08-01

    The provision of explicit and specific diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association, 1980, 1987) was instrumental in the production of a substantial amount of informative research. The major emphasis in the preparation of the DSM-IV has been to maximize the impact of this accumulating research on the revision and to document the rationale and empirical support for any changes that are made. In this article we discuss the empirical basis for the DSM-IV. The historical context provided by the previous editions is briefly presented and followed by a description of the process by which the DSM-IV is being constructed. The input of empirical data through literature reviews, data reanalyses, and field trials is described, and an illustration with the antisocial personality disorder diagnosis is given.

  2. Generalized empirical likelihood methods for analyzing longitudinal data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, S.

    2010-02-16

    Efficient estimation of parameters is a major objective in analyzing longitudinal data. We propose two generalized empirical likelihood based methods that take into consideration within-subject correlations. A nonparametric version of the Wilks theorem for the limiting distributions of the empirical likelihood ratios is derived. It is shown that one of the proposed methods is locally efficient among a class of within-subject variance-covariance matrices. A simulation study is conducted to investigate the finite sample properties of the proposed methods and compare them with the block empirical likelihood method by You et al. (2006) and the normal approximation with a correctly estimated variance-covariance. The results suggest that the proposed methods are generally more efficient than existing methods which ignore the correlation structure, and better in coverage compared to the normal approximation with correctly specified within-subject correlation. An application illustrating our methods and supporting the simulation study results is also presented.

  3. Science and the British Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2005-03-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.

  4. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  5. Guidelines for using empirical studies in software engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fagerholm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering education is under constant pressure to provide students with industry-relevant knowledge and skills. Educators must address issues beyond exercises and theories that can be directly rehearsed in small settings. Industry training has similar requirements of relevance as companies seek to keep their workforce up to date with technological advances. Real-life software development often deals with large, software-intensive systems and is influenced by the complex effects of teamwork and distributed software development, which are hard to demonstrate in an educational environment. A way to experience such effects and to increase the relevance of software engineering education is to apply empirical studies in teaching. In this paper, we show how different types of empirical studies can be used for educational purposes in software engineering. We give examples illustrating how to utilize empirical studies, discuss challenges, and derive an initial guideline that supports teachers to include empirical studies in software engineering courses. Furthermore, we give examples that show how empirical studies contribute to high-quality learning outcomes, to student motivation, and to the awareness of the advantages of applying software engineering principles. Having awareness, experience, and understanding of the actions required, students are more likely to apply such principles under real-life constraints in their working life.

  6. Science and the French Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Michael A

    2005-03-01

    Scholarly interest in French colonial science, interpreted to include colonial medical and scientific institutions as well as personages and other "actors" in France serving colonial agendas, has been robust for some two decades. This essay characterizes the complex and interlinked historical relationships between French metropolitan and colonial science as one of asymmetric coevolution. In analyzing scholarship on diverse topics from physics and military technology to colonial botany, medicine, geography, and racial theory, it interrogates the concepts of French nation and French empire and questions the historiographical and explanatory utility of the core-periphery model. Special scrutiny falls on a trope common to historigraphical studies of the postrevolutionary era, that of a firm French nationalism enabling largely rational colonial agendas and the promotion of these agendas by highly centralized Parisian bureaucracies. The essay calls for a reading of French history inclusive of regional colonialist activities and argues for the prevalence of municipal and regional maritime, technological, scientific, and military interests in constructing the modern French empire.

  7. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  8. Kuues lend / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi kultruuriakadeemia teatrikunsti VI lennu diplomilavastused: Dario Fo "Müsterium buff", lavastaja Peeter Raudsepp; Anton Tshehhovi "Kolm õde", lavastaja-koreograaf Oleg Titov; Janusz Glowacki "Fortinbras jõi end täis", lavastajad Kalju Komissaarov ja Sven Heiberg. Lühidalt uutest diplomeeritud lavastajatest - Jaanika Juhanson ja Kati Kivitar

  9. Ohtlik lend / Iain Carson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carson, Iain

    2006-01-01

    Majanduslikesse raskustesse sattunud Euroopa tsiviillennukite tootjat Airbus, mis kuulub Prantsuse-Saksa-Hispaania emafirmale European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), ootab ees natsionaliseerimine kolme riigi poolt

  10. Supermani lend / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Kuidas sündis legendaarne fantastiline seiklusfilm "Superman" : režissöör Richard Donner : nimiosas Christopher Reeve : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1978. Järgneb 14. veebr. 2005, lk. 38 ; 28. veebr. 2005, lk. 38

  11. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  12. Risk Measures in Optimization Problems via Empirical Estimates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), s. 162-177 ISSN 0323-066X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : static stochastic optimization problems * risk measures * empirical distribution function Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-0423826.pdf

  13. Between Empire and Anti-Empire: African Mission in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bate, Stuart C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is always empire and anti-empire in societies. An analytical lens needs to see both together to provide a better understanding of human society. This is particularly important when it comes to issues of religion which resides in some form in both empire and anti-empire. This presentation will unpack five points. Firstly it will present a brief historiography of the existence of empire and anti-empire mainly but not exclusively as it relates to Christianity. Secondly it will provide the main parameters of a social analysis of the nature of empire and anti-empire. Thirdly it will articulate the specific role of religion (again mainly Christianity in the societies of empire and anti-empire. Fourthly it will apply these findings to the specific context of Africa (mainly South Africa indicating two signs of empire and anti-empire in our past and present context. Finally it will provide some goals for Mission in 21st century Africa which go beyond the empire/anti-empire paradigm. These are based on a vision of transformational authority centred in the paschal mystery.

  14. Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), on the polar-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, has detected suppression in the Moon's naturally-occurring epithermal neutron leakage flux that is consistent with the presence of diurnally varying quantities of hydrogen in the regolith near the equator. Peak hydrogen concentration (neutron flux suppression) is on the dayside of the dawn terminator and diminishes through the dawn-to-noon sector. The minimum concentration of hydrogen is in the late afternoon and dusk sector. The chemical form of hydrogen is not determinable from these measurements, but other remote sensing methods and anticipated elemental availability suggest water molecules or hydroxyl ions. Signal-to-noise ratio at maximum contrast is 5.6σ in each of two detector systems. Volatiles are deduced to collect in or on the cold nightside surface and distill out of the regolith after dawn as rotation exposes the surface to sunlight. Liberated volatiles migrate away from the warm subsolar region toward the nearby cold nightside surface beyond the terminator, resulting in maximum concentration at the dawn terminator. The peak concentration within the upper ∼1 m of regolith is estimated to be 0.0125 ± 0.0022 weight-percent water-equivalent hydrogen (wt% WEH) at dawn, yielding an accumulation of 190 ± 30 ml recoverable water per square meter of regolith at each dawn. Volatile transport over the lunar surface in opposition to the Moon's rotation exposes molecules to solar ultraviolet radiation. The short lifetime against photolysis and permanent loss of hydrogen from the Moon requires a resupply rate that greatly exceeds anticipated delivery of hydrogen by solar wind implantation or by meteoroid impacts, suggesting that the surface inventory must be continually resupplied by release from a deep volatile inventory in the Moon. The natural distillation of water from the regolith by sunlight and its capture on the cold night surface may

  15. Teaching Empirical Software Engineering Using Expert Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Empirical software engineering aims at making software engineering claims measurable, i.e., to analyze and understand phenomena in software engineering and to evaluate software engineering approaches and solutions. Due to the involvement of humans and the multitude of fields for which software...... is crucial, software engineering is considered hard to teach. Yet, empirical software engineering increases this difficulty by adding the scientific method as extra dimension. In this paper, we present a Master-level course on empirical software engineering in which different empirical instruments...

