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Sample records for lena river russia

  1. Characterisation of Fe-bearing particles and colloids in the Lena River basin, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Catherine; Andersson, Per S.; Shaw, Samuel; Burke, Ian T.; Kutscher, Liselott; Murphy, Melissa J.; Maximov, Trofim; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Porcelli, Don

    2017-09-01

    Rivers are significant contributors of Fe to the ocean. However, the characteristics of chemically reactive Fe remain poorly constrained, especially in large Arctic rivers, which drain landscapes highly susceptible to climate change and carbon cycle alteration. The aim of this study was a detailed characterisation (size, mineralogy, and speciation) of riverine Fe-bearing particles (>0.22 μm) and colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) and their association with organic carbon (OC), in the Lena River and tributaries, which drain a catchment almost entirely underlain by permafrost. Samples from the main channel and tributaries representing watersheds that span a wide range in topography and lithology were taken after the spring flood in June 2013 and summer baseflow in July 2012. Fe-bearing particles were identified, using Transmission Electron Microscopy, as large (200 nm-1 μm) aggregates of smaller (20-30 nm) spherical colloids of chemically-reactive ferrihydrite. In contrast, there were also large (500 nm-1 μm) aggregates of clay (illite) particles and smaller (100-200 nm) iron oxide particles (dominantly hematite) that contain poorly reactive Fe. TEM imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) indicated that the ferrihydrite is present as discrete particles within networks of amorphous particulate organic carbon (POC) and attached to the surface of primary produced organic matter and clay particles. Together, these larger particles act as the main carriers of nanoscale ferrihydrite in the Lena River basin. The chemically reactive ferrihydrite accounts for on average 70 ± 15% of the total suspended Fe in the Lena River and tributaries. These observations place important constraints on Fe and OC cycling in the Lena River catchment area and Fe-bearing particle transport to the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Distribution of methane in the Lena Delta and Buor-Khaya Bay, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bussmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lena River is one of the largest Russian rivers draining into the Laptev Sea. The permafrost areas surrounding the Lena are predicted to thaw at increasing rates due to global temperature increases. With this thawing, large amounts of carbon – either organic or in the gaseous forms carbon dioxide and methane – will reach the waters of the Lena and the adjacent Buor-Khaya Bay (Laptev Sea. Methane concentrations and the isotopic signal of methane in the waters of the Lena Delta and estuary were monitored from 2008 to 2010. Creeks draining from permafrost soils produced hotspots for methane input into the river system (median concentration 1500 nM compared with concentrations of 30–85 nM observed in the main channels of the Lena. No microbial methane oxidation could be detected; thus diffusion is the main process of methane removal. We estimated that the riverine diffusive methane flux is 3–10 times higher than the flux from surrounding terrestrial environment. To maintain the observed methane concentrations in the river, additional methane sources are necessary. The methane-rich creeks could be responsible for this input. In the estuary of Buor-Khaya Bay, methane concentrations decreased to 26–33 nM. However, within the bay no consistent temporal and spatial pattern could be observed. The methane-rich waters of the river were not diluted with marine water because of a strong stratification of the water column. Thus, methane is released from the estuary and from the river mainly by diffusion into the atmosphere.

  3. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km 2 watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the pollution

  4. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, André, E-mail: andrerd@gmail.com; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P., E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km{sup 2} watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the

  5. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    City Yakutsk (administrative, culture and industrial center of the North East of Russia) situated on the left bank of large Russian river Lena last decades has faced with many problems, concerning intensive channel processes. Most dramatic among them are sediment accumulation near main water intake structure, supplying city Yakutsk by the drinking water, and deterioration in conditions of the navigation roots to the main city ports. Hydrodynamic modelling has been chosen as the main tool for analyses of the modern tendencies in channel processes and for the evaluation of possible channel improvement measures efficiency. STREAM_2D program complex (authors V. Belikov et al.), which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh and take into account sediment transport, was used for the simulations. Detailed field data about water regime of the Lena river, bathymetry of the channels and topography of the floodplains was collected for model developing. Model area has covered 75 km of the Lena river valley including branched channels and wide floodplain from Tabaga to Kangalassy gauge cites. Data of these stations were used for model boundary conditions assigning. Data of gauge station city Yakutsk as well as measured during field campaign water levels and flow velocities was taken into account for model calibration and validation. Results of modelling has demonstrated close correspondence with observed water levels and discharges distribution between channel branches for different hydrological situations. Different combinations of hydrographs of 1, 10, 50% exceedance probability was used as input for modelling of channel deformations. Simulation results has shown that in future 10 years aligning of water discharges distribution between main Lena river branches near Yakutsk is possible, that is a positive tendency from the point of view of water supply of the city. More than 15

  7. 137Cs distribution and geochemistry of Lena River (Siberia) drainage basin lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Pyrtle, A.; Scott, M.R.; Laing, T.E.; Smol, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Lena River is the second largest river that discharges into the Arctic Ocean. It is therefore important to determine not only the direct impact its discharge has on the 137Cs concentration of the Arctic, but also the potential its drainage basin has as a 137Cs source. 137Cs surface sediment concentrations and inventory values, which range from 4.97 to 338 Bq kg -1 and 357 to 1732 Bq m -2 , respectively, were determined for the Lena River drainage basin lake samples, via gamma analysis. The average geochemical and mineralogical composition of a subset of samples was also determined using neutron activation analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry techniques. Results of these geochemical analyses allowed for the identification of key geochemical factors that influence the distribution of 137Cs in the Lena River drainage basin. 137Cs profiles indicate that Lena River drainage basin lacustrine sediments serve as a record of 137Cs fallout. Based on the downcore 137Cs, %illite, %smectite, %Al and %Mn distribution patterns, it was concluded that a small fraction of non-selectively bound 137Cs was remobilized at depth in some cores. Inconsistencies between the actual 137Cs fallout record and the 137Cs profiles determined for the lake sediments were attributed to 137Cs remobilization in subsurface sediments. In addition to establishing the agreement between the global atmospheric fallout record and the downcore 137Cs distribution patterns determined for these sediments, results indicate that 137Cs deposited during periods of maximum atmospheric release was buried and is not susceptible to surface erosion processes. However, mean 137Cs concentrations of the lacustrine surface sediments (125 Bq kg -1 ) are still significantly higher than those of the nearby Lena River estuary (11.22 Bq kg -1 ) and Laptev Sea (6.00 Bq kg -1 ). Our study suggests that the Lena River drainage basin has the potential to serve as a source of 137Cs to the adjacent Arctic

  8. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  9. Carbon Stocks in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Grosse, G.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of soils in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies report mainly the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 29) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 7 kg m-2 and 48 kg m-2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 29 kg m-2 (n = 22) for the first terrace and 14 kg m-2 (n = 7) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions a mean SSOC of 27 kg m-2 (min: 0.1 kg m-2, max: 126 kg m-2) for a depth of 1 m was reported [1]. For up-scaling solely over the soil-covered areas of the Lena River Delta, we excluded all water bodies >3,600 m2 from the geomorphological units studied (first river terrace and the active floodplains) and

  10. Spatial variation in concentration and sources of organic carbon in the Lena River, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Liselott; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Porcelli, Don; Hirst, Catherine; Maximov, Trofim C.; Petrov, Roman E.; Andersson, Per S.

    2017-08-01

    Global warming in permafrost areas is expected to change fluxes of riverine organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. Here OC concentrations, stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C), and carbon-nitrogen ratios (C/N) are presented from 22 sampling stations in the Lena River and 40 of its tributaries. Sampling was conducted during two expeditions: the first in July 2012 in the south and southeastern region and the second in June 2013 in the northern region of the Lena basin. The data showed significant spatial differences in concentrations and major sources of OC. Mean subcatchment slopes were correlated with OC concentrations, implying that mountainous areas in general had lower concentrations than lowland areas. δ13C and C/N data from tributaries originating in mountainous areas indicated that both dissolved and particulate OC (DOC and POC) were mainly derived from soil organic matter (SOM). In contrast, tributaries originating in lowland areas had larger contributions from fresh vegetation to DOC, while aquatically produced OC was the major source of POC. We suggest that these differences in dominant sources indicated differences in dominant flow pathways. Tributaries with larger influence of fresh vegetation probably had surficial flow pathways, while tributaries with more SOM influence had deeper water flow pathways. Thus, the future export of OC to the Arctic Ocean will likely be controlled by changes in spatial patterns in hydroclimatology and the depth of the active layers influencing the dominant water flow pathways in Arctic river basins.

  11. Seasonal changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter composition and quality in the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Winterfeld, M.; Hefter, J.; Bodenstab, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Eulenburg, A.; Heim, B.; Koch, B.; Schefuss, E.; Moerth, C. M.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic rivers are known to export large quantities of carbon by discharge of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), and in a warming and progressively moister Arctic, these exports may increase resulting in a reduction of arctic continental carbon stocks. These rivers have highly variable discharge rates with a pronounced maximum during the spring freshet associated with highest concentrations of DOC and POC. Most studies investigating the isotopic composition and quality of carbon exported by Arctic rivers rely on samples taken in summer during base flow, which is due to the logistical challenges associated with sampling in the remote Arctic permafrost regions. Here we present a record of δ13C and Δ14C of DOC and POC collected between late May during the freshet and late August 2014 in the Lena River Delta. POC Δ14C shows an initial trend towards older values in the spring samples, which is reversed in summer, associated with a shift towards more depleted δ13C values. We interpret this aging trend as reflecting progressive thawing throughout the ice-free season, resulting in mobilization of progressively older carbon from deeper thawed layers. The summer reversal indicates admixture of aquatic organic matter. DOC Δ14C, in contrast, remains at relatively modern levels with rather constant δ13C values throughout the sampling period. We furthermore analysed the biomarker composition of Lena Delta particulate OM collected in spring and summer. From spring to summer, we observe trends in abundance of individual leaf-wax derived biomarkers indicating higher abundance of algal biomass in the summer particles. Trends in soil microbial biomarkers and compound-specific δD of leaf-wax lipids suggest a shift in sources towards higher contributions from the southern catchment in summer. DOC composition investigated with FT-ICR-MS changes from spring with higher abundances of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios to late summer, when fewer compounds

  12. Sources of particulate organic matter discharged by the Lena River using lignin phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Trojahn, S.; Hefter, J.; Pittauer, D.; Zubrzycki, S.; Han, P.; Rethemeyer, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2016-12-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) discharged by rivers and deposited offshore their mouths is generally assumed to record an integrated signal from the watershed and therefore provides an archive of past environmental changes. Yet, in large river systems the riverine POM might be trapped in flood plains and the lower reaches resulting in an inefficient transport of POM particularly from the distal parts of the watershed. Further, the POM likely undergoes degradation during transport from source to sink. The Lena River is one of these large river systems stretching from 53°N to 71°N in central Siberia. The watershed can be broadly divided into two different biomes, taiga in the south and tundra in the northernmost part. The relative contribution of these biomes to the POM load of the river and its discharge to the ocean as well as the changes it is undergoing during transport are not well understood. Here we present the lignin phenol composition of different grain size fractions (bulk, 2mm-63µm, gymnosperm-derived POM, particularly close to the river mouth and in the <63µm fraction. Because of the large heterogeneity of organic matter degradation in the soil samples and their grain size fractions, it is not quite clear to which degree the POM gets mineralized within the soils and during transport in the river compared to degradation occurring during cross shelf transport.

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Arctic Deltaic Sediments: Investigations in the Lena River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SSOC) of deltaic sediments in arctic permafrost regions is known to be significant but is insufficiently investigated so far. Previous SSOC studies were conducted mainly in the comparatively well studied Mackenzie River Delta (area: 13,000 km2) in Canada. The few studies from other arctic delta regions report only the gravimetric carbon (C) contents and are limited to the active layer depth at the time of sampling. Since C deposits in permafrost regions are likely to become a future C source, more detailed investigations of the presently frozen likely carbon-rich sediment and soil layers in other arctic delta regions are of importance. Our investigations were performed on Samoylov Island in the southern-central part of the Lena River Delta (32,000 km2) which is the largest arctic delta and the fifth largest delta worldwide. Samoylov Island is representative for the Lena River Delta's first terrace and the active floodplains. Within this study a new portable Snow-Ice-Permafrost-Research-Establishment (SIPRE) auger was used during a spring field session to obtain 1 m deep frozen soil cores (n = 37) distributed over all known soil and vegetation units. These cores are analyzed for bulk contents of nitrogen (N) and C, ice content and bulk density (BD) and to determine the SSOC including the rarely investigated currently permanently frozen layers up to 1 m depth on Samoylov Island. Our study provides evidence for high SSOC for a depth of 1 m for the investigated area ranging between 6 kg m2 and 54 kg m2. Considering the spatial extent of different soil units on the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island, the area-weighted average SSOC were 31 kg m2 (n = 31) for the first terrace and 15 kg m2 (n = 6) for the active floodplain. For the correspondent soil units of Turbels and Orthels in circumpolar permafrost regions, Tarnocai et al. 2009 reported a mean SSOC of 27 kg m2 (min: 0.1 kg m2, max: 126 kg m2) for a depth of 1 m. For up

  14. Genesis and Diversity of Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  15. Going with the flow: Hydrologic response of middle Lena River (Siberia) to the climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Emmanuèle; Dépret, Thomas; Costard, François; Virmoux, Clément; Fedorov, Alexander; Grancher, Delphine; Konstantinov, Pavel; Brunstein, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recent observations indicate that over the last decades, climate change has increasingly influenced the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme climatic and hydrologic events. The main aim of this study is to determine the hydrologic response, especially the flood evolution, of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia to ongoing climate change. Draining the coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere, the Lena River is impacted by global warming, which is particularly pronounced in periglacial areas characterized by deep and continuous permafrost. We document the hydrologic variability of the Middle Lena River, first by characterizing trend and stationarity of monthly discharges. Second, we analyze on the basis of the peak over threshold method (POT) the temporal evolution of intensity and duration of three discharge classes: bar-full discharge, bank-full discharge and large floods. Finally, we also determined the dates of the flood beginning and of the flood peak. Data on mean monthly discharge and flood peaks are available since 1936 and daily discharges since 1954. Our results provide evidence for a net hydrologic change with an increase in the intensity and duration of floods in the two decades ending in 2012. The frequency of high floods is unprecedented, and small floods no longer occur. The tail of the temporal distribution of the flood peak is also changing. More frequent early floods are occurring in spring with secondary flood peaks in summer, the latest probably represents the most striking change. Furthermore, the changes have been accelerating since 2004. Finally, two islands were instrumented (2008-2012) in order to study the flooding dynamics with a better precision.

  16. Landscape controls and vertical variability of soil organic carbon storage in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewert, Matthias Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Heim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To project the future development of the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in permafrost environments, the spatial and vertical distribution of key soil properties and their landscape controls needs to be understood. This article reports findings from the Arctic Lena River Delta where we sampled 50...... soil pedons. These were classified according to the U.S.D.A. Soil Taxonomy and fall mostly into the Gelisol soil order used for permafrost-affected soils. Soil profiles have been sampled for the active layer (mean depth 58 ± 10 cm) and the upper permafrost to one meter depth. We analyze SOC stocks...

  17. Characterization of terrestrial organic matter transported through the Lena River Delta (NE Siberia) to its adjacent nearshore zone using lignin phenols, δ13C and Δ14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goni, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Han, P.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OMterr) from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soils from its vast catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ13C and Δ14C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta. A simple linear mixing model based on the lignin phenol distributions indicates OM in TSM samples from the delta and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contains comparable contributions from gymnosperm sources, which are primarily from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small area covered by tundra (~12% of total catchment), the input of tundra-derived OM input is substantial and likely to increase in a warming Arctic. Radiocarbon compositions (Δ14C) of bulk OM in TSM samples varied from -55 to -391‰, i.e. 14C ages of 395 to 3920 yrs BP. Using δ13C compositions to estimate the fraction of phytoplankton-derived OM and assuming that this material has a modern 14C signature, we inferred the Δ14C compositions of OMterr in TSM exported by the Lena River to range between -190 and -700‰. Such variability in the ages of OMTERR (i.e. 1640 to 9720 14C yrs BP) reflects the heterogeneous composition and residence time of OM in the Lena River catchment soils (Holocene to Pleistocene ages). Lignin phenol and Δ14C compositions of surface sediments from the adjacent Buor Khaya Bay suggest that OMTERR deposited there is older and more degraded than materials present in river particles and catchment soils. Stronger

  18. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 2: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2015-04-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south-stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl : vanillyl (C / V) and syringyl : vanillyl (S / V) ratios are > 0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are > 0.16 and > 0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C / V and S / V ratios, and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (~ 12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad / AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (> 0.7 and > 0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (> 1.0 and > 0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River

  19. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River Delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 1: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl:vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl:vanillyl (S/V) ratios are >0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are >0.16 and >0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C/V and S/V ratios and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (∼12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad/AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (>0.7 and >0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (>1.0 and >0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River summer TSM could

  20. Baseline characteristics of climate, permafrost and land cover from a new permafrost observatory in the Lena River Delta, Siberia (1998–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samoylov Island is centrally located within the Lena River Delta at 72° N, 126° E and lies within the Siberian zone of continuous permafrost. The landscape on Samoylov Island consists mainly of late Holocene river terraces with polygonal tundra, ponds and lakes, and an active floodplain. The island has been the focus of numerous multidisciplinary studies since 1993, which have focused on climate, land cover, ecology, hydrology, permafrost and limnology. This paper aims to provide a framework for future studies by describing the characteristics of the island's meteorological parameters (temperature, radiation and snow cover, soil temperature, and soil moisture. The land surface characteristics have been described using high resolution aerial images in combination with data from ground-based observations. Of note is that deeper permafrost temperatures have increased between 0.3 to 1.3 °C over the last five years. However, no clear warming of air and active layer temperatures is detected since 1998, though winter air temperatures during recent years have not been as cold as in earlier years. Data related to this article are archived under: http://doi. pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.806233 .

  1. Raptors of the Izdrevaya River Basin, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compiles the results of episodic visits of the aurhoes to the basin of the Izdrevaya river during 2012–2016. The main goals of those visits were: to figure out the species composition of nesting fauna of birds of prey, estabishing the manner of nesting pairs’ distribution and designing a system of nestboxes for different species of birds of prey and owls. 8 species of Falconiformes are present in the Izdrevaya river basin, 4 of which are nesting, and 3 species of Strigiformes, 2 of which are nesting. The Black Kite (Milvus migrans has maximum density in the Izdrevaya river basin – 51.83 ind./100km2 (n=93. The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo is the second in number after the Black Kite, its density being 8.88 ind/100km2 of the total area. The Ural Owl (Strix uralensis, encountered only on two territories in 2012, inhabited 4 nestboxes in 2013 as the result of biotechnical measures taken, and its number increased to 8 pairs successfully breeding in the nextboxes in 2016. Main negative factors for birds of prey in the Izdrevaya river basin were established: electrocution on power lines, illegal logging, illegal construction of dams and the construction of waste-sorting plant with a range of solid municipal waste.

  2. The exchange of energy, water and carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzbach, L.

    2006-07-01

    The ecosystem-scale exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia characterised by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The measurements were performed on the surface of a Holocene river terrace characterised by wet polygonal tundra. The soils at the site are characterised by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The fluctuations of the H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured with a closed-path infrared gas analyser. The fast-response eddy covariance measurements were supplemented by a set of slow-response meteorological and soil-meteorological measurements. The combined datasets of the two campaigns 2003 and 2004 were used to characterise the seasonal course of the energy, water and CO{sub 2} fluxes and the underlying processes for the synthetic measurement period May 28..October 21 2004/2003 including the period of snow and soil thawing as well as the beginning of refreezing. The synthetic measurement period 2004/2003 was characterised by a long snow ablation period and a late start of the growing season. On the other hand, the growing season ended also late due to high temperatures and snow-free conditions in September. The cumulative summer energy partitioning was characterised by low net radiation, large ground heat flux, low latent heat flux and very low sensible heat flux compared to other tundra sites. These findings point out the major importance of the very cold permafrost for the summer energy budget of the tundra in Northern Siberia. (orig./SR)

  3. Petroleum geology and resources of the Nepa-Botuoba High, Angara-Lena Terrace, and Cis-Patom Foredeep, southeastern Siberian Craton, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    Three structural provinces of this report, the Nepa-Botuoba High, the Angara-Lena Terrace, and the Cis-Patom Foredeep, occupy the southeastern part of the Siberian craton northwest of the Baikal-Patom folded region (fig. 1). The provinces are similar in many aspects of their history of development, stratigraphic composition, and petroleum geology characteristics. The sedimentary cover of the provinces overlies the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement of the Siberian craton. Over most of the area of the provinces, the basement is covered by Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 Ma) clastic and carbonate rocks. Unlike the case in the more northwestern areas of the craton, older Riphean sedimentary rocks here are largely absent and they appear in the stratigraphic sequence only in parts of the Cis-Patom Foredeep province. Most of the overlying sedimentary section consists of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate and clastic rocks, and it includes a thick Lower Cambrian salt-bearing formation. Younger rocks are thin and are present only in marginal areas. 1 A single total petroleum system (TPS) embraces all three provinces. The TPS is unique in two aspects: (1) its rich hydro-carbon reserves are derived from Precambrian source rocks and (2) preservation of oil and gas fields is extremely long owing to the presence of the Lower Cambrian undeformed salt seal. Discovered reserves of the TPS are about 2 billion barrels of oil and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas. The stratigraphic distribution of oil and gas reserves is narrow; all fields are in Vendian to lowermost Cambrian clastic and carbonate reservoirs that occur below Lower Cambrian salt. Both structural and stratigraphic traps are known. Source rocks are absent in the sedimentary cover of the provinces, with the possible exception of a narrow zone on the margin of the Cis-Patom Foredeep province. Source rocks are interpreted here to be Riphean and Vendian organic-rich shales of the Baikal-Patom folded region

  4. Monitoring Bedfast Ice and Ice Phenology in Lakes of the Lena River Delta Using TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Coherence Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Antonova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes and ponds are major elements of permafrost landscapes, occupying up to 40% of the land area in some Arctic regions. Shallow lakes freeze to the bed, thus preventing permafrost thaw underneath them and limiting the length of the period with greenhouse gas production in the unfrozen lake sediments. Radar remote sensing permits to distinguish lakes with bedfast ice due to the difference in backscatter intensities from bedfast and floating ice. This study investigates the potential of a unique time series of three-year repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX imagery with high temporal (11 days and spatial (10 m resolution for monitoring bedfast ice as well as ice phenology of lakes in the zone of continuous permafrost in the Lena River Delta, Siberia. TSX backscatter intensity is shown to be an excellent tool for monitoring floating versus bedfast lake ice as well as ice phenology. TSX-derived timing of ice grounding and the ice growth model CLIMo are used to retrieve the ice thicknesses of the bedfast ice at points where in situ ice thickness measurements were available. Comparison shows good agreement in the year of field measurements. Additionally, for the first time, an 11-day sequential interferometric coherence time series is analyzed as a supplementary approach for the bedfast ice monitoring. The coherence time series detects most of the ice grounding as well as spring snow/ice melt onset. Overall, the results show the great value of TSX time series for monitoring Arctic lake ice and provide a basis for various applications: for instance, derivation of shallow lakes bathymetry, evaluation of winter water resources and locating fish winter habitat as well as estimation of taliks extent in permafrost.

  5. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  6. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Studying neutrino properties in the future LENA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a next-generation neutrino detector based on 50 kt of liquid scintillator. The low detection threshold, the good energy resolution and the potent background discrimination inherent to liquid scintillator make LENA a versatile observatory for astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos. The present contribution highlights LENA's capabilities for studying neutrino properties based on both natural and artificial sources

  8. Methane distribution and oxidation around the Lena Delta in summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Ingeborg; Hackbusch, Steffen; Schaal, Patrick; Wichels, Antje

    2017-11-01

    The Lena River is one of the largest Russian rivers draining into the Laptev Sea. The predicted increases in global temperatures are expected to cause the permafrost areas surrounding the Lena Delta to melt at increasing rates. This melting will result in high amounts of methane reaching the waters of the Lena and the adjacent Laptev Sea. The only biological sink that can lower methane concentrations within this system is methane oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria. However, the polar estuary of the Lena River, due to its strong fluctuations in salinity and temperature, is a challenging environment for bacteria. We determined the activity and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria by a tracer method and by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We described the methanotrophic population with a molecular fingerprinting method (monooxygenase intergenic spacer analysis), as well as the methane distribution (via a headspace method) and other abiotic parameters, in the Lena Delta in September 2013. The median methane concentrations were 22 nmol L-1 for riverine water (salinity (S) 20). The Lena River was not the source of methane in surface water, and the methane concentrations of the bottom water were mainly influenced by the methane concentration in surface sediments. However, the bacterial populations of the riverine and polar waters showed similar methane oxidation rates (0.419 and 0.400 nmol L-1 d-1), despite a higher relative abundance of methanotrophs and a higher estimated diversity in the riverine water than in the polar water. The methane turnover times ranged from 167 days in mixed water and 91 days in riverine water to only 36 days in polar water. The environmental parameters influencing the methane oxidation rate and the methanotrophic population also differed between the water masses. We postulate the presence of a riverine methanotrophic population that is limited by sub-optimal temperatures and substrate concentrations and a polar

  9. Luminescence dosimetry in a contaminated settlement of the Techa River valley, Southern Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, C., E-mail: clemens.woda@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bougrov, N.G. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fiedler, I. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Jacob, P. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is applied to quartz extracted from bricks from a mill in a contaminated village (Muslyumovo) of the Techa River valley, Southern Urals, Russia, for the purpose of dose reconstruction. Previous works [. First international intercomparison of luminescence techniques using samples from the Techa river valley. Health Phys. 82, 94-101]have shown that the expected dose due to man-made sources of radiation in the bricks is in the same range as the background dose due to natural sources of radiation, therefore a precise estimate of the cumulative and background dose is of utmost importance. Cumulative doses could be assessed with OSL with a precision of around 4% and lie between 450 and 600 mGy. The background dose was carefully determined by a combination of laboratory measurements, in-situ gamma spectrometry and Monte Carlo modelling. The results show that the gamma-dose rate of the soil was overestimated and the fractional brick gamma-dose rate underestimated in previous studies, but that the overall gamma-dose rate was nearly correct, due to mutual compensation. The obtained anthropogenic doses in brick measured with OSL lie between 200 and 300 mGy, show variability between adjacent bricks within error limits for one spot but a significant difference for two samples is observed for another spot. A distinct dependency of measured dose upon sample height is observed, which is an indication of a source distribution, which extends over a large area and up to a certain depth into the soil and in which higher contaminated areas are located at a greater distance to the mill than lower contaminated areas. A measured dose-depth profile is compared with previously published Monte Carlo calculations to verify the source energy.

