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Sample records for lemurs eulemur macaco

  1. Innovation and behavioral flexibility in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Franziska; Fichtel, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Innovations and problem-solving abilities can provide animals with important ecological advantages as they allow individuals to deal with novel social and ecological challenges. Innovation is a solution to a novel problem or a novel solution to an old problem, with the latter being especially difficult. Finding a new solution to an old problem requires individuals to inhibit previously applied solutions to invent new strategies and to behave flexibly. We examined the role of experience on cognitive flexibility to innovate and to find new problem-solving solutions with an artificial feeding task in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons). Four groups of lemurs were tested with feeding boxes, each offering three different techniques to extract food, with only one technique being available at a time. After the subjects learned a technique, this solution was no longer successful and subjects had to invent a new technique. For the first transition between task 1 and 2, subjects had to rely on their experience of the previous technique to solve task 2. For the second transition, subjects had to inhibit the previously learned technique to learn the new task 3. Tasks 1 and 2 were solved by most subjects, whereas task 3 was solved by only a few subjects. In this task, besides behavioral flexibility, especially persistence, i.e., constant trying, was important for individual success during innovation. Thus, wild strepsirrhine primates are able to innovate flexibly, suggesting a general ecological relevance of behavioral flexibility and persistence during innovation and problem solving across all primates.

  2. Mutual tolerance or reproductive competition? Patterns of reproductive skew among male redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Port, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The social organization of gregarious lemurs significantly deviates from predictions of the socioecological model, as they form small groups in which the number of males approximately equals the number of females. This study uses models of reproductive skew theory as a new approach to explain this unusual group composition, in particular the high number of males, in a representative of these lemurs, the redfronted lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We tested two central predictions of “concession”...

  3. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  5. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work...... on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might...... have a similar genetic basis. We addressed this by sequencing the homologous genetic region in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons; N = 4) and the closely-related black lemur (Eulemur macaco macaco; N = 4), which has brown eyes. We then compared a 166-bp segment corresponding...

  6. Anatomy and ultrasonography of the normal kidney in brown lemurs: Eulemur fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Mogicato, Giovanni; Sautet, Jean

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomy and obtain echographic measurements of normal kidneys in brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus). The anatomical findings show that brown lemur kidneys are comparable to those of rats except for an elongated papilla. The kidneys of 16 (7 females and 9 males) lemurs were examined with two-dimensional and power Doppler ultrasonography under general anesthesia. Morphometrically, the left and right kidney surface areas are comparable (3.29 and 3.51 cm(2)). Kidney area has a significant linear correlation with body weight. Echo-Doppler findings show that the mean renal arterial blood flow speeds for the left and right kidneys are comparable (0.70 and 0.73 m/s). However, flow speed is higher in the male (0.79 m/s) than in the female (0.60 m/s). The renal arterial diameters are between 1.0 and 1.8 mm. The fact that anesthesia can have hemodynamic effects on renal vasculature should be taken into consideration when assessing these echographic results.

  7. Comparison of biomedical evaluation for white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Dutton, Christopher J; Knightly, Felicia; Williams, Cathy V; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Louis, Edward E

    2008-12-01

    Health and nutritional assessments of wildlife are important management tools and can provide a means to evaluate ecosystem health. Such examinations were performed on 37 white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar. Comparison of health parameters between sites revealed statistically significant differences in body weight, body temperature, respiratory rate, hematology parameters (white cell count, hematocrit, segmented neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count), serum chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chloride, and creatinine phosphokinase), and nutrition parameters (copper, zinc, ferritin, retinol, tocopherol, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol). Two of 10 lemurs tested were positive for toxoplasmosis; none of 10 were positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Enteric bacteria and endo- and ectoparasites were typical. Statistically different values in hematology and chemistry values probably do not reflect clinically significant differences, whereas nutrition parameter differences are likely related to season, soil, and forage availability.

  8. The influence of visitor interaction on the behavior of captive crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) and implications for welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H; McGregor, P K; Farmer, H L A; Baker, K R

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that zoo visitors can have positive, negative, and neutral impacts on captive primate welfare; however, research investigating the implications of visitor-animal feeding experiences is extremely limited. In the UK, a large proportion of BIAZA zoos that house lemur species offer visitor interaction experiences (16 out of 33). This study investigated the impact on the behavior of a family group of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) housed at Newquay Zoo, UK of visitors, accompanied by a keeper, entering the enclosure to feed the lemurs. Behavior was observed under four conditions: (i) during visitor feed; (ii) 30 min post-visitor feed; (iii) during a keeper feed; and (iv) 30 min post-keeper feed. Keeper feeds were conducted by keepers only, on the day after visitor feeds. The lemur group spent significantly less time performing aggressive behavior and was also significantly more interactive with keepers during visitor feeds compared with keeper-only feeds. There was no significant difference in behaviors performed immediately after interacting with visitors. Over the study period, there was a tendency for interactions with visitors to increase, and for interactions with keepers during visitor feeds to decrease. After a 28-day interval without visitor interaction, the lemurs' interaction with visitors had returned to the level recorded at the start of the study. In conclusion, visitor interaction did not compromise the welfare of the study subjects in either the short- or long-term, while an increase in visitor interactions over time has interesting implications for the enrichment properties of, or habituation to, unfamiliar humans. Zoo Biol. 35:222-227, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evidence for the possible occurrence of Grave's disease in a blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Benoît; Giorgiadis, Marine; Feirrera, Xavier; Lefaux, Brice; Schohn, Christophe; Lemberger, Karin

    2018-03-01

    The blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered. A 23-year-old male housed at Mulhouse Zoo presented with lethargy, polyphagia, alopecia, and chronic weight loss. Clinical examination suggested an endocrine pathology such as hyperthyroidism. Secondary examinations included cervical ultrasound, thyroid biopsy, and scintigraphy. The latter revealed elevated thyroid activity. Blood analysis was performed to measure the level of anti-receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone antibodies, which allowed us to test the autoimmune hypothesis. The high level of antibodies together with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and the scintigraphy images led to the diagnosis of Grave's disease. Carbimazole treatment followed by thyroidectomy resulted in a quick weight gain and general improvement in health status. The following breeding season, the treated individual sired an offspring. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of likely Grave's disease in a non-human primate.

  10. Phylogeographic analysis of the true lemurs (genus Eulemur) underlines the role of river catchments for the evolution of micro-endemism in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Matthias; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Due to its remarkable species diversity and micro-endemism, Madagascar has recently been suggested to serve as a biogeographic model region. However, hypothesis-based tests of various diversification mechanisms that have been proposed for the evolution of the island's micro-endemic lineages are still limited. Here, we test the fit of several diversification hypotheses with new data on the broadly distributed genus Eulemur using coalescent-based phylogeographic analyses. Time-calibrated species tree analyses and population genetic clustering resolved the previously polytomic species relationships among eulemurs. The most recent common ancestor of eulemurs was estimated to have lived about 4.45 million years ago (mya). Divergence date estimates furthermore suggested a very recent diversification among the members of the "brown lemur complex", i.e. former subspecies of E. fulvus, during the Pleistocene (0.33-1.43 mya). Phylogeographic model comparisons of past migration rates showed significant levels of gene flow between lineages of neighboring river catchments as well as between eastern and western populations of the redfronted lemur (E. rufifrons). Together, our results are concordant with the centers of endemism hypothesis (Wilmé et al. 2006, Science 312:1063-1065), highlight the importance of river catchments for the evolution of Madagascar's micro-endemic biota, and they underline the usefulness of testing diversification mechanisms using coalescent-based phylogeographic methods.

  11. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...). black lemur (Eulemur macaco). brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia...). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variagata). red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). black lemur (Eulemur...

  12. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    In some primate species, pelage colorations at birth contrast with adult colorations. The intensity of natal coats and their phylogenetic distribution is highly variable within primates. Natal coat coloration seems to change to adult coloration in most species when infants become independent from...... their mothers, but an accepted functional explanation for natal coats is not available. Here we describe pelage coloration change in sexually dichromatic redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) in Kirindy Forest, and propose a new functional hypothesis for this phenomenon. In this species, infants are born...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila M; Norton, Terry M; Lindsay, David S

    2007-03-15

    In the current study, we determined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in three species of lemurs from St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Serum samples were tested from 52 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), six blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) using an agglutination assay. Three ring-tailed lemurs (5.8%) were positive for T. gondii (titer of 1:50); one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) and one black and white ruffed lemur (25%) were positive for S. neurona (titers of 1:1000); and one ring-tailed lemur (1.9%) was positive for E. cuniculi (titer of 1:400). All blue-eyed black lemurs were negative for antibodies to T. gondii, S. neurona, and E. cuniculi. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in ring-tailed lemurs and antibodies to S. neurona and E. cuniculi in any species of prosimian.

  14. Social behaviour and gut microbiota in red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer): In search of the role of immunity in the evolution of sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulo, Aura; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Lane, Avery; Amato, Katherine; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven; Stumpf, Rebecca; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Baden, Andrea L; Tecot, Stacey R

    2018-03-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiota form a key component of immunity and a dynamic link between an individual and the ecosystem. Microbiota might play a role in social systems as well, because microbes are transmitted during social contact and can affect host behaviour. Combining methods from behavioural and molecular research, we describe the relationship between social dynamics and gut microbiota of a group-living cooperative species of primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Specifically, we ask whether patterns of social contact (group membership, group size, position in social network, individual sociality) are associated with patterns of gut microbial composition (diversity and similarity) between individuals and across time. Red-bellied lemurs were found to have gut microbiota with slight temporal fluctuations and strong social group-specific composition. Contrary to expectations, individual sociality was negatively associated with gut microbial diversity. However, position within the social network predicted gut microbial composition. These results emphasize the role of the social environment in determining the microbiota of adult animals. Since social transmission of gut microbiota has the potential to enhance immunity, microbiota might have played an escalating role in the evolution of sociality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  15. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Stevens; Jonah H. Ratsimbazafy; Fidimalala B. Ralainasolo

    2008-01-01

    Manombo Special Reserve is a parcel of rainforest along the southeastern coast of Madagascar, containing eight lemur species, including the White-collared brown lemur (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]). Following a drastic cyclone in the region in January of 1997, the population of E. cinereiceps at Manombo was reduced by half. Results indicate that individuals of this critically endangered species at Manombo consume a total of 54 plant species belonging to 24 families, with over tw...