  16. Empirical analysis of sexual recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Natalija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically examines relation of some static factors to recidivism among sexual offenders. The research sample consists of data gathered from personal files of 82 convicted persons who are either currently in the prison in Sremska Mitrovica or who have already served their sentences. Some of the hypotheses of the research have been confirmed. Firstly, a link between age at initial offending against sexual freedom and sexual recidivism is found to be statistically significant. Moreover, sexual recidivism is associated with the type of first criminal offense against sexual freedom - there are greater chances for recidivism if the first crime is less serious (prohibited sexual acts. Lastly, sexual offenders generally commit the same type of crimes against sexual freedom and this link is statistically significant. It is possible to make a clear distinction between two groups of recidivists - those who choose to victimize children and juveniles and those whose victims are adults. On the other hand, early onset of criminal career is not found to be statistically important. The same is concluded for marital and socio-economic status as well as for the history of rule violation (except sex crimes.

  17. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.

  18. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  19. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  20. Successful intelligence and giftedness: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to look into the diversity within gifted and talented students. This is important to better understand their complexity and thus offer a more appropriate educational programs. There are rather few empirical works which attempt to identify high abilities profiles (giftedness and talent that actually exist beyond the theoretical level. The present work intends to single out the different patterns or profiles resulting from the combination of the successful intelligence abilities (analytical, synthetic and practical, as defined by Stenberg. A total of 431 students from the Region of Murcia participated in this study. These students performed the Aurora Battery tasks (Chart, Grigorenko, & Sternberg, 2008, designed to measure the analytical, practical and creative intelligence. Analytically gifted students (n=27, practically gifted (n=33 and creatively gifted (n= 34 were identified, taking as criteria scores equal to or higher than 120 IQ on each intelligence. Different Q-factor analyses were carried out for the three groups of students, in such a way that students were grouped according to their similarities. A total of 10 profiles showing how successful intelligence abilities are combined were obtained, something that has made possible to support the theory put forward by Sternberg (2000: the analytical, practical and creative talent profiles, as well as the resulting combinations, the analytical-practical, analytical-creative, practical-creative profiles, along with the consummate balance talent (high performance in the three types of intelligence.

  1. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  2. Essays on empirical likelihood in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis intends to exploit the roots of empirical likelihood and its related methods in mathematical programming and computation. The roots will be connected and the connections will induce new solutions for the problems of estimation, computation, and generalization of empirical likelihood.

  3. Empirical Approaches to the Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Cauto, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will describe two activities in which students conduct experiments with random numbers so they can see that having at least one repeated birthday in a group of 40 is not unusual. The first empirical approach was conducted by author Cauto in a secondary school methods course. The second empirical approach was used by author Flores with…

  4. Justifiability of Littering: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Benno Torgler; Maria A. Garcia-Valinas; Alison Macintyre

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between voluntary participation in environmental organisations and the justifiability of littering behaviour. Previous empirical work regarding determinants of littering and littering behaviour remains scarce, particularly in socio-economic analysis. We address these deficiencies, demonstrating a strong empirical link between environmental participation and reduced public littering in the European Values Survey (EVS) data for 30 Western and Eastern Eur...

  5. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  6. Empirical training for conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper (Zhu et al., 2013), we present a practi- cally scalable training method for CRFs called Empir- ical Training (EP). We show that the standard train- ing with unregularized log likelihood can have many maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Empirical training has a unique closed form MLE

  7. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their ...

  8. The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics. PMID:19998120

  9. LEADING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND IT'S IMPLICATONS ON THE LENDING PORTFOLIO AND NON-PERFORMING LOAN OF SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Margareth Lumbantoruan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to analyze the condition of the SMEs lending portfolio and a comprehensive strategy to ensure that the SMEs Line of Business could grow sustainably. There are several analytical methods employed in this study, such as Location Quotient (LQ and Klassen Typology methods. The consolidated results of both analyses will be developed as a leading sector. The sectors that will be selected based on the result from the Location Quotient analysis include the sectors in the 4th quadrant and the 1st Quadrant. The analysis showed that 12 economic sectors spread throughout 33 provinces are considered to be the leading sectors, where the Transportation, Financial Intermediaries and Fisheries are the sectors that have the highest distribution in the 4th Quadrant while the Fisheries, Wholesale and Retail, as well as the Agriculture are the sectors which also have a high level of distribution in the 1st quadrant. The sectors that will be chosen based on the results from the Klassen Typology analysis include the sectors in the 1st quadrant. The analysis showed that there are 12 economic sectors spread throughout 31 provinces considered to be developed and fast-growing sectors, where the Agriculture, Fisheries, and Construction are the sectors that have the highest distribution. The consolidated results of the both analyses showed that the leading sectors consist of 10 economic sectors, namely, Agriculture, Fisheries, Processing industry, Social services, Construction, Electricity, Gas and Water, the Provider of accommodation and eating and drinking, Mining, Wholesale and Retail, and Transportation spread throughout  27 provinces. Leading sectors are not the same in every province, although there are certain sectors that excel in several provinces, but there is also one dominant sector that exists only in certain provinces.Keywords:   location quotient, klassen typology, leading sector, SMEs, portfolioABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan

  10. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  11. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  12. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark: An Empirical Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Marco Goli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of "Homegrown Radical Islamism" in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for—or consequence of—their societal integration. Conventional wisdom suggests: "The more you associate yourself with the cherished and established goals and means, the more you will disassociate yourself from Radical Islamism," and vice versa. We believe that, quite surprisingly, an empirical test of this idea is lacking. Based on a nationally representative sample of 1,113 youth (ages 15–30 in Denmark with national ties to a"Muslim country," this study provides empirical evidence on the validity of this common assumption.