  10. Distribution and Geochemistry of Rare-Earth Elements in Rivers of Southern and Eastern Primorye (Far East of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudaev, O. V.; Bragin, I. V.; A, Kharitonova N.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in anthropogenic, technogenic and natural surface waters of southern and eastern Primorye, Far East of Russia, are presented in this study. The obtained results indicated that most of REE (up to 70%) were transported as suspended matter, ratio between dissolved and suspended forms varing from the source to the mouth of rivers. It is shown that all REE (except Ce) in the source of the rivers are predominantly presented in dissolved form, however, the content of light and heavy REE is different. Short-term enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) caused by REE-rich runoff from waste dumps and mining is neutralized by the increase in river flow rate. Rivers in urban areas are characterized by high content of LREE in dissolved form and very low in suspended one.

  11. Reconstructing the small river basin sediment budget and associated particle-bound contaminants redistribution (Chern River, European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Aseeva, Elena; Golosov, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstruction of the basin-scale sediment budget and associated particle-bound pollutants redistribution was carried out within the upper part of the Chern River basin (133 km2). It involved application of integrated approach based on use of several independent techniques. The study river basin is located on the border between the Orel and Kursk Regions of the Central European Russia nearby the Mikhailovskiy opencast iron ore mine and processing plant, which are believed to be the main local sources of air-borne pollutants. In addition, the basin was contaminated by radionuclide fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Combination of geomorphic, geochemical, soil survey and geodetic methods has allowed authors to evaluate dynamics of sediment and contaminants redistribution for the last 50 years (since the beginning of a mining activity) within the upper part of the basin upstream from the reservoir, located in the middle reach of the main valley. Main techniques applied were field description of soil or sediment sections, the 137Cs radioactive tracer (for estimation average soil loss rates from eroding cultivated hillslopes and for reconstruction of accumulation rates and sediment microstratigraphy for deposition locations such as main river floodplain and bottoms of small dry valleys), chemical analysis (content of selected heavy metals and As - both in mobile forms by atomic absorption spectroscopy and total by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, organic C content, pH), geomorphic and detailed geodetic survey of selected key sections of the Chern River floodplain, calculation of average soil erosion rates for cultivated area of the studied part of the basin by the empirical model. In addition, two detailed bottom sediment cores were taken from the reservoir bottom which intercepts practically all the sediment delivered from the upper part of the basin. Integrating the obtained data, it has been found out that substantial changes of the sediment budget took

  12. Snowchange Oral History - Work Among the Kolyma River Indigenous Societies in Siberia, Russia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes oral history accounts from Indigenous people participating in the Snowchange project in Siberia, Russia. It provides geographic and...

  13. Reconstruction of GeV Neutrino Events in LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenberg, R.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hellgartner, D.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Winter, J.; Wurm, M.; Peltoniemi, J.

    2011-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a proposed next generation liquid-scintillator detector with about 50 kt target mass. Besides the detection of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, supernova neutrinos and the search for the proton decay, LENA could also be used as the far detector of a next generation neutrino beam. The present contribution outlines the status of the Monte Carlo studies towards the reconstruction of GeV neutrinos in LENA. Both the tracking capabilities at a few hundred MeV, most interesting for a beta beam, and above 1 GeV for a superbeam experiment are presented.

  14. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  15. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.C.; Fan, C.Y.; Hsieh, K.C.; McCullen, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  16. A LENA Instrument onboard BepiColombo and Chandrayaan-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Yoichi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Asamura, Kazushi; Wurz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) observations bring us important information on particle environments around planetary objects such as Mercury and the Moon. In this paper, we report on a new development of a LENA instrument of light weight (∼2 kg) for planetary explorations. The instrument is capable of energy and mass discrimination with a large sensitivity by utilizing surface ionization followed by an electrostatic analyzer and a time-of-flight velocity spectrometer. The performance of the instrument is investigated by numerical simulations. This enables us to obtain detailed performance characterization of LENA measurements by the instrument. We also made trajectory tracing of photons entering the instrument to examine photon rejection capability. The simulations show that the energy range is from ∼10 eV to >3.3 keV and the angular resolutions are 10 degx25 deg for 25-eV LENAs, which are sufficient for planetary LENA observations. Laboratory tests of a prototype model of the instruments developed with this study are now ongoing. According to the initial tests, the measurement principle of the instrument has been verified. This LENA instrument has been selected for both the Indian Moon exploration mission Chandrayaan-1 and the European-Japanese Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo.

  17. Methane distribution and oxidation around the Lena Delta in summer 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bussmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lena River is one of the largest Russian rivers draining into the Laptev Sea. The predicted increases in global temperatures are expected to cause the permafrost areas surrounding the Lena Delta to melt at increasing rates. This melting will result in high amounts of methane reaching the waters of the Lena and the adjacent Laptev Sea. The only biological sink that can lower methane concentrations within this system is methane oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria. However, the polar estuary of the Lena River, due to its strong fluctuations in salinity and temperature, is a challenging environment for bacteria. We determined the activity and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria by a tracer method and by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We described the methanotrophic population with a molecular fingerprinting method (monooxygenase intergenic spacer analysis, as well as the methane distribution (via a headspace method and other abiotic parameters, in the Lena Delta in September 2013. The median methane concentrations were 22 nmol L−1 for riverine water (salinity (S  < 5, 19 nmol L−1 for mixed water (5 < S < 20 and 28 nmol L−1 for polar water (S > 20. The Lena River was not the source of methane in surface water, and the methane concentrations of the bottom water were mainly influenced by the methane concentration in surface sediments. However, the bacterial populations of the riverine and polar waters showed similar methane oxidation rates (0.419 and 0.400 nmol L−1 d−1, despite a higher relative abundance of methanotrophs and a higher estimated diversity in the riverine water than in the polar water. The methane turnover times ranged from 167 days in mixed water and 91 days in riverine water to only 36 days in polar water. The environmental parameters influencing the methane oxidation rate and the methanotrophic population also differed between the water masses. We

  18. Creation of of the National GIS system «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia: Spatial Analysis, Assessment and Modeling»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg; Gilyazov, Albert; Ivanov, Maksim; Kharchenko, Sergei; Maltsev, Kirill; Mozzherin, Vadim; Muharamova, Svetlana; Shynbergenov, Erlan

    2016-04-01

    Problem-oriented geographic information system and geoportal «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia» is proposed to form the base for investigations concerned to assessment and prognosis of geo-ecological state of river basins belonging to the European Russia (approx. 4 million of sq. km. in total). This large part of Russia concentrates the predominant part of country's population, industrial and agricultural potential. Actuality of assessment and prognosis of the environmental state for the chosen territory is caused by the increasing anthropogenic influence onto the basin geosystems of Russia and triggering negative riverbed-erosion processes, shifts of river runoff regimes, and lack of drinking water resources. These problems are demanding for examination of the response of the basin geosystems from various landscape zones to the anthropogenic impact, and the climate change, for understanding, predicting and managing streamflow. Assessment of river basins and changes occurring in them is based on a complex spatial-temporal analysis of long-term monitoring data, the use of remote sensing and maps of state surveys. All available geo-information will be integrated into the multi-function, problem-oriented GIS. Proposed approaches of investigation: cartographic and geoinformational methods, automated procedures of territory zoning, automated procedures of interpretation of remote sensing images, modern statistical methods of analysis (geostatistics, statistical and mathematical models). Study area: the European Part of Russia (except for mountainous areas). Scale studies (level of spatial detail): Regional (corresponding to a scale 1: 1 000 000). The object of study: Geosystems river basins. Subject of study: - The development of GIS; - Analysis of the spatial and temporal relationships of river runoff; - Quantitative assessment of the current geo-ecological state of European Russia river basins. Scientific novelty of

  19. Experience of Assessment of Current Radiation Doses to the Population from the Contamination of the Techa River (The Urals, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakov, V. N.; Pozolotina, V. N.; Cabianca, T.; Simmonds, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Significant quantities (about 108 PBq) of liquid radioactive waste were discharged to the Techa River in the Urals region of Russia in the early years of operation of the MAYK Production Association (1948-1951). The compositions of the releases consisted mainly of medium and long-lived beta emitting radionuclides: 103,106 Ru (28 PBq), 95 Zr/Nb (14 PBq), 137 Cs (13 PBq), 90 Sr (12 PBq). More than 120,000 people received high levels of radiation as a result of this contamination of the Techa River. The objective of this study is preliminary assessment of current and future radiation doses received by the population living in the affected area (Brodokalmak village). The assessment made use of local habit data and measurements of radionuclides concentrations in food and water, supplemented by model predictions whenever measurements in environmental materials were not available. Exposure pathways included in the calculations were ingestion of foods and external exposure to gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the banks of the river. Doses were calculated for three age groups (adults, children, infants) and two types of individuals: average consumers and users of the river banks, and individuals most likely to receive the highest dose. Two scenarios were considered in the calculations. In the first scenario is was assumed that access to the river banks, for both people and cattle, was restricted. For the second scenario, doses were calculated assuming that restrictions were lifted and people had free access to all areas in the village. With restrictions the highest dose estimated was 0.56 mSv/y for the most exposed adults and without restrictions this increased to 3.4 mSv/y. (author)

  20. LenaWin 1.0, user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.

    1992-08-01

    Lena W in is a program for dispersion and dose calculations, mainly connected to accidents in nuclear facilities. Besides that, it may, however, also be used for other kinds of releases. It is designed to be used both for training purpose, and in real situations. Great care has therefore been taken to ensure a simple and quick handling of the program, also in difficult situations. The program is a true Windows application, and works with version 3.0 and higher of Microsoft Windows. It was developed at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) during 1991-1992, and is used by the institute in its regular work. Lena W in is part in a larger system to handle accidental situations. An important part of this system is a database and a database handler to manage all kinds of measured data after a release. Lena W in has functions to display data taken from this database on maps

  1. RECONSTRUCTION AND REINFORCEMENT OF BRIDGE ACROSS THE RIVER. SYLVA IN KUNGUR, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ye. Heizn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sylva Bridge at Kungur city is one of the oldest road bridges in Perm region, the West Urals, Russia. Its erection was begun in 1912 and was interrupted with the First World War and the further events in Russia. The bridge was opened only in 1931. For 75 years of bridge operation the most part of bridge constructions has been acquired plural damages, both mechanical and corrosion. After the bridge inspection in 2003 and according to the calculations of its capacity, the decision on reconstruction of the bridge was accepted. The purpose of rehabilitation was to replace the timber deck by steel orthotropic deck with asphalt pavement. A new deck was to be engaged in combined action with the existing metal structures with the help of socles with high-strength bolts. Due to this, the bridge carrying capacity was increased as required by the present standards. In 2006, after tests, the bridge was opened for traffic.

  2. Arctic Lena Trough -- NOT a Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; Handt, A. V.; Nauret, F.; Gao, Y.; Feig, S.; Jovanovic, Z.

    2005-12-01

    The North American-Eurasian plate boundary traverses the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Over most of that length, it is a Mid-Ocean Ridge that spreads between about 23 mm/yr (MAR) and 10 mm/yr (Gakkel Ridge) full rate. The northern MAR and the Gakkel ridge are connected by a deep linear feature called Lena Trough. Until about 10 million years ago, Lena Trough was not an oceanic domain at all, but a continental shear zone through a narrow isthmus of continental crust that connected the American and Eurasian plates. Its opening was, significantly, the most recent and final event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent, and opened the gateway for deep water circulation between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Models for the tectonic configuration of Lena Trough have until now differed only in the number and length of fracture zones and spreading segments thought to be present. Lena Trough is a deep fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor, but these are not traceable to any parallel structures on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55 degrees. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The Northern basalts show strong chemical affinities to those of Gakkel Ridge, and can be considered a part of the Gakkel volcanic system. The rare southernmost basalts, however, are quite unique. They are alkali basalts with K2O up to 2 weight percent, highly incompaitble element enriched and occupy a corner of isotope

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF BENTHIC BIOCENOSES OF THE LOWLAND RIVER TUDOVKA (TVER REGION, RUSSIA USING COMMUNITY FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schletterer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the joint Russian-Austrian monitoring programme “REFCOND_VOLGA (2006 – 20XX”, monitoring sites were established in the headwaters of the Volga (Tver Region. River Tudovka, a right tributary to the Volga River, was included within this monitoring programme as its catchment is partly protected and has only few anthropogenic activities. The monitoring activities include physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters as well as biota with a focus is on benthic organisms (diatoms and macrozoobenthos. In this work, the longitudinal patterns in community structure are classified in the lowland river Tudovka using a novel feature-based approach taken from signal processing theory. The method first clusters field sampling data into longitudinal classes (upper, middle, lower course. Community features based on the relative frequency of individual species occurring per class are then generated. We apply both generative and discriminative classification methods. The application of generative methods provides data models which predict the probability of a new sample to belong to an existing class. In contrast, discriminative approaches search for differences between classes and allocate new data accordingly. Leveraging both methods allows for the creation of stable classifications. On this basis we show how the community features can be used to predict the longitudinal class. The community features approach also allows for a robust cross-comparison of investigation reaches over time. In cases where suitable long-term data set are available, predictive models using this approach can also be developed.

  4. Reconstructing the landscape structure of the Lena-Angara interfluve (south part of Eastern Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2015-04-01

    Historical-geographical reconstructions of the landscape structure of territories developed in the remote past constitute the necessary element in the chain of research into the dynamics and the degree of transformation of geosystems caused by the influence of the natural regularities and anthropogenic factors. The objective of this study is to determine the specific features of the territory of the Lena-Angara interfluve in the late 19th - early 20th centuries in the interest of a subsequent different-time comparative analysis of the landscape situation. An analysis of the features inherent in the functioning of the geosystems of the Lena-Angara interfluve was made by using, as an example, an elevated plateau with the sources of the Kuda river as well as of the Ilga and Kuda rivers. The relief is represented by a tableland with narrow crests of the watersheds, heavily dissected by a dense network of the valleys of rivers. The denudation processes created planate table-shaped elevations and plateaus whose range of absolute altitudes varies between 400 and 1000 m. The analysis of the landscape structure showed that the study territory was the home for mountain-taiga dark-coniferous and deciduous classes of facies. Larch, spruce-larch and, in places, pine-larch subshrub-grass-moss forests grew within the basins of the Ilga and Kulenga rivers. The watershed spaces of the Ilga-Kuda interfluve, and also the slopes of the upper reaches of the Kuda river were occupied by Siberian stone pine and larch-spruce subshrub-moss groups of facies. In spite of the ubiquitous occurrence of taiga-forest ranges, most of them transformed to derivative groups of facies. Forest fires gave impetus to a widespread occurrence of coniferous/small-leaved complexes in burned-over areas. The study area was poorly populated at the period under investigation; therefore, cultivated lands occupied very small territories. The upper reaches of the Kulenga river included small tracts of arable land

  5. The characteristics of the infection of juvenile Atlantic salmon with glochidia of the freshwater pearl mussel in rivers of Northwest Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieshko E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L. populations is globally well documented, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the status of the species and its interaction with host fishes in the rivers of the White and Baltic Seas. This study aimed to identify the host fish of pearl mussel in four rivers of Karelia (Northwest Russia, to analyse the duration of the parasitic phase, and the susceptibility of fish hosts to the infestation. Juvenile sea-migrating and land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. were identified as the most important hosts. In the Keret’ River, reduced numbers of juvenile Atlantic salmon are likely to result in a decline of pearl mussel. This problem does not appear to be present for the other three studied rivers. Pearl mussel glochidia were mostly found in yearlings (0+, whereas older fish were infected less, suggesting a more complex pattern of host use than commonly expected. The remote location of Karelian pearl mussel rivers, the high number of pearl mussels in them, and their rather pristine state all suggest that these rivers have a high conservation priority. The importance of Atlantic salmon as a host fish and the emerging declines of Atlantic salmon populations, e.g., in the Keret’ River, suggest that the sustaining of this host species should have a high conservation priority.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and mercury in Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs from the Upper Volga River, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Galushin, V.M.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Meyburg, B.-U.; Chancellor, R.D.; Ferrero, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Osprey population associated with Darwin Nature Reserve and the Rybinsk Reservoir increased from only a few pairs prior to the creation of the reservoir in the late 1940s , to about 45-50 pairs in 1994. Productivity rates were excellent in 1988 and 1989 (1.38 young/occupied nest), but extremely low in 1987 (0.47 young/occupied nest). A chemical spill into the Volga River in early 1987 resulted in a massive fish kill, which was believed responsible for low production that year. With the exception of the year of the chemical spill and 1992 (the year an egg was collected from 10 of 11 nests studied), production was comparable to rates observed in stable or increasing populations in Byelorussia, Finland, and Sweden. The p.p'-DDE (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury concentrations from eggs collected in 1992 were below known effect levels and eggshell thickness showed only 6.3 % thinning - an amount not associated with reproductive problems.

  7. A Concise Protocol for the Validation of Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) Conversational Turn Counts in Vietnamese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganek, Hillary V.; Eriks-Brophy, Alice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a protocol for the validation of the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) System's conversational turn count (CTC) for Vietnamese speakers. Ten families of children aged between 22 and 42 months, recruited near Ho Chi Minh City, participated in this project. Each child wore the LENA audio recorder for a full…

  8. Impact of recent land use and climate changes on sediment and pollutant redistribution in small catchments within the Seim River Basin (Kursk Region, European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Ivanova, Nadezda; Ivanov, Maxim; Bondarev, Valery; Lugovoy, Nikolay; Aseeva, Elena; Malyutina, Alisa

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted that changes of land use or climatic conditions can exert profound impacts on river basin sediment budgets and associated particle-bound pollutant redistribution patterns at different temporal and spatial scales. It can be especially difficult to distinguish relative importance of particular factors when the changes occur more or less within the same time frame. Such situation is typical for most parts of the agricultural belt of Russia, as period of economic downfall associated with collapse of the former Soviet Union and later gradual recovery practically coincides with period of the most significant climate changes observed in the late 20th - early 21st Centuries. Therefore it seems interesting and important to consider possible changes of fluvial systems responses within the period from 1980s to the present under different spatial scales. Here we plan to present results of the almost 10-year period of investigations of sediment and associated pollutant redistribution spatial and temporal patterns in several small catchments within the Seim River Basin (Kursk Region, European Russia). Studies dealt with small catchments and small river basins in scales from 1-2 km2 to 200 km2 located in different parts of the main basin. Works carried out included detailed geomorphic surveys, soil and sediment sections and cores description and sampling in different locations (undisturbed, erosion, transit, deposition), remote sensing data and morphometric analysis, soil erosion modeling. Integration of the results allowed constructing sediment budgets, in most cases, for two time intervals (approximately - pre-1986 and post-1986, as the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has been an important time mark at all the case study sites). It has been found out that combination of several major tendencies including abandonment and recultivation of arable fields, notable decrease of winter-frozen topsoil layer thickness and increase of heavy summer rainstorms magnitude and

  9. Moscow, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A.; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. - Highlights: • The monitoring system creation of the Moscow River is necessary. • The wastewater plant is the source of the river contamination with triclosan. • The Moscow River is contaminated with the low chlorinated biphenyls. • There is a background contamination of the Moscow River with phthalates. - The organic pollutants contamination levels of the Moscow River were investigated.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of winter discharge under climate change: Case study of rivers in European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Telegina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in hydrology is the re-evaluation of the current resources of surface and underground waters in the context of ongoing climate changes. The main feature of the present-day changes in water regime in the major portion of European Russia (ER is the substantial increase in low-water runoff, especially in winter. In this context, some features of the spatial–temporal variations of runoff values during the winter low-water period are considered. Calculations showed that the winter runoff increased at more than 95% of hydrological gauges. Changes in the minimum and average values of runoff during winter low-water period and other characteristics are evaluated against the background of climate changes in the recent decades. The spatial and temporal variability of winter runoff in European Russia is evaluated for the first time.

  12. THE FIRST RECORD OF DIMEROSACCUS ONCORHYNCHI (TREMATODA: OPECOELIDAE) IN FISHES FROM RIVERS OF PRIMORSKY TERRITORY, RUSSIA, WITH A DISCUSSION ON ITS TAXONOMIC POSITION USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedko, M B; Sokolov, S G; Atopkin, D M

    2015-01-01

    The opecoelid trematode Dimerosaccus oncorhynchi (Eguchi, 1931) Shimazu, 1980, hitherto known only from the Japanese archipelago, has been found in three species of freshwater salmonid fish (Oncorhynchus masou, Brachymystax tumensis, Salvelinus curilus) from rivers of Primorsky Territory, the Sea of Japan basin, Russia. This is the first record of the parasite in the continental part of Asia. Fishes B. tumensis and S. curilus are new hosts for D. oncorhynchi. The ecological notes, morphological description and drawings of the found trematodes clarifying the morphology of the male reproductive system are given. In the present study phylogenetic relationships of the species D. oncorhynchi with the related taxa were revealed using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Obtained results indicate the validity of D. oncorhynchi as the member of the subfamily Opecoelinae, which was closely related to the genus Opecoeloides, a representative of this subfamily.

  13. A Subpixel Classification of Multispectral Satellite Imagery for Interpetation of Tundra-Taiga Ecotone Vegetation (Case Study on Tuliok River Valley, Khibiny, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheeva, A. I.; Tutubalina, O. V.; Zimin, M. V.; Golubeva, E. I.

    2017-12-01

    The tundra-taiga ecotone plays significant role in northern ecosystems. Due to global climatic changes, the vegetation of the ecotone is the key object of many remote-sensing studies. The interpretation of vegetation and nonvegetation objects of the tundra-taiga ecotone on satellite imageries of a moderate resolution is complicated by the difficulty of extracting these objects from the spectral and spatial mixtures within a pixel. This article describes a method for the subpixel classification of Terra ASTER satellite image for vegetation mapping of the tundra-taiga ecotone in the Tuliok River, Khibiny Mountains, Russia. It was demonstrated that this method allows to determine the position of the boundaries of ecotone objects and their abundance on the basis of quantitative criteria, which provides a more accurate characteristic of ecotone vegetation when compared to the per-pixel approach of automatic imagery interpretation.

  14. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  15. Changes of cropland area in the river basins of the European part of Russia for the period 1985-2015 years, as a factor of soil erosion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The work is devoted to the effect of the change of cropland area on the rate of soil erosion in sites of the European part of Russia located in different climatic, landscape and geomorphological conditions. Mapping of the croplands on the territory of 9 river basins for the two time slices (the middle of the 1980s, and the present-day period 2013-2015) was carried out by visual interpretation of multi-seasonal images Landsat 5 and Landsat 8. Using vector layers obtained as a result of digitization, the areas of croplands in the analyzed periods have been calculated, and changes which occurred in 30 years were estimated. The decrease of croplands area was revealed in all studied river basins. An assessment of the effect of cropland reduction on the soil loss rate was carried out. Using the SRMM DEM with a 30 m spatial resolution, the following morphometric characteristics of relief for cultivated and abandoned croplands were calculated: steepness of slopes, flowpath length, factor LS. Based on the results of calculations, the average values of the factor LS reduced from 1985 to 2015 on the croplands in all considered basins. The obtained data confirm that the reduction of the croplands area is one of the factors responsible for the decrease of modern soil loss rates observed in field studies.

  16. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  17. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  18. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  19. Using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system in preschool classrooms with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.

  20. Low energy neutrino astrophysics with the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Winter, J.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will cover a broad field of physics. Apart from the detection of terrestrial and artificial neutrinos, and the search for proton decay, important contributions can be made to the astrophysics of stars by high-precision spectroscopy of low-energetic solar neutrinos and by the observation of neutrinos emitted by a galactic supernova. Moreover, the detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in LENA will offer the opportunity of studying both supernova core-collapse models and the supernova rate on cosmological timescales (z e events in an almost background-free energy window from ∼10 to 25 MeV. The search for such rare low-energetic events takes advantage of the high energy resolution and excellent background rejection possible in the LENA detector

  1. Simulations and developments of the Low Energy Neutron detector Array LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, C.; Algora, A.; Couture, A.; Csatlós, M.; Gulyás, J.; Heil, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Stuhl, L.; Sonnabend, K.; Tornyi, T.; Tovesson, F.

    2011-01-01

    Prototypes of the Low Energy Neutron detector Array (LENA) have been tested and compared with detailed GEANT simulations. LENA will consist of plastic scintillation bars with the dimensions 1000×45×10 mm 3 . The tests have been performed with γ-ray sources and neutrons originating from the neutron-induced fission of 235 U. The simulations agreed very well with the measured response and were therefore used to simulate the response to mono-energetic neutrons with different detection thresholds. LENA will be used to detect low-energy neutrons from (p,n)-type reactions with low momentum transfer foreseen at the R 3 B and EXL setups at FAIR, Darmstadt.

  2. Operating experience and maintenance at the TRIGA Mark II LENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingoli, F.; Altieri, S.; Lana, F.; Rosti, G.; Alloni, L.; Meloni, S.

    1988-01-01

    The last two years at the Trigs Mark II LENA plant were characterized by the running of the n-n-bar oscillation NADIR experiment. Consequently reactor operation was positively affected and the running hours rose again above 1000 hours per year. The LENA team was also deeply involved in the procedures for the renewal of the reactor operation license. The new requirements set by the Nuclear Energy Licensing Authority (ENEA for Italy) most of which concerning radiation protection and environmental impact, have been already fulfilled. In some cases the installation of new apparatus is underway

  3. Observation with the low energy neutral analyser (LENA) on ASDEX. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the observation with the Low Energy Neutral Particle Analyzers (LENA) at ASDEX during Ohmic discharges. The dependence of the energy distributions, the integrated fluxes, and their mean energies on various plasma parameters is documented. Connections and correlations with other edge and divertor diagnostics are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  5. Rare gases in lavas from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Moreira, M.; Snow, J. E.