  16. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  17. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    with adult male coloration and female infants subsequently undergo a change in coloration. Using digital pictures and behavioral data collected on eight mother-offspring dyads from birth until the end of the coloration change, we 1) described timing and pattern of pelage development in redfronted lemur...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  18. Lemur species-specific metapopulation responses to habitat loss and fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S Steffens

    Full Text Available Determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. We investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (Avahi occidentalis, Propithecus coquereli, Microcebus murinus, Microcebus ravelobensis, Lepilemur edwardsi, Cheirogaleus medius, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur fulvus within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We measured fragment size and isolation of 42 fragments of forest ranging in size from 0.23 to 117.7 ha adjacent to continuous forest. Between June and November 2011, we conducted 1218 surveys and observed six of eight lemur species (M. murinus, M. ravelobensis, C. medius, E. fulvus, P. coquereli, and L. edwardsi in the 42 fragments. We applied among patch incidence function models (IFMs with various measures of dispersal and a mainland-island IFM to lemur species occurrence, with the aim of answering the following questions: 1 Do lemur species in dry deciduous forest fragments form metapopulations? 2 What are the separate effects of area (extinction risk and connectivity/isolation (colonization potential within a lemur metapopulation? 3 Within simulated metapopulations over time, how do area and connectivity/isolation affect occurrence? and 4 What are the conservation implications of our findings? We found that M. murinus formed either a mainland-island or an among patch metapopulation, M. ravelobensis formed a mainland-island metapopulation, C. medius and E. fulvus formed among patch metapopulations, and neither P. coquereli or L. edwardsi formed a metapopulation. Metapopulation dynamics and simulations suggest that area was a more consistent positive factor determining lemur species occurrence than fragment isolation and is crucial to the maintenance of lemur populations within this fragmented landscape. Using a metapopulation approach to lemur biogeography is critical for understanding how

  19. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  20. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  1. Spatial variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Shawn M

    2007-01-01

    I present data on variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities as well as tree characteristics (height, diameter and stem frequency) between edge and interior forest habitats in southeastern Madagascar. Line transect surveys were conducted from June 2003 to November 2005 in edge and interior forest habitats in the Vohibola III Classified Forest. Although E. f. rufus densities were significantly lower in edge habitats than in interior habitats, density estimates for L. mustelinus did not differ significantly between habitats. Trees in edge habitats were significantly shorter, had smaller diameters and had lower stem frequencies (for those >25 cm in diameter) than trees in interior habitats. Spatial characteristics of food abundance and quality may explain lemur density patterns in Vohibola III. Low E. f. rufus densities may reduce seed dispersal in edge habitats, which has important consequences for the long-term viability of forest ecosystems in Madagascar. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. An alu-based phylogeny of lemurs (infraorder: Lemuriformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T McLain

    Full Text Available LEMURS (INFRAORDER: Lemuriformes are a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. As of 2012, 101 lemur species, divided among five families, have been described. Genetic and morphological evidence indicates all species are descended from a common ancestor that arrived in Madagascar ∼55-60 million years ago (mya. Phylogenetic relationships in this species-rich infraorder have been the subject of debate. Here we use Alu elements, a family of primate-specific Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, to construct a phylogeny of infraorder Lemuriformes. Alu elements are particularly useful SINEs for the purpose of phylogeny reconstruction because they are identical by descent and confounding events between loci are easily resolved by sequencing. The genome of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus was computationally assayed for synapomorphic Alu elements. Those that were identified as Lemuriformes-specific were analyzed against other available primate genomes for orthologous sequence in which to design primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction verification. A primate phylogenetic panel of 24 species, including 22 lemur species from all five families, was examined for the presence/absence of 138 Alu elements via PCR to establish relationships among species. Of these, 111 were phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the results of this analysis. We demonstrate strong support for the monophyly of Lemuriformes to the exclusion of other primates, with Daubentoniidae, the aye-aye, as the basal lineage within the infraorder. Our results also suggest Lepilemuridae as a sister lineage to Cheirogaleidae, and Indriidae as sister to Lemuridae. Among the Cheirogaleidae, we show strong support for Microcebus and Mirza as sister genera, with Cheirogaleus the sister lineage to both. Our results also support the monophyly of the Lemuridae. Within Lemuridae we place Lemur and Hapalemur together to the

  3. The Lemur Conjecture

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    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2017-05-01

    In previous research we designed an interferometric quantum seismograph that uses entangled photon states to enhance sensitivity in an optomechanic device. However, a spatially-distributed array of such sensors, with each sensor measuring only nm-vibrations, may not provide sufficient sensitivity for the prediction of major earthquakes because it fails to exploit potentially critical phase information. We conjecture that relative phase information can explain the anecdotal observations that animals such as lemurs exhibit sensitivity to impending earthquakes earlier than can be done confidently with traditional seismic technology. More specifically, we propose that lemurs use their limbs as ground motion sensors and that relative phase differences are fused in the brain in a manner similar to a phased-array or synthetic-aperture radar. In this paper we will describe a lemur-inspired quantum sensor network for early warning of earthquakes. The system uses 4 interferometric quantum seismographs (e.g., analogous to a lemurs limbs) and then conducts phase and data fusion of the seismic information. Although we discuss a quantum-based technology, the principles described can also be applied to classical sensor arrays

  4. Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2017-11-01

    Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22541, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Enumeration of Objects and Substances in Non-Human Primates: Experiments with Brown Lemurs ("Eulemur Fulvus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Blanco, Marissa; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking…

  6. Day - time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agnalazaha Forest, a degraded fragment of littoral forest in southeast Madagascar, contains a small population of the endangered Eulemur cinereiceps To better conserve this species its feeding ecology was described by habituating two groups and recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and ...

  7. Use of Mangroves by Lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J

    Despite an increasing recognition of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves, we know little about their role in maintaining terrestrial biodiversity, including primates. Madagascar's lemurs are a top global conservation priority, with 94 % of species threatened with extinction, but records of their occurrence in mangroves are scarce. I used a mixed-methods approach to collect published and unpublished observations of lemurs in mangroves: I carried out a systematic literature search and supplemented this with a targeted information request to 1243 researchers, conservation and tourism professionals, and others who may have visited mangroves in Madagascar. I found references to, or observations of, at least 23 species in 5 families using mangroves, representing >20% of lemur species and >50% of species whose distributions include mangrove areas. Lemurs used mangroves for foraging, sleeping, and traveling between terrestrial forest patches, and some were observed as much as 3 km from the nearest permanently dry land. However, most records were anecdotal and thus tell us little about lemur ecology in this habitat. Mangroves are more widely used by lemurs than has previously been recognized and merit greater attention from primate researchers and conservationists in Madagascar.

  8. Survival of a wild ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) with abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of a wild ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) with abdominal trauma in an anthropogenically ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... for 13 months until her remains, which showed evidence of dog predation, were found.

  9. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the Agnalazaha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hubert Andriamaharoa, Chris Birkinshaw, Ludovic Reza

    recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and the location of ... lemur food plants used for restoration; and alternative sources of timber and fuel ... E.cinereiceps a également été décrit avec des informations portant sur le ...

  11. Evidence for social learning in wild lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel L; Custance, Deborah M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Vale, Gillian; Stoinski, Tara S; Rakotomalala, Nirina Lalaina; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2010-08-01

    Interest in social learning has been fueled by claims of culture in wild animals. These remain controversial because alternative explanations to social learning, such as asocial learning or ecological differences, remain difficult to refute. Compared with laboratory-based research, the study of social learning in natural contexts is in its infancy. Here, for the first time, we apply two new statistical methods, option-bias analysis and network-based diffusion analysis, to data from the wild, complemented by standard inferential statistics. Contrary to common thought regarding the cognitive abilities of prosimian primates, our evidence is consistent with social learning within subgroups in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), supporting the theory of directed social learning (Coussi-Korbel & Fragaszy, 1995). We also caution that, as the toolbox for capturing social learning in natural contexts grows, care is required in ensuring that the methods employed are appropriate-in particular, regarding social dynamics among study subjects. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris from the Berenty forest (Madagascar. They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1 by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2 by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3 by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4 by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile

  13. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris) from the Berenty forest (Madagascar). They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1) by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI) on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2) by calculating normalized David's scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3) by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4) by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest) levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile, allows intergroup

  14. Lemur Biorhythms and Life History Evolution.

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    Russell T Hogg

    Full Text Available Skeletal histology supports the hypothesis that primate life histories are regulated by a neuroendocrine rhythm, the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO. Interestingly, subfossil lemurs are outliers in HHO scaling relationships that have been discovered for haplorhine primates and other mammals. We present new data to determine whether these species represent the general lemur or strepsirrhine condition and to inform models about neuroendocrine-mediated life history evolution. We gathered the largest sample to date of HHO data from histological sections of primate teeth (including the subfossil lemurs to assess the relationship of these chronobiological measures with life history-related variables including body mass, brain size, age at first female reproduction, and activity level. For anthropoids, these variables show strong correlations with HHO conforming to predictions, though body mass and endocranial volume are strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in this group. However, lemurs (possibly excepting Daubentonia do not follow this pattern and show markedly less variability in HHO periodicity and lower correlation coefficients and slopes. Moreover, body mass is uncorrelated, and brain size and activity levels are more strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in these animals. We argue that lemurs evolved this pattern due to selection for risk-averse life histories driven by the unpredictability of the environment in Madagascar. These results reinforce the idea that HHO influences life history evolution differently in response to specific ecological selection regimes.

  15. Lemur Biorhythms and Life History Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Russell T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Schwartz, Gary T; Dirks, Wendy; Bromage, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal histology supports the hypothesis that primate life histories are regulated by a neuroendocrine rhythm, the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO). Interestingly, subfossil lemurs are outliers in HHO scaling relationships that have been discovered for haplorhine primates and other mammals. We present new data to determine whether these species represent the general lemur or strepsirrhine condition and to inform models about neuroendocrine-mediated life history evolution. We gathered the largest sample to date of HHO data from histological sections of primate teeth (including the subfossil lemurs) to assess the relationship of these chronobiological measures with life history-related variables including body mass, brain size, age at first female reproduction, and activity level. For anthropoids, these variables show strong correlations with HHO conforming to predictions, though body mass and endocranial volume are strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in this group. However, lemurs (possibly excepting Daubentonia) do not follow this pattern and show markedly less variability in HHO periodicity and lower correlation coefficients and slopes. Moreover, body mass is uncorrelated, and brain size and activity levels are more strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in these animals. We argue that lemurs evolved this pattern due to selection for risk-averse life histories driven by the unpredictability of the environment in Madagascar. These results reinforce the idea that HHO influences life history evolution differently in response to specific ecological selection regimes.

  16. Anatomia descritiva da traqueia do macaco-prego (Sapajus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p179 O estudo descritivo da anatomia de animais silvestres experimenta, nos dias atuais, inegável importância. O cerrado constitui um bioma complexo que abriga uma grande variedade de espécies, entre elas, o macaco-prego (Sapajus apella; foram utilizados quatro espécimes, comparando os resultados encontrados com a literatura humana e veterinária, já bem estabelecidas. Os espécimes foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, dissecados, analisados descritivamente e fotografados. Os resultados evidenciam uma traqueia cuja extensão varia conforme a compleição física do animal, um número variável de anéis cartilaginosos incompletos, sendo o fechamento do tubo, na face dorsal, feito por tecido musculomembranoso. A parede musculomembranosa não é uniforme em toda a sua extensão, exibindo maior largura no terço médio-cranial. Então, a traqueia do S. apella não diverge muito daquela observada no homem e animais domésticos, sendo as variações, aparentemente, relacionadas às adaptações à compleição física do animal.

  17. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Lemurs - Ambassadors for Madagascar | Thalmann | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this short article on lemurs I give a concise introduction for non-specialists to these conspicuous and unique animals on the island of Madagascar. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v1i1.44043 · AJOL African ...

  19. The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted the first comprehensive lemur survey of the. Fiherenana - Manombo Complex (Atsimo - Andrefana Region), site of PK32-Ranobe, a new protected area within the Madagascar Protected Area System. Our cross - seasonal surveys of three sites revealed the presence of eight lemur species representing seven ...

  20. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  1. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    stimulation have been proposed to explain this behaviour based on the distinctive typology and context in which it occurs. We present here qualitative observations of non-feeding use of millipedes in a comparative perspective in two primate species. Opportunistic data were collected in a prosimian species (a hybrid form of Eulemur sp. in a gallery forest South of Madagascar (occurrences in January 2005 and in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella in a tropical rainforest in French Guyana (occurrences in March-April 1996. Whereas capuchin monkeys anoint large parts of their fur with millipede secretions, lemurs only rub the circum-genital area, usually after smelling the millipedes, which appears to trigger a stereotyped response analogous to flehmen. Handling the millipedes in itself does not automatically result in millipedes secreting benzoquinones so that when lemurs and capuchin monkeys bite the arthropods (eventually blowing the legs off, they increase the probability of repulsive liquid being oozed. Associative learning of the handling conditions required to trigger millipedes’ secretions appears very efficient given the rare and opportunistic use of these arthropods by both primate species. We suggest that millipede use in our study is either a marginal form of social communication by which the individual odour is reinforced by anointment with strong smelling odours (Eulemur in which olfaction and scent marking are of paramount importance to social relationships or, in agreement with self-protection hypotheses, a behaviour that contribute to eliminate or protect from external parasites (Cebus.