  13. Economic integration and government size: a review of the empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gastaldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empirical literature concerning the impact of economic integration on the size and the composition of the public budget. From a theoretical perspective, a pessimistic view highlights the threat that economic integration constitutes to the action of the public sector. An optimistic view, instead, emphasizes the beneficial effects of integration in stimulating efficiency – enhancing public policies. Despite some well-established theoretical results, the empirical evidence on this topic is rather controversial. Some studies support the hypothesis that taxes and public spending may increase in order to compensate losers for the risks of a more open economic environment. Other studies support the opposite idea, that the public sector retrenches when having to face increasing mobility of the production factors. Yet, comparability of the wide empirical evidence on the topic is not straightforward and empirical regularities are hard to find.

  14. Empires and the Sovereign State Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2013-01-01

    . Is it, for example, adequate to imagine a world of states with occasional interference from one or more empires to cover anomalies or exceptions where standard models of international order do not seem to work? That still leaves the idea of empires on the sidelines, an intrusion, a sticking plaster...... for the occasional lesions in the model of the international system ‘as such’. It does not think through the implications of their historical presence: empires’ role in the past, present and possible future of the international system or systems. The purpose of this chapter is to reconsider how empires...

  15. Inland empire logistics GIS mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Inland Empire has experienced exponential growth in the area of warehousing and distribution facilities within the last decade and it seems that it will continue way into the future. Where are these facilities located? How large are the facilitie...

  16. Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between

  17. Empirical classification of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Brown, Tiffany A; Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P

    2012-01-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) account for a minority of individuals with clinically significant disorders of eating, raising concerns about the clinical utility of current definitions. This review examines evidence for the validity of current and alternative approaches to defining eating disorders and implications for draft criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Although this review largely supports the predictive validity of distinctions among AN, BN, and the newly proposed binge eating disorder (BED), it also highlights that our tendency to "study what we define" has created a gap between the problems that people have and what we know about those problems. Future research on the causes and consequences of eating disorders should include more heterogeneous groups to enable identification of meaningful boundaries that distinguish between disorders based on etiological and predictive validity.

  18. Empirical Generalizations About Market Evolution and Stationarity

    OpenAIRE

    Marnik G. Dekimpe; Dominique M. Hanssens

    1995-01-01

    We present empirical generalizations about conditions under which marketing variables evolve or remain stationary. We first define evolution statistically and make the case why it is an important concept for increasing our understanding of long-run marketing effectiveness. We then briefly review ways in which evolution can be tested empirically from readily available data. We present a database of over 400 prior analyses and catalog the relative incidence of stationarity versus evolution in m...

  19. Empirical direction in design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Norman H

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Norman H. Anderson's new book is to help students develop skills of scientific inference. To accomplish this he organized the book around the ""Experimental Pyramid""--six levels that represent a hierarchy of considerations in empirical investigation--conceptual framework, phenomena, behavior, measurement, design, and statistical inference. To facilitate conceptual and empirical understanding, Anderson de-emphasizes computational formulas and null hypothesis testing. Other features include: *emphasis on visual inspection as a basic skill in experimental analysis to help student

  20. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Boschma; KOen Frenken

    2010-01-01

    Following last decadeÕs programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-ˆ-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how the evolutionary perspective relates to that of New Economic Geography. Second, we discuss research on agglomeration externalities in Regional Science, and how Evolutionary Economic Geography cont...

  1. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  2. Expatriate support and success : A systematic review of organization-based sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social

  3. Precision and accuracy of mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of mechanistic-empirical pavement design methods is increasing internationally. Although mechanistic-empirical design does offer some insight into pavement behaviour and performance, at least more so than empirical design methods...

  4. Protein-Ligand Empirical Interaction Components for Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuna; Wang, Weijun; Sun, Zhaoxi; Zhang, John Z H; Ji, Changge

    2017-08-28

    A major shortcoming of empirical scoring functions is that they often fail to predict binding affinity properly. Removing false positives of docking results is one of the most challenging works in structure-based virtual screening. Postdocking filters, making use of all kinds of experimental structure and activity information, may help in solving the issue. We describe a new method based on detailed protein-ligand interaction decomposition and machine learning. Protein-ligand empirical interaction components (PLEIC) are used as descriptors for support vector machine learning to develop a classification model (PLEIC-SVM) to discriminate false positives from true positives. Experimentally derived activity information is used for model training. An extensive benchmark study on 36 diverse data sets from the DUD-E database has been performed to evaluate the performance of the new method. The results show that the new method performs much better than standard empirical scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening. The trained PLEIC-SVM model is able to capture important interaction patterns between ligand and protein residues for one specific target, which is helpful in discarding false positives in postdocking filtering.

  5. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...

  6. Source selection for analogical reasoning an empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luger, G.F. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of an analogical reasoner depends upon its ability to select a relevant analogical source. In many problem domains, however, too little is known about target problems to support effective source selection. This paper describes the design and evaluation of SCAVENGER, an analogical reasoner that applies two techniques to this problem: (1) An assumption-based approach to matching that allows properties of candidate sources to match unknown target properties in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (2) The use of empirical learning to improve memory organization based on problem solving experience.

  7. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects - Concepts and Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    indoor moving objects. Specifically, the paper presents a method for the identification of movement patterns. Leveraging concepts from sequential pattern mining, the method takes into account the specifics of spatial movement and, in particular, the specifics of tracking data that captures indoor...... movement. For example, the paper’s proposal supports spatial aggregation and utilizes the topology of indoor spaces to achieve better performance. The paper reports on empirical studies with real and synthetic data that offer insights into the functional and computational aspects of its proposal....

  8. Maastricht Criteria Targeting and Credit Growth: Empirical Evidences for the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel Moinescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the impact of credit growth on the Maastricht criteria targeting process in the new member states of the European Union. The methodological framework is based on a two-compenent transmission mechanism represented by the output gap and the nonperforming loans. The empirical analysis consists of a set of simplified econometric models, built by panel estimates using annual data from 2000 to 2011. Statistical results revealed the existence of a reaction of long term interest rates to the developments in sovereign risk premium, determined, in turn, by the impact of the mutual reinforcing between lending rate and output gap on the loan portfolio quality dynamics. Strengthening prudential conduct of monetary policy with a conservative macro-prudential policy is a critical need for increased resilience of nominal convergence to exogenous shocks, given that containing the volatility of economic activity depends in a decisive way, on succeding to maintain credit growth levels close to economic growth potential.