    2010-06-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Arctic Ocean have been much less studied than those from the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific due to the difficulty of access related to ice cover. In 2001 and 2004 the Arctic ridges (Gakkel Ridge and Lena Trough) were intensively sampled. In this study we present the first helium, neon, and argon concentrations and isotopic ratios in a suite of samples from the ultraslow spreading Lena Trough (˜0.75 cm/yr effective full rate). Central Lena Trough (CLT) lavas display 4He/3He between 89,710 and 97,530 (R/Ra between 7.4 and 8.1), similar to the mean MORB ratio of 90,000 ± 10,000 (R/Ra = 8 ± 1). In a three neon isotope diagram, the samples fall on the MORB line, without showing any excess of nucleogenic 21Ne. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from 349 to 6964. CLT samples have a typical MORB He and Ne isotopic composition. Rare gases do not indicate any mantle heterogeneities or contribution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle, although this has been suggested previously on the basis of the Sr-Nd and Pb isotopic systems. Based on noble gas systematics, a DUPAL-like anomaly is not observed in the Arctic Ocean. We propose two possible models which reconcile the rare gases with these previous studies. The first is that the Lena Trough mantle has a marble cake structure with small-scale heterogeneities (<1 km), allowing rapid diffusion and homogenization of rare gases compared to elements such as Sr, Nd, and Pb. The second model proposes that the recycled component identified by other isotopic systems was fully degassed at a recent date. It would therefore have a negligible mass budget of rare gases compared to other isotopic systems. This would suggest that the mantle enrichment beneath Lena Trough was generated by rift-forming processes and not by recycling.

  6. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  7. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  8. A new handling tool for irradiated samples at the LENA plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloni, L.; Venturelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The handling of neutron irradiated samples at the LENA plant has been so far carried out manually, thus exposing reactor and health physics operators and reactor users to radiation doses. It was then decided to develop an automatic system operated from the reactor console. The system was divided in two sections: one taking care of sample insertion and extraction and the other of the storage of irradiated samples. This paper describes the design and the installation of the storage section. It allows a fast removal of the irradiated samples from the reactor top and their storage in lead pits at the ground level. The extraction of irradiated samples comes out to be quite simplified and radiation doses to operators and users are strongly reduced. All work from design to construction has been carried out by the personnel of the electronic group of the LENA plant

  9. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL ATOMS AT 1 AU OBSERVED BY THE IMAGE/LENA IMAGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Wurz, P.

    2009-01-01

    Observations from the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora: Global Exploration (IMAGE) Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager from 2005 are used to investigate characteristics of interstellar neutrals in the inner solar system. The LENA imager detected an interstellar neutral signal starting in 2004 December and extending to early 2005 April. Using the orientation of the field of view of the imager and the date of the loss of the interstellar neutral signal, it is concluded that the signal is consistent with a relatively compact (several degrees wide in ecliptic latitude and longitude) source of neutral helium and/or energetic (>150 eV) hydrogen originating from the solar apex direction. Observations later in 2005 are used to distinguish the composition and conclude that the relatively compact source likely contains some energetic hydrogen (in addition to the helium).

  10. The low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) at W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.; Schiavi, A.

    1994-10-01

    A detailed documentation of the experimental arrangement of the Low Energy Neutral particle Analyzer (LENA) at W7-AS is given. The diagnostic was routinely measuring CX-fluxes and energy distributions during the period from 1992 to 94. Some typical results are reported and a phenomenological discussion of the reaction of the CX-fluxes and spectra to the variation of various plasma parameters is presented. The comparison with H α -signals indicate whether variations of the CX-fluxes are due to changes of the wall recycling or due to alterations of the plasma profiles. T i profiles near the edge can be determined from the LENA-spectra when the neutral atom density is simulated by the EIRENE code. For the latter to the thesis of Heinrich (1994) is referred. (orig.)

  11. Lena Trough MORB: Trace Element and Isotopic Composition of a Very Slow Spreading Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Weis, D.; Snow, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    Extreme non-hotspot MORB compositions are less straightforward to explain than comparable OIB's, where all manner of enriched components may be derived from plume material. Here we report a new isotope and trace element study of dredged samples from the ultra-slow (7.5 mm/yr effective full-rate) Lena Trough rift in the Arctic Ocean and the western end of Gakkel Ridge (13mm/yr full rate). The few basalts found in Lena Trough are alkali-MORB with an extreme enrichment of incompatible trace elements, particularly alkalies and Ba (Ba/Th=350±50, Ba/Nb=17±1, Nb/U=69±, (La/Sm)PM=1.39±0.25) and by a garnet-source signature with (Dy/Yb)PM=1.22±0.06. The range of radiogenic isotopic ratios is 87Sr/86Sr=0.7036-0.7044, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51277-0.51230, 206Pb/204Pb=17.75-17.99, 207Pb/204Pb=15.41-15.44 and 208Pb/204Pb=37.54-37.79. In comparison, Western Gakkel Ridge MORB compositions are similar to N-MORB (Ba/Th=143±60, Ba/Nb=11±3, Nb/U=45±6, 87Sr/86Sr=0.7029-0.7030, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51307-0.51310, 206Pb/204Pb=17.97-18.08, 207Pb/204Pb=15.43-15.44, and 208Pb/204Pb=37.73-37.81). The Lena Trough high-precision MC-ICP-MS Pb data define linear Pb-Pb arrays extending to quite unradiogenic values. These arrays extend towards the more radiogenic values of some Gakkel MORBs, which show very limited variations on their own. Together with negative linear correlations between trace element ratios and Nd-Pb isotope systematics, we interpret these Pb linear arrays as reflecting mixing between a DMM component (similar to Gakkel Ridge MORB source) and a highly enriched component, with radiogenic Sr isotopes but low Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. The Lena Trough source contains residual garnet and is preferentially sampled by low degree partial melting. The source of the enriched component of the Lena Trough alkali MORB is interpreted to be olivine-free pyroxenite, taking into account the shallow pressure of partial melting, indicated by major elements. This is a clear indication of a "mantle vein

  12. Russia and the BRICS:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia.......Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia....

  13. Oedipus in Brooklyn: reading Freud on women, watching Lena Dunham's girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of Freud's Lecture 33, "Femininity" (1933), and "Mourning and Melancholia" (1917), the author proposes a reading of Freud's description of the girl becoming a woman. Female development is retold as a melancholic narrative-one in which the girl's entrance into the positive Oedipus is founded on unconscious grievance and unmourned loss of the early relationship with her mother. Castration and penis envy are reconceived as melancholic markers-the manifest content of the subjectivity of refusal, loss, and imagined repair of the early maternal relationship. Lena Dunham's HBO television series Girls is analyzed as an illustration of these theoretical understandings. © 2014 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  14. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  15. Microdosimetric measurements in the thermal neutron irradiation facility of LENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colautti, P.; Moro, D.; Chiriotti, S.; Conte, V.; Evangelista, L.; Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Postuma, I.

    2014-01-01

    A twin TEPC with electric-field guard tubes has been constructed to be used to characterize the BNCT field of the irradiation facility of LENA reactor. One of the two mini TEPC was doped with 50 ppm of 10 B in order to simulate the BNC events occurring in BNCT. By properly processing the two microdosimetric spectra, the gamma, neutron and BNC spectral components can be derived with good precision (∼6%). However, direct measurements of 10 B in some doped plastic samples, which were used for constructing the cathode walls, point out the scarce accuracy of the nominal 10 B concentration value. The influence of the Boral ® door, which closes the irradiation channel, has been measured. The gamma dose increases significantly (+51%) when the Boral ® door is closed. The crypt-cell-regeneration weighting function has been used to measure the quality, namely the RBE µ value, of the radiation field in different conditions. The measured RBE µ values are only partially consistent with the RBE values of other BNCT facilities. - Highlights: • A counter with two mini TEPCs, both equipped with electrical-field guard tubes, has been constructed. • The microdosimetric spectrum of the LENA-reactor irradiation vane has been studied. • The radiation-field quality (RBE) assessment confirms that the D n /D tot ratio is not an accurate parameter to characterize the BNCT radiation field

  16. High H2O/Ce of K-rich MORB from Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J. E.; Feig, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Lena Trough in the Arctic ocean is the oblique spreading continuation of Gakkel Ridge through the Fram Strait (eg Snow et al. 2011). Extreme trace element and isotopic compositions seen in Lena Trough basalt appear to be the enriched end member dominating the geochemistry of the Western Volcanic Zone of the Western Gakkel Ridge as traced by Pb isotopes, K2O/TiO2, Ba/Nb and other isotopic, major and trace element indicators of mixing (Nauret et al., 2011). This is in contrast to neighboring Gakkel Ridge which has been spreading for 50-60 million years. Basalts from Lena Trough also show a pure MORB noble gas signature (Nauret et al., 2010) and peridotites show no evidence of ancient components in their Os isotopes (Lassiter, et al., in press). The major and trace element compositions of the basalts, however are very distinct from MORB, being far more potassic than all but a single locality on the SW Indian Ridge. We determined H2O and trace element composiitions of a suite of 17 basalt glasses from the Central Lena Trough (CLT) and the Gakkel Western Volcanic Zone, including many of those previously analyzed by Nauret et al. (2012). The Western Gakkel glasses have high H2O/Ce for MORB (>300) suggesting a water rich source consistent with the idea that the northernmost Atlantic mantle is enriched in water (Michael et al., 1995). They are within the range of Eastern Gakkel host glasses determined by Wanless et al, 2013. The Lena Trough (CLT) glasses are very rich in water for MORB (>1% H2O) and are among the highest H2O/Ce (>400) ever measured in MORB aside from melt inclusions in olivine. Mantle melting dynamics and melt evolution cannot account for the H2O/Ce variations in MORB, as these elements have similar behavior during melting and crustal evolution. Interestingly, the H2O/K2O ratios in the basalts are only around 1. This is because the K2O levels in the CLT glasses are very high as well relative to REE. The absolutely linear relationship between H2O and K2O

  17. Hydrosweep Measurements During the Expedition ARK XX-2 to Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, S.; Kohls, T.; Roeber, S.; Snow, J.

    2004-12-01

    The region of Lena Trough and Western Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was the object of an expedition in the summer of 2004. This region is of particular geoscientific interest because of its extremely slow spreading rates and the variety of morphologic forms that are produced in this tectonic environment. Therefore, the multibeam measurement system was of particular importance to the scientific goals of the cruise. The main characteristic of the Hydrosweep DS-2 deep-water sounding system aboard RV Polarstern is the 90° or 120° coverage angle in which the seafloor is depicted with 59 specific values for water depths perpendicular to the ship's long axis. The accuracy of the measurement is approx. 1% of water depth, the frequency of the acoustic signal is 15.5 kHz. The refraction of the sonar beams was corrected by automatic crossfan calibration. By regular transmission and measurement of a sweep profile in the ship's longitudinal direction and comparison of the slant beams with the vertical beam, the mean sound velocity over the vertical water column is determined and is used for the depth computation. The data collected include depth, sidescan (2048 values per scan), and backscatter information on each of the 59 beams. During this cruise, the Lena Trough was surveyed systematically for the first time by a multibeam sonar system. The recorded area has an expanse of approx. 100000 km2 and connects previously mapped areas of the Eurasian - North-American plate boundary between Fram Strait and Gakkel Ridge. The region of Western Gakkel Ridge, mapped in 2001 (AMOR-Expedition) by RV Polarstern and USCGC Healy (USA), was extended by two more profiles (each 220 km long) along the ridge. In order to produce working maps for the expedition, the multibeam sonar data were gridded with a spacing of 50 m, producing plots with various contour line intervals. For further morphological interpretation of Lena Trough and Gakkel Ridge slope magnitude maps, slope direction maps and

  18. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques Used to Study the Anthropogenic Impact on the Sister River in the Vicinity of the Town of Klin (Moscow Region, Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Morzhukhina, S V; Chermnykh, L P; Khodakovsky, L P; Frontasyeva, M V; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The ecological fate of small rivers, tributaries of the Volga River, is of great concern in the national program of the Russian Federation "Restoration of the Volga River". The results on the elaborated hydrochemical and saprobiological water examination of the Sister River are reported along with the results on the multielement chemical analysis of surface sediments in the catchment of the town of Klin (Moscow Region) known for its numerous industrial and chemical enterprises with heavy contaminant inputs. Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study heavy metals and other toxic elements in bottom sediments. A total of 42 elements including Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined by polarography (method of inverse voltamperometry). Metal/Al rations which express the relative mobility of the elements follow the sequence: Fe > Mg > K > Na > Ca >> Zr > Mn > Zn = Sr > Cr > V > Ni = As > Co. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the bottom sediments of the Sister River reinforced us to determine t...

  19. Detection of supernova neutrinos in the liquid-scintillator experiment LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jurgen Michael Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The LENA project (Low-Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a planned large-volume liquid-scintillator detector. The good energy resolution, low-energy threshold, and its large mass allow to perform real-time spectroscopy of low-energy neutrinos with high statistics. This is especially beneficial for the observation of rare events such as a galactic core-collapse supernova. In a liquid scintillator, interactions by different particle types cause different scintillation light pulse shapes. They can be used to identify proton recoils induced by neutrino-proton scattering from supernova neutrinos or by cosmogenic knock-out neutrons. In order to evaluate the performance of the detector, a precise characterization of the liquid scintillator is necessary. In the course of this work, an experiment has been set up at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium in Garching in order to determine the pulse shape of proton and electron recoils in different liquid-scintillator mixtures. Neutrons produced via 11 B(p,n) 11 C or an americiumberyllium source were used to induce proton recoils. Compton scattering of simultaneously emitted γs provided information on the electron recoils. A time-of-flight measurement allows for an easy identification of neutron and γ induced events and thus effective background reduction. The tail-to-total and the Gatti method are used in order to determine the energy-dependent discrimination power of proton and electron recoils in liquid scintillator. Combining both methods, a proton recoil identification efficiency of (99.70±0.05)% can be achieved between 1-1.5 MeV, while suppressing 99% of the γ induced recoils for the probable liquid scintillator mixture for LENA, linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as solvent and 3 g/l 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 20mg/l 1,4-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzole (bisMSB) as fluors. Moreover, the decay constants τ i and the respective amplitudes n i are determined for various liquid scintillator mixtures. It can be observed that the decay times

  20. Active spreading processes at ultraslow mid-ocean ridges: Unusual seismicity at the amagmatic Lena Trough, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läderach, Christine; Schlindwein, Vera; Riedel, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Lena Trough is the southern continuation of the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge and with its position in the Fram Strait between Greenland and Spitsbergen it is the only deep-sea gateway to the Arctic Ocean. DFG funded Emmy Noether group 'Mid-Ocean Volcanoes and Earthquakes' located at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research is focusing on the seismicity of ultraslow spreading ridges and is especially interested in Lena Trough as an ultraslow spreading ridge in a developing stage. The southern Lena Trough shows similarities to the northern Red Sea spreading centre which is in the early stage of development from continental to oceanic rift. Cochran postulated in 2003 that the continental crust within the water-covered Red Sea is less than 10 km thick and that the northern part of the Red Sea rift spreads ultraslow as well. At Lena Trough an actively spreading mid-ocean ridge with a narrow rift valley has already developed but continental crust lies within a short distance. Lena Trough is extending from 83°N/5°W to 80.3°N/2°W where it passes into the transform fault of the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. The geometry of Lena Trough and certain asymmetric structures in the rift valley indicate oblique spreading and mostly tectonic and amagmatic rifting. There are several topographic highs west of the ridge axis which could be bounded by deep faults with normal faulting or detachment character exposing mantle material at the surface. Seismicity at the Lena Trough shows apparently the same asymmetric character with epicenters of teleseismically recorded earthquakes concentrating predominantly west of the ridge axis. The most frequent focal mechanism of the earthquakes within the rift valley is normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faults occur in the Spitsbergen Fracture Zone. We relocalized teleseismic earthquakes recorded from May 1973 to April 2009 in the region using a refined localization algorithm and could confirm systematic asymmetry in the

  1. Impact of riverine suspended particulate matter on the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether composition of lakes: The outflow of the Selenga River in Lake Baikal (Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Fedotov, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids found in several environments, including soils, rivers and lakes, whose distribution varies with temperature and pH, although this dependence is apparently not the same for the different environments. Mixing of

  2. Causes and consequences of the hydrological droughts in the south region of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Maria; Ilich, Vladislav; Kharlamov, Maksim; Frolova, Natalia; Goncharov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade the number of extreme low-flow periods on Russian rivers has increased significantly. The most severe water shortage currently observed in the Don and Volga basin. Also suffers from lack of water of Lake Baikal region, left-bank tributaries of the Lena. The most acute problem of water shortage is in the basin of the Don river. It is located in the south od European part of Russia and has an area of 422 ths km2, which is very densely populated (more than 29 million inhabitants). The river and its tributaries are the main sources of fresh water for the population. In addition, they play a key role in industries such as fisheries, recreation, shipping, hydropower (HPP Tsimlyanskaya). Don anciently was very famous for its biodiversity and the number of organisms of the floodplain ecosystems. However, at the present time due to anthropogenic stress and climate change, these figures dropped down. This study is devoted to the complex analysis arising in the district. Don water shortage. As part of the research was carried out the spatial distribution of runoff, revealing its meteorological reasons of water shortage, the impact of water scarcity on the ecosystem in general and fish fauna in particular. Hydrological drought is clearly manifested in the annual runoff only in the lower part of the basin. From 2007 the annual runoff probability here are higher than 80%. It was found that the longest (during record from 1930ths) duration of the event associated with rotation of water shortages on the left and right-bank tributaries of the river. In addition, the analysis of the spatial distribution of seasonal runoff probability showed that in the upper catchment hydrological drought is hardly observed: the rate accounts for 60% and lower. Drought has led to the transformation of the aquatic ecosystem of the Don river and its transition from oligotrophic to eutrophic state. The concentration of phytoplankton in the August - September during low flow period

  3. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  4. Ground water investigations in connection with planned energy wells in the Lena area, Melhus centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storroe, Gaute

    2000-01-01

    In March 2000 the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) was requested to carry out ground water investigations in the Lena area at Melhus centre by the firms E-Tek AS and Statoil. The background for the investigations was the plans of exploiting ground heat connected to a housing project lead by Selmer Bolig AS. The aim of the project was to document the possibilities for extracting ground heat from loose soil well(s) in the selected construction area. The needed amount of water is in the size of 50 m 3 /hour (14l/s). In addition the conditions of currents, ground water quality and possibilities for refiltering of the ground water was to be mapped. In conclusion it may be said that it most likely will be possible to meet the stipulated water requirements (50 m 3 /hour) by establishing a full scale production well within the construction area. The ground water currents in the Lena area run from north to south. The ground water surface is relatively flat with an incline of 0.1 - 0.2 % (1-2 mm/m). The possibilities for refiltering pumped water seem to be good. The conditions should be mapped more closely through refiltering tests. All of the collected ground water samples exceed the limiting values stipulated by the drinking water regulations as to alkalinity, sulphate, calcium, potassium and manganese. The tests from Obs2 and from the ''municipal well'' exceed the limits for chloride and sodium as well. This indicates that unwanted precipitations of both chalk and manganese may occur. Large quantities of sea salts (chloride and sodium) may also have a corrosive effect. Through calculations using the Ryznar's Stability Index (RSI) it is evident that the tests from Obs1 and Obs2 are in the limiting area between ''problem free water'' and ''corrosive water'', while the water from the municipal well must be characterised as very corrosive. According to information from the managing personnel there have not been registered problems with precipitations or corrosion in heat

  5. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  6. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites.

  7. Research in the fields of radiochemistry and activation analysis using the LENA TRIGA nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxia, V.; Meloni, S.; Stella, R.; Brandone, A.

    1972-01-01

    In the past two years most of the research effort at the Radiochemistry Laboratory and National Research Council Centre for Radiochemistry and Activation Analysis has been devoted to research and development of activation analysis using the TRIGA Mark II LENA reactor of the University of Pavia. Pile neutrons have been used both in steady state and pulse mode, in the determination of oxygen in non ferrous materials. Neutron activation has been applied to the determination of some atmospheric particulate pollutants. Another field, in which activation analysis has been applied, is forensic research. Methods have been developed for the determination of antimony, barium and copper in gunpowder residues. By using inorganic materials such as molybdenum dibromide, zinc ferrocyanide and cadmium metal in granular form it was possible to set up simple chemical procedures in the activation analysis of trace amounts of noble metals in metallic matrices (high purity nickel and copper), geochemical materials (rocks and meteorites) and biological materials (orchard leaves). Neutron activation analysis was also used to investigate on the extraction of the platinum group metals from iodide and thiocyanate solutions at low concentrations

  8. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  9. A Strategic Appraisal of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-06

    among them Muscovy , today’s Moscow. Russia’s historical development pursued a twin track: on the one hand Russia gradually asserted itself as a...urgency of this question in Russia today is dictated by the following. First of all, some social circles may use the armed forces for achieving their...Once again, history is throwing an enormous challenge to Russia . But perhaps this is Russia’s new mission: to become a guarantor of stability throughout

  10. NATO Enlargement and Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    1998-01-01

    .... In an effort to assuage Russian concerns over enlargement, on May 27, 1997, Russian President Boris Yeltsin, President Clinton, and leaders of other NATO countries signed a "Founding Act" on Russia-NATO relations...

  11. Radcure developments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rot, A.; Zaks-rot, I.

    1995-01-01

    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  12. STRATEGICALLY REPOSITIONING RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandabur Raluca Ecaterina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Positioning is a very important marketing concept. Its importance was strongly emphasized and implemented in the case of companies, but is somehow neglected when it comes to states. A country acquires a position in the mind of a person very much like any other product does, which is very important especially when that person exerts an executive role. Nowadays Russia has a poor image or no image at all, both internationally and in Romania. In order to regain an important position in the Balkans region, Russia must set aside any political agenda and reposition itself as a business partner on equal terms. The first goal of this article is to clarify Russias position in the minds of future Romanian executives. The second goal is to outline a recommended course of actions for Russias repositioning.

  13. Doing Business In Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yakubenko, Valeriya

    2017-01-01

    The goal of my project is to figure out strengths and weaknesses of doing business in Russia and thus, overview economy of the country as a whole. Explore possible ways of development of the Russian Federation and conditions for healthy functioning of the economy. From my bachelor thesis I found out that doing business in Russia has improved over the recent years, but the economy still has a number of disadvantages and structural reforms are needed to overcome these problems and promote econo...

  14. Sediment Dispersal on the Topset of a Tectonically Active Shelf-edge Delta: an Interplay Between Sediment Supply and Subsidence, as Demonstrated for the Selenga River, Lake Baikal, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Dong, T. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Selenga River delta (Lake Baikal, Russia), located adjacent to an active rift margin and filling the world's deepest lake, represents one of the few examples of a modern shelf-edge system. Research into sediment dispersal on the Selenga delta was undertaken with the aim of linking topset morphodynamics and sediment accumulation patterns with the production of stratigraphy. The subaerial delta is constructed of three active lobes that receive varying amounts of water and sediment, distributed among a nine-order bifurcating channel network. Data from multiple expeditions include bathymetric and water-discharge measurements, side-scan images of the bed and banks, sediment samples, and bankline composition (including sediment type and vegetation). This information is analyzed to evaluate spatial variability in: 1. channel geometry, 2. boundary shear stress, 3. bedform size, and 4. bed sediment composition. The delta possesses downstream sediment fining, whereby median channel bed size decreases by two orders of magnitude over thirty kilometers, from a predominantly gravel and sand mixture near the delta apex to silt and fine sand at the lake interface. The location of gravel termination among distributary channels coincides with a reduction in sediment-transport capacity, as assessed by measurements of boundary shear stress. Interestingly, backwater hydrodynamics, which operate as important influences on bed grain size for many deltas, is not a major influence on the Selenga system. Instead, a non-linear downstream decrease in boundary shear stress arises due to partitioning of water among the bifurcating channel network. As has been documented in previous studies, gravel and coarse sand are absent on the delta foreset and bottomset (i.e., the rift axis), despite a continuous sediment feed from upstream that should provide the supply necessary to increase bed slope and enhance transport capacity over the delta. To reconcile this discrepancy, a tectonic timescale is

  15. Operation experience and maintenance at the TRIGA Mark II L.E.N.A. reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gngoli, F.; Berzero, A.; Lana, F.; Rosti, G.; Meloni, S.

    2008-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia was operated in the last two years on a routine basis, mostly for neutron activation analysis purposes. Moreover the reactor was completely shutdown in the first six months of this year to allow the dismantling of the NADIR experimental setup. The paper presents: - Reactor operation from July 1990 to June 1992; - Reactor users in the time period January 1990 - December 1991; - Specific activities of some radionuclides in the filling materials; - Specific activity of some radionuclides in thermal column materials. Operations related to dismantling of NADIR experimental facility are described. Finally the new thermal column configuration is presented. Starting from the end inside the reactor tank, a graphite layer (35 cm thick) was positioned, followed by a bismuth layer (10 cm thick) to reduce gamma-ray intensity. The old graphite rods were then positioned leaving in the central part, on the equatorial plane of the thermal column, a cavity whose vertical section has 40 cm width and 20 cm height. The bottom of the cavity, towards to the reactor tank, has been lined with additional layers of graphite (10 cm), bismuth (10 cm) and again graphite (1 cm). The new configuration allowed new experiments to be performed. The cavity in the central part has been created to allow the irradiation of large biological samples such as experimental animal and human livers. This is a peculiar step in a neutron capture boron therapy project to be carried out at the University of Pavia. In order to avoid an implemented 41 Ar production in the void space between shutters and the thermal column outer end, the external surface of the thermal column has been coated with boral sheets. The neutron flux profile, both thermal and epithermal, and cadmium ratio for gold are shown. The flux distribution appears to be adequate to proceed with the neutron capture boron therapy experiment. The LENA Health Physics Service has checked all phases of

  16. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  17. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  18. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  19. Palliative care in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyushkin, A Y; Khetagurova, A K

    2005-01-01

    The article addresses the history of establishing hospices in Russia complying with international WHO documents. The article also presents the ethics of palliative medicine in the Russian Federation with an objective analysis of the diseases affecting patients with special highlights on social problems.

  20. Gazprom, Russia's weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M.

    2008-01-01

    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  1. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  2. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  3. Nuclear in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    After a brief presentation of some information and data about Russia, this document proposes indications of levels of energy production and world ranking for different sources (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear), indications of some reserves (gas, coal, oil, uranium), indication of electricity production and exports (with a brief history of the electronuclear sector). The next part proposes an overview of the nuclear sector: political and industrial organisation, main technical steps, reactor types (light water graphite reactors, light water enriched uranium reactors, fast neutron reactors) with their strengths, weaknesses and improvements. The renewal program is evoked, as well as the fuel cycle activity, and the large presence on the international market. The cooperation between France and Russia is briefly presented

  4. Causes autocracy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kopylova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes of the existing Russian autocratic management system. The analysis is based on a Marxist materialist conception of history, expressed postulates “politics is the concentrated expression of economics” and “social existence determines the consciousness of men”. The social existence of stable autocratic form of government in modern Russia is due corresponding to this form of government economic base.