  2. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  3. Anatomia comparativa dos nervos da pelve de macacos-prego (Sapajus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Vasconcelos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macacos-prego (Sapajus sp, inesperadamente, compartilham com chimpanzés comportamentos como alta cognição e memória, uso de ferramentas com o bipedalismo intermitente, tolerância social. No entanto, sua anatomia ainda é pouco estudada. Para verificar a hipótese com qual espécie e/ou grupo de primatas os macacos-prego compartilham mais características, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os nervos pélvicos do Sapajus e compará-los com dados da literatura anatômica sobre os seres humanos, chimpanzés e babuínos, considerando aspectos como origem, trajetória e estruturas inervadas. Foi observado que existem grandes variações nos nervos pélvicos entre os primatas estudados aqui, quais sejam, 1 o problema da posição anatômica, i.e., alguns primatologistas consideram a posição anatômica humana para os primatas, outros consideram a posição anatômica animal, e a opção por um ou outro não é clara nos textos; 2 o problema dos membros pélvicos em primatas não humanos serem lateralizados e semi-fletidos em relação aos seres humanos modernos; 3 o problema da ausência, nos seres humanos modernos, de alguns músculos da coxa em relação aos outros primatas como o escansório e o iliosquiofemoral; e 4] o problema da diferença do número de vértebras nos primatas estudados aqui, inclusive com diferenças para a mesma espécie citadas por diferentes autores tanto para chimpanzés como para macacos-prego.

  4. Structural characterization of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhine primates: greater galago, aye-aye, Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Williams, Cathy; Tilden, Chris; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav; Urashima, Tadasu

    2012-04-01

    The structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (Galagidae: Otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (Daubentoniidae: Daubentonia madagascariensis), Coquerel's sifaka (Indriidae: Propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (Lemuridae: Eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide patterns observed among strepsirrhines did not appear to correlate to phylogeny, sociality or pattern of infant care. Both type I and type II neutral oligosaccharides were found in the milk of the aye-aye, but type II predominate over type I. Only type II oligosaccharides were identified in other strepsirrhine milks. α3'-GL (isoglobotriose, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milks of Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur, which is the first report of this oligosaccharide in the milk of any primate species. 2'-FL (Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milk of an aye-aye with an ill infant. Oligosaccharides containing the Lewis x epitope were found in aye-aye and mongoose lemur milk. Among acidic oligosaccharides, 3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all studied species, whereas 6'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (6'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all species except greater galago. Greater galago milk also contained 3'-N-glycolylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NGc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc). The finding of a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhines, as previously reported for haplorhines, suggests that such constituents are ancient rather than derived features, and are as characteristic of primate lactation is the classic disaccharide, lactose.

  5. The minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Williams, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Prospective experimental trial. Six adult ring-tailed lemurs, aged 1.3-11.2 years (median age: 8.26) and weighing a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 2283 ± 254 g. Five adult aye-ayes, aged 4.4-19.3 years (median age: 8.0) and weighing 2712 ± 191 g. Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane was determined using a tail-clamp stimulus. The end-tidal sevoflurane (Fe'Sevo) concentration was increased or decreased by approximately 10% after a positive or negative response to tail clamping, respectively. This procedure was repeated until a positive and negative result were seen on two consecutive trials (i.e. a negative result was achieved and a single 10% decrease in Fe'Sevo concentration resulted in a positive test). The MAC for that animal was determined to be the mean of the concentrations at the two consecutive trials. The mean ± SD MAC of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs was 3.48 ± 0.55% and 1.84 ± 0.17 for aye-ayes. This represents a 47.1% higher MAC in ring-tailed lemurs compared to aye-ayes. The sevoflurane MAC was significantly higher in ring-tailed lemurs, compared to aye-ayes. The MAC of sevoflurane in aye-ayes is consistent with reported MAC values in other species. Extrapolation of sevoflurane anesthetic dose between different species of lemurs could lead to significant errors in anesthetic dosing. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Seiler

    Full Text Available As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential

  7. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-11-09

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variation in hair length, hair and skin coloration as well as color brightness. Phylogenetically controlled analyses revealed that group size and the number of sympatric species did not influence the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs. Climatic factors, however, influenced facial color complexity, pigmentation and hair length in a few facial regions. Hair length in two facial regions was also correlated with group size and may facilitate individual recognition. Since phylogenetic signals were moderate to high for most models, genetic drift may have also played a role in the evolution of facial color patterns of lemurs. In conclusion, social factors seem to have played only a subordinate role in the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs, and, more generally, group size appears to have no systematic functional effect on facial color complexity across all primates.

  8. Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.

  9. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M.; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variatio...

  10. Genetic wealth, population health: Major histocompatibility complex variation in captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Kathleen E; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Drea, Christine M

    2017-10-01

    Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population ( n  = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population ( n  = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012). For all animals, we assessed MHC-DRB diversity and, across populations, we compared the number of unique MHC-DRB alleles and their distributions. Wild individuals possessed more MHC-DRB alleles than did captive individuals, and overall, the wild population had more unique MHC-DRB alleles that were more evenly distributed than did the captive population. Despite management efforts to maintain or increase genetic diversity in the DLC population, MHC diversity remained static from 1980 to 2010. Since 2010, however, captive-breeding efforts resulted in the MHC diversity of offspring increasing to a level commensurate with that found in wild individuals. Therefore, loss of genetic diversity in lemurs, owing to small founder populations or reduced gene flow, can be mitigated by managed breeding efforts. Quantifying MHC diversity within individuals and between populations is the necessary first step to identifying potential improvements to captive management and conservation plans.

  11. Behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Morgan E; Shapiro, Hannah G; Ehmke, Erin E

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior. We recorded lemur behavior using the continuous sampling method to obtain behavior duration and analyzed our results using ANOVA Repeated Measures. Results showed enrichment effectiveness differed for each species and that different enrichment devices had varying impacts on lemur behavior across all species. We attributed the differences in species-specific responses to the unique locomotor patterns and methods of diet acquisition of each species, and the variances in behavioral responses across all species to the characteristics of each device. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific enrichment and encourages further research in this field in order to maximize the positive effects of enrichment, which in turn has the potential to affect the overall well-being of captive populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comportamento higroscópico de partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L.

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    Carolina de L. O. C. e Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isotermas de dessorção de pimenta-de-macaco foram determinadas pelo método gravimétrico estático nas temperaturas de 35, 45 e 55 ºC, com umidade relativa variando de 5,5-81%. Três modelos matemáticos foram aplicados para analisar os dados experimentais. O modelo de GAB modificado apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais. O calor isostérico e a entropia diferencial foram determinados pela aplicação das equações de Clausius-Clapeyron e Gibbs-Helmholtz, respectivamente. O calor isostérico e a entropia da isoterma de dessorção apresentaram comportamento similar. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas indicando que o mecanismo de dessorção de umidade das partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco é controlado pela entalpia.

  13. A comparison of salivary pH in sympatric wild lemurs (Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lawler, Richard R; Brockman, Diane K; Godfrey, Laurie R; Gould, Lisa; Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho Jacky; Lent, Cheryl; Ratsirarson, Joelisoa; Richard, Alison F; Scott, Jessica R; Sussman, Robert W; Villers, Lynne M; Weber, Martha A; Willis, George

    2008-04-01

    Chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. Dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. Ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth loss. In contrast, sympatric Verreaux's sifaka display far less tooth wear and infrequent tooth loss, despite both species regularly consuming acidic tamarind fruit. We investigated the potential impact of dietary acidity on tooth wear, collecting data on salivary pH from both species, as well as salivary pH from ring-tailed lemurs at Tsimanampesotse National Park, Madagascar. We also collected salivary pH data from ring-tailed lemurs at the Indianapolis Zoo, none of which had eaten for at least 12 hr before data collection. Mean salivary pH for the BMSR ring-tailed lemurs (8.098, n=41, SD=0.550) was significantly more alkaline than Verreaux's sifaka (7.481, n=26, SD=0.458). The mean salivary pH of BMSR (8.098) and Tsimanampesotse (8.080, n=25, SD=0.746) ring-tailed lemurs did not differ significantly. Salivary pH for the Indianapolis Zoo sample (8.125, n=16, SD=0.289) did not differ significantly from either the BMSR or Tsimanampesotse ring-tailed lemurs, but was significantly more alkaline than the BMSR Verreaux's sifaka sample. Regardless of the time between feeding and collection of pH data (from several minutes to nearly 1 hr), salivary pH for each wild lemur was above the "critical" pH of 5.5, below which enamel demineralization occurs. Thus, the high pH of lemur saliva suggests a strong buffering capacity, indicating the impact of acidic foods on dental wear is short-lived, likely having a limited effect. However, tannins in tamarind fruit may increase friction between teeth, thereby increasing attrition and wear in lemurs. These data also suggest that salivary pH varies between lemur species, corresponding to broad

  14. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

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    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  15. Similaridade genética de populações naturais de pimenta-de-macaco por análise RAPD Genetic similarity of natural populations of pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. obtained throug RAPD analysis

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    José Maria D. Gaia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie conhecida como pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. possui grande potencial para exploração econômica em função da comprovada utilidade do seu óleo essencial na agricultura e saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de populações naturais dessa planta. Um total de dezoito acessos da planta, provenientes de quatro procedências da Amazônia Brasileira, foi examinado por meio de locos de DNA, gerados por análise RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso. O estudo evidenciou a existência de real diversidade entre as populações examinadas, sendo provável que dentro das localidades investigadas, os padrões da diversidade genética acompanhem os padrões de distribuição geográfica.The species known as pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. has great economic explotation potential based on the proved usefulness of the essential oil in agriculture and human health. The genetic diversity of their natural populations was characterized. A total of eighteen accessions of the plant, obtained from four different origins in the Brazilian Amazon, was examined by means of DNA loci, generated by RAPD analysis. Real genetic diversity was observed between the analyzed populations and it appear that the patterns of the genetic diversity follow the patterns of the geographical distribution.

  16. Artista Artesão ou Artista Igual Pedreiro: de Mozart a Macaco Bong, uma história de lutas por autonomia * Artist Craftsman or Artist Equal Mason: from Mozart to "Macaco Bong", a history of struggles for autonomy

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    RAFAEL LAGE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No livro "Mozart – Sociologia de um gênio", Norbert Elias descreve embates em torno de artistas artesãos (presos ao gosto musical da corte aristocrata e artistas autônomos (com certa autonomia musical, só que menos estruturados socialmente, apresentando Mozart como um agente de transição. Já em pleno século XXI, surge com a banda brasileira Macaco Bong o conceito de artista igual pedreiro, a ideia de envolvimento do músico nos processos produtivos, não apenas na hora de subir ao palco, apontando novas tecnologias digitais como democratizadoras. Neste artigo, discutirei reapropriações de antigas estratégias da indústria fonográfica, e de que forma elas retornam reconfiguradas com esses jovens oriundos da indústria musical do século XXI.Palavras-chave: Autonomia – Reconfigurações – Indústria fonográfica. Abstract: In the book "Mozart – Sociology of a Genius", Norbert Elias describes clashes around craftsmen artists (attached to the musical tastes of the court aristocracy and independent artists (with more freedom and musical autonomy, only less socially structured, presenting Mozart as an agent of transition. On the other hand, in the XXI century, comes up with the Brazilian band "Macaco Bong" the concept artist like mason, i. e., the idea of Musician’s involvement in the production process, not just in time to take the stage, pointing out the new digital technologies as a way for democratizing music. In this article, I will discuss reappropriations of ancient strategies of the music industry, and how they return reconfigured with these young people from the new music industry of the XXI century.Keywords: Autonomy – Reconfigurations – Music industry.