  9. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Parr

    Full Text Available The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day and unfavourable (Root day for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  10. Analysis of empirical determinants of credit risk in the banking sector of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Račić Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the detection and analysis of empirical determinants of credit risk in the banking sector of the Republic of Serbia. The paper is based on an analysis of results of the application of the linear regression model, during the period from the third quarter of 2008 to the third quarter of 2014. There are three main findings. Firstly, the higher lending activity of banks contributes to the increasing share of high-risk loans in the total withdrawn loans (delayed effect of 3 years. Secondly, the growth of loans as opposed to deposits contributes to the increased exposure of banks to credit risk. Thirdly, the factors that reduce the exposure of banks to credit risk increase profitability, growth of interest rate spread and real GDP growth. Bearing in mind the overall market conditions and dynamics of the economic recovery of the country, there is a general conclusion based on the results that in the coming period the question of non-performing loans (NPLs in the Republic of Serbia will present a challenge for both lenders and borrowers.

  11. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  12. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  13. Un modello econometrico per il credito bancario alle famiglie in Italia (An econometric model for bank lending to households in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Casolaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro presenta la stima di un modello econometrico per il credito bancario alle famiglie in Italia nel periodo 1984-2003. Il modello si compone di due equazioni: prestiti per l’acquisto di abitazioni e altri prestiti alle famiglie (tipicamente credito al consumo e finanziamenti in conto corrente. Entrambe le equazioni evidenziano uno stretto legame con l’andamento congiunturale dell’economia e il livello dei tassi di interesse reali; i mutui alle famiglie sono influenzati anche dalla dinamica del mercato immobiliare e di quello azionario. Il lavoro verifica l’esistenza di cambiamenti strutturali nelle equazioni in relazione alle trasformazioni intervenute nel mercato del credito nella seconda parte degli anni novanta e scompone il contributo alla crescita del credito alle famiglie tra i diversi fattori.  This paper presents the estimation of an econometric model for bank lending to households in Italy in the period 1984-2003. The model consists of two equations: loans for house purchase and other loans to households (typically consumer credit and loans in the current account. Both equations show a close relationship with the economic trend and the level of real interest rates; household mortgages are also influenced by the dynamics of the housing market and the equity market. The work verifies the existence of structural changes in the equations in relation to the changes occurred in the credit market in the second half of the nineties and breaks down the contribution to growth in lending to households between the different factors.  JEL Codes: D12, G21Keywords: credito bancario, famiglie, prestiti, modello econometrico

  14. Pluvials, Droughts, Energetics, and the Mongol Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.

    2012-12-01

    The success of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire the world has ever known, is a historical enigma. At its peak in the late 13th century, the empire influenced areas from the Hungary to southern Asia and Persia. Powered by domesticated herbivores, the Mongol Empire grew at the expense of agriculturalists in Eastern Europe, Persia, and China. What environmental factors contributed to the rise of the Mongols? What factors influenced the disintegration of the empire by 1300 CE? Until now, little high resolution environmental data have been available to address these questions. We use tree-ring records of past temperature and water to illuminate the role of energy and water in the evolution of the Mongol Empire. The study of energetics has long been applied to biological and ecological systems but has only recently become a theme in understanding modern coupled natural and human systems (CNH). Because water and energy are tightly linked in human and natural systems, studying their synergies and interactions make it possible to integrate knowledge across disciplines and human history, yielding important lessons for modern societies. We focus on the role of energy and water in the trajectory of an empire, including its rise, development, and demise. Our research is focused on the Orkhon Valley, seat of the Mongol Empire, where recent paleoenvironmental and archeological discoveries allow high resolution reconstructions of past human and environmental conditions for the first time. Our preliminary records indicate that the period 1210-1230 CE, the height of Chinggis Khan's reign is one of the longest and most consistent pluvials in our tree ring reconstruction of interannual drought. Reconstructed temperature derived from five millennium-long records from subalpine forests in Mongolia document warm temperatures beginning in the early 1200's and ending with a plunge into cold temperatures in 1260. Abrupt cooling in central Mongolia at this time is

  15. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  16. Empirical psychology, common sense, and Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework I briefly explain Kant's empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility--linked to higher faculties of cognition--are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next. I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant's transcendental idealism, even an entity that lacks these markers could be free and morally responsible, although as a matter of fact Kant thinks that none are. Given that they are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions, I discuss the status of Kant's claim that higher faculties are empirical markers of moral responsibility. Drawing on connections between Kant's ethical theory and 'common rational cognition' (4:393), I suggest that Kant's theory of empirical markers can be traced to ordinary common sense beliefs about responsibility. This suggestion helps explain both why empirical markers are important and what the limits of empirical psychology are within Kant's account of moral responsibility.

  17. Empirical Evaluation of Voluntarily Activatable Muscle Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunta Togo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The muscle synergy hypothesis assumes that individual muscle synergies are independent of each other and voluntarily controllable. However, this assumption has not been empirically tested. This study tested if human subjects can voluntarily activate individual muscle synergies extracted by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, the standard mathematical method for synergy extraction. We defined the activation of a single muscle synergy as the generation of a muscle activity pattern vector parallel to the single muscle synergy vector. Subjects performed an isometric force production task with their right hand, and the 13 muscle activity patterns associated with their elbow and shoulder movements were measured. We extracted muscle synergies during the task using electromyogram (EMG data and the NMF method with varied numbers of muscle synergies. The number (N of muscle synergies was determined by using the variability accounted for (VAF, NVAF and the coefficient of determination (CD, NCD. An additional muscle synergy model with NAD was also considered. We defined a conventional muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF, NCD, and NAD. We also defined an extended muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NEX> NAD. To examine whether the individual muscle synergy was voluntarily activatable or not, we calculated the index of independent activation, which reflects similarities between a selected single muscle synergy and the current muscle activation pattern of the subject. Subjects were visually feed-backed the index of independent activation, then instructed to generate muscle activity patterns similar to the conventional and extended muscle synergies. As a result, an average of 90.8% of the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF was independently activated. However, the proportion of activatable muscle synergies extracted by NCD and NAD was lower. These results partly support the assumption of the muscle synergy

  18. What is neuroethics? Empirical and theoretical neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2009-11-01

    Neuroethics is a recently emerging field that deals with predominantly empirical and practical issues of ethics in neuroscience. In contrast, theoretical and methodological considerations have rather been neglected and thus what may be called theoretical neuroethics. The review focuses on informed consent and moral judgment as examples of empirical neuroethics and norm-fact circularity and method-based neuroethics as issues of a theoretical neuroethics. It is argued that we need to consider theoretical and methodological issues in order to develop neuroethics as a distinct discipline, which as such can be distinguished from both philosophy/ethics and neuroscience.

  19. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  20. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for ground-level sources.