  5. Aging in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhitskaya, Olga

    2016-10-01

    Russia has always been at an intersection of Western and Eastern cultures, with its dozens of ethnic groups and different religions. The federal structure of the country also encompasses a variety of differences in socioeconomic status across its regions. This diversity yields complexity in aging research; aging people in Russia differ in terms of nationality, religion, political beliefs, social and economic status, access to health care, income, living conditions, etc. Thus, it is difficult to control for all these factors or to draw a picture of an "average" Russian older adult. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of research on aging in Russia, mainly focusing on biomedical and social aspects of aging. Most such research is based in the Central and Western regions, whereas the Siberian and Far East regions are underrepresented. There is also a lack of secondary databases and representative nationwide studies. Social policy and legislation address the needs of older adults by providing social services, support, and protection. The retirement system in Russia enables adults to retire at relatively young ages-55 and 60 years for women and men, respectively-but also to maintain the option of continuing their professional career or re-establishing a career after a "vocation" period. Though in recent years the government has faced a range of political issues, affecting the country's economy in general, budget funds for support of aging people have been maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  7. Vocalization patterns in young children with Down syndrome: Utilizing the language environment analysis (LENA) to inform behavioral phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chandni; Mastergeorge, Ann M

    2017-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at higher risk for both delayed expressive language and poor speech intelligibility. The current study utilized the quantitative automated language environment analysis (LENA) to depict mother and child vocalizations and conversational patterns in the home of 43 children with DS, chronologically aged 24-64 months. Children with DS displayed fewer utterances than typically developing children; however, there was wide variability. Furthermore, children with DS did not show increased vocalization counts across their chronological ages. In contrast to previous findings, this study found that the mothers of children with DS had a reduced number of vocalizations. However, the vocalizations increased with age in comparison to mothers of typically developing children. Implications for targeted interventions that facilitate learning opportunities in bidirectional contexts for children with DS and their parents are discussed, with particular attention to quantify behavioral phenotypes utilizing a novel expressive language assessment tool.

  8. Russia and Global Climate Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynkkynen, Nina

    2014-09-01

    Russia, as the fourth largest greenhouse-gas emitter in the world, and a major supplier of fossil fuels causing these emissions, played a decisive role in the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol, the main instrument of global climate policy so far. Domestically, serious political measures to combat climate change have yet to be taken. Thus, Russia's performance in global climate politics indicates that goals other than genuinely environmental ones, such as political or economic benefits, are the main motivation of Russia's participation. Also, Russia's national pride and its status as a great power are at stake here. This paper scrutinizes Russia's stance in global climate politics, offering an overview of Russia's engagement in international climate politics and its domestic climate policy. In the second part of the paper, Russia's engagement in global environmental politics is discussed in the context of Russia's world status and the great-power concept. Accordingly, the paper aims to shed light on how and why Russia behaves in global climate politics in the way it does. This may be of interest to actors in international environmental politics in general, and relevant to future climate negotiations in particular. (author)

  9. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  10. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  11. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  12. Stalingrad abroad in Russia XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dobren’Kov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Notable events of the late twentieth century (collapse of the USSR, the liquidation of the Warsaw Pact, the processes of democratization total market, a catastrophic reduction of the army have questioned the existence of Russia as an independent state and civilization. Thus arose Stalingrad abroad (“nowhere to retreat, another land we have” in modern Russia.

  13. 3PL markets in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    SILVENNOINEN ELINA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to familiarize with the status quo of 3PL markets in Russia. The study is based on lectures in Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, scientific articles, books and researches found from the internet. 3PL market in Russia was chosen for topic, because it supposedly benefits the author’ work as a Service Manager at the Savonlinna Business Services.

  14. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N.

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  15. The FSU/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2006-01-01

    The London-based Centre for Global Energy Studies claims that geopolitics has played a significant role in determining the current level of global oil production. It estimates that geopolitical events in a small group of countries have deprived the world of about 2 mbpd and nearly 8 mbpd of potential oil production since 2000. In particular, growth in oil production in 2005 in the Former Soviet Union (FSU)/Russia was at a standstill following 3 years of a steady growth rate of almost 10 per cent per year. Although a slowdown in the rate of output was anticipated, the near suspension of Russian output was mostly due to administrative intervention which discouraged the Russian oil industry from investing in new upstream capacity. The administrative conflicts included large tax hikes to the oil industry, resulting in fears of losing licences, ownership changes, and rising costs of new developments and transportation. It was concluded that while Russia has the resources to improve oil production, the incentive for the oil industry to grow will depend greatly on the actions of the federal government and the policies it puts forward to regulate its oil industry. tabs., figs

  16. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions

  17. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  18. Water balance and hydrology research in a mountainous permafrost watershed in upland streams of the Kolyma River, Russia: a database from the Kolyma Water-Balance Station, 1948-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Olga; Nesterova, Nataliia; Lebedeva, Lyudmila; Sushansky, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    In 2018, 70 years have passed since the beginning of observations at the Kolyma Water-Balance Station (KWBS), a unique scientific research hydrological and permafrost catchment. The volume and duration (50 continuous years) of hydrometeorological standard and experimental data, characterizing the natural conditions and processes occurring in mountainous permafrost conditions, significantly exceed any counterparts elsewhere in the world. The data are representative of mountainous territory of the North-East of Russia. In 1997, the station was terminated, thereby leaving Russia without operating research watersheds in the permafrost zone. This paper describes the dataset containing the series of daily runoff from 10 watersheds with an area from 0.27 to 21.3 km2, precipitation, meteorological observations, evaporation from soil and snow, snow surveys, soil thaw and freeze depths, and soil temperature for the period 1948-1997. It also highlights the main historical stages of the station's existence, its work and scientific significance, and outlines the prospects for its future, where the Kolyma Water-Balance Station could be restored to the status of a scientific research watershed and become a valuable international centre for hydrological research in permafrost. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881731" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881731.

  19. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  20. Radioactive contamination at Chelyabinsk-65, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.B.; Norris, R.S.; Suokko, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    As a consequence of poor waste management practices at Chelyabinsk-65, primarily during the first two decades of operations, the site and its surroundings were extensively contaminated, and thousands of people were unknowingly exposed to excessive levels of radiation. In terms of human health consequences, most of the damage has already been inflicted. Nevertheless, containment of the residual radioactivity in high-level waste tanks, in the reservoirs along the Techa River, and in and below Lake Karachay represents expensive challenges for which the best, or even adequate solutions, have yet to be devised. Russian scientists have the knowledge to address these problems, but lack practical experience with contemporary waste management practices. Western expertise could be helpful in quantifying the extent of the problems and devising solutions. However, the real challenge will be to mobilize the economic resources for effective cleanup at Chelyabinsk-65 in light of all the other economic and environmental problems Russia faces. 81 refs

  1. Russia's Place in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    .... Current United States policy toward Russia in Central Asia is tailored to isolate and minimize Russian influence due, in great part to a perception that Russian "heavy-handedness" is restricting...

  2. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnisky, S.A.; Bazukin, A.B.; Ivanov, E.V.; Jakubovskiy-Lipsky, Y.O.; Vlasova, M.M.; Gontsov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  3. Ukraine and Russia in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In order to comprehend Poland’s support for its Ukrainian neighbour in the Ukraine-Russia conflict, it is important to go back to the difficult Polish-Ukrainian neighbouring relations following the Second World War.......In order to comprehend Poland’s support for its Ukrainian neighbour in the Ukraine-Russia conflict, it is important to go back to the difficult Polish-Ukrainian neighbouring relations following the Second World War....

  4. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  5. Research activities in the fields of radiochemistry and neutron activation analysis using the LENA nuclear plant in Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, L.; Genova, N.; DiCasa, M.; Carmella-Crespi, V.

    1978-01-01

    In the past two years the activity of the Radiochemistry Laboratory and CNR Centre of Radiochemistry and Activation Analysis was mainly devoted to studies of nuclear activation analysis applied to different fields using the LENA reactor. Three NBS vegetable reference standards, Orchard Leaves, Tomato Leaves and Pine Needles, were analyzed for their halogen content. Halogen determination in foodstuff, vegetables and organic tissues gives valuable information on metabolic, nutritional, pollution and epidemiological fields. A detailed study on macro- and micro-elements content in Sardinian coal and its ashes was performed, in order to assess the possibility of using it as a fuel in electric power generating plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, Si, Mn, Mg, Na, V, CI, Ce, Yb, Th, Cr, Hf, Cs, Se, Rb, Fe, Co, Ta, Eu, K, La and Sb. A multielement trace analysis of rock samples was developed in cooperation with scientists from other Universities; the determination of R.E., U, Th, Zr, Cs, Ba, Ni, Sc, Ta, Hf, Sr, and Cr by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out in connection with orogenetic studies of African Rocks. In the archaeological field ancient artefacts recently discovered during a digging campaign at Monza's Cathedral (Italy) were analyzed with the aim to trace their origin and compare their composition with similar samples whose dating is certain. As a contribute to the international program of certifying NBS reference standard materials, chromium in the Brewer's Yeast, recently proposed as a new SRM, was determined by both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis. In the study of the role and behaviour of trace elements in human physiology, vanadium was investigated in human blood, as a trace element of increasing interest in connection with its origin from pollutants. Nuclear activation analysis was also applied to marine organism samples under a contract for oceanographic research

  6. Development of congress and exhibition in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Ekaterina Valerevna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the history of the development and current state of exhibition activity in Russia, considered the potential and prospects of the congress and exhibition activities of Russia in the international market.

  7. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  8. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ13C, Δ14C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C and Δ 14 C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  9. Monitoring the impact of surface albedo on a saline lake in SW Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argaman, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Elton is located east of the Volga River in Russia and covers an area of 155¿km2. The hydrological system of the Lake and its surroundings are extremely vulnerable to climate change and human interference, but available local and regional information is sparse. Utilising climate data from 1987

  10. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review...

  11. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia...

  12. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  13. RUSSIA'S HEROES 1941–45

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    The author provides more than just a journalistic overview. The value of Axell's work lies in unearthing the human experience within a historical epoch of individuals from different backgrounds and their strengths in the then and now in a convincing way. Russia's Heroes is a must read. Ian Liebenberg, Centre for Military ...

  14. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovskiy, A.Ya.; Klenus, V.G.; Gudkov, D.I.; Belyaev, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137 Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90 Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90 S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  15. A Case Study: Implementation of a Management System for the TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Energy (LENA) of the University of Pavia, Italy. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This annex provides an example for the implementation of a management system for operating organizations of research reactors, based on a case study in which the implementation of such a system has been completed. The case study relates the experience of the Applied Nuclear Energy Laboratory (hereafter referred to as LENA) of the University of Pavia, Italy. This example is used because of the recent completion of the implementation of an integrated management system, and also because of the specific characteristics of the organization (such as the limited number of staff, limited financial resources, etc.), which are often typical for organizations that operate smaller research reactors. Section I-1 gives a brief presentation of the organization, including the scope of work, the main activities performed, the organizational structure, the identification of interested parties and the applicable requirements and standards. Section I-2 describes the LENA Management System, the reasons for its implementation, the stages of its development and the processes involved. Some practical examples related to the development of the LENA Management System are discussed in Section I-3, indicating the choices made by the organization. In particular, Section I-3.12 shows the correlation between the LENA Management System processes and the processes considered in the main body of this publication.

  16. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  17. Gravitational wave experiments in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    A brief summary is given of experimental research on the detection of extraterrestrial gravitational radiation performed in Russia since the late 1960s. Various aspects of this topic are reviewed, including experiments with resonant detectors, geophysical methods for detecting low-frequency gravitational waves, and high-frequency versions of the gravitational ‘Hertz experiment’. A description is given of the current situation concerning the unique optoacoustic gravitational detector OGRAN mounted in the underground laboratory of the Baksan neutrino observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences. Prospects are examined for building a long-base gravitational wave interferometer in Russia that would be integrated into a global network of gravitational antennas.

  18. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-01-01

    Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10%) that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many gover...

  19. Exploring the Weimar Russia Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    industrial output and vast farming lands of Ukraine , the energy reserves of the Transcaucasus, much of the Caspian basin, and the Central Asian... hyperinflation , widespread unemployment, plummeting national income, dropping industrial production, and an ineffective tax system. 19 Today, Russia suffers...Russian Federation. In Belarus, Ukraine , the Baltic States, and the Central Asian States, millions of Russians, who settled during many decades of the

  20. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  1. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10% that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many government representatives and by the leaders of social and religious organizations and movements. Russian Muslim Ummah nowadays is far from being homogeneous and integrated, that predisposes some groups to radicalization of sentiments, ideas and activities and inevitably causes significant destabilization in the religious, social and political spheres within certain subjects of the Russian Federation and at the national level. The article focuses on the complex investigation of the influence of Islam on the social and political processes in contemporary Russia. It reveals the main principles of the Russian administration policy in the field of religion in general and towards Muslims in particular. Specific features of Muslim communities’ formation and factors of their institutionalization are determined. This research covers the reasons of major contradictions existing within the Russian Ummah. The article stresses on the importance of this study in the context of Ukrainian-Russian conflict in Crimea and in eastern regions of Ukraine. Current policy of Russia towards the Crimean Tatar population is analyzed.

  2. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  3. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  4. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ{sup 13}C, Δ{sup 14}C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-15

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C and Δ{sup 14}C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  5. Risk and Safety in Post-Soviet Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Yearbook. Official Publication (1994). Goskomstat of Russia. Moscow. 3. Health Protection in Russia. Issue 1 (1995). Yuridicheskaya Literatura , Moscow... Literatura , Moscow. 4. Feshbach Murray (ed), Environment and Health Atlas of Russia (1995). PAIMS, Moscow. 5. State Report on the Environmental Conditions in...Disasters, and Cataclysms in Russia. Moscow: Finizdat (Russian) 4. Ecological Safety of Russia. Issue 1 (1994). Moscow: Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  6. Urbanization and Economic Development in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniya Kolomak

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies trends in the urbanization in Russia and compares them with the global ones. Russia has high level of urbanization, urban population reached 73% in 1990, and the rate of urbanization fluctuates around this level past 20 years. The change of the urban population in Russia is influenced by three factors: natality, migration and the administrative reforms. The latter includes the establishing of new urban settlements and transformation of rural settlements into urban or vice ve...

  7. Renewable energy resources in Serbia and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Larisa; Ermakov, Vadim; Čajka, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Energy Policy of the Republic of Serbia and Russia is entirely based on the principles of sustainable development and the Kyoto Protocol. This paper reviews in details the characteristics of energy policy in Serbia and Russia and provides examples of certain kinds of energy. Serbia and Russia are rich in renewable energy resources. The explorations of mineral and thermal mineral water sources carried out in Serbia have shown high quality mineral waters that can be used for medical purposes. M...

  8. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  9. FEATURES OF MICROFINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina B. Makarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the modern economy of Russia. In modern conditions, small enterprises can be credited in various credit institutions, the most significant and popular among which are banks and microfinance organizations. The volume of the microfinance market is many times smaller than the banking one, although the number of registered microfinance organizations exceeds the number of banking credit institutions by more than 3 times. Microfinance institutions are actively developing, although in recent years, due to the economic and political situation, there has been a slowdown in their growth rates. To date, microfinance organizations are becoming a more significant element of the financial infrastructure that supports and stimulates the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn serves as an effective tool for combating poverty and improving the living standards of the country’s population. Microfinance in the narrow interpretation is understood only as the provision of small monetary loans (loans, and in a broader context, “microfinance” includes, in addition to direct lending, operations to attract savings, payments, insurance, leasing and a number of other financial services. This article is devoted to the specifics of microfinance in Russia. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the domestic microfinance system with the systems of a developed and a developing country, namely, the USA and India, the features of providing microfinance services for small and medium businesses, as well as for nonprotected sections of the population, are revealed. The analysis of foreign experience is very important for Russia since the mechanisms of microfinance in this country are only being formed.

  10. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  11. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  12. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  13. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  14. New Geographical Regionalization of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Gorbanyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution there was an urgent need for a new economic zoning of Russia. Under the leadership of the greatest scientists the Soviet Union was divided in to economic regions. After the collapse of the USSR and the emergence of a market economy, these regions have lost their meaning, and the new were not created. Therefore there was a need of a new zoning Russia, and not by economic regions, but by the complex geographical regions. This is a difficult task, but because of the author's opinion that geography should be a single, new geographical areas should reflect their historical, natural, economic, social, cultural view specifics. This approach will promote rational geographical division of labor in the country in a market economy. An attempt to new geographical zoning, with 10 allocated geographic regions: Capital, Central, European North, European South, North Caucasus, Volga-Urals, Western Siberia, Southern Siberia, Northern Siberia and the Far East. For each region area, population size and density, level of urbanization, natural, mechanical and overall population growth, GDP per capita, the structure of employment, Human Development Index were counted, and the appropriate analysis were made.

  15. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  16. Preserving the Dnipro River: Harmony, History, and Rehabilitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Dnipro River is Europe's second longest river and flows through the heartland of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. For many centuries, it has played a vital role in the historical, cultural, religious and economic development of this vast region. Indeed, it is true to say that nobody can understand this vast region of the world ...

  17. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  18. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  19. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  1. Geochemical composition of permafrost-affected soils around the town Tiksi, Northern Yakutia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcibor, Iuliia; Eschenbach, Annette; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Northeastern Siberia represents an area remote from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. However, a risk of airborne pollution by trace metals from anthropogenic sources connected to the settlements exists. The largest of these are the settlements Tiksi (71° 42' 55.6" N, 128° 48' 46.3" E) and Kyusyur (70° 45' 41.7" N, 127° 23' 04.7" E). The area of Tiksi is located between the Lena River and the Kharaulach River mouths. It covers parts of Primorsky Ridge and Kharaulach Mountains which are a part of the Verkhoyansk Range. The objective of this study was to investigate features of the spatial element distribution in representative landscape-geochemical units of the Tiksi area and to identify whether local pollution from the settlement takes place. The physical and chemical properties of soils were accessed at three sites located radially in the immediate vicinity to the town Tiksi and one control site remote 10 km south from the settlement. The elements measured were As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils. Differences in the element content were found for various relief forms (depressions, slopes, and elevations). The coefficient of soil buffer capacity (Bf) for the surface soil horizons in depressions was the highest (Bf > 40 %) for the majority of elements indicating their intensive accumulation there. In the surface soil horizons of elevated landscape forms the coefficient, by contrast showed low to very low soil buffer capacity to accumulate metals (0 % acid-base barriers. No significant difference in metal distribution among studied sites was revealed, except for the western site which was characterized by the highest median Ni concentration. The data suggest that ecological impacts at the studied sites were low except for one site north to Tiksi where signs of local pollution probably as a result of local emissions of fuel and mining operations were detected. Keywords: Trace metals; Russian Arctic; Northeastern Siberia; Permafrost

  2. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  3. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  4. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnachev, S; Skripkin, A; Baranov, V; Zakharov, S

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (T max >435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability

  5. Russia as the Eurasian Bridge: Challenges of Russia's Integration into the World Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogov, Sergey

    1998-01-01

    ... realistic foreign policy Such a strategy must cover Russia's economic, technological, industrial transportation, information and international policies, for at least a period of a whole generation's lifetime...

  6. Flood risk on the Black sea coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseevsky, Nikolay; Magritsky, Dmitry; Koltermann, Peter; Krylenko, Inna; Umina, Natalya; Aybulatov, Denis; Efremova, Natalya; Lebedeva, Seraphima

    2013-04-01

    The data of unique database "Floods in the coastal zones of Europeans part of Russia", developed by authors, are shown, that frequency of floods and damage in the coastal zones are growing. There is most dangerous situation on the Black sea coast of Russia. Here the main part of settlements, resorts and industry is situated in the river valleys and mouths. All main roads and pipelines cross the river channels. The Black sea rivers have flood regime with high intensity of flood formations and huge destructive flood power. Despite prevalence of floods during the cold period of year the most part of high floods in 100 years of supervision was noted here in the summer-fall (65% in July-October). Usually they were induced by the showers connected with passing of powerful cyclones, atmospheric fronts, and water tornadoes. The insignificant part of floods was connected with snow melting, backwater phenomena, showers in the cities and dam breaks. Thus shower induced floods here are the most widespread and destructive. Usually they arise within two-three watersheds simultaneously. Formation catastrophic heavy rain flood is possible on any site of a river valley of the Black Sea coast. The wave of a high water moves with very high speed, carrying a large number of deposits and garbage. To the mouth the flood can be transformed into debris flow. The water levels during a high water period rise on 3-6 m in the channels, and up to 11-12 m in the river canyons; the maximum depths of flow on the floodplains are 3 m and more. Flooding depths, induced by slope streams, can be to 0,5 m and higher. Flooding proceeds only some hours. After that water rather quickly flows down from a floodplains to the bed of the rivers and into the sea, leaving traces of destructions, a powerful layer of deposits (to 10-20 cm and more) and garbage. In the mouth river deposits quite often form the river mouth bar which is washed away during next storms. The damage from river floods on the Black Sea

  7. Organizational aspects of management education in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova Elena Viktorovna; Eroyan Asya Efimovna

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the main organizational aspects of the education sector in Russia. Organizational management is concerned, above all, the quality of education and methods of evaluation. The analysis of national education policy.

  8. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  9. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  10. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  11. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    ... regarding Ukraine's candidacy for membership. As the leading natural gas exporter with the largest proven gas reserves in the world, Russia provides more natural gas to the European Union than any other...

  12. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first approximation...

  13. RLC Forest Stand Carbon Map of Russia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:15 million scale map of forest stand carbon for the land area of Russia (Stone et al., 2000). The objective was to create a first...

  14. Entrepreneurship in Russia: characteristics and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUSHKO A.V.; GUCHIGOV H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article characteristics of entrepreneurship in Russia and conditions for its developing were considered. Russian entrepreneurs personal characteristics, motives and aims were analyzed, based on social survey. Government support of entrepreneurship was reviewed.

  15. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  16. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  17. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  18. Russia power engineering and power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of work of the International consultative meeting: Russian-Europe: strategy of energy safety is described. The purpose of the meeting consisted in discussion of energy situation in Russia and Europe, prospects for provision of reliability, efficiency and safety of fuel and power supply in Russia and the role of the Russian fuel and power resonances in energy supply of Europe. The reporters at the meeting dealt with various aspects related to energy safety

  19. Social structures in Russia : cells and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yefimov, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    Russian companies heirs of Soviet enterprises are not Western-style companies, a significant difference is that they represent the basic structures of social life in the USSR : cells. The Soviet cellular system itself has deep roots in the history of Russia. The principal social structure of pre-revolutionary Russia was the rural community. In the late 1950s, Soviet society began to move away from the classic model. Cells gradually lose their exclusive role in the functioning of society. New ...

  20. There is Still a Chance For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the sociological grounds of Georgia's foreign policy based on the long-term researches conducted by American and Georgian NGOs, yet applying a critical approach to the provided data and figures. Despite the aggressive rhetoric of Georgian politicians towards Russia and apparent social consensus as regards EU and NATO integration, the article concludes that Russia has not completely "lost" Georgia. The results of the sociological surveys show that up to one third of the population of Georgia are ready to consider Russia as main partner of their country, and this figure depends to a certain extent on the Georgian authorities' policy. In addition, the potential of the Eurasian integration of Georgia is not equal to zero, and it is supported by around one fifth of the population. In the authors' view, Georgia may appreciate help with solving its domestic economic problems far more than being called "a beacon of democracy" or "a truly European state". Although according to the results of the most surveys Russia takes the first place in the list of the threats to Georgia, exceeding even the figures for the banned "Islamic State", around one third of the population of Georgia consistently consider Russian threat exaggerated. Together with those who do not regard Russia as a threat at all, these citizens of Georgia almost equal the number of people who believe that "Russia poses a threat to Georgia". Even if Russia does not change its position on the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the West remains the goalpost of Georgia's foreign policy, the ties between the people, cultures, and economies of the two countries will not be severed. However, negligence towards the potential of developing the bilateral relations with no efforts taken on a mutual basis may significantly weaken the ties between Russia and Georgia by undermining the chances of strengthening them.

  1. Russia and Myanmar - Friends in Need?

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Auras, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    To date, few political scientists have researched the political, economic, and social relationships between Russia and Myanmar. The two countries, which at first glance may seem to have little in common, have intensified their cooperation in recent years. This article explores the ties between the two countries, not only the historical development and the dimensions of the relationship, but it also examines the current advantages and disadvantages of the relationship. Is Myanmar Russia's open...

  2. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  3. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  4. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.

  5. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  6. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  7. The control of Russia's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. As this drama privatization process was poorly masterminded, evidently misguided, hardly transparent and highly controversial, its early fruits are difficult to digest. Indeed, the rapid and controversial privatization of Russian oil is far from completion and its current ownership and management patterns leave too much room for questioning and speculation. Not surprisingly, few Western analysts are able to properly determine a scope and degree of the remaining state control over the industry. Russian observers too are badly informed. Consequently, assessments of currents state stake in, say, the country's largest oil company LUKoil typically oscillate from zero to 51% whereas, in fact, excluding 24.5% of its shares put aside for new holders, at present the State definitely owns just under 11.6% of the company equity. (author)

  8. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  9. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  10. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  11. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Marabyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  12. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  13. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  14. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  15. Epidemiology of abortions in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlayeva, E M; Nikolaeva, E

    1996-12-01

    In Russia, the fact that many women consider abortion their main or only effective means of fertility regulation has led to prevailing high rates of abortion. A pilot study was undertaken, therefore, to determine why this situation exists and how to decrease the incidence of abortion. Physicians gathered data using a standardized questionnaire administered during interviews with 352 women (221 from Moscow and 131 from rural areas) who had just had an abortion. Most women were employed in the labor force as were most husbands (partners) and parents of the women. Most of the women reported early first coitus, and 49% were married before age 20. More than 80% of the women had children, but only a third of all previous pregnancies had been carried to term. Most abortions occurred because women were worried about their ability to afford another child or about their health status or that of their husband. In fact, approximately 40% of the women presented with inflammatory diseases and infections of the vulva, vagina, uterus, or adnexes. Most women received their first contraceptive counseling after their first delivery or abortion, but only 30% of urban women and 18% of the rural women were using modern contraceptives (condoms) at the time of the unwanted conception. Most women received their information about contraceptives from the mass media, from medical personnel, or from friends although they indicated they would have preferred to have received sex education in school. Most women decided on their own to have an abortion, and 76% experienced psychological pain in conjunction with the procedure. However, 42.3% indicated they would resort to abortion in the future. This study concluded that the Ministry of Health should make provision of information on contraception a priority.

  16. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  17. Particulate organic carbon and nitrogen export from major Arctic rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.; Peterson, B. J.; Raymond, P. A.; Striegl, R. G.; Zhulidov, A. V.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.; Tank, S. E.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Staples, R.; Gurtovaya, T. Y.; Griffin, C. G.