  17. Artist Craftsman or Artist Equal Mason: from Mozart to "Macaco Bong", a history of struggles for autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL LAGE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the book "Mozart – Sociology of a Genius", Norbert Elias describes clashes around craftsmen artists (attached to the musical tastes of the court aristocracy and independent artists (with more freedom and musical autonomy, only less socially structured, presenting Mozart as an agent of transition. On the other hand, in the XXI century, comes up with the Brazilian band "Macaco Bong" the concept artist like mason, i. e., the idea of Musician’s involvement in the production process, not just in time to take the stage, pointing out the new digital technologies as a way for democratizing music. In this article, I will discuss reappropriations of ancient strategies of the music industry, and how they return reconfigured with these young people from the new music industry of the XXI century.

  18. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

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    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  20. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  1. The textuality of O Macaco Brasileiro in the foundation of the brazilian journalistic discourse (1821-1822=A textualidade do Macaco Brasileiro na fundação do discurso jornalístico brasileiro (1821-1822

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    Giovanna Benedetto Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of my doctorate research1, which aimed at understanding the foundation and the operation of the journalistic discourse in Brazil and the meaning of nation, freedom and independence during the years 1821 and 1822. This research is theoretically based on the Discourse Analysis (Pêcheux, 1969, 1975; Orlandi, 1996, 1999 producing interpretation moves that will make it possible to understand part of the functioning of an epoch, as well as of a social practice that produces founding principles. We realize that it was not the arrival of the Portuguese Court to Brazil that produced a Brazilian journalistic discourse, but the presence of a Brazilian press. It was from 1821, with the bill that abolished the previous censorship, that there was a displacement from the journalism determined by the Court to another discursivity. This happens in the textuality of O Macaco Brasileiro. As it installs a new discursivity, it materializes a new Brazilian journalist subject position which corresponds to the foundation of the Brazilian journalistic discourse.Este artigo é um recorte da minha pesquisa de doutorado, cujo objetivo foi compreender a fundação e o funcionamento do discurso jornalístico no Brasil e os sentidos de nação, liberdade e independência nos anos de 1821-1822. Nossa pesquisa tem como suporte teórico a Análise do Discurso, (Pêcheux, 1969, 1975; Orlandi, 1996, 1999 produzindo gestos de interpretação que vão possibilitar compreender parte do funcionamento de uma época, de uma prática social que produzem sentidos fundadores. Entendemos que a vinda da Corte para o Brasil não produziu um discurso brasileiro jornalístico, mas a presença de uma imprensa brasileira. Foi a partir de 1821, com o decreto abolindo a censura prévia, que houve um deslocamento do jornalismo determinado pela Corte para uma outra discursividade. Isso se dá na textualidade de O Macaco Brasileiro que ao inaugurar uma nova discursividade

  2. "Life history space": a multivariate analysis of life history variation in extant and extinct Malagasy lemurs.

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    Catlett, Kierstin K; Schwartz, Gary T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L

    2010-07-01

    Studies of primate life history variation are constrained by the fact that all large-bodied extant primates are haplorhines. However, large-bodied strepsirrhines recently existed. If we can extract life history information from their skeletons, these species can contribute to our understanding of primate life history variation. This is particularly important in light of new critiques of the classic "fast-slow continuum" as a descriptor of variation in life history profiles across mammals in general. We use established dental histological methods to estimate gestation length and age at weaning for five extinct lemur species. On the basis of these estimates, we reconstruct minimum interbirth intervals and maximum reproductive rates. We utilize principal components analysis to create a multivariate "life history space" that captures the relationships among reproductive parameters and brain and body size in extinct and extant lemurs. Our data show that, whereas large-bodied extinct lemurs can be described as "slow" in some fashion, they also varied greatly in their life history profiles. Those with relatively large brains also weaned their offspring late and had long interbirth intervals. These were not the largest of extinct lemurs. Thus, we distinguish size-related life history variation from variation that linked more strongly to ecological factors. Because all lemur species larger than 10 kg, regardless of life history profile, succumbed to extinction after humans arrived in Madagascar, we argue that large body size increased the probability of extinction independently of reproductive rate. We also provide some evidence that, among lemurs, brain size predicts reproductive rate better than body size. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The microbiome of Haemaphysalis lemuris (Acari: Ixodidae), a possible vector of pathogens of endangered lemur species in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Paula; Qurollo, Barbara; Williams, Cathy; Junge, Randall; Klompen, Hans

    2018-05-02

    Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Our results show that the H. lemuris microbiome is highly diverse, including over 500 taxa, 267 of which were identified to genus level. Analysis of the microbiome also shows that there is a distinct "host" (lemur species) component when explaining the differences among and between microbial communities of H. lemuris. This "host" component seems to overwhelm any "locality" (geographic origin of the sample) component. In addition to the microbiome data, targeted PCR was used to test for the presence of three pathogens recently detected in the blood of wild lemurs: Borrelia sp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp., and Babesia sp. Overall, the presence of DNA of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Francisella spp., and a Babesia sp., in H. lemuris, is consistent with the hypothesis that these ectoparasites may act as vector for these pathogens. Further studies assessing vector competence are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

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    Clément Gilbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  5. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: I. Differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    An index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. Coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. Adult males did not differ overall from adult females. Coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old subadults; 1-year-old juveniles were intermediate. Mothers and adult males lost coat condition as the season progressed: non-mother females maintained condition. Years 1999-2002 scored better coats than either 1996-1997 or 2003-2006. Lemurs in high population density areas had worse coats than in natural forest, but tourist presence had less effect than density. Monitoring coat condition in an apparently healthy population reveals differences between population segments, and in a forest fragment with limited immigration or emigration it can track progressive changes, correcting impressions of progressive improvement or degradation over time. Above all it gives a baseline for response to climate changes or eventual pathology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

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    Julie Rushmore

    Full Text Available Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli, frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp, and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta. We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically. We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant. Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  7. High frequency/ultrasonic communication in a critically endangered nocturnal primate, Claire's mouse lemur (Microcebus mamiratra).

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    Hasiniaina, Alida F; Scheumann, Marina; Rina Evasoa, Mamy; Braud, Diane; Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Zimmermann, Elke

    2018-05-02

    The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island. Over six successive nights per dyad, we audio recorded and observed behaviors for 3 hr at the beginning of the activity period. Based on the visual inspection of spectrograms and standardized multiparametric sound analysis, we identified seven different call types. Call types can be discriminated based on a combination of harmonicity, fundamental frequency variation, call duration, and degree of tonality. Acoustic features of tonal call types showed that for communication, mouse lemurs use the cryptic, high frequency/ultrasonic frequency niche. Two call types, the Tsak and the Grunt call, were emitted most frequently. Significant differences in vocal activity of the Tsak call were found between male-female and male-male dyads, linked primarily to agonistic conflicts. Dominant mouse lemurs vocalized more than subdominant ones, suggesting that signaling may present an honest indicator of fitness. A comparison of our findings of the Claire's mouse lemur with published findings of five bioacoustically studied mouse lemur species points to the notion that a complex interplay between ecology, predation pressure, and phylogenetic relatedness may shape the evolution of acoustic divergence between species in this smallest-bodied primate radiation. Thus, comparative bioacoustic studies, using standardized procedures, are promising to unravel the role of vocalization for primate species diversity and evolution

  8. Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Lemurs Inferred with Recent and Ancient Fossils in the Tree.

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    Herrera, James P; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-09-01

    Paleontological and neontological systematics seek to answer evolutionary questions with different data sets. Phylogenies inferred for combined extant and extinct taxa provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of life. Primates have an extensive, diverse fossil record and molecular data for living and extinct taxa are rapidly becoming available. We used two models to infer the phylogeny and divergence times for living and fossil primates, the tip-dating (TD) and fossilized birth-death process (FBD). We collected new morphological data, especially on the living and extinct endemic lemurs of Madagascar. We combined the morphological data with published DNA sequences to infer near-complete (88% of lemurs) time-calibrated phylogenies. The results suggest that primates originated around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, slightly earlier than indicated by the fossil record and later than previously inferred from molecular data alone. We infer novel relationships among extinct lemurs, and strong support for relationships that were previously unresolved. Dates inferred with TD were significantly older than those inferred with FBD, most likely related to an assumption of a uniform branching process in the TD compared with a birth-death process assumed in the FBD. This is the first study to combine morphological and DNA sequence data from extinct and extant primates to infer evolutionary relationships and divergence times, and our results shed new light on the tempo of lemur evolution and the efficacy of combined phylogenetic analyses. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

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    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  10. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

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    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  11. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus During Torpor

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    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF, and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2 but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others. Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  12. Hybridization between mouse lemurs in an ecological transition zone in southern Madagascar.

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    Gligor, M; Ganzhorn, J U; Rakotondravony, D; Ramilijaona, O R; Razafimahatratra, E; Zischler, H; Hapke, A

    2009-02-01

    Hybrid zones in ecotones can be useful model systems for the study of evolutionary processes that shape the distribution and discreteness of species. Such studies could be important for an improved understanding of the complex biogeography of Madagascar, which is renowned for its outstanding degree of small-scale endemism. Certain forest remnants in central Madagascar indicate that transitional corridors across the island could have connected microendemics in different forest types in the past. Evolutionary processes in such corridors are difficult to study because most of these corridors have disappeared due to deforestation in central Madagascar. We studied a hybrid zone in one of the few remaining ecotonal corridors between dry and humid forests in Madagascar, which connects two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus in dry spiny forest and Microcebus murinus in humid littoral forest. We sampled 162 mouse lemurs at nine sites across this boundary. Morphometric analyses revealed intermediate morphotypes of many individuals in transitional habitat. Bayesian clustering of microsatellite genotypes and assignment tests yielded evidence for a mixed ancestry of mouse lemurs in the ecotone, where we also observed significant linkage disequilibria and heterozygote deficiency. In contrast to these observations, mitochondrial haplotypes displayed a sharply delimited boundary at the eastern edge of spiny forest, which was noncoincident with the signals from microsatellite data. Among several alternative scenarios, we propose asymmetric nuclear introgression due to male-biased dispersal, divergent environmental selection, and an expansion of dry spiny forest in the course of aridification as a probable explanation of our observations.

  13. Modeling the origins of mammalian sociality: moderate evidence for matrilineal signatures in mouse lemur vocalizations.

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    Kessler, Sharon E; Radespiel, Ute; Hasiniaina, Alida I F; Leliveld, Lisette M C; Nash, Leanne T; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-02-20

    Maternal kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity and it requires that kin are distinctive from nonkin. The transition from the ancestral state of asociality to the derived state of complex social groups is thought to have occurred via solitary foraging, in which individuals forage alone, but, unlike the asocial ancestors, maintain dispersed social networks via scent-marks and vocalizations. We hypothesize that matrilineal signatures in vocalizations were an important part of these networks. We used the solitary foraging gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) as a model for ancestral solitary foragers and tested for matrilineal signatures in their calls, thus investigating whether such signatures are already present in solitary foragers and could have facilitated the kin selection thought to have driven the evolution of increased social complexity in mammals. Because agonism can be very costly, selection for matrilineal signatures in agonistic calls should help reduce agonism between unfamiliar matrilineal kin. We conducted this study on a well-studied population of wild mouse lemurs at Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We determined pairwise relatedness using seven microsatellite loci, matrilineal relatedness by sequencing the mitrochondrial D-loop, and sleeping group associations using radio-telemetry. We recorded agonistic calls during controlled social encounters and conducted a multi-parametric acoustic analysis to determine the spectral and temporal structure of the agonistic calls. We measured 10 calls for each of 16 females from six different matrilineal kin groups. Calls were assigned to their matriline at a rate significantly higher than chance (pDFA: correct = 47.1%, chance = 26.7%, p = 0.03). There was a statistical trend for a negative correlation between acoustic distance and relatedness (Mantel Test: g = -1.61, Z = 4.61, r = -0.13, p = 0.058). Mouse lemur agonistic calls are

  14. Gender markedly modulates behavioral thermoregulation in a non-human primate species, the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

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    Terrien, J; Perret, M; Aujard, F

    2010-11-02

    Age and gender are known to significantly modulate thermoregulatory capacities in mammals, suggesting strong impacts on behavioral adjustments, which are used to minimize the energy costs of thermoregulation. We tested the effects of sex and age on spontaneous choice of ambient temperature (Ta) in a non-human primate species, the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). The animals acclimated to both winter and summer photoperiods, two seasons significantly modifying thermoregulation function, were experimented in a thermal gradient device. During winter, adult males did not show preference for warm Tas whereas old males did. In contrast, female mouse lemurs of both age categories exhibited great preferences for warm Tas. Acclimation to summer revealed that males selected colder Ta for the day than during the night. Such behavior did not exist in females. Old females explored and selected warmer nests than adult ones. This study raised novel issues on the effect of gender on thermoregulatory capacities in the mouse lemur. Females probably use behavioral adjustments to limit energy expenditure and might prefer to preserve energy for maternal investment by anticipation of and during the breeding season. Further experiments focusing on female thermoregulatory capacities are needed to better understand the energy challenge that may occur during winter and summer in female mouse lemurs, and whether this trade-off changes during aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

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    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  16. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

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    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A genome sequence resource for the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a nocturnal lemur from Madagascar.