  1. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for groundlevel sources

  2. Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Henrik I

    2002-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate

  3. Nursing intellectual capital theory: operationalization and empirical validation of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    To present the operationalization of concepts in the nursing intellectual capital theory and the results of a methodological study aimed at empirically validating the concepts. The nursing intellectual capital theory proposes that the stocks of nursing knowledge in an organization are embedded in two concepts, nursing human capital and nursing structural capital. The theory also proposes that two concepts in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nursing continuing professional development, influence nursing human capital. A cross-sectional design. A systematic three-step process was used to operationalize the concepts of the theory. In 2008, data were collected for 147 inpatient units from administrative departments and unit managers in 6 Canadian hospitals. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine if the indicator variables accurately reflect their respective concepts. The proposed indicator variables collectively measured the nurse staffing concept. Three indicators were retained to construct nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concept. The nursing structural capital and employer support for nursing continuing professional development concepts were not validated empirically. The nurse staffing and the nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concepts will be brought forward for further model testing. Refinement for some of the indicator variables of the concepts is indicated. Additional research is required with different sources of data to confirm the findings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Linkages of Electoral Accountability: Empirical Results and Methodological Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maloy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A basic theory of electoral accountability is widely accepted by academic opinion: voters cause politicians to gain or lose office through periodic elections, thereby influencing policy through the threat of electoral sanction. Empirical studies run the gamut from findings of strong support for this theory, to mixed or conditional support, to weak or negative results. When electoral processes are analyzed in terms of two distinct causal linkages within a three-part chain of accountability, however, positive findings are revealed as weaker than they appear while a compelling trend emerges toward findings ranging from conditional to negative in the last two decades. This trend is visible in three topical areas—economic voting, political corruption, and ideological congruence—and it holds for both presidential and parliamentary regimes as well as for a variety of electoral systems. The new electoral skepticism’s unsettling results and insightful methods may help to improve future research and reform efforts alike.

  5. ICT as the Facilitator of Entrepreneurial Activity: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kotnik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet and the related information and communications technologies (the ICTs are profoundly shaping economic transactions of all kinds. They are also expected to open up entrepreneurial opportunities and reduce the competitive advantage of large firms, thus making room for small and young firms. The EU policy makers have already started to introduce policy initiatives for better use of ICT into the actions to support entrepreneurship, such as promoting digital entrepreneurship. At the moment, however, we have scarce empirical evidence about the impact of ICT on entrepreneurial activity. Our study provides such evidence, by investigating the relationship between ICT use and startup rates, using longitudinal industry level data for Slovenia. The results of the regression analysis show that entry rates are higher in industries that are characterized by higher ICT use, thus providing support to the government policy efforts.

  6. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  7. Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...

  8. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  9. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  10. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  11. Downside Risk And Empirical Asset Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, the Nobel prize winning Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) celebrates its 40th birthday. Although widely applied in financial management, this model does not fully capture the empirical riskreturn relation of stocks; witness the beta, size, value and momentum effects. These

  12. Transition States from Empirical Force Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of the use of empirical force fields in the study of reaction mechanisms. EVB-type methods (including RFF and MCMM) produce full reaction surfaces by mixing, in the simplest case, known force fields describing reactants and products. The SEAM method instead locates approximate...

  13. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  14. Commodity prices and growth : An empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, P.; Goderis, B.V.G.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas empirical evidence on the effect of higher commodity prices on the long-run growth of commodity exporters is ambiguous, time series analyses using vector autoregressive (VAR) models have found that commodity booms raise income in the short run. In this paper we adopt panel error correction

  15. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  16. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents engine gearbox fault diagnosis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Naı¨ve Bayes algorithm. In this study, vibration signals from a gear box are acquired with healthy and different simulated faulty conditions of gear and bearing. The vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number ...

  18. Sending Scholarship Students Abroad in Ottoman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Onur; Özgür, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of sending scholarship students abroad that started in the 19th century by Sultan Selim III in Ottoman Empire continued during the period of other Sultans became a significant reference point for the abroad scholarship policy of Turkey. The students that were firstly sent abroad especially for military training, were sent to…

  19. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  20. 16Nomads in the shadows of empires

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different in terms of their social structure and psychological makeup. However, they used to have a ... empires extended their influence over these ethnic groups in southern Ethiopia and. Kenya, there was quite ... adopted a liberal outlook in dealing with sophisticated social and cultural issues. 263The gabbar system of ...

  1. Empirical research in OM: three paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several articles have appeared in the operations management literature that have suggested that the link between operations management academics and operations management practitioners has been weakened. It has been suggested that to improve this link, more empirical research

  2. Methods for Calculating Empires in Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empire problem for quasiperiodic tilings and the existing methods for generating the empires of the vertex configurations in quasicrystals, while introducing a new and more efficient method based on the cut-and-project technique. Using Penrose tiling as an example, this method finds the forced tiles with the restrictions in the high dimensional lattice (the mother lattice that can be cut-and-projected into the lower dimensional quasicrystal. We compare our method to the two existing methods, namely one method that uses the algorithm of the Fibonacci chain to force the Ammann bars in order to find the forced tiles of an empire and the method that follows the work of N.G. de Bruijn on constructing a Penrose tiling as the dual to a pentagrid. This new method is not only conceptually simple and clear, but it also allows us to calculate the empires of the vertex configurations in a defected quasicrystal by reversing the configuration of the quasicrystal to its higher dimensional lattice, where we then apply the restrictions. These advantages may provide a key guiding principle for phason dynamics and an important tool for self error-correction in quasicrystal growth.

  3. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  4. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  5. Empirical scaling for present ohmic heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughney, C.

    1975-06-01

    Empirical scaling laws are given for the average electron temperature and electron energy confinement time as functions of plasma current, average electron density, effective ion charge, toroidal magnetic field, and major and minor plasma radius. The ohmic heating is classical, and the electron energy transport is anomalous. The present scaling indicates that ohmic-heating becomes ineffective with larger experiments. (U.S.)

  6. An Empirical Investigation into Nigerian ESL Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General observations indicate that ESL learners in Nigeria tend to manifest fear and anxiety in grammar classes, which could influence their performance negatively or positively. This study examines empirically some of the reasons for some ESL learners' apprehension of grammar classes. The data for the study were ...

  7. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  8. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  9. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  10. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggestions for future research. 2. Empirical measurements of insect swarms. Unlike highly ordered animal aggregations such as bird flocks or fish schools, mating swarms of flying insects present a particular challenge for modelling as there is no simple average state of the swarm that can be used to benchmark a model.

  11. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  12. The Logic of Empirical Theories Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.

    2012-01-01

    Logic and philosophy of science share a long history, though contacts have gone through ups and downs. This paper is a brief survey of some major themes in logical studies of empirical theories, including links to computer science and current studies of rational agency. The survey has no new

  13. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  14. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  15. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    out of seven cases. We recommend that empiric treatment of suspected cases of typhoid fever includes a third generation cephalosporin such as ceftriaxon. Furthermore, the present report stresses the importance of typhoid vaccination of travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  16. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both

  17. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  18. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  19. Empirically Determined Passenger Ferry Navigable Routes within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    modelling of hydrographic information is important to control waterways boat services with existing roadway ... channel accretion. KEYWORDS: Navigable routes, hydrographic information, empirical analysis, under-keel clearance, river bed, topography. [Received May 04 2017; .... on features that may affect safe navigation.