    2016-05-01

    Northern rivers connect a land area of approximately 20.5 million km2 to the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas. These rivers account for ~10% of global river discharge and transport massive quantities of dissolved and particulate materials that reflect watershed sources and impact biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. In this paper, multiyear data sets from a coordinated sampling program are used to characterize particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) export from the six largest rivers within the pan-Arctic watershed (Yenisey, Lena, Ob', Mackenzie, Yukon, Kolyma). Together, these rivers export an average of 3055 × 109 g of POC and 368 × 109 g of PN each year. Scaled up to the pan-Arctic watershed as a whole, fluvial export estimates increase to 5767 × 109 g and 695 × 109 g of POC and PN per year, respectively. POC export is substantially lower than dissolved organic carbon export by these rivers, whereas PN export is roughly equal to dissolved nitrogen export. Seasonal patterns in concentrations and source/composition indicators (C:N, δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) are broadly similar among rivers, but distinct regional differences are also evident. For example, average radiocarbon ages of POC range from ~2000 (Ob') to ~5500 (Mackenzie) years before present. Rapid changes within the Arctic system as a consequence of global warming make it challenging to establish a contemporary baseline of fluvial export, but the results presented in this paper capture variability and quantify average conditions for nearly a decade at the beginning of the 21st century.

  18. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  19. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  20. Spatial Concentration of Economic Activity in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Anatolyevna Kolomak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the dynamics and factors of spatial concentration of economic activity in Russia and with the help of empirical methods tests the hypothesis of agglomeration economy. The analysis shows that Russia has growing inequality in distribution of resources and production and the growth rate of this process is quite high. Determinants of inter-regional divergence in Russia include the following: population density, the size and accessibility of markets, and economic structure; i.e. all these determinants have a market basis and they are key ones in agglomeration economy. The results show no effectiveness of interregional transfers and public investment in reducing differences across Russian territories. Agglomeration economy presupposes that effective conditions that stimulate centrifugal spatial trends correlate with reduction of inter-regional communication barriers which can have both physical and institutional nature

  1. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  2. [Diphtheria morbidity in Russia today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, S S; Maksimova, N M; Lazikova, G F

    2005-01-01

    The data on diphtheria morbidity and the occurrence of carrier state for its causative agent at the period of 2001-2002 were analyzed. The rates of morbidity and detected carrier state for these years were 0.63-0.55 and 0.65-0.64 respectively. Nevertheless, in spite of the relatively low morbidity rates the presence of the toxic forms of diphtheria (400 patients for two years) and lethal cases (with lethality rate reaching 5.4%) indicated that the epidemic situation in diphtheria remained tense. The most unfavorable situation was observed in the North-Western and Central regions of Russia. In urban areas morbidity rates were still 2- to 3-fold higher in than in rural ones, but the latter showed a higher percentage of severe cases (46.6% in 2001 and 39.7% in 2002) and lethal outcomes (13.6% and 19.2%). The latter was indicative of drawbacks in the immunoprophylaxis, diagnostics and treatment of diphtheria in rural areas. In the total structure of diphtheria patients adults prevailed: 75%. The highest morbidity rates were registered among children aged 3-6 years, among adults in the age groups of 18-19 years and 50-59 years. The epidemic process developed mainly among the immunized population, which was indicated by a high proportion of vaccinated persons among those affected by this infection (62.8-66.6%) and a mild course of the disease in the majority of them. The present epidemiological situation in diphtheria was determined by patients not vaccinated against this infection. The proportion of severe cases among nonvaccinated children was 42.4-51.6% and lethal outcomes, 12.9-15.1%. Among nonimmunized adults these figures were equal to 43.1% and 9.3% respectively. The highest percentage of children, not vaccinated during the first years of their life, was registered among those in the asocial families, refugees and homeless persons. Among adults these were persons above 50 years old, as well as jobless persons of working age, pensioners and invalids, who had

  3. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  4. Russia in the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the economic, military, social and humanitarian opportunities of Russia in the emerging global information society based on the World Wide Web. The author notes that in spite of the significant economic potential of the internet and its contribution to the world economy, today there is a tendency towards militarization of information space and the growth of the importance of issues of global information security. This trend is a reflection of international system's shifting towards multipolarity. This process is accompanied by the growth of conflicts including superbugs attacks Stuxnet on Iran’s Bushehr nuclear power plant, WikiLeaks revelations, Snowden affair. Russian diplomacy is trying to foster the development of global rules regulating the information society and information security based on respect for sovereignty and equality of states. Russia is a global power center in the military-political and diplomatic dimensions of the information space, while in economic and socio-cultural spheres it acts as a regional player. At the same time, the militarization of information increases the importance and priority of the military and political information tools although it does not eliminate the need to further strengthen the economic and technological potential of Russia. Military and diplomatic potential of Russia allow it to have systemic impact on the direction of development of the global information society - that is, it makes Russia a power center in this sphere of international politics. Given that today information technology is an important component of the so-called "aggregate power" of a state, the information potential of Russia allows it to be a global center of power both online and off line.

  5. Encyclopedic approach to Marine History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias

  6. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  7. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  8. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    during the Olympics.” 33 Barnes, Julian E and Hodge, Nathan, “Military Faces Historic Shift,” Jan 6, 2012, Wall Street Journal , discusses Army...Security Concept,” Tbilisi, Georgia, unpublished, 2012 44 Mauldin, William, “Putin Pitches Russia to CEOs,” October 18, 2011, Wall Street Journal , Putin...Russia to CEOs,” October 18, 2011, Wall Street Journal , Chart in the article, with Source being Russia’s Federal Statistics Service, shows FDI peaking in

  9. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform to the traditional view

  10. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  11. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  12. Modeling the location of the forest line in northeast European Russia with remotely sensed vegetation and GIS-based climate and terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari

    2004-01-01

    GIS-based data sets were used to analyze the structure of the forest line at the landscape level in the lowlands of the Usa River Basin, in northeast European Russia. Vegetation zones in the area range from taiga in the south to forest-tundra and tundra in the north. We constructed logistic...

  13. 77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... COMMISSION Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead to... contained in USITC Publication 4345 (August 2012), entitled Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia...

  14. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  15. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine... antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  16. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA- 340-E and 340-H (Third...

  17. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...

  18. Engaging Russia as Partner and Participant. The Next Stage of NATO-Russia Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Robert E; Rogov, Sergey M

    2004-01-01

    In May 1997, NATO concluded a Founding Act with the Russian Federation. Then, following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, NATO and the Russian Federation agreed to create a NATO-Russia Council (NRC...

  19. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  20. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  1. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  2. Russia waking up to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental issues have not been high on the agenda in Russia, but attitudes in the business community are beginning to change. Some large Russian corporations are becoming aware that there are major economic benefits for them - and significant political advantages for the Russian government - in engaging in the global environmental and climate change debate

  3. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  4. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  5. [History of social services in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugina, I V

    2001-01-01

    The paper have deal with the historical aspects of establishment and development of a social works in Russia. The brief information on normative and legislative bases in the field of medico-social care on a population, on professional background, education and functional requirement are given as well.

  6. [Social tuberculosis controlling organizations in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, V S

    2003-01-01

    In Russia, social tuberculosis-controlling organization have been existing and actively functioning just for about 120 years. In the organizational context, they have gone a long way--from single interim and standing commissions by setting up local societies of phthisiologists in large centers of Russia (Petersburg, Moscow, Voronezh, Kharkov, etc.), the All-Russian Tuberculosis-Controlling League before the establishment of All-Union and All-Russian research medical societies of phthisiologists. At present, the All-Union Research Medical Society of Phthisiologists was reorganized as the International Research Medical Society of Phthisiologists and the All-Russian Research Medical Society of Phthisiologists functions as the Russian social organization. "The Russian Society of Phthisiologists". Throughout their history, social tuberculosis-controlling organizations have been playing an important role in forming and developing phthisiological science, in improving the tuberculosis-controlling care system for Russia's population. At present, social tuberculosis-controlling organizations hold great promise for their multi-faceted activities for the welfare of the population of Russia.

  7. Vanishing voices from Russia & Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.

    2016-01-01

    These recordings were digitised as part of the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) project EAP347: ‘Vanishing voices from the Uralic world: sound recordings for archives in Russia (in particular Udmurtia), Estonia, Finland and Hungary’. The project digitised sound collections from the Uralic

  8. Harnessing hydrocarbon revenues: Reflections on Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Malova, Aleksandra; Saltan, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Economies, like Russia, blessed with resource abundance, do not usually perform well during the period of commodity price boom. The optimal policy of managing resource revenues prescribes to commit the permanent income rule to smooth the resource dividend in efficiency units and to smooth the real

  9. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  10. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  11. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and heads south emptying into the Black Sea. Along the way, the Dnieper River passes by several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  12. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  13. Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    -projection and actually projection stages. On pre-projection stage the algorithm of calculation is developed; the choice of operational units for the projection is carried out; the modern condition of water resources and its connection with use of water in examined river basins is considered; tendencies in development of an economy and use of water resources during last decades are revealed. On actually projection stages are analyzed available forecasts concerning an expected population and indexes of development for the economy basic branches, and also specific water consumption, taking into account radical methods on prevention of water resources quality deterioration. Results of development of integrated scenarios are submitted by the examples for the largest river basins of Russian plain and Siberia (Volga, Don and Lena river basins).

  14. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N

    1996-01-01

    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994.

  15. Monitoring Inter- and Intra-Seasonal Dynamics of Rapidly Degrading Ice-Rich Permafrost Riverbanks in the Lena Delta with TerraSAR-X Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Stettner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arctic warming is leading to substantial changes to permafrost including rapid degradation of ice and ice-rich coasts and riverbanks. In this study, we present and evaluate a high spatiotemporal resolution three-year time series of X-Band microwave satellite data from the TerraSAR-X (TSX satellite to quantify cliff-top erosion (CTE of an ice-rich permafrost riverbank in the central Lena Delta. We apply a threshold on TSX backscatter images and automatically extract cliff-top lines to derive intra- and inter-annual CTE. In order to examine the drivers of erosion we statistically compare CTE with climatic baseline data using linear mixed models and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Our evaluation of TSX-derived CTE against annual optical-derived CTE and seasonal in situ measurements showed good agreement between all three datasets. We observed continuous erosion from June to September in 2014 and 2015 with no significant seasonality across the thawing season. We found the highest net annual cliff-top erosion of 6.9 m in 2014, in accordance with above-average mean temperatures and thawing degree days as well as low precipitation. We found high net annual erosion and erosion variability in 2015 associated with moderate mean temperatures but above average precipitation. According to linear mixed models, climate parameters alone could not explain intra-seasonal erosional patterns and additional factors such as ground ice content likely drive the observed erosion. Finally, mean backscatter intensity on the cliff surface decreased from −5.29 to −6.69 dB from 2013 to 2015, respectively, likely resulting from changes in surface geometry and properties that could be connected to partial slope stabilization. Overall, we conclude that X-Band backscatter time series can successfully be used to complement optical remote sensing and in situ monitoring of rapid tundra permafrost erosion at riverbanks and coasts by reliably providing information about intra

  16. Russia And East Asia: New Opportunities And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  17. RUSSIA AND EAST ASIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  18. Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekaterina Y. Kontar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia, this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River and Edeytsy (Lena River, which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015 and Galena (March 2016 revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis

  19. River Export of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon from Permafrost and Peat Deposits across the Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Andersson, A.; Bröder, L.; Vonk, J.; Hugelius, G.; McClelland, J. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Gustafsson, O.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost and peat deposits of northern high latitudes store more than 1300 Pg of organic carbon. This carbon has been preserved for thousands of years by cold and moist conditions, but is now increasingly mobilized as temperatures rise. While part will be degraded to CO2 and CH4 and amplify global warming, part will be exported by rivers to the Arctic Ocean where it can be degraded or re-buried by sedimentation. We here use the four large Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma as natural integrators of carbon mobilization in their catchments. We apply isotope based source apportionments and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulations to quantify contributions of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits to organic carbon exported by these rivers. More specifically, we compare the 14C signatures of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) sampled close to the river mouths with those of five potential carbon sources; (1) recent aquatic and (2) terrestrial primary production, (3) the active layer of permafrost soils, (4) deep Holocene deposits (including thermokarst and peat deposits) and (5) Ice Complex Deposits. 14C signatures of these endmembers were constrained based on extensive literature review. We estimate that the four rivers together exported 2.4-4.5 Tg organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits per year. While total organic carbon export was dominated by DOC (90%), the export of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits was more equally distributed between DOC (56%) and POC (44%). Recent models predict that ca. 200 Pg carbon will be lost as CO2 or CH4 by 2100 (RCP8.5) from the circumarctic permafrost area, of which roughly a quarter is drained by the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma rivers. Our comparatively low estimates of river carbon export thus suggest limited transfer of organic carbon from permafrost and peat deposits to high latitude rivers, or its rapid degradation within rivers. Our findings highlight the importance

  20. Snowstorm Along the China-Mongolia-Russia Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Heavy snowfall on March 12, 2004, across north China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Mongolia and Russia, caused train and highway traffic to stop for several days along the Russia-China border. This pair of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlights the snow and surface properties across the region on March 13. The left-hand image is a multi-spectral false-color view made from the near-infrared, red, and green bands of MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The right-hand image is a multi-angle false-color view made from the red band data of the 46-degree aftward camera, the nadir camera, and the 46-degree forward camera. About midway between the frozen expanse of China's Hulun Nur Lake (along the right-hand edge of the images) and Russia's Torey Lakes (above image center) is a dark linear feature that corresponds with the China-Mongolia border. In the upper portion of the images, many small plumes of black smoke rise from coal and wood fires and blow toward the southeast over the frozen lakes and snow-covered grasslands. Along the upper left-hand portion of the images, in Russia's Yablonovyy mountain range and the Onon River Valley, the terrain becomes more hilly and forested. In the nadir image, vegetation appears in shades of red, owing to its high near-infrared reflectivity. In the multi-angle composite, open-canopy forested areas are indicated by green hues. Since this is a multi-angle composite, the green color arises not from the color of the leaves but from the architecture of the surface cover. The green areas appear brighter at the nadir angle than at the oblique angles because more of the snow-covered surface in the gaps between the trees is visible. Color variations in the multi-angle composite also indicate angular reflectance properties for areas covered by snow and ice. The light blue color of the frozen lakes is due to the increased forward scattering of smooth ice, and light orange colors indicate rougher ice or

  1. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  2. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  3. Nordic Seminar on Waste Problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes a Nordic seminar held in 1998 that focused on radioactive waste disposal in Northwest Russia and that gave special attention to a repository which planned on Novaya Zemlya. The existing plans originated in a programme formulated by the Russian Federation for the period 1996-2005 and titled The Federal Programme: The Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel - Treatment and Final Disposal. The sea around Novaya Zemlya is important to the fishery industry in both Norway and Russia. And there is great Norwegian concern about the vulnerable Arctic environment. Geological conditions are of course crucial to waste disposal, and according to Russian experts, the permafrost bedrock on Novaya Zemlya will provide added safety. Permafrost is a source of a major complex of uncertainties, but there is Western expertise available that might provide international assessment of the construction plans

  4. Innovation development in Russia: the value aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmykhalo Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of the transition of modern Russia towards the formation of an innovative economy, with a special emphasis on the investigation of the key challenges that Russian universities face while training engineers equipped for innovative activities. The paper considers the impact of cultural characteristics of the Russian society on the organization and content of an education process in a technical university, on “producing” engineers capable of developing innovation. In our analysis we use a comparative approach, as well as the outcomes of the etnometric studies based on the method by G. Hofstede. The study presents the comparative analysis of the organization and content of engineering training at two universities representing Russia and the United States. The results of the study show that further productive development of the Russian system of engineering education towards integration with Western systems is possible provided that the value orientation of the Russian state and society is significantly revised.

  5. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidenbraten, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  6. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantueva, Radzhana

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  7. Life sciences research at JINR, Dubna, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Within the broad spectrum of activities in the Life Sciences at JINR such as nuclear medicine and pharmacy, radiation biology, radioecology, radioisotope production radioanalytical investigations play a special role due to the long-term experience in multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR. INAA is presently being used in several projects on air pollution studies using bio monitors (moss, lichens, tree bark). The results for some selected areas of Central Russia, South Urals, and countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovakia, Western Ukraine) are reported to the European Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition edited under the auspices of the Environmental Commission of the United Nations. Battering-ram studies using NAA were initiated also in Turkey, China and South Korea. Applied to the analysis of air filters, INAA is successfully used in assessing quality of London underground air, Sahara desert impact on the Greater Cairo Area. Epithermal activation analysis in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry and energy-disperse X-ray fluorescence allowed source evaluation of metals in soil from some industrial and metropolitan areas of Russia (South Urals, Cola Peninsula) and the USA (Minneapolis). The analytical possibilities of NAA are favorably used in biotechnology, (i) for investigation of bacterial leaching of metals, including uranium and thorium from low-grade ores, rocks and industrial wastes; (i i) in the development of new pharmaceuticals based on the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Occupational health studies are carried out at several fertilizer plants in Russia, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Denmark and the Netherlands in the framework of the 5th Programme Copernicus. The quality of foodstuffs grown in some contaminated areas of Russia is investigated in the framework of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. In

  8. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  9. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsu...

  10. Environmental management tools: international practicies for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanina, T.; Pintassilgo, P.; Matias, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the basic tools of environmental management applied by developed countries and discusses its application to Russia. The focus is on environmental management instruments such as environmental taxes, subsidies, standards, permits and also on the important role of voluntary tools. Russian practice is analyzed in terms of the current environmental management situation and the prospects of necessary legislative actions. The article refers to the formation of the basic parts...

  11. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  12. Russia’s Prospects in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    volume between other parts of Russia and the Asia Pacific countries. Unfortunately, the levels of criminality and corruption in the RFE have not... corruption , as it enters the World Trade Organization (WTO) and diversifies its exports beyond natural resource shipments to dy- namic Asia . 65...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia’s Prospects in Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  13. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nodari A. Simonia; Anatoliy V. Torkunov

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article n...

  14. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  15. Women in Nineteenth-Century Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosslyn, Wendy; Tosi, Alessandra; Alpern Engel, Barbara; Blakesley, Rosalind P.; Bullock, Philip Ross; Cassiday, Julie A.; Forrester, Sibelan; Muravyeva, Marianna G.; Rosenholm, Arja; Savkina, Irina; Shevzov, Vera; Worobec, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Russian women of the nineteenth century are often thought of in their literary incarnations as the heroines of novels such as Anna Karenina and War and Peace. But their real counterparts are now becoming better understood as active contributors to Russia’s varied cultural landscape. This collection of essays examines the lives of women across Russia – from wealthy noblewomen in St Petersburg to desperately poor peasants in Siberia – discussing their interaction with the Church and the law, an...

  16. Evolution of Relations Between Russia and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pavlovna Bazileva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the relations of Uzbekistan and Russia are examined in the context of making integration process more active in Eurasia based on the example of EAEU and SCO, proceeding in the period of increased turbulence of world system in 2014-2016, the aggravations of Russian relations with the West in connection with the introduction of anti-Russian sanctions and reorientation of Russian foreign economic policy to the East. The authors examine the development of Uzbek - Russian relations on the wide historical background in the light of interests of both countries, possibilities of increasing their competitive ability under the conditions of strengthening the crisis phenomena in the contemporary world as a whole, and on the Eurasian economic space, in particular. The association of the efforts of the two countries in the fight against international terrorism - one of the most serious calls of the present, participation in the solution of the vital problems of international safety on the continent within the framework of integrated associations could give additional political weight to both countries. The ability of Uzbekistan and Russia to search for and to find compromises in the process of regulating debatable questions of political and economic interactions is shown. In the article the attention is paid to the unrealized possibilities of the Uzbek - Russian relations, which are considered as the possible factor of the development of integration process in Eurasia. The authors consider the absence of any other alternative to further positive development of relations between Russia and Uzbekistan and to strengthening the many-sided contacts between them, which sources were placed in the distant past. The idea is defended about the fact that joining EAEU could bring essential political and economic dividends to Uzbekistan. Through the economic collaboration with Uzbekistan Russia can have the specific effect on its integrative policy.

  17. Land Change in Russia since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

  18. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  19. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brousser, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  20. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

    2006-01-01

    We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepr...

  1. Foreword: French Language Acquisition in Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Offord

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The foreword to Vivliofika’s cluster of articles on French language acquisition in Imperial Russia mentions the scholarly project and conference out of which the cluster arises, briefly describes the UK-based project, states the importance of study of education in it, summarises a few of the main educational questions that are germane in this connection and, finally, simply introduces the contents of the cluster.

  2. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  3. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  4. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  6. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...... water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...... sea level rise was curbed by isostatic rebound and accompanying regression and constriction of marine passages to the White Sea. Local, low-saline, stratified basins developed and characterised the next 5-6 millennia....

  7. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia past and present: Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the sequel to the author's text in the previous issue of the magazine 'Philosophy and Society'. The author discusses the evolution of religious consciousness among the population of Russia and the mutual relationship between society, religion and church describing it as a sort of religious balance. By examining the motion of the balance, the author analyzes the religious situation and the confessional structure of tzarist, soviet and modern Russia. Three types of confessional structure may be postulated during the period in question: a stable confessional structure of pre-revolutionary Russia, a destabilized confessional structure in soviet time, a restabilized structure during the nineties of the previous century, and a new stabilized confessional structure in recent years.

  8. Governors, Oligarchs, and Siloviki: Oil and Power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, Ahmed; Yenikeyeff, Shamil

    2013-01-01

    The contest for control of Russia's oil industry has been an integral feature of the country's politics ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Therefore, an assessment of political elite dynamics and the competition for control over Russia's oil sector can explain why this industry has been subject to such rapid management changes, including the rise and demise of Russia's private oil corporations and the emergence of Rosneft as a national oil company (NOC). Whilst the 1990's and 2000's saw different management styles evolve in the industry, much of that competition took place during a time when Russia could exploit its Soviet-era legacy fields. The rise of Rosneft as Russia's super National Oil Company (NOC) has been driven just as much by internal political elite dynamics as it has by the challenges which Russia's oil industry faces, as it attempts to tap more remote fields in East Siberia and the Arctic

  9. Policy in Transition. New Framework for Russia's Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.

    2002-07-01

    In 2000, Russia entered the second round of radical reforms of its economic and political system. These changes affect the institutions of the macro- and microeconomic policy, of the energy policy, as well as the institutions of the climate policy. Thus, the framework is currently being built in Russia within which the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol are being and will be implemented. Success, or failure, in Russia's interactions with the international community in implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would depend, particularly, on whether it would be able to establish renovated climate policy institutions in the nearest future. Main provisions of the Kyoto Protocol open good perspectives for the climate policy of Russia. For these favourable perspectives to become a reality, Russia will have to accomplish quite a lot at the domestic, national level. Here, Russia is facing some serious problems. Among them are recently emerged problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol

  10. Russia’s Next Revolution: Reclaiming Lost Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    www.jstor.org/stable/10.7864/j.ctt15hvrbc (accessed November 28, 2016). 42 NATO enlargement humiliated Russia and created the rift with the West.7 Some... NATO -Russia border.14 The final problem is that Putin seems to follow an irresponsible revanchist policy, challenging the current world order...anxiety. This made the threat more serious to the U.S. and NATO leadership, in particular for the countries that border Russia immediately to the West

  11. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America — Case Study Of Nicaragua 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...open arctic channel in the North and in reviving diplomatic contacts and military exercises in Latin America. In Central America specifically, Russia

  12. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  13. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 3). These rivers seem to have maintained ... the river cuts a deep can- yon with practically vertical walls (valley slopes). ... furiously at work, cutting channel beds, eroding slopes, and denuding watersheds. This ever-youthfulness of the.

  14. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  15. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  16. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  17. One man banned: Russia's treatment of solo protests scrutinized in Novikova v. Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Daniël; Voorhoof, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Analysis and comment on the restrictions in Russia on the right to protest, in the light of a recent judgment in which the ECtHR found a violation of the right to freedom of expression guaranteed by Article 10 of the European Convention

  18. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  19. PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents new calendar of immunoprophylaxis in Russia, functioning since 2008, with author’s comments to its innovations. Mass vaccination against influenza was added to other ones, presenting in calendar earlier. The age limits of vaccination against hepatitis B, rubella, and measles were enlarged, and scheme of vaccination against hepatitis B was changed. This article describes new opportunities of immunoprophylaxis, that didn’t find its place in calendar yet.Key words: children, immunoprophylaxis, vaccination calendar.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:114-120

  20. Foreign investment in Russia: obstacles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-Stuat, M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of recent developments with regard to foreign investment in the Russian oil industry is presented. Progress has already been made in the oil and gas sector but some important issues which still remain insufficiently resolved for the potential Western investor are examined. These are: the settlement of the internal division of responsibilities; a stable legal and fiscal framework for foreign investment; decisions on what Russia wants from foreign oil companies; only difficult and costly fields are on offer; reserve estimates are not based on economic criteria; implementation of environmental and operational standards. (UK)

  1. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  2. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  3. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  4. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  5. Status of fast reactor activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavski, V.M.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Zverev, K.V.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines state-of-the-art of the Russian nuclear power as of 1997 and its prospects for the nearest future. Results of the BR-10, BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors operation are described, as well as activity of the Russian institutions on scientific and technological support of the BN-350 reactor. Analysis of current status of the BN-800 reactor South-Urals NPP and Beloyarskaya NPP designs is given in brief, as well as prospects of their construction and possible ways of fast reactor technology improvement. Studies on fast reactors now under way in Russia are described. (author)

  6. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  8. Dutch Agribusiness in Russia: a review of enterpreneurs' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, J.C.; Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.

    2007-01-01

    Russia¿s economy is booming; that¿s no news. Certainly not for Dutch agribusiness, looking at the steady increase of Dutch exports and investments in Russia. Not only our bigger agro-industries are involved, also medium size companies have found their way to access a market of 143 million consumers.

  9. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75, 7202.21.90, and... with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly...

  10. Russia Today : Ruslands internationale spreekbuis voor 'soft power'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    The tense current relations between Russia, Ukraine and the West are characterised by a true media war. This media war is fought in the old as well as in the new media, for example on television. One of the players in this game is the Russian English language television station Russia Today (since

  11. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  12. 'Communal Elections' in Russia: Interpretation by German Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Krasilnikova, Oxana; Красильникова, Оксана

    2010-01-01

    The author of this article makes review and compares some articles from the most influent and popular German newspapers, concerning the last local elections in Russia. This event is presented from the point of view of different political trends and their attitude to elective democracy in Russia.