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    Perry, George H; Reeves, Darryl; Melsted, Páll; Ratan, Aakrosh; Miller, Webb; Michelini, Katelyn; Louis, Edward E; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Mason, Christopher E; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-coverage draft genome assembly of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual nocturnal primate from Madagascar. Our assembly totals ~3.0 billion bp (3.0 Gb), roughly the size of the human genome, comprised of ~2.6 million scaffolds (N50 scaffold size = 13,597 bp) based on short paired-end sequencing reads. We compared the aye-aye genome sequence data with four other published primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque) as well as with the mouse and dog genomes as nonprimate outgroups. Unexpectedly, we observed strong evidence for a relatively slow substitution rate in the aye-aye lineage compared with these and other primates. In fact, the aye-aye branch length is estimated to be ~10% shorter than that of the human lineage, which is known for its low substitution rate. This finding may be explained, in part, by the protracted aye-aye life-history pattern, including late weaning and age of first reproduction relative to other lemurs. Additionally, the availability of this draft lemur genome sequence allowed us to polarize nucleotide and protein sequence changes to the ancestral primate lineage-a critical period in primate evolution, for which the relevant fossil record is sparse. Finally, we identified 293,800 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms in the donor individual for our aye-aye genome sequence, a captive-born individual from two wild-born parents. The resulting heterozygosity estimate of 0.051% is the lowest of any primate studied to date, which is understandable considering the aye-aye's extensive home-range size and relatively low population densities. Yet this level of genetic diversity also suggests that conservation efforts benefiting this unusual species should be prioritized, especially in the face of the accelerating degradation and fragmentation of Madagascar's forests.

  18. Signals of recent spatial expansions in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

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    Chikhi Lounès

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene events have shaped the phylogeography of many taxa worldwide. Their genetic signatures in tropical species have been much less explored than in those living in temperate regions. We analysed the genetic structure of a Malagasy primate species, a mouse lemur with a wide distribution (M. murinus, in order to investigate such phylogeographic processes on a large tropical island. We also evaluated the effects of anthropogenic pressures (fragmentation/deforestation and natural features (geographic distance, rivers on genetic structure in order to complement our understanding of past and present processes of genetic differentiation. Results The analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 195 samples from 15 study sites (10 from a continuous forest and five from isolated forest fragments from two adjacent Inter-River-Systems (IRSs revealed that forest fragmentation and the river restrict gene flow, thereby leading to an increased genetic differentiation between populations beyond the effect of isolation-by-distance. Demographic simulations detected signals of two successive spatial expansions that could be preliminarily dated to the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The haplotype network revealed geographic structure and showed deep molecular divergences within and between the IRSs that would be congruent with a two-step colonization scenario. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis of a relatively recent spatial expansion of the grey mouse lemur in northwestern Madagascar, which may also explain why this taxon, in contrast to its congeners, has not yet undergone allopatric speciation in the studied area and possibly across its presently wide range.

  19. Identificação de enterobactérias em macacos-prego-galego (Sapajus flavius mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Paraíba

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    Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p177 O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar enterobactérias presentes em duas populações de macaco-prego-galego (Sapajus flavius mantidas em cativeiro. O estudo foi realizado com 12 animais, seis do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS, em Cabedelo-PB, e seis do Zoológico de João Pessoa. A coleta das amostras de fezes foi realizada diretamente na ampola retal com o auxílio de swabs estéreis e processadas para o isolamento das bactérias em meios seletivos, seguida da identificação por provas bioquímicas. As frequências observadas nas amostras do CETAS foram de: 80% (4/5 para Salmonella spp.; 20% (1/5 para Shigella spp.; e 20% (1/5 para Enterobacter spp. Já no zoológico, a frequência observada foi de 100% (3/3 para Salmonella spp. Devido ao fato de que essas enterobactérias são possíveis causadoras de infeções, há necessidade de melhorar o monitoramento da saúde desses animais, com investigações periódicas em unidades do CETAS e em zoológicos. Simultaneamente, constata-se a necessidade de monitorar a saúde dos profissionais que lidam diretamente com esses animais, por meio de exames periódicos, bem como a adoção de medidas de biossegurança adequadas para evitar a transmissão desses patógenos.

  20. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

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    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  1. Estudo comparativo das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina no macaco (Macacus rhesus A comparison of the inclusion bodies of alastrim and vaccinia in the monkey (Macacus rhesus

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1934-02-01

    Full Text Available Vesiculas e pustulas contendo numerosas inclusões citoplasmicas nas celulas epidermicas, foram regularmente produzidas no macaco (Macacus rhesus, quer com o virus do alastrim, quer com o da vacina, após inoculação endovenosa e sem previa escarificação. O virus do alastrim parece menos virulento para essa especie de macaco que o da vacina. Ao passo que 12 macacos rhesus injetados por via endovenosa com sete amostras diferentes de virus do alastrim, após apresentarem com regularidade um infecção experimental, sobreviveram e se conservaram em boa saúde, a injecção endovenosa do virus da vacina recentemente preparado (polpa bruta produziu a morte em 2, dentre 4 animais experimentados. 2. - Foram notadas diferenças pequenas, mas nitidas, na morfologia das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina, em material fixado no liquido de Helly, incluido em parafina e corado pela hematoxilina-eosina. Dizem elas respeito ao numero de inclusões encontradas em cada celula epidermica e às suas reações de coloração. 3. - As inclusões do alastrim, quando apresentam grandes dimensões, conservam-se unicas ou solitarias no citoplasma das celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus, e coram-se em tonalidade que varia do azul escuro ao cinzento-azulado. Comtudo, em celulas que sofreram necrose, ou naquelas contendo 2 a 4 inclusões de pequenas dimensões, por vezes elas se mostram coradas em roseo. 4. - As inclusões da vacina, quando em faze adeantada de desenvolvimento, são multiplas nas celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus e mostram, regularmente, uma policromatofilia caracteristica.1. - Vesicles and pustules containing numerous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within the epidermal cells were regularly produced in monkeys (Macacus rhesus by intravenous inoculation either of alastrim virus or of recently prepared vaccine emulsion, no previous scarifications being required. Alastrim virus seems less virulent for this species of monkey than the virus of vaccinia is

  2. Le mythe du microcèbe primitif The myth of the primitive mouse lemur

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    Fabien Génin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we

  3. Deficits of psychomotor and mnesic functions across aging in mouse lemur primates

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    Solène eLanguille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a similar cerebral neuro-anatomy, non-human primates are viewed as the most valid models for understanding cognitive deficits. This study evaluated psychomotor and mnesic functions of 41 young to old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus. Psychomotor capacities and anxiety-related behaviors decreased abruptly from middle to late adulthood. However, Mnesic functions were not affected in the same way with increasing age. While results of the spontaneous alternation task point to a progressive and widespread age-related decline of spatial working memory, both spatial reference and novel object recognition memory tasks did not reveal any tendency due to large inter-individual variability in the middle-aged and old animals. Indeed, some of the aged animals performed as well as younger ones, whereas some others had bad performances in the Barnes maze and in the object recognition test. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that declarative-like memory was strongly impaired only in 7 out of 25 middle-aged/old animals. These results suggest that this analysis allows to distinguish elder populations of good and bad performers in this non-human primate model and to closely compare this to human aging.

  4. The lemur revolution starts now: the genomic coming of age for a non-model organism.

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    Yoder, Anne D

    2013-02-01

    Morris Goodman was a revolutionary. Together with a mere handful of like-minded scientists, Morris established himself as a leader in the molecular phylogenetic revolution of the 1960s. The effects of this revolution are most evident in this journal, which he founded in 1992. Happily for lemur biologists, one of Morris Goodman's primary interests was in reconstructing the phylogeny of the primates, including the tooth-combed Lorisifomes of Africa and Asia, and the Lemuriformes of Madagascar (collectively referred to as the suborder Strepsirrhini). This paper traces the development of molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary genetic trends and methods over the 50-year expanse of Morris Goodman's career, particularly as they apply to our understanding of lemuriform phylogeny, biogeography, and biology. Notably, this perspective reveals that the lemuriform genome is sufficiently rich in phylogenetic signal such that the very earliest molecular phylogenetic studies - many of which were conducted by Goodman himself - have been validated by contemporary studies that have exploited advanced computational methods applied to phylogenomic scale data; studies that were beyond imagining in the earliest days of phylogeny reconstruction. Nonetheless, the frontier still beckons. New technologies for gathering and analyzing genomic data will allow investigators to build upon what can now be considered a nearly-known phylogeny of the Lemuriformes in order to ask innovative questions about the evolutionary mechanisms that generate and maintain the extraordinary breadth and depth of biological diversity within this remarkable clade of primates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

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    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  7. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus

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    Rasoloarison Rodin M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species are viewed as the fundamental unit in most subdisciplines of biology. To conservationists this unit represents the currency for global biodiversity assessments. Even though Madagascar belongs to one of the top eight biodiversity hotspots of the world, the taxonomy of its charismatic lemuriform primates is not stable. Within the last 25 years, the number of described lemur species has more than doubled, with many newly described species identified among the nocturnal and small-bodied cheirogaleids. Here, we characterize the diversity of the dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus and assess the status of the seven described species, based on phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of mtDNA (cytb + cox2 and three nuclear markers (adora3, fiba and vWF. Results This study identified three distinct evolutionary lineages within the genus Cheirogaleus. Population genetic cluster analyses revealed a further layer of population divergence with six distinct genotypic clusters. Conclusion Based on the general metapopulation lineage concept and multiple concordant data sets, we identify three exclusive groups of dwarf lemur populations that correspond to three of the seven named species: C. major, C. medius and C. crossleyi. These three species were found to be genealogically exclusive in both mtDNA and nDNA loci and are morphologically distinguishable. The molecular and morphometric data indicate that C. adipicaudatus and C. ravus are synonymous with C. medius and C. major, respectively. Cheirogaleus sibreei falls into the C. medius mtDNA clade, but in morphological analyses the membership is not clearly resolved. We do not have sufficient data to assess the status of C. minusculus. Although additional patterns of population differentiation are evident, there are no clear subdivisions that would warrant additional specific status. We propose that ecological and more geographic data should be collected to confirm these results.

  8. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

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    Philipp eHohenbrink

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83% – 97% of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29% to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information.