  20. Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.

  1. Augmented Reality-Based Simulators as Discovery Learning Tools: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, María-Blanca; Di-Serio, Ángela; Villarán-Molina, Diego; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports empirical evidence on having students use AR-SaBEr, a simulation tool based on augmented reality (AR), to discover the basic principles of electricity through a series of experiments. AR-SaBEr was enhanced with knowledge-based support and inquiry-based scaffolding mechanisms, which proved useful for discovery learning in…

  2. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  3. The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Meditation as an Intervention for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Bomyea, Jessica; Bormann, Jill E.; Hickman, Steven D.; Good, Raquel C.; Essex, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consumers and providers continue to ask for more options for managing this common and often chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are being widely implemented, but there is minimal research rigorously assessing their effectiveness.…

  4. Understanding Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…

  5. Development and performance of self-managing work teams : a theoretical and empirical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.; Stoker, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Several theories have been developed that prescribe the team development of self-managing work teams (SMWTs). Some of these have led to models with successive linear developmental phases. However, both the theory and the empirical data show little support for these models. Based on an extensive

  6. Does risk management contribute to IT project success? A meta-analysis of empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, K.F.C.; Boonstra, A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    The question whether risk management contributes to IT project success is considered relevant by people from both academic and practitioners' communities already for a long time. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence that either supports or opposes the claim that risk

  7. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  8. Empirical estimates in stochastic programs with probability and second order stochastic dominance constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omelchenko, Vadym; Kaňková, Vlasta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2015), s. 267-281 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic programming problems * empirical estimates * light and heavy tailed distributions * quantiles Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/omelchenko-0454495.pdf

  9. New Product Development in the Fashion Industry: An Empirical Investigation of Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bandinelli, Romeo; Rinaldi, Rinaldo; Rossi, Monica; Terzi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how companies in the fashion industry organize, plan and perform their New Product Development process (NPD). The results have been achieved through an empirical study carried out by the authors with the support of the GeCo Observatory, an Italian research initiative launched in 2012. This paper shows the details of eight selected case studies from the Italian fashion industry.

  10. The DSM revision process: needing to keep an eye on the empirical ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, M B

    2017-01-01

    From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV. As noted by Kendler and Solomon (2016), in contrast to the emphasis on systematic reviews in medicine which is a manifestation of the evidence-based medicine movement, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of DSM-5, raising questions about empirical rigor underlying the DSM-5 revision. It is likely that this regression in terms of anchoring the revision process in a comprehensive review of empirical data stemmed from the emphasis during the DSM-5 revision process on trying to move DSM-5 from its categorical descriptive approach towards a more etiological dimensional approach. Although such a shift ultimately did not occur, the effort spent on trying to achieve a paradigm shift likely came at the expense of the hard work of conducting systematic empirical reviews. For the DSM to continue to remain credible in the current era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that the developers of future editions of the DSM avoid taking their eye off the empirical ball and insure that the manual remains grounded in solid empirical evidence.

  11. Estimating rate of occurrence of rare events with empirical bayes: A railway application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, John; Bedford, Tim; Walls, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Classical approaches to estimating the rate of occurrence of events perform poorly when data are few. Maximum likelihood estimators result in overly optimistic point estimates of zero for situations where there have been no events. Alternative empirical-based approaches have been proposed based on median estimators or non-informative prior distributions. While these alternatives offer an improvement over point estimates of zero, they can be overly conservative. Empirical Bayes procedures offer an unbiased approach through pooling data across different hazards to support stronger statistical inference. This paper considers the application of Empirical Bayes to high consequence low-frequency events, where estimates are required for risk mitigation decision support such as as low as reasonably possible. A summary of empirical Bayes methods is given and the choices of estimation procedures to obtain interval estimates are discussed. The approaches illustrated within the case study are based on the estimation of the rate of occurrence of train derailments within the UK. The usefulness of empirical Bayes within this context is discussed

  12. Human-Derived Disturbance Estimation and Compensation (DEC Method Lends Itself to a Modular Sensorimotor Control in a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Lippi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high complexity of the human posture and movement control system represents challenges for diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of neurological patients. We envisage that engineering-inspired, model-based approaches will help to deal with the high complexity of the human posture control system. Since the methods of system identification and parameter estimation are limited to systems with only a few DoF, our laboratory proposes a heuristic approach that step-by-step increases complexity when creating a hypothetical human-derived control systems in humanoid robots. This system is then compared with the human control in the same test bed, a posture control laboratory. The human-derived control builds upon the identified disturbance estimation and compensation (DEC mechanism, whose main principle is to support execution of commanded poses or movements by compensating for external or self-produced disturbances such as gravity effects. In previous robotic implementation, up to 3 interconnected DEC control modules were used in modular control architectures separately for the sagittal plane or the frontal body plane and successfully passed balancing and movement tests. In this study we hypothesized that conflict-free movement coordination between the robot's sagittal and frontal body planes emerges simply from the physical embodiment, not necessarily requiring a full body control. Experiments were performed in the 14 DoF robot Lucy Posturob (i demonstrating that the mechanical coupling from the robot's body suffices to coordinate the controls in the two planes when the robot produces movements and balancing responses in the intermediate plane, (ii providing quantitative characterization of the interaction dynamics between body planes including frequency response functions (FRFs, as they are used in human postural control analysis, and (iii witnessing postural and control stability when all DoFs are challenged together with the emergence of inter

  13. Accounting and Fiscality in the Ottoman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available he Ottoman Empire was an imperial superpower that manifested its domination in the Mediterranean zone between 1299 and 1922. At the moment of their maximum glory, the ottomans ruled over three continents, meaning 19,9 millions km2. The tax system applied during 600 years, but also the accounting methods used, prove a remarkable administrative and fiscal organization in the Empire. There were taxes based on the Islamic law, but also taxes established by the sultan concerning the salaries of employees and the military campaigns. The necessity of a correct evidence of tax collecting and distribution required keeping registers “in stairs”, according to an accounting method overtook from the Arabs, named the “Merdiban Method”. The method was based on principles available until nowadays. It was applied until the end of XIXth century, when it was replaced with the method based on double-entry recording, overtook from the west.