  13. Can Russia Reform? Economic, Political, and Military Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    thing has to be added: foreign and security policy reproduces fears, phobias , and complexes dominant in the Russian domestic policy, which transfers...come after Russia and the West overcome the new illusion that Russia can modernize itself without changing its old genetic code. ENDNOTES - CHAPTER

  14. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  15. Russia Update - Lower oil price will take its toll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2015-01-01

    Russia managed to avoid a recession in 2014 as economic owes have mounted. Already feeble investments were further eroded by the US/EU sanctions. But it is the oil price decline from USD 110 to below USD 50 that is pushing Russia into a serious recession in 2015.

  16. The Reality and Prospects of the Academic Degree in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, V. V.; Pisareva, S. A.; Triapitsyna, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    With the move toward mass higher education in Russia, academic degrees have lost much of their prestige. It is now necessary to look more closely at the reasons for this devaluation, to explore ways to optimize the training of researchers in graduate school programs, and to integrate Russia's system of science training into the European system.…

  17. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Baltic republics. Such tactics included employing (undeclared) special and conventional Russian forces alongside local separatists, using oil and gas...U.S. diplomacy is most critical are: Russia, the Baltics, and NATO. First, Russia, as the predominant threat, must receive the thrust of diplomatic

  18. Nuclear heat applications in Russia: Experience, status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Kusmartsev, E.V.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experience gained with nuclear district heating in Russia is described. Most of the WWER reactors in Russia are cogeneration plants. Steam is extracted through LP turbine bleeders and condensed in intermediate heat exchangers to hot water which is then supplied to DH grids. Also some small dedicated nuclear heating plants are operated. (author)

  19. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  20. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roslycky, Lada L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the

  1. Initial Teacher Education in Russia: Connecting Theory, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Gafurov, Ilshat R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores initial teacher education (ITE) in Russia, its organisation and content in the light of international literature. Changes in the political, socio-economic and cultural life of Russia in recent decades have defined a completely different model of teacher education. This model has evolved through key policy documents including…

  2. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  3. 75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on alloy magnesium from China and pure and alloy magnesium from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of...

  4. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China and Russia: Investigation Nos.731-TA- 1071-1072 (Review). By order of the Commission. Issued... antidumping duty order on magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. The NATO and Russia: is the Antiterrorist Cooperation Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of the NATO-Russia antiterrorist cooperation organization. Problems which partners face organizing it are considered by authors. The sight is given not only from Russia's point of view, but also from the position of NATO.

  6. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research aimed at policymakers in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus will highlight how tobacco taxation policies can serve public health goals and reduce the burden of tobacco-related diseases and deaths. Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus share similar demographics, health problems, and smoking patterns. High smoking rates ...

  7. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  8. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  9. Permafrost and Periglacial Geomorphology of Western Taymyr (PPG), Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskaya, I.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the IPA's IPY activities a field course on Permafrost and Periglacial Geomorphology of Western Taymyr (PPG) took place along the Western Taymyr coast in July-August 2008 for students studying the north. The purpose of the trip was to study different types of ground ice: ice wedges, ice complex, hydrolaccoliths, massive ice as well as to investigate the morphology and cryolithology of Western Taimyr Quaternary deposits. The field course on geocryology was jointly developed by the faculty of the Geography Department at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, researchers from All-Russian Research Institute of Geology and Mineral resources of Ocean RAS (VNIIOkeangeologia), St. Petersburg and the Earth Cryosphere Institute SB RAS, Tyumen. This 16-day course was held on board the "Sovetskaya Arctika" vessel, which sailed on the Yenisei River and in the Yeniseyskiy Bay from the town of Dudinka to the port of Dikson on the Arctic Coast of the Kara Sea. The course attracted Russian upper-level undergraduate and graduate students from Lomonosov Moscow State and St. Petersburg State Universities and the Earth Cryosphere Institute (Tyumen). Seven scientific-educational field trips have been undertaken by the participants of the expedition. These trips were focusing on observations, on the collection of samples of frozen ground and ice for a set of different analyses and on field measurements (e.g. evaluation of moisture content of frozen samples). During the expedition, Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in coastal exposures from the right bank of the Yenisey river and Yeniseyskiy Bay were studied. An interdisciplinary approach based on geological and geomorphological, cryolithological, geobotanical and landscape studies was applied to study the contemporary permafrost state, ground ice characteristics and paleogeographical reconstructions. For these purposes, samples of frozen ground, snow, and ice were collected from coastal exposures. During the expedition students

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  11. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  12. The development of Social Pedagogy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Romm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The way social pedagogy is developing nowadays has been paved by a centuries-old tradition of social and pedagogical work, historical experience of the theoretical research on the prob- lems of interactions between the man and the environment, and experience of successful problem solution of proper socialization in educational organizations at different stages of social pedagogy (pre- soviet, soviet and modern periods. Modern state of social pedagogy is related to the issues of deter- mining the status of social pedagogy, finding the main methodology parameters, as well as the research-specific issues. This paper  also presents the characteristics of the main concepts of social pedagogy in Russia and the peculiarities of professional work done by social pedagogues.

  13. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. The development of sports industry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev A.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors believe that Russia today loses the strategic directions of sports development: effective interaction between the state and business, management of sports industry, sport propaganda, attraction of investments and innovative technologies, at the same time, the state is realistic about the sport today and is moving in the direction of changes for the better. According to the authors, an example of this can be the implementation of the strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the period up to 2020. The article notes that the state should increasingly focus on creating favorable conditions in the direction of decentralization of management activities, preferential tax treatment, to give place to business in the sports industry, promote healthy lifestyles and to strengthen control over the fulfillment of social functions of sport development.

  15. Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Linge, I.; Arutyunyan, R.; Ilushkin, A.; Kiselev, V.; Melikhova, E.; Ossipiants, I.; Pavlovsky, O.

    1996-01-01

    Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia included the following: Central bank of generalized data, Bank of models, Information system for federal and local authorities. The analysis of many phenomena demanded retrospective data collection. In that way, banks of primary data were created and experience of analysis of directly accident information was acquired. The main element of the system-analytic support is the administrative information system of the Department for elimination of consequences of radiological and other disaster of EMERCOM of the Russian Federation. Administrative information system is intended for providing specialized program-technical complexes and systematized data related to the Chernobyl accident effects and measures on their elimination for heads and specialists of Central staff and territorial and regional administrative bodies, all other interested ministries, departments and organization

  16. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  17. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  18. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oxenstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  19. Seismic Event Relocation in Northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Yeske, M. D.; Steck, L.; Begnaud, M. L.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Stead, R.

    2009-12-01

    Northeastern Russia covers an area roughly equivalent to the United States, with seven seismic networks operating independently. Together, Michigan State University and Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have merged catalogs from the Yakutsk, Magadan, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, and Irkutsk networks along with global bulletins and special studies to produce a unified research database for the region. We have developed regional phase travel time correction surfaces for P, Pn, Pg, S, and Sg/Lg using GT25 or better events, and are beginning to test relocation capabilities of less-well-constrained events with these kriged correction surfaces. Improvements in location will be judged on the basis of increased linearity and clustering of events across the study region, spanning a box from 40-75 degrees latitude and 80-190 degrees longitude. Relocation results for different combinations of phases will be presented.

  20. System Prerequisites for Economic Recovery of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Semenovich Gubanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the latest issue of the Journal we informed our readers about the 7th International Conference “Strategy and Tactics of Socio-Economic Reforms” that was held in December 2015 in Vologda. The event was dedicated to the 25th anniversary of ISEDT RAS. Renowned Russian scientists, chief editors of social science publications and representatives of regional and local authorities delivered their reports at the plenary sessions of the conference. The report delivered by Sergei Gubanov, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Chief Editor of the journal “Economist”, was considered to be of great interest by the conference participants. Here we outline the main provisions of the report* touching upon the key issues that would help resolve economic and social problems that Russia is facing at the current stage of its development

  1. Sexuality education moves forward in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts in the late-1980s to provide sex education to young people in Russia were interrupted, temporarily, by peristroika and the need to focus on political and economic concerns. In the early 1990s, several public family planning associations emerged with support from foreign funds and began limited condom distribution programs. Beginning in 1996, a sex and family life education curriculum developed by the Russian Sexological Association will be taught to students in grades 5-11. The curriculum moves from basic facts on reproduction to a consideration, in the higher grades, of the family, the psychological aspects of sexual relationships, and interpersonal communication and conflict resolution. Although the comprehensive nature of the curriculum has been commended, there is a shortage of educators with the social-psychological background required to present the material.

  2. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  3. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  4. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  5. China-Russia Alliance - a common choice of the two countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Hang

    2015-01-01

    Compared with Sino-Soviet Alliance and NATO countries alliance, China -Russia Alliance should have its own characteristics. China-Russia Alliance can further enhance strategic mutual trust betweeneach other, enhance cooperation quality and space, to promote the mutualprogress and prosperity, achieve national revival of China and Russia as soon as possible, which is the ultimate goal of theChina-Russia Alliance.

  6. Climate change characteristics of Amur River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-lan YU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually severe weather is occurring more frequently due to global climate change. Heat waves, rainstorms, snowstorms, and droughts are becoming increasingly common all over the world, threatening human lives and property. Both temperature and precipitation are representative variables usually used to directly reflect and forecast the influences of climate change. In this study, daily data (from 1953 to 1995 and monthly data (from 1950 to 2010 of temperature and precipitation in five regions of the Amur River were examined. The significance of changes in temperature and precipitation was tested using the Mann-Kendall test method. The amplitudes were computed using the linear least-squares regression model, and the extreme temperature and precipitation were analyzed using hydrological statistical methods. The results show the following: the mean annual temperature increased significantly from 1950 to 2010 in the five regions, mainly due to the warming in spring and winter; the annual precipitation changed significantly from 1950 to 2010 only in the lower mainstream of the Amur River; the frequency of extremely low temperature events decreased from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River; the frequency of high temperature events increased from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River; and the frequency of extreme precipitation events did not change significantly from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River. This study provides a valuable theoretical basis for settling disputes between China and Russia on sustainable development and utilization of water resources of the Amur River.

  7. Intercomparison of regional-scale hydrological models and climate change impacts projected for 12 large river basins worldwide—a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysanova, Valentina; Vetter, Tobias; Eisner, Stephanie; Huang, Shaochun; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Strauch, Michael; Gelfan, Alexander; Kumar, Rohini; Aich, Valentin; Arheimer, Berit; Chamorro, Alejandro; van Griensven, Ann; Kundu, Dipangkar; Lobanova, Anastasia; Mishra, Vimal; Plötner, Stefan; Reinhardt, Julia; Seidou, Ousmane; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wortmann, Michel; Zeng, Xiaofan; Hattermann, Fred F.

    2017-10-01

    An intercomparison of climate change impacts projected by nine regional-scale hydrological models for 12 large river basins on all continents was performed, and sources of uncertainty were quantified in the framework of the ISIMIP project. The models ECOMAG, HBV, HYMOD, HYPE, mHM, SWAT, SWIM, VIC and WaterGAP3 were applied in the following basins: Rhine and Tagus in Europe, Niger and Blue Nile in Africa, Ganges, Lena, Upper Yellow and Upper Yangtze in Asia, Upper Mississippi, MacKenzie and Upper Amazon in America, and Darling in Australia. The model calibration and validation was done using WATCH climate data for the period 1971-2000. The results, evaluated with 14 criteria, are mostly satisfactory, except for the low flow. Climate change impacts were analyzed using projections from five global climate models under four representative concentration pathways. Trends in the period 2070-2099 in relation to the reference period 1975-2004 were evaluated for three variables: the long-term mean annual flow and high and low flow percentiles Q 10 and Q 90, as well as for flows in three months high- and low-flow periods denoted as HF and LF. For three river basins: the Lena, MacKenzie and Tagus strong trends in all five variables were found (except for Q 10 in the MacKenzie); trends with moderate certainty for three to five variables were confirmed for the Rhine, Ganges and Upper Mississippi; and increases in HF and LF were found for the Upper Amazon, Upper Yangtze and Upper Yellow. The analysis of projected streamflow seasonality demonstrated increasing streamflow volumes during the high-flow period in four basins influenced by monsoonal precipitation (Ganges, Upper Amazon, Upper Yangtze and Upper Yellow), an amplification of the snowmelt flood peaks in the Lena and MacKenzie, and a substantial decrease of discharge in the Tagus (all months). The overall average fractions of uncertainty for the annual mean flow projections in the multi-model ensemble applied for all basins

  8. Catalog of boreholes from Russia and Mongolia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This catalog of boreholes from across Russia and Mongolia includes those published in papers and monographs as well as other literature of limited circulation. The...

  9. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhov, A. I., E-mail: a.i.terekhov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing 'centers of excellence.' It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  10. RLC Forest Fire Images in Russia, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is made up of images of forest fires in Russia from NOAA's Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) archive (http://www.osei.noaa.gov)...

  11. RLC Forest Fire Images in Russia, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is made up of images of forest fires in Russia from NOAA's Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) archive (http://www.osei.noaa.gov) for the 1998...

  12. The impact of tobacco taxes in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The research team will assess the impact of recent tobacco tax and price increases in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus on smoking rates, tobacco revenues, and household spending. The team will also estimate the volume of smuggling both.

  13. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  14. RLC Forest Fire Locations in Eastern Russia, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is derived from Russian forest fire imagery from the National Forest Fire Center of Russia archive that was collected by the Center of Remote Sensing,...

  15. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  16. Koptev announces space plans for Russia in 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Pieson, D

    2003-01-01

    According to the head of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Yuri Koptev, the major emphasis of Russia's space program in 2003 will be supporting the nation's telecommunication satellite program (1/2 page).

  17. Formation and evolution of consumer credit institution in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasev Kirill Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the definition of consumer credit, the stages of the institute of consumer lending in Russia, also the main trends in the market of bank lending to the population of the Russian Federation.

  18. Oil Policy in Russia Toward Selected New Independent States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, John

    1996-01-01

    ..., is the main focus of this thesis. Free market world oil majors and their counterparts, both in Russia and the New Independent States, have developed a number of significant alliances that have resulted in several potentially lucrative joint ventures...

  19. History of auditing in Russia. Periodization and challenges of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii N. GUZOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recent history of auditing in Russia from 1987 to the present time. This kind of research, such as any inquiry into history, calls for a well-grounded periodization. For the purposes of this study, factors were determined which influence the regulatory and methodological support of auditing; in accordance with the results of the analysis of their time intersections – the logical addition – qualitative leaps in the development of auditing in Russia were identified, which are represented as stages of its evolution. Through the application of this method, four stages in the recent history of auditing in Russia were identified: pre-history (the birth of the Russian auditing, the “wild” auditing; establishment of auditing in Russia; government regulation and licensing; self-regulation of audit activity.

  20. The role of financial groups in Russia's banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role of financial groups in financial crises, and then applies the lessons learnt to Russia though a detailed analysis of the ruble collapse, the GKO default and the banking crisis.

  1. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  2. Land Resources of Russia -- Maps of Soil Characteristics, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of maps of various soil characteristics for all of Russia. The maps are available as ESRI Shapefiles and they are accompanied by databases of...

  3. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. Laktionova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  4. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  5. The pharmaceutical industry in Russia: reality and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeev, A.

    2009-01-01

    This section “Forum” is about the pharmaceutical industry in Russia. We were encouraged to debate this topic after the unveiling of the Strategy of Development of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the Russian Federation developed by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation. The majority of our experts, who are authorities in the federal government, business, academia, and industrial science, believe that Russia needs a fully developed pharmaceutical industry. What are the mai...

  6. The regulatory system of nuclear safety in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    This article explains what type of mechanism the nuclear system has and how nuclear safety is regulated in Russia. There are two main organizations in this system : ROSATOM and ROSTEKHADZOR. ROSATOM, which was founded in 2007, incorporates all the nuclear industries in Russia, including civil nuclear companies as well as nuclear weapons complex facilities. ROSTEKHNADZOR is the federal body that secures and supervises the safety in using atomic energy. This article also reviews three laws on regulating nuclear safety. (author)

  7. Foreign Exchange Markets in Russia: Understanding the Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes and interprets the changes that took place in Russia's exchange rate system during 1992. The multiple exchange rate regime that existed in Russia prior to July 3, 1992, created strong incentives for exporters to refrain from repatriating foreign exchange earnings, induced both importers and exporters to participate in unofficial markets for foreign exchange, and encouraged international barter transactions. Efforts to manage the exchange rate through heavy foreign exchange...

  8. Russia, America, and Security in the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    operation and became a manufacturer of complex technical products. More than half of China’s export volume, for instance, is provided by engineering...Petersburg got much publicity in Russia and, hopefully, will encourage other leading Japanese manufacturing companies to invest in the Russian economy...circumspect attempts to externally balance against the US by seeking security cooperation with DPRK and Russia. 10 Brahma Chellaney, “China Reconstructs

  9. U.S.-Russia Relations: Refocus, Rebuild, Reenergize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    McDermott Library’s Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian , Frances K. Scott, in support of the 56th Academy Assembly to be held at...JZ 1616 .S55 2014) Kundu, Nivedita Das, ed. Russia-India-China: Evolution of Geo-Political Strategic Trends. New Delhi: Academic Foundation in...P87 J83 2013) Kundu, Nivedita Das, ed. Russia-India-China: Evolution of Geo-Political Strategic Trends. New Delhi: Academic Foundation in association

  10. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  11. RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL MECHANISMS IN EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  12. Russia's Participation In Multilateral Mechanisms In East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  13. Zimbabwe-Russia Relations in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Chigora, Percyslage; Goredema, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    The 21st century has witnessed the intensification of relations between Zimbabwe and the East and other favorable states, Russia among them. Historically under the socialist rhetoric the two countries shared a common political ideology. Zimbabwe- Russia relations dates back to the era of the liberation struggle. The Soviet Union aided Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Union and later the Patriotic Front which included Mugabe's Zimbabwe National African Union. The Sovie...

  14. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  15. A Qualified Optimistic Analysis of Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Worobec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In his magnum opus on Russia’s imperial history B.N. Mironov characterizes himself as a positivist thinker who marshals impressive amounts of statistics and other types of hard evidence, and employs economic theory, sociological paradigms to understand Russian social structures and development, political analysis, anthropology, and at times psychology to Russia over the longue durée. With this arsenal at hand, he argues against Russian exceptionalism and identifies Russia instead as a typical European state. In so doing, he emphasizes Imperial Russia’s successes as a state, the social and economic foundations of which, he argues, did not cause revolution and attributes revolution to political causes. As he has tried to do previously, the author does not begin with the revolutions of the early twentieth century and largely does not read history backwards, but rather delineates Russia’s historical development within a robust comparative European context (occasionally broadening that context to include the United States. More specifically, B.N. Mironov charts Russia’s modernization through the creation of well-defined estates in the late eighteenth century and the subsequent breakdown of those estates in the post-reform period as a result of greater social mobility; gradual urbanization; industrialization; the beginnings of a demographic transformation; improvements in the standard of living; an increase in literacy; the development of a civil society; the spread of private property among all social groups; the growth of individualism; and the eventual establishment of the rule of law, all of which constitute the attributes of a modern European state. The author’s largely negative perceptions of the Russian peasants’ mentalité, however, sit uneasily with his claims about advancements in the countryside by the turn of the twentieth century. Equating peasants’ collectivism with authoritarianism and conflating it with the Bolshevik

  16. Utilizing Colored Dissolved Organic Matter to Derive Dissolved Black Carbon Export by Arctic Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron eStubbins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires have produced black carbon (BC since land plants emerged. Condensed aromatic compounds, a form of BC, have accumulated to become a major component of the soil carbon pool. Condensed aromatics leach from soils into rivers, where they are termed dissolved black carbon (DBC. The transport of DBC by rivers to the sea is a major term in the global carbon and BC cycles. To estimate Arctic river DBC export, 25 samples collected from the six largest Arctic rivers (Kolyma, Lena, Mackenzie, Ob’, Yenisey and Yukon were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and DBC. A simple, linear regression between DOC and DBC indicated that DBC accounted for 8.9 ± 0.3% DOC exported by Arctic rivers. To improve upon this estimate, an optical proxy for DBC was developed based upon the linear correlation between DBC concentrations and CDOM light absorption coefficients at 254 nm (a254. Relatively easy to measure a254 values were determined for 410 Arctic river samples between 2004 and 2010. Each of these a254 values was converted to a DBC concentration based upon the linear correlation, providing an extended record of DBC concentration. The extended DBC record was coupled with daily discharge data from the six rivers to estimate riverine DBC loads using the LOADEST modeling program. The six rivers studied cover 53% of the pan-Arctic watershed and exported 1.5 ± 0.1 million tons of DBC per year. Scaling up to the full area of the pan-Arctic watershed, we estimate that Arctic rivers carry 2.8 ± 0.3 million tons of DBC from land to the Arctic Ocean each year. This equates to ~8% of Arctic river DOC export, slightly less than indicated by the simpler DBC vs DOC correlation-based estimate. Riverine discharge is predicted to increase in a warmer Arctic. DBC export was positively correlated with river runoff, suggesting that the export of soil BC to the Arctic Ocean is likely to increase as the Arctic warms.

  17. Russia and the energetic policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems for the Russian gas supply to the EU in 2006 and2009 raised the question on the relationship between these areas. The EU includes Russia in its energy policy, but as a geopolitical risk. The ground of this view is the big volume of hydrocarbons that the EU imports form Russia that implies a dependency of the former. It is assumed that Russia can influence the prices, the quantities, as well as the capability for restructuring the European gas sector. Nevertheless, this view doesn’t consider the role of the gas in Russia and, in particular, the Russian gas export strategic value from the Russian view. This paper questions that Russia could use the gas export to EU as a political vector and, by the way, proposes the geopolitical risk to have a minor relevance. So in the European energy policy the geopolitical risk of Russia should lose importance and should increase the priority about the absence of investments in the Russian gas sector that can establish limits to the imports of Russian gas in the future.

  18. Impact of Climate Change on Energy Production, Distribution, and Consumption in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Klimenko, A. V.; Tereshin, A. G.; Fedotova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    An assessment of the overall impact of the observed and expected climatic changes on energy production, distribution, and consumption in Russia is presented. Climate model results of various complexity and evaluation data on the vulnerability of various energy production sectors to climate change are presented. It is shown that, due to the increase of air temperature, the efficiency of electricity production at thermal and nuclear power plants declines. According to the climate model results, the production of electricity at TPPs and NPPs by 2050 could be reduced by 6 billion kW h due to the temperature increase. At the same time, as a result of simulation, the expected increase in the rainfall amount and river runoff in Russia by 2050 could lead to an increase in the output of HPP by 4-6% as compared with the current level, i.e., by 8 billion kW h. For energy transmission and distribution, the climate warming will mean an increase in transmission losses, which, according to estimates, may amount to approximately 1 billion kW h by 2050. The increase of air temperature in summer will require higher energy consumption for air conditioning, which will increase by approximately 6 billion kW h by 2050. However, in total, the optimal energy consumption in Russia, corresponding to the postindustrial level, will decrease by 2050 by approximately 150 billion kW h as a result of climate- induced changes. The maximum global warming impact is focused on the heat demand sector. As a result of a decrease in the heating degree-days by 2050, the need for space heating is expected to fall by 10-15%, which will cause a fuel conservation sufficient for generating approximately 140 billion kW h of electricity. Hence, a conclusion about the positive direct impact of climate change on the Russia's energy sector follows, which is constituted in the additional available energy resource of approximately 300 billion kW h per year.

  19. The social dynamics of employees in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z T Golenkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the specific features of the socio-structural processes that take place in the Russian economy over the past decades, determine the dynamics of interaction between social groups, and change the criteria of social inequality and differentiation. The authors believe that the transformation of property relations in the Russian society led to a sharp polarization in income and changed the structure of employment. In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the employment by economic sectors, identify general characteristics of the labor market at different levels (macro- and micro-levels in the field of socio-economic and socio-labor relations. In the second part of the article, the authors on the basis of their own empirical studies estimate the positions of employees working in both the public and private sectors, but focus on the private sector employees as a new social class. The authors describe how a class of employees is forming in Russia; indicate the general characteristics of this community, as well as the factors that determine the social differences within it, and the nature of these differences, which depend on the sector of employment, employee professional and educational level, his age, and job position.

  20. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  1. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...

  2. ROMANIA, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion MUSCHEI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, international relationships have always witnessed the forming of alliances, bilateral agreements, mutual treaties, conventions, partnerships or founding organizations. All these agreements have lasted as long as all the actors involved have shared a common interest, but during conflictual periods they have been reduced to simple sheets of paper. Certainly, the very same states have, again and again, been both ‘friends’ and ‘enemies’ because in international relations “nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests.”1 Thus, in a world of growing interdependence and continuous change, globalization will not turn this world into a flat one, nor will it bring history to an end. On the contrary, it will generate new threats and will make differences more obvious and more striking. Moreover, the events that have taken place during the last few years clearly point this out. Starting with the 2013 Summit in Vilnius, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership, in particular, have brought about major direct changes in Eastern Europe and indirect ones in Bruxelles, culminating in territorial changes in the immediate proximity of Romania. Taking into account both its significant geopolitical and geostrategic location and its membership to the European Union, Romania finds itself, as always, at a crossroads. In this context, the present paper aims at determining the role the European Union plays in Romania’s relationship with Russia.

  3. Judicial Reforms in Russia: 1864 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Reshetnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Judicial Reform in Russia. The 1860s are known as a time of major reforms in various spheres of life, one of them being the Judicial Reform adopted in 1864. Before 1864 civil procedure was considered to be the classical form of inquisitorial justice1 with active judges and passive parties. Inquisitorial procedure was a written process conducted in secret with no legal representatives in court, and with formal evaluation of evidence (otsenka dokazatel’stv. Instead of an inquisitorial procedure the Judicial Reform introduced an adversarial system with active parties and more or less passive judges, an open, oral (public process, legal representatives, and free evaluation of evidence. So, for Russian procedure it was a revolution as it happened in other countries of Europe, which turned away from an inquisitorial to an adversarial system of justice.

  4. Particularly human development regions in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Kravchenko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading doctrines of present time is that people are both the goal and driving force of socio-economic development. This conceptual idea is the basis of the theory of human development. The complexity and multidimensionality of the category of "human capital" has led the authors to conclude that the methodology for assessing human development should be based on a multiplicative model calculating the human development index. The authors gave a rationale for the use of dynamic normalization rate of per capita gross regional product in the calculation of constituting the index of income. In this research, a method for the analysis of structural changes in human development is presented. Criterial attributes of typology, which allows to reveal the specifics of human development regions of Russia at the present stage, are identified. The rate of incremental effectiveness, which was designed in this study, allowed to assess the efficiency and results rating of human development in the studied areas. Basing on the analysis of empirical data from the past ten years, the authors concluded that human development has an intensive nature.