  9. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

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    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  10. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

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    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  11. Morphologic characterization of spiked pepper's germplasm Caracterização morfológica de germoplasma de pimenta-de-macaco

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper is a plant species with properties that allow the development of natural agrochemicals and medicines, showing large potential of use by humanity. With aim to ascertain the phenotypical variability, 41 parentals were analyzed, sampled in the States of Pará and Amazonas. Principal Component analysis and Jolliffe's criterion were utilized for discarding of variables, subsidized by the Pearson's Correlation. It took seven components to explain 80% of the variation. The essential oil yield and number of leaves per branch were suggested to be discarded because they are the characteristics that have contributed least to the total variance. The 3D scatter diagram constituted a relatively homogeneous and continuous clustering, identifing a divergent pair: PA-020 (Marabá-PA and PA-035 (Santa Isabel-PA. The analyzed traits have variability potentially able to discriminate the parentals, whereas 83.3% of such traits can be used for this purpose. The divergent genotypes identified on 3D scatter diagram analysis can be used in breeding programs for the development of superior genotypes. A comparison with preexisting molecular data of some genotypes permited to conclude that there was one certain agreement degree between morphological and molecular characterizations and that molecular characterization presented higher discriminatory power, using a smaller number of genotypes, identifying dissimilar genotypes and clusters, although analyzed by different multivariate statistic methods.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie que possui propriedades que permitem o desenvolvimento de defensivos agrícolas naturais e medicamentos, apresentando, portanto, grande potencial de uso pela humanidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a variabilidade fenotípica, foram estudadas 41 matrizes amostradas nos Estados do Pará e Amazonas. Utilizou-se análises de componentes principais e critério de Jolliffe para descarte de variáveis, subsidiado pela correlação de

  12. The Season for Peace: Reconciliation in a Despotic Species (Lemur catta.

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    Elisabetta Palagi

    Full Text Available However despotic a social group may be, managing conflicts of interest is crucial to preserve group living benefits, mainly based on cooperation. In despotic groups, post-conflict management via reconciliation (the first post-conflict reunion between former opponents can occur, even if conciliatory rates are considerably different. Lemur catta is defined as a despotic species because groups are characterized by a strict linear hierarchy maintained by the adult females (the dominant sex mainly via aggression. Reconciliation was reported in one out of four captive groups of L. catta. Here we investigate which variables influence the occurrence of reconciliation in these despotic groups. We analyzed 2339 Post Conflict (PC-Matched Control (MC observation pairs, collected on eight groups (five in the Berenty forest, Madagascar; three hosted at the Pistoia Zoo, Italy. Since L. catta is characterized by steep female dominance but shows female-female coalitionary support, we expected to confirm the presence of reconciliation in the study species. Consistently, we found reconciliation in one captive group and two wild groups, thus providing the first evidence of the presence of this phenomenon in wild L. catta. Moreover, because this species is a seasonal breeder (with mating occurring once a year, we expected seasonal fluctuations in reconciliation levels. Via a GLMM analysis using data from all wild groups and on a captive group followed for more than one year, we found that season (but not rank; individuals' identity, sex, and age; or group identity significantly affected individual reconciliation rates, and such rates were lowest during the mating period. Thus, reconciliation can be present in groups in which dominants strongly influence and limit social relationships (steep dominance hierarchy except when the advantages of intra-group cooperation are overcome by competition, as occurs in seasonal breeders when reproduction is at stake. We conclude

  13. Micro-MRI study of cerebral aging: ex vivo detection of hippocampal sub-field reorganization, micro-hemorrhages and amyloid plaques in mouse lemur primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Anne; Petiet, Alexandra; Dhenain, Marc; Pasquier, Adrien; Kraska, Audrey; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wiggins, Christopher; Aujard, Fabienne; Mestre-Frances, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are non-human primate models of cerebral aging and neuro-degeneration. Much smaller than other primates, they recapitulate numerous features of human brain aging, including progressive cerebral atrophy and correlation between regional atrophy and cognitive impairments. Characterization of brain atrophy in mouse lemurs has been done by MRI measures of regional CSF volume and by MRI measures of regional atrophy. Here, we further characterize mouse lemur brain aging using ex vivo MR microscopy (31 μm in-plane resolution). First, we performed a non-biased, direct volumetric quantification of dentate gyrus and extended Ammon's horn. We show that both dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn undergo an age-related reorganization leading to a growth of the dentate gyrus and an atrophy of the Ammon's horn, even in the absence of global hippocampal atrophy. Second, on these first MR microscopic images of the mouse lemur brain, we depicted cortical and hippocampal hypointense spots. We demonstrated that their incidence increases with aging and that they correspond either to amyloid deposits or to cerebral micro-hemorrhages. (authors)

  14. Germinação e crescimento inicial da muda de orelha-de-macaco (Enterolobium contortisiliqunn (Vell. Morong: efeito de tratamentos químicos e luminosidade Germination and initial growth of 'orelha de macaco" (Enterolobium contortisiliqunn (vell. morong seedlings: effect of chemical treatments and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial de germinação das sementes de orelha-de-macaco após os tratamentos pré-germinativos e o crescimento inicial das mudas tratadas com ácido giberélico (GA e sombreamento. As sementes receberem os seguintes tratamentos de escarificação + embebição: 1 H2SO4/5'; 2 H2SO4/5'+água/24 h; 3 H2SO4/5'+GA 200 mg.L-1/24 h; 4 H2SO4/5'+KNO3 1%/24 h; 5 H2SO4/10'; 6 H2SO4 /10' +água/24 h; 7 H2SO4/10'+GA 200 mg.L-1/24 h; 8 H2SO4 /10'+ KNO3 1%/24 h; 9 Água 24/ h; e 10 testemunha e a semeadura em casa de vegetação. As mudas foram tratadas com GA 0, 50 e 100 mg.L-1 e mantidas em sombrite 50% de sombra e a pleno sol até 180 dias após a semeadura. Não se observou germinação na testemunha e na imersão apenas em água. A emergência, TMPA, MSR e MSPA não variaram entre os tratamentos de escarificação (média de 89%; 6,55 cm; 0,08 g; e 1,8 g; e o TMR em H2SO4 /10'+ KNO3 (13,73 cm. Com base nesses resultados, as sementes podem ser escarificadas por 10'com H2SO4. As mudas a pleno sol apresentaram maior altura (51,94 cm, MSF (3,6 g, MSPA (7,21 g, MSR (4,27 g e MST (11,59 g. A TAL, RAF e TCR não variaram entre os níveis de luz e tratamentos com GA. As doses de giberelina estudadas não alteraram o crescimento das mudas.The germination potential of 'Orelha de macaco" seeds after pre-germination treatments and the initial growth of seedlings treated with gibberellic acid (GA and shade were evaluated. Seeds received the following treatments of scarification and imbibition: 1 H2SO4/5 minutes; 2 H2SO4/5 minutes + water/24 hours; 3 H2SO4/10 minutes + GA 200 mg.L-1/24 hours; 4 H2SO4/5 minutes + KNO3 1%/24 hours; 5 H2SO4/10 minutes; 6 H2SO4/10 minutes + water/24 hours; 7 H2SO4/10 minutes + GA 200mg.L-1/24 hours; 8 H2SO4/10 minutes + KNO3 1%/24 hours; 9 water 24 hours; 10 control and sowing was carried out in green house. Seedlings were treated with GA 0.50 and 100 mg.L-1 and kept under 50% shade and in full sun up to 180 days after

  15. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  16. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

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    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  17. A anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco: a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx e a questão do saber objetivo na educação escolar

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    Duarte Newton

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Vigotski, em seu "Manuscrito de 1929" afirma que a relação filogênese-ontogênese no desenvolvimento orgânico é distinta da mesma relação no desenvolvimento cultural: enquanto que o embrião humano se desenvolve sem interagir com o organismo adulto, o desenvolvimento cultural da criança só ocorre por meio da interação com o adulto, isto é, com o ser mais desenvolvido. Partindo dessa afirmação, o artigo analisa as relações entre a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx, apoiando-se na reflexão metodológica e epistemológica desenvolvida por Marx no texto em que afirmou que "a anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco". O artigo conclui com a defesa da tese de que a psicologia vigotskiana fornece apoio a uma pedagogia que valorize a transmissão das formas mais desenvolvidas do saber objetivo produzido pela humanidade.

  18. REDE DE DRENAGEM URBANA EM ÁREA TROPICAL: MUDANÇAS NA MORFOLOGIA DO CANAL E NÍVEIS DE POLUIÇÃO DAS ÁGUAS – RIO DOS MACACOS – RIO DE JANEIRO – RJ

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    Luciano Marin Lucas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work, accomplished in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, aimed to analyze the variation occurred in the morphology of Macacos river channel. The levels of pollution in the waters along the longitudinal profile was also evaluated due to human actuation. The area was monitored from March 2002 until February 2003. The changes in the morphology were identified through the relation among variables obteined in field, as width, depth, cross-sectional area, hydraulic ray and relation width/depth (W/D. In order to evaluate the levels of pollution in the waters of the channel some interpretation of the obtained values from parameters pH, DO, BOD and colimetry were performed. In the studied period, the largest variation in the morphology were identified in the cross-sections area where occurred the erosion of the channel (which increased the channel capacity to 0,28m2 in PT1 and high deposition identified through the reduction of the channel to 0,90m2 in PT5. Regarding to the level of water pollution, extremely high rates of fecal coliform were identified (1.600.00 NMP/100 ml for all the points, whereas reduced values of DO and BOD were identified next to downstream, due to the largest effluent concentration.

  19. Resveratrol Metabolism in a Non-Human Primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole Time of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Marie-Claude; Marchal, Julia; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Taghi, Méryam; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Dargère, Delphine; Laprévote, Olivier; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Aujard, Fabienne; Epelbaum, Jacques; Cottart, Charles-Henry

    2014-01-01

    The grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a non-human primate used to study the ageing process. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that may increase lifespan by delaying age-associated pathologies. However, no information about resveratrol absorption and metabolism is available for this primate. Resveratrol and its metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in male mouse-lemur plasma (after 200 mg.kg−1 of oral resveratrol) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer used in full-scan mode. Data analyses showed, in MSE mode, an ion common to resveratrol and all its metabolites: m/z 227.072, and an ion common to dihydro-resveratrol metabolites: m/z 229.08. A semi-targeted study enabled us to identify six hydrophilic resveratrol metabolites (one diglucurono-conjugated, two monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated and two both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) and three hydrophilic metabolites of dihydro-resveratrol (one monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated, and one both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives). The presence of such metabolites has been already detected in the mouse, rat, pig, and humans. Free resveratrol was measurable for several hours in mouse-lemur plasma, and its two main metabolites were trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate. Free dihydro-resveratrol was not measurable whatever the time of plasma collection, while its hydrophilic metabolites were present at 24 h after intake. These data will help us interpret the effect of resveratrol in mouse lemurs and provide further information on the inter-species characteristics of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:24663435

  20. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation differentially affects behavior and cognition in the young and aged non-human primate Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

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    Pifferi Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are divergent about the ability of dietary ω3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Most of the clinical trials failed to demonstrate a protective effect of ω3 fatty acids against cognitive decline and methodological issues are still under debate. Conversely to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that long chain ω3 fatty acids play a beneficial role in behavioral and cognitive functions. Inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. We recently started a series of experiments on Grey mouse lemurs, an emerging non-human primate model of aging in order to assess the impact of ω3 fatty acids dietary supplementation on several brain functions. These experiments started with the determination of the fatty acids composition of target organs (brain, adipose tissue, liver, plasma of animals fed under control diet. We then explored the impact of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation on cognition and behavior in young and aged grey mouse lemurs. The aim of the present review is to compare the observations made in young and aged grey mouse lemurs and to explore the possibilities of new experiments in order to bridge the gap between rodents and Humans.