  14. Empirical Bayesian inference and model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical or multistage empirical Bayesian approach for the estimation of uncertainty concerning the intensity of a homogeneous Poisson process. A class of contaminated gamma distributions is considered to describe the uncertainty concerning the intensity. These distributions in turn are defined through a set of secondary parameters, the knowledge of which is also described and updated via Bayes formula. This two-stage Bayesian approach is an example where the modeling uncertainty is treated in a comprehensive way. Each contaminated gamma distributions, represented by a point in the 3D space of secondary parameters, can be considered as a specific model of the uncertainty about the Poisson intensity. Then, by the empirical Bayesian method each individual model is assigned a posterior probability

  15. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.

  16. Empirical mode decomposition improves detection of SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liya; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Cheng, Chung-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) have been used to quantify attention-related neural activity to visual targets. This study investigates how empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can improve detection accuracy and rate of SSVEPs. First, the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. Then, IMF components accounting for SSVEPs are selected for target frequency detection. Finally, target frequency is identified by two methods: Gabor transform and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). This study quantitatively explores the impact of EMD on the target frequency detection. Empirical results show that the EMD improves their recognition accuracy when Gabor transform is used, even in a shorter Gaussian window, but has little effects on the performance of the CCA. Further, this study finds that harmonic responses of the target frequency can be used to enhance the SSVEP detection both for the Gabor transform and CCA.

  17. Collyria seals in the Roman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambrodi, Rafael J; Pinero, David P; Mavrou, Ariadni; Cervino, Alejandro; Brautaset, Rune; Murube del Castillo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Roman seals associated with collyria (Latin expression for eye drops/washes and lotions for eye maintenance) provide valuable information about eye care in the antiquity. These small, usually stone-made pieces bore engravings with the names of eye doctors and also the collyria used to treat an eye disease. The collyria seals have been found all over the Roman empire and Celtic territories in particular and were usually associated with military camps. In Hispania (Iberian Peninsula), only three collyria seals have been found. These findings speak about eye care in this ancient Roman province as well as about of the life of the time. This article takes a look at the utility and social significance of the collyria seals and seeks to give an insight in the ophthalmological practice of in the Roman Empire.

  18. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF THE FIRMS’ VALUE DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita KISS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the value creation and the value drivers. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the concept of maximizing shareholder value. The main goal is to categorize the most important value drivers, and their role of the firms’ value. This study proceeds as follows. The first section presents the value chain, the primary and the support activities. The second part describes the theoretical background of maximizing shareholder value. The third part illustrates the key value drivers. The fourth empirical section of the study analyses the database featuring data from 18 European countries, 10 sectors and 1553 firms in the period between 2004 and 2011. Finally, the fifth section includes concluding remarks. Based on the related literature reviewed and in the conducted empirical research it can be assessed that, the EBIT, reinvestment, invested capital, the return on invested capital, the net margin and the sales growth rate all have a positive effect on firm value, while the tax rate and the market value of return on asset (MROA has a negative one.

  19. Psychological profiling of sexual murders: an empirical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-10-01

    Psychological profiling represents the investigative technique of analyzing crime behaviors for the identification of probable offender characteristics. Profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a surprising lack of empirical research to support its validity. Indeed, in the study of sexual murder for the purpose of profiling, very few quantitative, academically reviewed studies exist. This article reports on the results of a 4-year study into Australian sexual murders for the development of psychological profiling. The study involved 85 cases of sexual murder sampled from all Australian police jurisdictions. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed. This analysis produced a five-cluster model of sexual murder behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors was identified that represents common behaviors to all patterns of sexual murder. Next, four distinct outlying patterns--predator, fury, perversion, and rape--were identified that each demonstrated distinct offense styles. Further analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future sexual murder investigations.

  20. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. Three tropes of empire: necessity, spectacle, affection:

    OpenAIRE

    Hariman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This essay identifies three recurrent appeals in the discourse of empire. These are presented through explication of Thucydides' last speech to the Athenian demos, a documentary essay by Max Boot, one of the intellectual architects of the invasion of Iraq, and Edmund Burke's speech regarding a colonial insurgency, "On Conciliation with America." Članek identificira tri ponavljajoče se apele v imperialnem diskurzu. Predstavljeni so z razlago zadnjega Tukididovega govora Atencem, dokumentarn...

  2. The empirical turn in international legal scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shaffer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and assesses a new wave of em- pirical research on international law. Recent scholar- ship has moved away from theoretical debates over whether international law “matters,” and focuses in- stead on exploring the conditions under which inter- national law is created and produces effects. As this empirical research program has matured, it has al- lowed for new, midlevel theorizing that we call “conditional international law theory”. 

  3. Parametric Integration by Magic Point Empirical Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaß, Maximilian; Glau, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    We derive analyticity criteria for explicit error bounds and an exponential rate of convergence of the magic point empirical interpolation method introduced by Barrault et al. (2004). Furthermore, we investigate its application to parametric integration. We find that the method is well-suited to Fourier transforms and has a wide range of applications in such diverse fields as probability and statistics, signal and image processing, physics, chemistry and mathematical finance. To illustrate th...

  4. Parametric Integration by Magic Point Empirical Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaß, M., Glau, K.

    2016-01-01

    We derive analyticity criteria for explicit error bounds and an exponential rate of convergence of the magic point empirical interpolation method introduced by Barrault et al. (2004). Furthermore, we investigate its application to parametric integration. We find that the method is well-suited to Fourier transforms and has a wide range of applications in such diverse fields as probability and statistics, signal and image processing, physics, chemistry and mathematical finance. To illustrate th...

  5. Insurability of Cyber Risk: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biener, Christian; Eling, Martin; Wirfs, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequacy of insurance for managing cyber risk. To this end, we extract 994 cases of cyber losses from an operational risk database and analyse their statistical properties. Based on the empirical results and recent literature, we investigate the insurability of cyber risk by systematically reviewing the set of criteria introduced by Berliner (1982). Our findings emphasise the distinct characteristics of cyber risks compared with other operational risks and bring to li...

  6. Empirical heuristics for improving Intermittent Demand Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Fotios; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spithourakis, George; Assimakopoulos, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose– Intermittent demand appears sporadically, with some time periods not even displaying any demand at all. Even so, such patterns constitute considerable proportions of the total stock in many industrial settings. Forecasting intermittent demand is a rather difficult task but of critical importance for corresponding cost savings. The current study aims to examine the empirical outcomes of three heuristics towards the modification of established intermittent demand forecasting approaches...

  7. Pesticide Risk Valuation in Empirical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nijkamp; Chiara Maria Travisi; Gabriella Vindigni

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in agriculture poses several risks to both human health and non-target agro-ecosystems. Due to lack of information on the monetary value of reducing pesticide risks, it is difficult to perform an economic analysis that addresses social efficiency of policy and draws conclusions about the appropriate degree of regulation.The aim of the current paper is to present a critical overview of the empirical literature on pesticide risk valuation that provides disaggregate willingness-to-...