  5. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  6. Forest pyrology in Russia: achievements and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Tsvetkov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Russian forest pyrology from the beginning of XXI century to present time was examined in the article. Main problems of basic and applied research of fire scientists for the last years were revealed. The identification of fire role as permanent ecological and evolutional factor of origin, development, and growth of forests was considered to be the aim of basic research. Applied research includes improvement and increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation, and reasonable usage of positive fire role in a forest. The results of main basic and applied research of scientists from Siberia, Far East, European part of country, and Ural were examined. It was emphasized that to present time forest pyrology accumulated a significant amount of theoretical and applied knowledge. The results of investigations are the basis for planning of fire fighting, selection of means and methods of fire suppression, increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation and reasonable usage of positive fire role. The foundations of pyroecology as a science of ecological and evolutional role of forest fires were laid down. In total, the results of investigations of Russian scientists were considered as the uniform system of knowledge of forest fire nature and methods of fire suppressions. In spite of this, modern state of forest pyrology in Russia could not be evaluated as satisfactory, especially after enactment of new RF Forest code since January 1, 2007. The main reasons of such state were determined. The suggestions of its improvement were provided.

  7. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . There is allusion to the disappearance of the river in Van. Parva of the Mahabharat, and also in the Siddhant Shiromani. Great Betrayal. The Aravali continued to rise. The newly formed Yamuna was forced to migrate progressively eastward.

  8. Water runoff vs modern climatic warming in mountainous cryolithic zone in North-East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, V. E.; Glotova, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effects of current climatic warming for both surface and subsurface water runoffs in North-East Russia, where the Main Watershed of the Earth separates it into the Arctic and Pacific continental slopes. The process of climatic warming is testified by continuous weather records during 80-100 years and longer periods. Over the Arctic slope and in the northern areas of the Pacific slope, climatic warming results in a decline in a total runoff of rivers whereas the ground-water recharge becomes greater in winter low-level conditions. In the southern Pacific slope and in the Sea of Okhotsk basin, the effect of climatic warming is an overall increase in total runoff including its subsurface constituents. We believe these peculiar characters of river runoff there to be related to the cryolithic zone environments. Over the Arctic slope and the northern Pacific slope, where cryolithic zone is continuous, the total runoff has its subsurface constituent as basically resulting from discharge of ground waters hosted in seasonally thawing rocks. Warmer climatic conditions favor growth of vegetation that needs more water for the processes of evapotranspiration and evaporation from rocky surfaces in summer seasons. In the Sea of Okhotsk basin, where the cryolithic zone is discontinuous, not only ground waters in seasonally thawing layers, but also continuous taliks and subpermafrost waters participate in processes of river recharges. As a result, a greater biological productivity of vegetation cover does not have any effect on ground-water supply and river recharge processes. If a steady climate warming is provided, a continuous cryolithic zone can presumably degrade into a discontinuous and then into an island-type permafrost layer. Under such a scenario, there will be a general increase in the total runoff and its subsurface constituent. From geoecological viewpoints, a greater runoff will have quite positive effects, whereas some

  9. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  10. Forecast of the Demografic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the contemporary issues of the reproduction of the Russian population, their reasons, and state policy toward them are considered. Relevance of the task solution of assessment of the most expected birth rate dynamics of the Russian population in future in the conditions of low norms of the parenthood status taking into account the influence of government measures for the birth rate stimulation is proved. In order to achieve this objective, on the basis of the behavior probability distribution function of crude birth rate, the probabilistic assessment of the future birth rate dynamics of the Russian population was conducted. On the basis of the modernized Hirst method, two expected dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate were constructed: the first trajectory corresponds to the scenario at which the value of crude birth rate will be in the range of 8-10,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,182, including the negative external impact, the second trajectory will be in the range of 13-16,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,618, including the positive external impact. In spite of the fact that these scenarios are quite different, the dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate predicted according to them during the period of 2015-2041 that corresponds to the time of the reliable prediction are almost identical. The analysis of the received results enabled to conclude that the state population policy cannot affect the future dynamics of the birth rate due mainly to to the conjunctural changes.These conclusions confirm the intellectual vested interest of the academic circles that government regulation of a demographic situation in Russia has to be aimed, first of all, at the health improvement and increase of the expected life interval of the population

  11. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  12. The development of market approaches in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, I

    1994-01-01

    In the late 1980s, it became clear that poor outcomes of the Russian health system were caused not only by underfunding but also by inadequate management of health care. Some features of the system led to great inefficiency in medical care provision and an irrational structure of medical care. The recognition of this fact has intensified the search for new methods of finance and management. The underlying idea of health care reforms in Russia is to weaken providers' dominance, to make them more responsive to consumer preferences, and to change the structure of medical care. The main developments of the reform parallel the reforms in Western countries. These are primarily the separation of finance and provision of medical care, with the shift from an integrated to a contractual model of relationships between payers and providers. But the specific characteristics of the health care situation, primarily the great underfunding and the absolute dominance of state-owned medical facilities, make the reform in the Russian health sector more radical. This paper highlights the issues of the current and planned developments in the Russian health sector. After presenting the main characteristics of the current health systems, it addresses economic experiments which are underway in several regions of the new Russian Federation. They are designed to introduce elements of market relations into a highly bureaucratic system. The main features and the impact of the experiments are discussed. Then the new model of finance, which is based on a transition from tax-financed to the health insurance system, is presented.

  13. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoudeh, M.; Silakhori, K.; Sepanloo, K.; Jahanfarnia, G.; Moattar, F.

    2008-01-01

    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10 -7 / year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  14. Russia-India: New Horizons For Historical Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ivashentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s relations with India have been close to those of an alliance. However the changes that have taken place in Russia and in the general global situation as well as India’s mighty economic upswing and the rise of its geopolitical ambitions on that basis have introduced new accents and nuances to these relations. With the coming to power in 2014 of Bharatiya Janata or Indian People’s Party whose ideology is Hindutwa, the nationalism, based on Hindu religious traditions, India’s foreign policy has acquired a new assertiveness. The present Prime Minister N.Modi has declared his plan to make India a leading power on the international arena. An important feature of India’s foreign policy of recent years is its active building bridges with the US which it view first of all as a potential counterweight to China. The Indian diaspora in the US of 3Million has played its role in that process. However New Delhi maintains the line of the privileged strategic partnership with Russia. India’s global and regional interests coincide more often with those of Russia than witch othegreat powers. As for Russia, it never had any conflict with India in the past. Three main pillars of our partnership beyond the foreign affairs framework are those of cooperation in energy, including nuclear power, military technologies and space exploration. Russia-India partnership has proved its viability and efficiency. It helps to promote global peace and security.

  15. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  16. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  17. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... after running through the Thai-Burmese border. In 2003, a cascade of up to 13 dams were approved by the Chinese government, however, as of yet no dams have been built due to a prolonged controversy between Chinese government officials, Chinese and international environmental NGOs, the media, social...

  18. Russia`s crumbling tactical nuclear weapons complex: An opportunity for arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.P.; Miller, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    As politicians and policy makers trumpet the successes of strategic reductions and the achievements of the START agreements, Russia has increasingly focused on a rhetorical and doctrinal campaign to enhance the credibility of nuclear war fighting threats by legitimizing theater or tactical nuclear systems. The Russian Federation is convinced that its security rests upon these weapons, and it has therefore attempted to shield both the personnel and the hardware from the effects of the military rollback. The notion that the two largest possessors of nuclear weapons could speedily draw down their arsenals to under 2000 warheads, as a START 3 regime suggests, is misguided. This ignores the thousands of so-called tactical nuclear weapons possessed by both states. The arms control proposal presented in this paper incorporates a regime calling for the elimination of air delivered tactical nuclear weapons that may prove to be a useful model for reinvigorating the stalled process of nuclear arms reductions.

  19. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  20. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslund, A. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  1. Some Stylistic Aspects of Social Advertising in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul F. Khanova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some stylistic aspects of advertising database in Russia. It examines linguistic and stylistic properties and peculiarities of social advertising and the impact it has on public consciousness. It determines that social advertisements in Russia are characteristic of the vocabulary belonging to the low language norms which reflects cultural and ethical context. Figurative language and stylistic devices aim at appealing to emotions and make the advertisement more memorable. The authors deem it necessary to create a common database on social advertising in Russia in order to facilitate the analysis of economic impact and evaluate the capacity to exert effect on mainstream audience as well as determine strategies to build advertising campaigns.

  2. Russia's 'dictatorship-of-the-law' approach to internet policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Nocetti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As international politics' developments heavily weigh on Russia's domestic politics, the internet is placed on top of the list of "threats" that the government must tackle, through an avalanche of legislations aiming at gradually isolating the Russian internet from the global infrastructure. The growth of the Russian internet market during the last couple of years is likely to remain secondary to the "sovereignisation" of Russia's internet. This article aims at understanding these contradictory trends, in an international context in which internet governance is at a crossroads, and major internet firms come under greater regulatory scrutiny from governments. The Russian 'dictatorship-of-the-law' paradigm is all but over: it is deploying online, with potentially harmful consequences for Russia's attempts to attract foreign investments in the internet sector, and for users' rights online.

  3. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellecker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  4. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Russia's resource capitalism—market vs political signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Simpson, Ewan; Haque, Mujibul

    2013-01-01

    Since the early post-Soviet era, when many strategically important Russian oil and gas fields were sold on unfavourable terms, the state has been seeking to regain control of these strategic assets. With Putin's return to the Presidency in 2012, Russia's U-turn over oil and gas privatizations has again caused market consternation. We examine strategic asset acquisitions by Russian O and G companies during Putin's first terms as president and suggest that there should however, be few surprises. Under Putin, strategic deals in Russia are often informal, dominated by Russian partners, subject to internecine rivalries and, we show, are ‘somehow’ known by markets prior to promulgation. Findings suggest that in Russia deals of strategic substance are recognized by financial markets prior to the announcement of political policy

  6. UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS DURING ECONOMY CRISIS 2014-2015 IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostikova E. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.

  7. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times.

  8. About That: Deploying and Deploring Sex in Postsoviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Borenstein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Desovietization brought sex as a visible cultural phenomenon into Russia, one rife with contradictions and conflicts. Newspapers, popular magazines, advertisements, pornography, the first Russian sex talk show ( About That , and pronouncements by a broad range of quotable public figures indicate that the problematics of sex during the 1990s consisted of the following: a sexualized relationship between Russia and the West; a sexualization of politics (rather than the politicization of sex; an inflexible yet implicit code governing the deployment of sex in "high" and "low" culture; and, above all, the development of a sexual discourse that defied circumlocution and repression even as it relied on them. Whereas during the early 1990s Russia seemed content to learn and borrow from Western sexual discourse, by mid-decade sexuality became a forum for nationalist fervor, articulated in terms of international relations.

  9. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  10. CONCERNING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRESS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Akhapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a network of educational institutions as one of the causes that negatively aff ect the competitiveness of higher education inRussia, directly points to the narrow realm of training in a particular area. There is a danger of destruction of branch universities in the existing system of higher education. Meanwhile, studies of the real value of specialized higher education in our country, and the reasons for determining this value is not enough, and the available knowledge is fragmented. In the article on the example of high schools of the Ministry of Agriculture ofRussiaproved that a specialized education can become a decisive factor in improving the quality of human capital, the development of the industry areas of the state. There are at least several reasons that indicate the need to stimulate the development processes of every kind of agricultural universities. The first reason has to do with the movement of the world community towards the reorganization of the national systems of higher education, where the central place is given to the development of specialized training programs. It should be particularly emphasized that higher education around the world is no longer the subject of domestic policy. Universities are fighting for the education market, and the availability of specialized educational programs has a decisive importance in this struggle. In addition, the authors say, in the Russian context agrarian universities are able to become a guarantor of the development of rural areas, helping to overcome the social consequences of reform of the agricultural sector. Another reason is related to the specificity of the educational process in agricultural universities and answers the question why agricultural education is a special form of organization of educational process, which is closely related to the agricultural sector of the country. Studies conducted by the authors suggest that the destruction of the existing system of

  11. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

  14. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  15. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  16. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  17. Japan in the Russia - U.S. Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of the crisis in Russia - U. S. relations in connection with the events surrounding Ukraine on the world system and its key component - the Asia-Pacific region where Japan plays a crucial role. The author assumes that the international relations have no common understanding of the rules of engagement between the USA, the Group of Seven, Russia and the BRICS countries. As a result, the leading countries of the world are guided by conflicting scenarios. The article deals with the American scenario in relation to China and the Russian Federation and the Russian one in relation to polycentric and the U. S. - centered world orders. The most important element of the American scenario in relation to Beijing is Japan. This country is central to Washington's policy to contain China. Tokyo is headed for the rapid rejection of pacifist principles of its foreign policy. Russian scenario for the international system is in an active course to establishing a polycentric world order. United States' scenario against Russia in this regard is a containment strategy of Moscow. The central component of this strategy, as it can be assumed, is a violation of the strategic balance in US - Russian relations. However, Ukraine has become a major springboard to contain Russia. Instead of establishing equal Russian - American relations United States and their allies (under American pression have chosen a policy of isolating Moscow, but such actions are blocking the Russian - Japanese rapprochement beneficial both for Tokyo and Kremlin, which is interested in deepening its ties with Japan in order to diversify its relations with Asia-Pacific area. The author concludes that the long-term interests of Russia and Japan dictate both sides to move closer, but the policy of the U.S. administration towards Russia on the Ukranian question blocks this possibility.

  18. Beverage-specific alcohol sales and violent mortality in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    High violent mortality rate in Russia and its profound fluctuation over recent decades have attracted considerable interest. A mounting body of evidence points to the binge drinking pattern as a potentially important contributor to the violent mortality crisis in Russia. In line with this evidence, we assume that higher level of vodka consumption in conjunction with binge drinking pattern results in close aggregate-level association between vodka sales and violent mortality rates in Russia. To test this hypothesis, trends in beverage-specific alcohol sales per capita and mortality rates from external causes in Russia between 1980 and 2005 were analyzed by means of ARIMA time-series analysis. Results of the analysis indicate that violent mortality rates tend to be more responsive to change in vodka sales per capita than to change in total level of alcohol sales. The analysis suggests that a 1-litre increase in vodka sales per capita would result in a 5% increase in violent mortality rate, an 11.3% increase in accidents and injuries mortality rate, a 9.2% increase in suicide rate, a 12.5% increase in homicide rate, and a 21.9% increase in fatal alcohol poisoning rate. The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol played a crucial role in the fluctuation in violent mortality rate in Russia in recent decades. Assuming that drinking vodka is usually associated with intoxication episodes, these findings provide additional evidence that the binge drinking pattern is an important determinant of the violent mortality crisis in Russia.

  19. Historical Roots of the Problems in Relations between Russia andGermany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Gabiev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Russia has had close contacts with no one of the West European nations but Germans. Experience of this interaction is unique. Russia has always provoked contradictory feelings in Germans: from almost mystical adoration to full antagonism.

  20. Licensing of spent nuclear fuel dry storage in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislov, A.I.; Kolesnikov, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal nuclear and radiation safety authority of Russia (Gosatomnadzor) being the state regulation body, organizes and carries out the state regulation and supervision for safety at handling, transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel. In Russia, the use of dry storage in casks will be the primary spent nuclear fuel storage option for the next twenty years. The cask for spent nuclear fuel must be applied for licensing by Gosatomnadzor for both storage and transportation. There are a number of regulations for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in Russia. Up to now, there are no special regulations for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Such regulations will be prepared up to the end of 1998. Principally, it will be required that only type B(U)F, packages can be used for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, there are two dual-purpose cask designs under consideration in Russia. One of them is the CONSTOR steel concrete cask, developed in Russia (NPO CKTI) under the leadership of GNB, Germany. The other cask design is the TUK-104 cask of KBSM, Russia. Both cask types were designed for spent nuclear RBMK fuel. The CONSTOR steel concrete cask was designed to be in full compliance with both Russian and IAEA regulations for transport of packages for radioactive material. The evaluation of the design criteria by Russian experts for the CONSTOR steel concrete cask project was performed at a first stage of licensing (1995 - 1997). The CONSTOR cask design has been assessed (strength analysis, thermal physics, nuclear physics and others) by different Russian experts. To show finally the compliance of the CONSTOR steel concrete cask with Russian and IAEA regulations, six drop tests have been performed with a 1:2 scale model manufactured in Russia. A test report was prepared. The test results have shown that the CONSTOR cask integrity is guaranteed under both transport and storage accident conditions. The final stage of the certification procedure

  1. Ukraine, Russia and the EU: linked by gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The Ukrainian crisis serves as a reminder just how much Ukraine plays a determining role for the European Union in energy matters, being the funnel through which most of Russian gas has to pass to reach Western Europe. One inevitable conclusion is already obvious: Russia and the EU are intimately linked and Moscow is as dependent on the EU for foreign exchange as is the EU on Russia for its gas. Nevertheless, the absence of stability in Ukraine constitutes a permanent threat to supplies to member states of the EU, especially Germany. (author)

  2. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  3. The perspectives of family policy in Russia amid increasing cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mitrofanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.

  4. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003 (domestic arbitration and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993 (international arbitration. This law was drafted on the basis of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.

  5. FACADES OF RUSSIA: THE STATE OF THE MARKET AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlook of the facades market in its most important segments: translucent facades, hinged ventilated facades, plaster facades with insulation, fire safety of facades, has become the subject of the discussion on The Second Congress of the Facades Market Facades of Russia+ 2015, which took place in September 2015. The Congress was attended by the leading experts of the facades market from sectoral institutions, higher education institutions, oversight bodies, leaders of manufacturers of facade materials and installation companies from different regions of Russia, from the near and far abroad

  6. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.

  7. FROM PONDS TO MAN-MADE SEAS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gorshkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

  8. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A

    2007-01-01

    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  9. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  10. EXPORT OF CHEESE IN RUSSIA: THE ROLE OF IZSPLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pellegrino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contaminants like heavy metals could remain in milk and its by-products if forage used for ruminant nutrition is contaminated with high levels of these elements. In EU maximum levels (LMRare established only for lead in milk. In Russia limits have been fixed for different heavy metals in milk and dairy products; for this reason exporting countries, including Italy, have to demonstrate the conformity of their products to the expected limits. IZSPLV analysed 18 cheese samples to research lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. All samples were negative and could be exported toRussia.

  11. Social Capital in Russia and Denmark: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation and event......This paper has three purposes: (p1) To study the relation between the main social capital definitions using empirical data. (p2) To compare the level of social capital in a new democracy (Russia) and an old one (Denmark). (p3) To show whether social capital matters for income generation...

  12. Ukraine/Russia. Gas dimension of a conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayou, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Gas is not absent from the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, as both a cause and a consequence of long-term disagreements between the two countries. The 2006 and 2009 'gas crises' had partly revealed disputes relating to both the price of gas and the total debt of Kiev. While negotiations continue on these issues, the break-up seems to have reached the point of no return: Moscow is seeking to oust Ukraine as a transit country between Russia and Europe, while Kiev dreams of total emancipation of Russia's gas. (author)

  13. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  14. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  15. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative effective~~ess of secondary school principals in selected sctiools in Cross River State. In pursuance of this study, two hypothesis were formulated. Two sets of questionnaires, Principal's Self-Evaluation. Questionnaire ...

  16. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    towns of the Harappan culture (4600 to 4100 years Before Pres en t. - BP) and ashrams ofrishis (sages) lay on the banks of this life-line of the Vedic time. Where has that great river gone? It is today represented by the disproportionately wide and astonishingly water-less, sand-filled channels ofGhaggar in Haryana and ...

  17. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  18. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender on leadership styles and administrative .... ranked significantly ahead of men as democratic leaders ... effectiveness and leadership styles of secondary school principals In Cross River. State. METHODOLOGY. Research Area: The study was conducte'd in c ~ m.

  19. China-Russia Alliance - a common choice of the two countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with Sino-Soviet Alliance and NATO countries alliance, China -Russia Alliance should have its own characteristics. China-Russia Alliance can further enhance strategic mutual trust betweeneach other, enhance cooperation quality and space, to promote the mutualprogress and prosperity, achieve national revival of China and Russia as soon as possible, which is the ultimate goal of theChina-Russia Alliance.

  20. Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Pourcelot, L.; Eikenberg, J.; Beer, H.; Le Roux, G.; Rhikvanov, L.P.; Stille, P.; Renaud, Ph.; Mezhibor, A.

    2008-01-01

    Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137 Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m -2 ) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240 Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m -2 ) or 241 Am (160-1220 Bq m -2 ). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137 Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241 Pu/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239 Pu and 60% for 241 Pu in the sediments

  1. Radiation risks and monitoring of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Khazhekber, S.; Poznyak, V.L.; Chernykh, E.E.; Passell, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    works was used in preparation of the International project C aspian Rivers , contemplating organization of the system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura rivers, flows of that comprise 90 percent of all the flows in the Caspian Sea. Participants of this project are scientific institutions from Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. The collaborator of the project is the SNL as well. The work-setting on radiation and hydro-chemical research and monitoring of Ile and Irtysh rivers with participation of scientific organizations from China, Kazakhstan and Russia is being discussed

  2. Forming Factors of Russia International Image in the Conflict between Georgia and South Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Y Glinskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the factors of determining the international political image of Russia in the context of Russian policy in the Northern Caucasus. Relations between Russia and Georgia, as well as changes of international image of Russia are evaluated.

  3. Russia: The State of Education at the Turn of the Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2001-01-01

    Presents information gained while working with English language teachers in Russia in the fall of 1999. Describes the school system within Russia as well as information on the structure of schools in Russia. Explores characteristics of Russian schools and the challenges to Russian education. (CMK)

  4. 78 FR 18317 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia- Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia-- Amendment AGENCY: International... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia published at 77 FR... Recruitment and Applications section of the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia published at...

  5. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  6. Energy statistics of pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Simonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creation and development of the energy statistics of the Russian Empire of the initial stage of electrification and the formation of the energy economy, which is related to: 1 the economic upsurge of the 1890s; 2 the new economic recovery of 1907–1913 and 3 the militarization of industry in 1914–1916. The real technical and economic indicators and complex statistical data of the pre-revolutionary electric power industry were either hushed up or deliberately distorted during the Soviet era. Even in the encyclopaedic literature it was considered that pre-revolutionaryRussia“was on one of the last places in the world” for the production of electricity. The author analyzes statistical surveys (censuses of the manufacturing industry for 1900 and 1908 (the “varzar censuses”, which gave the first material on the state of its energy sector, namely: the composition, quantity and power of primary engines and electric motors. For the first time in historiography, the data of the “energy censuses” of the Ministry of Finance for 1905 and 1913 on the number and capacity of central public power stations and private power stations (block stations of industrial enterprises, organizations and institutions are cited. The data of the census were conducted with the participation of the apparatus of factory and factory inspections in 1906 and in1916 inall provinces of the Russian Empire, with the exception of six provinces of the frontline zone. A lot of work was done to record electricity production / consumption, which was conducted by the Russian electrotechnical community. According to incomplete data published in 1917 by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee of the VII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress, from 1905 to 1913 (that is, for 8 years the total number of power stations in the Russian Empire increased by 1.7 times, and the amount of electricity produced by them Has grown in 3,8 times. The

  7. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezneva, O.

    2013-01-01

    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  8. University Mergers in Russia: Four Waves of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, K. R.; Lisyutkin, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    This article is aimed at identifying distinctive features of the educational policy of university mergers--their main stages, types, and declared goals. We analyzed cases of university mergers and acquisitions (M&A) from the 1990s to the present, which allowed us to identify and describe four Russia-specific waves of educational policy. Based…

  9. Central Asian Security Trends: Views from Europe and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    parliamentary spokesperson, Marat Sultanov, evoked the possibility of the Russian troops returning to the southern borders of the country, but Russia has...lenta.ru/news/2009/07/08/tanks/. 42. E. Marat , “Soviet Military Legacy and Regional Security Cooperation in Central Asia,” The China and Eurasia Forum Quar

  10. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  11. Image policy of Russia: institutional and technological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Shirochenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main state institutions, which are responsible for the formation of Russia’s image, estimation of their activity and the effectiveness of their activities. It analyses the main normative documents that regulating the activities of state institutions in the direction of forming the image of the country. Considered the most influential media institutions that have a direct influence on what will be the image of the Russian Federation in the perception of the international community. It analyses the activities of the most influential in Russia Internet-resources, TV channels, information agencies, radio. Learn the basic techniques and methods that are used to form a positive image of the Russian Federation. Analyzed the activities of international forums, created under the auspices of Russia, and their impact on the perception of Russia in the world. Provides a list and description of the most prominent Russian and foreign cultural projects implemented in many countries.Describes the activities of the most influential Russian funds, the purpose of which is to restore the interest to the Russian culture abroad. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of influence on public opinion and shaping the image of Russia in the context of recent developments, namely the Russian aggression in Ukraine.

  12. CMS Virtual Visit from Russia - 16 November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Belotelov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This event gathered 200+ high school students selected from all over Russia from three places: - high school students from "Experimental Physics Olympics" at Sirius center, Sochi - students from European Gymnasium, Moscow - interested people at "White leaf" lecturing space Pictures show the CMS Virtual Visit, preparation lecture and masterclass activity. CMS Guides for the Virtual Visit: Nikolay Voytishin & Alexey Kamenev

  13. Discursive Practices of Private Online Tutoring Websites in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2015-01-01

    A recent development in English teaching in Russia is the emergence of private online language-tutoring schools, which offer one-on-one lessons by means of audio/videoconferencing. It remains unclear: (1) how these new providers of educational services are presenting themselves to the potential learners; (2) what ideology they tend to drawn on and…

  14. The European gaseous market deregulation and its consequences for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.

    2002-07-01

    Russia, the first world producer of gas in 2001 is also the main producer in the european gas market. In this framework the evolution of its gas exportations market is a major stake for the russian gas industry and for the country economy. The consequences of this gas market deregulation are analyzed in this document. (A.L.B.)

  15. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  16. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  17. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational…

  18. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  19. Trade unions in transnational automotive companies in Russia and Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinz, Sarah; Morris, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    by the model of German work councils, but structural power is weakly exercised and unions rely on non-conflictual engagement with management. In Russia, structural workingclass power remains strong, but the opportunities for transforming this into lasting associational, let alone institutional power, remain...... limited; thus, new unions make use of unconventional methods of protest to promote worker interests....