  1. First insights into the social organisation of Goodman's mouse lemur (Microcebus lehilahytsara)--testing predictions from socio-ecological hypotheses in the Masoala hall of Zurich Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Vivian; Kitzler, Johanne; Zingg, Robert; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Following current socio-ecological hypotheses, the social organisation of a species is mainly determined by resource quality and distribution. In the case of Microcebus spp., a taxon-specific socio-ecological model was formulated earlier to explain their variable social organisation. The aim of this study was to test predictions from this model in Goodman's mouse lemur based on a data set from animals living in the semi-free colony of Zurich Zoo. During a 2-month study, we observed 5 females and 5 males using radiotelemetry. We collected data on space use and social behaviour, on sleeping sites and on sleeping group composition. Predictions were only partly confirmed. As expected, Goodman's mouse lemurs were solitary foragers with an increased level of sociality due to crowding effects at the feeding stations. In contrast to the prediction, females and males formed unisexual sleeping groups, which were stable in females and of a fission-fusion type in males. Whereas the formation of sleeping groups by both sexes may be triggered by thermoregulatory benefits, the formation of unisexual sleeping groups may result from divergent interests of the sexes. We conclude that the existing model for the evolution of mouse lemur social organisation needs to be refined. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

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    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  3. Lemur tyrosine kinase-2 signalling regulates kinesin-1 light chain-2 phosphorylation and binding of Smad2 cargo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manser, C

    2012-05-31

    A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2) as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The identified genetic alteration is within intron 9, but the mechanisms by which LMTK2 may impact upon prostate cancer are not clear because the functions of LMTK2 are poorly understood. Here, we show that LMTK2 regulates a known pathway that controls phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chain-2 (KLC2) by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK3β induces the release of cargo from KLC2. LMTK2 signals via protein phosphatase-1C (PP1C) to increase inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β on serine-9 that reduces KLC2 phosphorylation and promotes binding of the known KLC2 cargo Smad2. Smad2 signals to the nucleus in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor stimulation and transport of Smad2 by kinesin-1 is required for this signalling. We show that small interfering RNA loss of LMTK2 not only reduces binding of Smad2 to KLC2, but also inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 signalling. Thus, LMTK2 may regulate the activity of kinesin-1 motor function and Smad2 signalling.

  4. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

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    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  5. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

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    Sylvain Giroud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  6. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  7. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

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    Di Cave David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP. From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%. Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.

  8. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

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    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Étude anatomique d'une espèce de lémurien (Eulemur fulvus) : coupes topographiques et tomodensitométriques du thorax, de l'abdomen et du bassin. Application à la pratique de l'échographie du cœur et des reins

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina

    2008-01-01

    L'objectif de notre étude est d'élaborer un document de référence mettant en relation l'anatomie, l'imagerie et la clinique du lémurien brun (Eulemur fulvus) et débouchant sur des mesures échographiques normales des reins et du cœur. Les études anatomique et tomodensitométrique ont été effectuées sur deux lémuriens et l'étude échographique sous différents modes sur 16 animaux après anesthésie. Les coupes anatomiques et tomodensitométriques nous ont permis de préciser la position et la conform...

  10. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    realizados. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo consiste em avaliar histologicamente a biocompatibilidade do implante do polímero de mamona no dorso nasal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizados quatro macacos-pregos da espécie Cebus apella. Um defeito ósseo foi realizado no osso nasal em todos os animais e colocado um implante de polímero de mamona. A eutanásia foi realizada com 270 dias de pós-operatório, e as amostras foram submetidas a estudo histológico. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica não foi observada a presença de granuloma de corpo estranho ou células fagocitárias. Progressiva formação óssea e maturação foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados macroscópicos e microscópicos mostraram que o implante de polímero de mamona foi biocompatível.

  11. Anatomy is important, but need not be destiny: novel uses of the thumb in aye-ayes compared to other lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Sergio M; Pellis, Vivien C

    2012-06-01

    Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascerensis) have highly specialized hands with long digits, especially the thin middle one (D3), which is used for extracting food, such as beetle larvae, under bark. Due to the elongation of their fingers, including the thumb, it is presumed that aye-ayes have a rather limited capacity for delicate manipulation of objects. However, studies have reported independent movement of digits D3 and D4, and one report noted a seemingly independent thumb (D1) movement in holding food. Sixteen captive adult aye-ayes were videotaped feeding on a diverse range of foods so as to document how the thumb is used during food holding. To determine if the patterns observed were unique to aye-ayes, 24 individuals from 9 other species of lemurs were also videotaped. Two patterns of thumb use idiosyncratic to aye-ayes and one other lemur, the sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), were identified: (1) when holding a food item in one hand, the thumb was used to secure the food, with the other digits playing a secondary role; (2) when holding a food item with both hands, the thumbs once again took a predominant role in securing the food. In the majority of these cases, whether held by one or two thumbs, the thumbs curled around the item, but some descriptive evidence is provided that suggests that aye-ayes exaggerate the role of the thumbs by shifting the hold to the outer edge. The novel uses of the thumbs in aye-ayes demonstrate that brain mechanisms can sometimes override the behavioral (or motor) limitations imposed by the morphology of the body. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. La democràcia dels macacos

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    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2016-01-01

    Fem servir la paraula democràcia per a tot. Ideologies polítiques contraposades s'autoqualifiquen com les úniques autènticament democràtiques i acusen les altres de no ser-ho prou o de posar-la en perill. Normalment s'assumeix que aquesta forma de govern va néixer a la Grècia clàssica, malgrat que abans ja hi havia hagut repúbliques democràtiques a l'Índia. A diferència de la democràcia grega, que només permetia participar els homes lliures i n'excloïa les dones, els esclaus i els estrangers,...

  13. Effects of acute administration of donepezil or memantine on sleep-deprivation-induced spatial memory deficit in young and aged non-human primate grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus.

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    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation. The non-human primate grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is increasingly used in aging research, but there is no published results related to the impact of known pharmacological treatments on age-related cognitive impairment observed in this primate. In the present study we investigated the effects of DON and MEM on sleep-deprivation (SD-induced memory impairment in young and aged male mouse lemurs. In particular, spatial memory impairment was evaluated using a circular platform task after 8 h of total SD. Acute single doses of DON or MEM (0.1 and 1mg/kg or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before the cognitive task during the SD procedure. Results indicated that both doses of DON were able to prevent the SD-induced deficits in retrieval of spatial memory as compared to vehicle-treated animals, both in young and aged animals Likewise, MEM show a similar profile at 1 mg/kg but not at 0.1mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that two widely used drugs for mitigating cognitive deficits in AD were partially effective in sleep deprived mouse lemurs, which further support the translational potential of this animal model. Our findings demonstrate the utility of this primate model for further testing cognitive enhancing drugs in development for AD or other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  14. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Avaliação ultrassonográfica e mensurações das glândulas adrenais em primatas não humanos neotropicais: mico-de-cheiro (Saimiri sciureus, macaco-da-noite (Aotus azarae infulatus e bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans

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    Andressa C. Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As glândulas adrenais possuem funções endócrinas relacionadas a múltiplas funções vitais, estando intimamente relacionadas à capacidade do animal em se adaptar ao estresse. O exame ultrassonográfico é o método diagnóstico de escolha para avaliação das glândulas em diferentes espécies. Considerando a escassa literatura, questiona-se se as doenças adrenais em primatas não humanos são incomuns ou subdiagnosticadas, havendo a hipótese desse fato ser determinado pela falta de parâmetros. Objetivou-se descrever as características ultrassonográficas das glândulas adrenais para três espécies de primatas não humanos mantidas em cativeiro: Saimiri sciureus (mico-de-cheiro, Aotus azarae infulatus (macaco-da-noite e Alouatta guariba clamitans (bugio-ruivo. Conclui-se que é possível a identificação das glândulas adrenais por meio de exame ultrassonográfico, sendo que os padrões de referência foram estabelecidos com sucesso para as espécies em questão. Ressalta-se que a adequação de animais em ambientes estressantes é frequentemente acompanhada por uma hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, portanto deve-se levar em consideração que as mensurações realizadas nesse estudo foram estabelecidas em animais de cativeiro.

  16. Spiked pepper: selection of clones toward cropping on the edaphoclimatic conditions from Belém, Brazil Pimenta-de-macaco: seleção de clones para plantio nas condições edafoclimáticas de Belém

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper presents a high yield of essential oil with useful biological properties for human health and agriculture. In order to evaluate the morphoagronomic variability and, afterwards, to select genotypes for plant breeding and cultivation, thirteen clones were propagated. Thus, spiked pepper cuttings were rooted under greenhouse, transferred to a nursery and, afterwards, planted at the experimental area. The evaluations were carried out in two harvest seasons. The evaluated morphoagronomic traits were number of leaves per branch, leaf length, leaf width, diameter of the oldest branch, plant height, number of orthotropic branches, number of plagiotropic branches, internode length, fresh and dry matter, yield of essential oil and dillapiole content. The analysis of variance and the Scott-Knott test were utilized for data analysis and comparisons among clones and parentals were carried out through genetic and experimental variation coefficients. Fresh matter (first season, number of orthotropic branches and diameter of the the oldest branch (second season presented variability. The Scott-Knott test detected variability for fresh matter, dillapiole content (first season, diameter of the oldest branch and number of orthotropic branches (second season. The yield of essential oil and the dillapiole content were higher for the clones than for the parentals. In conclusion, the clones showed adaptability to the soil and climate conditions of Belém, Pará State, Brazil; the harvest time influenced the oil yield and the dillapiole content; the variance analysis evidenced uniformity and productivity for the evaluated clones, suggesting they can be recommended for cultivation on small-scale production systems in this location.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie com elevado teor de óleo essencial em que se constatam propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variabilidade morfoagronômica e

  17. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

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    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific

  18. Chronic myocardial damage in experimental T. cruzi infection of a new world primate, Cebus sp. monkey Lesões miocárdicas crônicas na infecção experimental pelo T. cruzi no macaco (Cebus apella

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    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Cebus apella monkeys, (juvenile and adult of both sexes were inoculated five years ago, with three Trypanosoma cruzi strains (CA1, n = 10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4, either by conjunctival or intraperitoneal route, once or repeatedly. Parasitological, hematological, serological, enzymatic, radiographic, electro and echocardiographic findings have been peviously published15 and they are similar to those observed in human pathology. The most frequent electrocardiographic alteration was right branch bundle block. Six animals, chosen at random, were sacrificed. Those sacrificed 20 to 25 months post-first inoculation showed focal accumuli of leukocytes with myocytolysis. Foci of diffuse interstitial fibrosis with mild infiltrate of leukocytes among fibers were observed in the animals sacrificed 36 to 47 months post-inoculation. No parasites were seen. The lesions were more prominent in the ventricular walls and the septum. The fact that the infiltrates were predominant in the animals sacrificed at a shorter time after first inoculation and that fibrosis was more severe in those sacrificed at a longer time suggests that there is a progression of the infiltrative lesions to fibrosis, with a leukocytic activity indicative of a chronic phase. These lesions are similar to those described in human chronic Chagas' disease. This would demonstrate that this model is useful in evaluating a progress in the knowledge of the pathogenesis which is still a controversial issue, immunology, immunogenesis and chemotherapeutic agents of the chronic and indeterminate phases of this disease.Dezoito macacos Cebus apella (jovens e adultos de ambos os sexos foram inoculados há 5 anos atrás, com 3 cepas de T. cruzi (CA1, n = 10; Colombiana, n =4 e Tulahuen, n =4 seja por via conjuntival ou intraperitonial, uma única vez ou repetidamente. Os achados parasitológicos, hematológicos, sorológicos, enzimáticos, radiográficos, eletro e ecocardiogr

  19. The anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of Lemur catta and Propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia L; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. Herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms Lemur catta (Lemuridae) and Propithecus coquereli (Indriidae). These two species belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features within primates. We compare the muscular anatomy of the fetuses with that of infants and adults and discuss the evolutionary and developmental implications. The fetal anatomy reflects a phylogenetically more plesiomorphic condition in nine of the muscles we studied and a more derived condition in only two, supporting a parallel between ontogeny and phylogeny. The derived exceptions concern muscles with additional insertions in the fetus which are lost in adults of the same species, that is, flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal III and levator claviculae inserts on the clavicle. Interestingly, these two muscles are involved in movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, which are mainly important for activities in later stages of life, such as locomotion and prey capture, rather than activities in fetal life. Accordingly, our findings suggest that some exceptions to the "ontogeny parallels phylogeny" rule are probably driven more by ontogenetic constraints than by adaptive plasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife: 15 years research on nocturnal lemurs in the Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife :15 ans de recherche sur les lémuriens nocturnes dans le Parc National d´Ankarafantsika, Madagascar