  8. Positives approaches: new empirical research in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Dorado, Juan Abel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary debates of the accountancy discipline can be framed on the normative and positive approaches developed by researchers as: Mattessich, Ijiri, Zirnmerman, etc. This article attemps to organize in a systematic way the trends of the so called new empiric research in the positive accounting theory structure. The newempiric research undertakes a complex theoretical and experimental framework in the trends of the so called accounting aggregate market as well as the trend called acco...

  9. Impact of Office Automation: An Empirical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    imp F rq(I NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California N I < DTIC S ELECTEI THESIS -’° "I I MPACT OF OFFICE AUTOMATION : AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT by...FLNDiNG NUMBERS PROGRAM PROCT TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMNT O NONO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) IMPACT OF OFFICE AUTOMATION : AN...identity by block number) FIELD GROUP I SB-GROLP Productivity Assessment; SACONS; Office Automation I I 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary

  10. Empirical solar/stellar cycle simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ângela R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the magnetic cycle, the properties of the solar oscillations vary periodically. With the recent discovery of manifestations of activity cycles in the seismic data of other stars, the understanding of the different contributions to such variations becomes even more important. With this in mind, we built an empirical parameterised model able to reproduce the properties of the sunspot cycle. The resulting simulations can be used to estimate the magnetic-induced frequency shifts.

  11. Empirical methods for estimating future climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Applying the empirical approach permits the derivation of estimates of the future climate that are nearly independent of conclusions based on theoretical (model) estimates. This creates an opportunity to compare these results with those derived from the model simulations of the forthcoming changes in climate, thus increasing confidence in areas of agreement and focusing research attention on areas of disagreements. The premise underlying this approach for predicting anthropogenic climate change is based on associating the conditions of the climatic optimums of the Holocene, Eemian, and Pliocene with corresponding stages of the projected increase of mean global surface air temperature. Provided that certain assumptions are fulfilled in matching the value of the increased mean temperature for a certain epoch with the model-projected change in global mean temperature in the future, the empirical approach suggests that relationships leading to the regional variations in air temperature and other meteorological elements could be deduced and interpreted based on use of empirical data describing climatic conditions for past warm epochs. Considerable care must be taken, of course, in making use of these spatial relationships, especially in accounting for possible large-scale differences that might, in some cases, result from different factors contributing to past climate changes than future changes and, in other cases, might result from the possible influences of changes in orography and geography on regional climatic conditions over time

  12. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  13. Promoting gender equality in access to microcredit through flexible lending approaches of female targeting MFIs: Evidence from Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Mukamana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to loans is one of the most important areas of focus by many development practitioners for reducing the existing gender gap in access to productive resources. Microfinance Institutions which target females as key clients were promoted for their lending approaches which avoid previous discriminatory practices that excluded women in the financial system. The current study examines the role of Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda in promoting equality in access to microcredit between female and male borrowers. The results of the study are generated by analyzing quantitative data collected from 244 females and 94 males using the questionnaire and qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The study findings revealed that Duterimbere has been able to adapt its requirements to the specific needs of poor women. A significant number of poor women have been able to join the MFI through group solidarity, a method that has upgraded their borrowing capacity to the level of getting individual loans on equal basis as male peers. This study recommends further research that should go beyond access to loan and consider the dynamics of power relations about utilization of the loan received by female and male borrowers.

  14. Sulla necessità di controllare l'attività creditizia internazionale delle banche. (The need to control international bank lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. KESSLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro si occupa del processo di credito bancario internazionale  con le implicazioni per la gestione della politica monetaria . L'autore sostiene che l'espansione del credito bancario straniero possa diventare un fattore monetario significativo . Vengono analizzati gli aspetti macro e micro delle dinamiche del processo di questa espansione e il rapporto con la bilancia dei pagamenti e del deficit  . Alcune considerazioni generali sono fatte per quanto riguarda la necessità di una cooperazione monetaria internazionale intensificata. The work deals with the process of international bank lending and with the policy implications for monetary management. The author argues that foreign bank credit expansion has (or is likely to become an important monetary factor. The macro and micro aspects of the dynamics of the process of this expansion and the relation to the US balance of payments deficit are analysed. Some general remarks are made with respect to the need for intensified international monetary cooperation.JEL: F34

  15. Learning to lend for off-grid solar power: policy lessons from World Bank loans to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Damian; Hope, Chris [Cambridge Univ., Judge Inst. of Management Studies, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for off-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralised power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learnt from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash flow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector. (Author)

  16. An empirical test of Maslow's theory of need hierarchy using hologeistic comparison by statistical sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Sharts, J

    1986-10-01

    Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs provides a major theoretical framework in nursing science. The purpose of this study was to empirically test Maslow's need theory, specifically at the levels of physiological and security needs, using a hologeistic comparative method. Thirty cultures taken from the 60 cultural units in the Health Relations Area Files (HRAF) Probability Sample were found to have data available for examining hypotheses about thermoregulatory (physiological) and protective (security) behaviors practiced prior to sleep onset. The findings demonstrate there is initial worldwide empirical evidence to support Maslow's need hierarchy.

  17. An Empirical Algorithm for Power Analysis in Deep Submicron Electronic Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Huang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An empirical algorithm applied to logic level power analysis in deep submicron VLSI designs is introduced in the paper. The method explores a static analysis strategy using unit functions to represent signal transitions. It can be extended to the use of a Register Transfer Level (RTL power analysis after RTL codes are translated to Boolean equations. A new method for representing state-dependent power models is also introduced in the paper to reduce the complexity of power modeling and to improve the performance of power analysis. The modeling method supports not only the empirical power analysis, but also general simulation-based power analysis methods.

  18. Empirical Estimates in Optimization Problems: Survey with Special Regard to Heavy Tails and Dependent Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 30 (2012), s. 92-111 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic optimization * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tails * independent and weak dependent random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-empirical estimates in optimization problems survey with special regard to heavy tails and dependent data.pdf

  19. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  20. Empirical PPGIS/PGIS mapping of ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Gregory G; Fagerholm, Nora

    2015-01-01

    We review public participation GIS (PPGIS) and participatory GIS (PGIS) approaches for ecosystem services to identify current and best practice. PPGIS/PGIS are spatially explicit methods that have evolved over the past decade to identify a range of ecosystem services. Although PPGIS/PGIS methods...... demonstrate high potential for the identification of ecosystem services, especially cultural services, there has been no review to evaluate the methods to identify best practice. Through examination of peer-reviewed, empirical PPGIS/PGIS studies, we describe the types of ecosystem services mapped, the spatial...... and provisioning services being most common. There was little evidence that mapped ecosystem data was used for actual decision support in land use planning. Best practice has yet to coalesce in this field that has been dominated by methodological pluralism and case study research. We suggest greater use...