  20. Petroleum: to challenge the OPEC, Russia invests a lot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Today first world gas exporter and second for the petroleum, Russia wants to develop its infrastructures to become in 2010, the first partner of United States, Europe, Japan and China. The competition projects are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  2. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in…

  3. Seroepidemiology and molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadishina, Ludmila V; Eremeeva, Tatiana P; Trotsenko, Olga E; Ivanova, Olga E; Mikhailov, Mikhail I; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging human pathogen causing massive epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications in Asia. EV71 also circulates in Europe, however it does not cause large outbreaks. The reason for distinct epidemiological patterns of EV71 infection in Europe and Asia and the risk of EV71 epidemic in Europe and Russia remain unknown. Seroepidemiology of EV71 and molecular epidemiology of occasional EV71 isolates were studied to explore circulation of EV71 in Russia. In six regions of Russian Federation, seroprevalence of EV71 in sera collected in 2008 ranged from 5% to 20% in children aged 1-2 years and from 19% to 83% in children aged 3-5 years. The seroprevalence among elder children was significantly higher (41-83% vs. 19-27%) in Asian regions of Russia. EV71 strains identified in Russia in 2001-2011 belonged to subtypes C1 and C2, while genotype C4 that was causing epidemics in Asia since 1998 emerged in 2009 and became dominant in 2013.

  4. Diverse phytoplasmas associated with leguminus crops in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large scale survey of diseased legume plants (mainly clover and alfalfa in the Fabaceae family) was conducted from 2009-2013 in four Economic Regions of Russia - Northern (Arkhangelsk and Vologda oblast), Central (Moscow oblast), Volga (Samara oblast) and West Siberian (Novosibirsk oblast). The m...

  5. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  6. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge

    2017-03-01

    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  8. The Limits of Lending : Banks and Technology Adoption Across Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bircan, Cagatay; de Haas, R.

    2015-01-01

    We exploit historical and contemporaneous variation in local credit markets across Russia to identify the impact of credit constraints on firm-level innovation. We find that access to bank credit helps firms to adopt existing products and production processes that are new to them. They introduce

  9. Perceived cultural distance and acculturation among exchange students in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, I.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of perceived cultural distance, personality, acculturation orientations and outcomes were studied among exchange students (N = 187) in Russia who came from various countries in Asia, sub‐Saharan Africa, Latin America and the former Soviet Union. The hypothesis was supported that a

  10. National Innovation Systems in Brazil, Russia, India, China and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have put innovation at the centre of their development strategies. In each case, however, there exists scant knowledge about the national innovation system and its impact on the economy. This grant will support a comparative analysis of innovation systems in the five ...

  11. Resurgent Russia in 2030. Challenge for the USAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    advantage and may provide Russia with increased leverage in matters of defense in Europe.63 Besides the government’s “ takeover ” of key defense raw...will take advan- tage of their investments and their discoveries in the fields of nano- technology and robotics and pursue much smaller satellites. Ad

  12. Bridge over troubled water - valuing Russia's scientific landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2016), s. 95-98 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Environmental change * Brain drain * Interdisciplinary research * Paleo-archives * Russia * Scientific collaboration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  13. LEGAL NIHILISM AS A THREAT TO RUSSIA'S MODERNIZATION (SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Krasilnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nihilistic attitude to Law is discussed as one of most serious threats to modernization currently carried out in Russia. «Law nihilism» term is defined, its social forms and influence on political and social development is discussed.

  14. Shipment of VINCA Institute's HEU fresh fuel to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Milan; Sotic, Obrad

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows, for the first time, the basic data related to the recent shipment of the fresh HEU fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to Russia for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gives its contribution to the RERTR program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist action against nuclear material potentially usable for production of nuclear weapons. (author)

  15. Oil and indigenous people in sub-Arctic Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysyachnyouk, M.; Henry, L.A.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    How can the interests of extractive industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic be balanced through benefit sharing policies? This paper analyses how the international oil consortia of Sakhalin Energy and Exxon Neftegaz Limited (ENL) on Sakhalin Island in Russia have introduced benefit

  16. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  17. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  18. Book Review: Russia's heroes 1941–45 | Liebenberg | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albert Axell Russia's Heroes London: Robinson Books, 2002 264 pages (nine maps, 24 photos included) ISBN: 978-1-84119-534-6. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  19. The Conflict of the Epistemologies in Turgenev's Russia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turgenev's Fathers and Sons is not only about a generational conflict; it also depicts a crisis in the paradigms of knowledge in nineteenth century Russia. While the nobility revel in the arts, letters and aesthetics, the nihilists dismiss them as romantic nonsense. For them the only worthwhile knowledge is that which has ...

  20. Gli studi umanistici in Russia e la svolta del 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dovgopolova Aleksej Kamenskich

    2016-01-01

     We present the chronicle of the international scientific-didactic seminar Gumanitarnaya shkola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g .: ekzistentsiajlnoe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, held in Perm filial of Narional Research University "Higher School of Economics» (25-28 August 2015.

  1. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  2. Nuclear power development status in Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Taito

    2016-01-01

    Russia and China have clear policy for the export of nuclear reactors, and both countries conduct negotiations with the initiative of the government. In Russia, Atomenergoprom, which controls civilian nuclear power sector, is in charge, and in China, CNNC, CGN, and SPI are in charge. As for the development of new type reactors, Russian type VVER-1200 is led by NIAEP and Atomproekt, and China type CAP 1400 and Hualong-1 are led by CNNC, CGN, and SPI. The next reactor export is considered to be an improved type of the third generation. Furthermore, both countries are proceeding with the construction and planning of a variety of the fourth generation reactors. As for the power generation and construction costs of domestic nuclear reactors in each country, three countries such as South Korea, China, and Russia hold a dominant position, keeping the costs significantly lower than those in Japan, the United States, and France. In Russia and China, the governments approve government support loans of approximately 5 to 9 billion dollars per reactor for exporting reactors. For developing countries, where financial resources are limited, this system is considered to be a powerful incentive for importing nuclear reactors in combination with BOO contract system that covers from construction to operation. Japan's nuclear reactor exports are planned for the UK, Vietnam, and Turkey. In addition, a nuclear power agreement with India has been agreed in principle, and the order receipt of Japanese power plant manufacturers is expected. (A.O.)

  3. Russia and Latin America: problems and prospective of cooperation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We can infer that currently it is a conducive situation for the development of relations between Russia and States in Latin America, especially in the economic sphere and in the sphere of tourism, cultural and educational exchanges. The Far East plays an important role in the development of inter-State relations between ...

  4. Astok scheme keeps flame alight in Russia's icy east

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, A.

    1998-01-01

    Despite low oil prices and the political crisis in Russia, oil exploration and production continues to make progress around Sakhalin Island. The joint venture investment company's strategy is discussed. Details of the ice-resistant, conical steel structures for petroleum production are described. The next stage of exploration is also discussed. (UK)

  5. GIS-technologies application for calculation of potential soil loss of Marha River basin (Republic of Saha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynbergenov, Y.; Maltsev, K.; Sihanova, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the article the presentation of estimation methods of potential soil loss in the conditions of Siberia with application of geographical information systems is resulted. For the reference area of the Marha river basin, which is a part of the Lena river catchment, there was created a specialized geographic information database of potential soil erosion, with scale of 1: 1,000,000. Digital elevation model “GMTED2010” and the hydroset layer corresponding to the scale of 1: 1,000,000 are taken to calculate the soil loss values. The formation of the geobase data is considered in detail being constructed on the basis of the multiplicative structure which reflects the main parameters of the relief (slope steepness, exposition, slope length, erosion potential of the relief), soil, climatic characteristics and modern types of land cover. At the quantitative level with sufficiently high degree of spatial detail results were obtained for calculating the potential erosion of soils. The average value of potential soil loss in the basin without taking into account the factor of land cover types, was 12.6 t/ha/yr. The calculations carried out, taking into account the types of land cover obtained from remote sensing data from outer space resulted in an appreciable reduction of the soil loss values (0.04 t/ha/yr.).

  6. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-long Chechnya crisis, and facing similar problems in her 'new neighborhood' (Abkhazia, South Ossetia Transdniestria, is among the countries that might be affected by this precedent. Secondly, with her bad experience in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Russia has become sensitive not only to any disturbance in the balance of power in the Balkans but also to any change to the existing international order. Moscow has not forgotten that during the 1990s many Westerners saw Serbia as a 'metaphor for Russia' and that the NATO interventions against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995 and against Serbia (1999 revealed Russia's weakness, sending her the message to give up her interests in the Balkans and Europe. Thirdly, diverging American and Russian policies on Kosovo and Metohija coincide with their strained relations over the deployment of an antimissile 'shield' in Poland and the Czech Republic, the war in Iraq, policy towards Iran and other issues currently at the top of the list of international problems. Fourthly, meanwhile Russia has managed to recover from the disintegration of the USSR and to consolidate her economic and political power in Europe and the world, owing above all to oil and gas exports, but also to the export of industrial products (military in particular. The precedent that an independent Kosovo and Metohija would constitute in international relations is therefore a test of Russia's role as a permanent member of the UN Security Council

  7. Demands and conditions of nuclear power development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A reliable power supply is necessary for Russia to find its way out of the present crisis and to develop its economy. Although there are considerable fossil fuel resources in Russia, they are not sufficient to meet future power demands. Forecasts by specialists indicate that about 30% of the necessary increase in annual electricity production should be covered until the year 2010 by new nuclear power plants (NPPs). Also, by that time, all outdated nuclear power units should be replaced by new plants of more than 8 GW capacity. The total NPP capacity in Russia should be increased until 2010 by 50-70%, thus providing the basis for further development of nuclear power, with the aim of reaching 25% of the total electricity generation before 2015. Safety assurance of operational NPPs is a major prerequisite for nuclear power development, and measures for improving safety are being implemented. New designs of power units are being developed, in accordance with modern requirements and safety standards, and the start of construction of these units is planned for the end of this decade. The economic parameters of NPPs situated in the European part of Russia are better than those of coal and gas fuelled power plants. The improved safety of NPPs, the implementation of measures for processing and storage of radioactive wastes, and economic arguments are gradually changing the negative attitude of the population to nuclear power. Extended international co-operation is a further important factor, giving additional assurances of successful and safe nuclear power development in Russia. (author). 1 tab

  8. Creation of the uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnouskaya, Alena; Kotava, Aksana; Ivanov, Victor; Maksutov, Marat

    2008-01-01

    Creation of operation of uniform medical and dosimetric data banks for carrying out of collateral wide-scale radiation epidemiological researches and prediction of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident (ChA) in territory of Russia and Belarus. On the basis of medical and dosimetric data banks of the national registers of Russia and Belarus the uniform technology of collection personal of a state information of health of the population, injured from ChA . Three levels of observation are created. The first level - Bryansk area of Russia and Gomel area of Belarus, interests of research - radiation hazards of oncologic diseases of various localizations for the population living in these territories. The second level - Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol area of Russia and Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilyov area of Belarus, preferred direction of researches - thyroid cancer. The third level all territory of Russia and Belarus, area of research - medical consequences for health of the liquidators, their children and persons migrating from polluted territories. Personal uniform sub-registers are created and function on a stationary value to a basis. Is sub-registers containing information about diseases by a thyroid cancer, leukemia and breast cancer, uniform register of the liquidators and their children, uniform cancer-register of the liquidators and uniform cancer-register of the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 . The personal information on 20440 cases of thyroid cancer, 5234 cases of a leukemia, 16679 cases of breast cancer, 252884 liquidators, 6882 cases of a cancer of various localizations among the liquidators, 35423 children of the liquidators, 11407 cases of oncologic diseases among the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 is accumulated. (author)

  9. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeot, Remi

    2013-03-01

    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)

  10. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  11. RUSSIA RETURNS TO AFGHANISTAN: PROSPECTS OF BILATERAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Асеф

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available He article discusses the dynamics of the development of the economic situation in the Is-lamic Republic of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, and the current state and prospects of development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic relations. Russia and Afghanistan have a long history of cooperation. In the XX century, the Soviet Union provided economic assistance to Afghanistan, including the financing and construction of objects of industry and infrastructure, which are now in need of rehabili-tation and modernization. The accumulated experience of cooperation makes Russia may be one of the major players in Afghani-stan and participate in reconstruction of the country. The relevance of this article stems from the fact that at the present time in conditions of economic sanctions and the deterioration of relations with countries of the West, Russia intends to renew and develop relationships with long-term partners. Today Afghanistan is trying to recover from the devastating effects of years of civil war, and invite Russia to join this process. This means that Russia had a unique chance to return and gain a foothold in the market of Afghanistan, which will be an advantage for the development of cooperation between the two countries. The task of the article is analysis of the economic situation in Afghanistan, in order to study the possibilities of deepening and development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic cooperation. The analysis of Russian-Afghan relations showed that to date, despite the existence of certain problems faced by our country, the development of trade and economic relations is a promising direction of bilateral cooperation.

  12. Ethnic and gender divisions in the work force of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, M P

    1995-01-01

    Like the former Soviet Union, Russia is home to many ethnic groups. The Russian Federal Treaty of March 1992 was signed by 18 ethnically-based republics and 17 non-Russian ethnic districts. Ethnic groups within Russia vary considerably in levels of socioeconomic achievement, with groups having had unequal access to political resources and differing in their ability to take advantage of economic opportunities. The author analyzed newly available occupational data from the 1989 census in his study of ethnic and gender differences in the work force of Russia. Measurements are presented showing differences between the occupations of Russians and the next largest 11 ethnic groups, producing a clear hierarchy of groups. The extent of occupational gender differences within each ethnic group is measured and contrasted with the level of differences between ethnic groups. These data are important for showing potential sources of group conflict and for providing a baseline to measure changing forms of inequality which have been promoted by post-Soviet developments. Preliminary findings point to the existence of highly significant differences between Russia's ethnic groups, with the level of the differences closely paralleling measures of socioeconomic achievement. To determine more precisely the significance of group differences in employment, detailed occupational categories must be examined more closely. Currently available data, however, do not permit more rigorous measurements of discrimination. It is nonetheless clear that ethnicity in contemporary Russia is strongly related to occupational differences. The aggregate segregation of men from women was found to be very stable despite the substantial socioeconomic and cultural differences between ethnic groups. As a group, Jews were found to have extremely high levels of educational and occupational achievement and a comparatively far older age structure.

  13. XXV ALL-RUSSIA YOUTH CONFERENCE ON STRUCTURE OF LITHOSPHERE AND GEODYNAMICS, IRKUTSK, RUSSIA, APRIL 23–28, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Babicheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the XXV All-Russia Youth Conference on Structure of Lithosphere and Geodynamics. It took place on April 23-28, 2013 at the Institute of the Earth’s Crust in Irkutsk.

  14. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded

  15. Modeling the location of the forest line in northeast European Russia with remotely sensed vegetation and GIS-based climate and terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari

    2004-01-01

    GIS-based data sets were used to analyze the structure of the forest line at the landscape level in the lowlands of the Usa River Basin, in northeast European Russia. Vegetation zones in the area range from taiga in the south to forest-tundra and tundra in the north. We constructed logistic...... regression models to predict forest location at spatial scales varying from 1 X 1 km to 25 X 25 km grid cells. Forest location was explained by July mean temperature, ground temperature (permafrost), yearly minimum temperature, and a Topographic Wetness Index (soil moisture conditions). According...

  16. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  17. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Drozdovsky, B. Ya.; Garbuzov, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  18. Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy in Russia between 1990 and 1994. Design: Regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. Determination of contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest declines. Setting: Regions (oblasts) of European Russia (excluding Siberia and those in the Caucasus affected by the Chechen war). Subjects: The population of European Russia. Results: The fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income. For both men and women increasing rates of death between the ages of 30 and 60 years accounted for most of the fall in life expectancy, with the greatest contributions being from conditions directly or indirectly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The decline in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s cannot be attributed simply to impoverishment. Instead, the impact of social and economic transition, exacerbated by a lack of social cohesion, seems to have played a major part. The evidence that alcohol is an important proximate cause of premature death in Russia is strengthened. Key messages The fall in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s has not affected all parts of the country equally The greatest falls have been in some of the wealthiest regions, suggesting that impoverishment is not a sufficient explanation Much of the deterioration can be explained by labour force turnover

  19. Long-term development of Holocene and Pleistocene gullies in the Protva River basin, Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrey V.; Fuzeina, Julia N.; Belyaev, Vladimir R.

    2009-07-01

    The specific geomorphic structure (a combination of flat or gentle watersheds with short steep valley sides) and the high resistance of surface material in the case study area in the centre of the Russian Plain are responsible for the specific pattern of Holocene erosion: no or minor sheet erosion, the occasional appearance of new gullies on the valley sides (four out of 19 studied), and a concentration of erosion activity in old gullies that had existed since pre-Holocene times (15 out of 19 studied). The erosion activity is studied using radiocarbon dating of gully sediments. Summed probability density distribution (SPDD) of 65 radiocarbon dates is applied to detect changes of erosion rates over the last five millennia. Three millennium-scale phases of erosion activity are distinguished: Phase 1 — 1200 years BP to the present (intensive erosion), Phase 2 — 2800 to 1200 years BP (weak erosion), and Phase 3 — > 4800 to 2800 years BP (intensive erosion). Short episodes, or single events of relatively strong erosion, have been found at around 4700, 3800, 3000, 2200, 1800, and 900 years BP. Erosion during Phase 3 coincided with the Holocene lowest population density in the whole region, and the start of Phase 1 coincided with a population gap at the case study area, which suggests other than anthropogenic causes for changing erosion regimes. These may be climatic factors because changes between millennium-scale phases of erosion activity coincide with pronounced climatic changes: the Subboreal-Subatlantic transition, and the start of the Medieval Warm period. However, a direct correlation between erosion activity and climatic parameters (warmer/cooler, wetter/drier) has not been found, presumably because the available palaeoclimatic reconstructions do not contain enough information on changing frequencies and magnitudes of hydrological extremes. According to population dynamics, charcoal frequency in erosion-derived sediments and pollen data, a human impact on erosion is suggested to have occurred from the 11th century AD, and more confidently from the 14th-16th centuries. This contributed to erosion acceleration that began some two centuries earlier, apparently for climatic reasons.

  20. Russia’s Demographic Crisis and the Military: Strategic Impact and Security Implications in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-13

    motherhood and increased the benefits to families with children, the overall effect on Russian families, in particular women seemed to be increased demands...34, Atlantic Monthly, 2003 Dietwald, Claus, " Myths and Realities of Russia’s Population Crisis", Johnson’s Russia List, 2006 Feshbach, Murray, "Russia’s...from Russia", Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1998 Zayonchkovskaya, Zhanna, "Chinese Demographic Expansion into Russia: Myth or

  1. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  2. Veterans’ Policy in Russia: a Puzzle of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Danilova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Every war creates a new “lost generation”, veterans of wars and military operations. After the end of wars, states develop different ways of rewarding ex-soldiers for their service to the state. This paper analyzes veterans’ policy in the Soviet Union, its transformation after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new veterans’ policy in modern Russia. The paper reviews different historical stages in developing a veterans’ policy, and examines the main differences among the population of veterans. It outlines how the position of the most preferred group, the veterans of the Great Patriotic War, is supported by politics and expressed in civil-military relations. Further, the paper shows the gradual development in the welfare of veterans for other subgroups of veterans. In conclusion, it discusses the consequences of the modern veterans’ system in Russia.

  3. The Establishment and Development of Muftiates in Tsarist Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Alp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, muftiates which was founded in Tsarist Russia, composed important part of policy of Russian government on Muslim people and Islam religion and lasted for a long time was analyzed. Factors which influenced foundation process of Orenburg Ecclesiastical Assembly, Crimean Muftiate, Southern Caucasia Sunnite and Shiite Muftiates, their duties and authorities were put forward. It was mentioned that religious organizations which have equal rights and authorities were not formed in regions where Muslim people were dominant in Russia. The difference between perspective of Tsardom government and Muslim people towards muftiates were determined, the reflection of this situation on relation between Empire and Muslim people was stated in the sense of policy.

  4. HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA-KAZAKHSTAN GEO-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Ильич Цай

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the perspective directions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the sphere of fuel and energy complex. The authors give particular examples of the joint implementation of the adopted documents aimed at strengthening the two countries’ cooperation in the exploration and production of oil and gas in the past decade. Particular attention is paid to the Russia-Kazakhstan cooperation in the spheres of nuclear power, oil and oil products. These areas are considered by the example of the largest enterprises of fuel and energy complexes of Russia and Kazakhstan. One of the main components of the fuel and energy complex is the Petroleum Industry.

  5. Religious influences on human capital variations in imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomila Lankina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical legacies, particularly imperial tutelage and religion, have featured prominently in recent scholarship on political regime variations in post-communist settings, challenging earlier temporally proximate explanations. The overlap between tutelage, geography, and religion has complicated the uncovering of the spatially uneven effects of the various legacies. The author addresses this challenge by conducting sub-national analysis of religious influences within one imperial domain, Russia. In particular, the paper traces how European settlement in imperial Russia has had a bearing on human development in the imperial periphery. The causal mechanism that the paper proposes to account for this influence is the Western communities’ impact on literacy, which is in turn linked in the analysis to the Western Christian, particularly Protestant, roots, of settler populations. The author makes this case by constructing an original dataset based on sub-national data from the hitherto underutilised first imperial census of 1897.

  6. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  7. Russia and the 'Gas-Opec'. Real or perceived threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2007-01-01

    he threat of a gas-OPEC, waved around by certain big producers, has given rise to much fear in consuming countries. The behavior of Russia, a key exporter, has made it seem as though gas sales could be used as a political weapon. In truth, the creation of an entente between exporting countries is not technically feasible. What is more, Russia remains reticent to join any association in order not to limit its room for maneuver. Seeking to dominate the world market, it has singed a certain number of agreements with other big producers. Nevertheless, the capitalistic constraints of the gas market jeopardize the chances of long-term coordination, which is incompatible with short-term political interests. (author)

  8. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.

  9. Experience in education and training of gas engineers in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basniev, K.; Vladimirov, A.

    1997-01-01

    Experience gained in training and retraining of engineers for gas industry is considered in the report. The report contains the material on modern state of higher technical education in Russia in view of the reforms taking place in this country. The report deals with questions concerning the experience gained in a specialized training of gas engineers at higher educational establishments of Russia including training of specialists for foreign countries. Conditions under which retraining of engineers involved in gas industry takes place are presented in the report. The report is based mainly on the experience gained by the Russian leading higher educational establishment of oil and gas profile, that is the State Gubkin Oil and Gas Academy. (au)

  10. Russia's economic prospects in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fortescue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has declared a priority interest in developing a strong economic relationship with the Asia Pacific Region. There has been considerable internal debate over the best strategic approach to such a relationship. While a policy victory has been won by a strategy focusing on the export into the region of manufactured goods and services, a resource-export strategy is still dominant in practice and funding. Here the prospects of each strategy are assessed. Regarding resource exports, hydrocarbons, copper and iron ore prospects are reviewed, but most detail is provided on the coal sector. That involves an account of infrastructure issues, including a major debate over the expansion of the BAM and TransSiberian railways. The analysis suggests that Russia will struggle both to revitalise the Russian Far East through manufacturing exports to the APR and to replace revenues earned through resource exports to the West through an economic ‘turn to the East’.

  11. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  12. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill.

  13. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  14. Court representation in Russia before 1917 (historical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Ilyashenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research and analysis of the legislation historical legal sources and other materials to study the process of formation and development of the institution of legal representation in Russia before 1917. Methods the theoretical basis of research is the works of Russian scientists on various aspects of formation development and functioning of the institution of legal representation in Russia from ancient times till 1917. The methodological basis of the research is general scientific methods historical formallogical system and general logical methods analysis synthesis induction and deduction synthesis analogy abstraction. Historicallegal formallegal logicallegal comparative legal methods were applied in the study. The author used the retrospective approach to the study of the issues of legal representation in Russia. Results basing on analysis of normative legal acts regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation and various doctrinal sources the author has examined the process of the formation and development of the legal representation institution in Russia before 1917 raised the question of providing legal assistance in prerevolutionary Russia. An analogy is drawn between the prerevolutionary legal regulation of the legal representation institution and the modern legislation regulating this legal institution. The conclusion is made about the inadequacy of prerevolutionary legislation regulating relations in the sphere of judicial representation as well as the modern legal regulation of relations in this sphere. It is established that the judicial reform of 1864 improved regulation in this sphere but still did not solve all the problems in this area. The relevance of the study is due to the topicality and the constitutional importance of legal representation for the entire Russian society the need to examine the origins of this legal phenomenon as well as the fact that the institution of legal representation

  15. Three myths about Ukraine balansing between Russia and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skriba Andrey Sergeevich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the integration choice of the Ukraine during the last decade has traditionally been based on three well-known theses: (1 unique importance of the Ukraine to European and Eurasian integrations; (2 Russian desire to involve the Ukraine into the Eurasian integration by any means; (3 the Ukraine as a key point of the RussiaEU relations, still characterized as a zero-sum game. In this article, the author refutes the main stereotypes of Ukraine’s balancing policy. Firstly, both actors (Russian and EU expect the Ukraine to enter their integrations only in case this country meets their expectations. Otherwise, the only thing they need is to prevent its cooperation with an alternative actor. That is why, secondly, Russia will not pay a price for Ukrainian integration that it would consider as unacceptable. The Russian current policy is just about establishing fair relations with the Ukraine, without any benefits and subsidies. Thirdly, if the Ukraine becomes an integration participant, yet it doesn’t mean that the actor it approaches with has clear advantages and they both will have only win-win outcomes. Even within the integration, the Ukraine seems to continue its balancing policy, trying to get maximum profit, giving minimum contribution. Finally, the study shows that these theses have a negative impact on the development of the Russia-Ukraine cooperation either. Critical analysis of these theses made it possible to free the Russia-Ukraine relations from a speculating component and discovered the true essence of the conflicts between the two countries. In addition, the research results can improve the policy aimed at the effective involvement of the Ukraine in the Eurasian integration process.

  16. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  17. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  18. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  19. Perceptions of poverty in small-town Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Varyzgina, Alla; Kay, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the perceptions and categorizations of poverty found through a study of participatory approaches to poverty reduction in provincial Russia. It draws on theorizations of poverty as a subjective reality which is socially constructed and maybe differently perceived by different subsections of the population. The paper argues that perceptions of poverty matter, because they feed into both formal categorizations of need and entitlement to assistance or support and more in...

  20. Corruption in Russia - Historic Legacy and Systemic Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Günther G.; Zakharov, Nikita

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that corruption in Russia is systemic in nature. Low wage levels of public officials provide strong incentives to engage in corruption. As corruption is illegal, corrupt officials can be exposed any time, which enforces loyalty towards the powers that be; thus corruption is a method of governance. We trace the systemic corruption back to the Mongolian empire and demonstrate its persistence to the current regime. We show the geographic distribution of contemporary corruption ...