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    Marine Joly

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife from the Malagasy: Mouse lemur, sportive lemur and woolly lemur. "The Ankarafantsika Lemur Project", is based at the field station of Ampijoroa in the National Park of Ankarafantsika in the North-West of Madagascar and is conducted by the Institute of Zoology from the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany in close collaboration with the local universities of Antananarivo, of Mahajanga and Madagascar National Parks (authorities for the management of protected areas in Madagascar. The project started in 1996. The goal is to enhance our knowledge on the adaptation and evolution of a previously neglected group of primates, the nocturnal lemurs, and to contribute to their conservation. Thus, researchers study the diversity, ecology, communication and socio-biology of the nocturnal lemurs. They discovered one new mouse lemur species (Microcebus ravelobensis in this area. They characterised aspects of the morphometry, genetics, communication, ecology, social traits and recently, cognitive abilities of sympatrically living mouse-sized (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis and cat-sized lemur species (Lepilemur edwardsi and Avahi occidentalis. Some major results are presented in this article showing the importance of exchanging experience, educating Malagasy students and field guides and joint work with Malagasy partners in order to deepen our knowledge on the biology of endemic species. This knowledge is crucial to establish efficient management plans and thus contribute to the conservation of threatened species.Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife en langue Malgache : Microcèbe, Lépilémur et Avahi. Le projet de recherche sur les lémuriens nocturnes d´Ankarafantsika est basé à la station d´Ampijoroa dans le Parc National d´Ankarafantsika dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar. Il est mené par l´Institut de Zoologie de l´Ecole Vétérinaire de Hanovre (Allemagne en collaboration étroite avec les universit

  1. [Arboviroses in the region of Nosy-Bé, Madagascar. Serologic and entomologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Rodhain, F; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    Since 1977, the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of Nosy-Be area, in the north-west of Madagascar. 47.2% out of 271 human sera and 11.3% out of 151 sera of Lemurs, tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. The results show an important prevalence of Flaviviruses. West Nile and Dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. Antibodies against Sindbis and Rift Valley Fever viruses, were found only in few subjects. Bunyamwera and California groups of virus are absent. The rate of positive Lemurs is weak, particularly in Lemur macaco macaco. Flaviviruses are the most frequent. 12,262 haematophagous diptera (11,965 Culicidae belonging to 40 species) were caught. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both present. Arbovirus isolation attempts from 394 mosquito pools failed; only Mengo virus was isolated from four pools of Eretmapodites quinquevittatus and one pool of Aedes (Skusea) sp.

  2. Programme Sahamalaza-Iles Radama de l’AEECL : étude et conservation des espèces menacées d’extinction de lémuriens dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar AEECL’s Sahamalaza-Iles Radama Program: study and conservation of threatened species of lemurs in north-west of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dumoulin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’AEECL, Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, est un consortium de parcs zoologiques et d’universités européennes mettant en commun leurs connaissances et leurs efforts en faveur de projets de recherche et de protection des lémuriens menacés d’extinction de Madagascar depuis plus de trente ans. Pour ce faire, l’AEECL mène ou finance des études afin d’améliorer les connaissances scientifiques concernant les lémuriens. Ces informations sont indispensables pour mettre en place les mesures concrètes adaptées pour protéger ces animaux. Ses travaux ont notamment aidé à la reconnaissance de la péninsule de Sahamalaza en tant que réserve de biosphère de l’UNESCO, en 2001 et à la création du parc national Sahamalaza-Iles Radama, en 2007, principal site de recherches menées par l’association. De plus l’AEECL met un point d’honneur à impliquer la population locale. Des associations communautaires locales ont été créées dans les villages de quatre communes. Elles ont le pouvoir de gérer les ressources naturelles de leur juridiction de façon durable.The European Association for the Study and Conservation of Lemurs (Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, AEECL is a consortium of European zoological gardens and universities who have joined forces to carry out conservation and research projects for Madagascar’s highly endangered lemurs since more than 30 years. AEECL implements or finances various different research projects to improve the scientific knowledge of lemurs. Information is essential to be able to develop comprehensive conservation and management plans to protect these animals. The work of AEECL has led to the implementation of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Sahamalaza in 2001 and to the creation of the Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park in 2007. In addition to the research, AEECL is carrying out a community-based natural resource

  3. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Jacobs

    Full Text Available Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134 large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency. By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck. To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the

  4. tion in rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tance in many ecological studies, as well as in disease research. (i.e., Coop ..... interaction suggests that individuals in Talatakely engage in more ..... parasite defences and trade-offs in evolutionary ecology. ... Predation, pollination and tor-.

  5. Les activités de conservation des lémuriens par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP Conservation activities of lemurs by the Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP- Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Randrianarison

    2011-10-01

    prosimian primates of Madagascar, the development of action plans for their conservation, the discovery of new species, the translocation of lemurs living in deforested or threatened habitats, the abundance estimates and the revision of area distributions and the publication of results research in national and international scientific journals. In fact, capacity building of local community associations and primary and higher education systems concerning lemur conservation linked to aiding the sustainable development of local communities, it seems necessary, so that the lemur conservation will be lasting.

  6. Les lémuriens subfossiles dans le Nord-Ouest de Madagascar, du terrain à la diffusion des connaissances ou 15 ans de recherches franco-malgaches The subfossils lemurs from the North-West of Madagascar, from the fieldwork to the access of knowledge: 15 years of French-Malagasy research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beby Ramanivosoa

    2011-10-01

    a été mise en place.Madagascar is one of the most important hotspot of the world biodiversity. Among the numerous endemic animals living in the island, the lemurs are the more emblematic. Within the primate order, this group is one of the most diversified. If their origin is still not clear, numerous extinct subfossils species have been recorded for at least 26 000 years, the more recent ones being only a few hundred years old. The lemurs are mentioned in ancient texts or legends because of their size which made an impression on people. The causes of their extinction remain poorly known. Historically, the majority of the subfossil sites were known in two geographical areas: the South-West and the Center of Madagascar, which shared a few species. More recently, some subfossils have been discovered in the North of the island, but almost nothing was known in the North-West of Madagascar until 1997 when explorations were undertaken in the framework of a collaboration between malagasy and french researchers.Currently, 19 sites are known and many subfossils were discovered. A new species of extinct lemur was described, Palaeopropithecus kelyus. Numerous non-lemur taxa are recorded (micro-and macrofauna and contribute to understand the history of the past biodiversity and palaeoenvironments.This fair collaboration is also a human adventure. The different participants of the two countries take an equal part in the fieldwork, the studies, the technical and academic training of the students at the University of Mahajanga, and the popularization of the results. Through exhibitions the new Malagasy generations are sensitized to the preservation of their geological and natural heritage.

  7. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... FP Cuozzo, IA Youssouf Jacky, KD Fish, M LaFleur, LAL Ravelohasindrazana, JF Ravoavy ... This work is documenting newly discovered behaviors by this species. ... variation and increasing threats to this endangered primate species.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in primates. The example of the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus: From detection of pathological aging to therapeutic evaluations Imagerie par résonance magnétique chez les primates. L’exemple du microcèbe murin (Microcebus murinus : De la détection du vieillissement cérébral pathologique à l'évaluation thérapeutique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine El Tannir El Tayara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aging is a major public health issue in our societies as the aged population increases dramatically. It leads in many cases to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD. Rodents and particularly transgenic mice are widely used as models for research on physiopathology of cerebral aging, neurodegenerative diseases and for the evaluation of therapies. However these models do not mimic all the pathophysiological aspects of human diseases. Complementary models such as non-human primates are phylogenetically close to humans and thus more predictive of drug efficiency in humans. Mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate (about 12cm, 100g described as a useful model of cerebral aging and as a potential model of AD. Indeed several animals develop age-associated cerebral alterations like amyloidosis and other cerebral changes. Non invasive medical imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to follow-up brain changes in these animals. In this review, we present how mouse lemurs can be followed-up by MRI and how MRI can be used during therapeutic evaluations and other applications in this model. MR images can be used to follow-up cerebral anatomy in mouse lemurs. It allows for the description of age-associated atrophic processes, age-associated iron accumulation, and vascular anatomy (thanks to MR angiography. Cerebral glucose uptake can be studied in mouse lemurs with other in vivo imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET. In this case, MRI can be used as a support for quantification of radioligand uptake in specific structures. Ex vivo MR imaging is another MR protocol that can be used to describe cerebral aging in lemurs. It provides high resolution 3D histological brain images and allows for studying exquisite anatomical details or microhemorrhages. Finally, MRI can be used to practice cerebral surgery in lemurs and determine coordinates for stereotactic injections. It can

  9. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, and three times with dejections from infected bugs, and five times injected in the skin (four times with contaminated blood, and one time with dejections from infected bugs, and necropsied after 233 days. The microscopic picture was uniform presenting, however, considerable individual variations, and was represented by diffuse interstitial myocarditis, frequently more (marked in the right ventricle base of the heart, accompanied by lymphatic stasis. The infiltration consists of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, the cellular reaction having sometimes a perivascular distribution, involving the auriculo-ventricular system of conduction, endocardium, epicardium and cardiac sympathetic gangliae. The loss of cardiac muscle fibers was always minimal. Leishmanial forms of S. cruzi in myocardial fibers are scanty and, in two cases, absent. Fatty necrosis in the epicardium was noted in two cases. Obliterative changes of medium-sized branches of coronary arteries (hypersensitivity reaction? and multiple infarcts of the myocardium was found in one instance. The diffuse myocarditis induced by S. cruzi in several species of monkeys of the genus Cebus observed after 233 days (several inoculations and 252 days (single inoculation is not associated with disseminated fibrosis such as is reported in chronic cases of Chagas' disease. Definite capacity of reversion is another characteristic of the interstitial myocarditis observed in the series of Cebus monkeys here studied. The impression was gained that repeated inoculation with S. cruzi may influence the myocardial changes differently according to the period between the reinoculations. A short period after the first inoculation is followed by more marked changes, while long periods are accompanied by slight changes, which suggests an active immunisation produced by the first inoculation. More data are required, however before a definite statement is made on this subject considering that individual variations, the natural capacity of reversion of the interstitial myocarditis and the employement of more than a species of Cebus monkeys probably exerts influence also in the results here reported.

  10. Panencefalite subaguda esclerosante: transmissão de agente encefalitogênico humano ao macaco rhesus

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    Alexandre Alencar

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Material proveniente do cérebro de um paciente com "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante" foi inoculado, por via intracerebral, em dois Macacus rhesus. Os animais permaneceram assintomáticos, aparentemente bem, por mais de um ano. Entretanto, 21 e 22 meses após as inoculações começaram a apresentar sinais de comprometimento neurológico, traduzido por paralisia dos membros posteriores, com apatia e caquexia progressivas. Os animais foram sacrificados. O exame histopatológico do sistema nervoso central mostrou gliose marginal e gliose da substância branca, com os neurônios exibindo sinais de "lesão celular crônica". Foram vistos discretos manguitos inflamatórios perivasculares. Em um animal foi encontrada inclusão acidófila intra- nuclear. Havia também proliferação da glia satélite perineuronal, com satelitose, notadamente no tronco cerebral. No exame das vísceras foi encontrado discreto processo de miocardite crônica. Foram retirados fragmentos dos encéfalos destes animais e inoculados em 4 outros, também por via intracerebral. Estes animais de 2.ª passagem após 2 meses de inoculação, em média, apresentaram sinais de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central semelhante ao dos animais doadores, de 1ª passagem. Houve, portanto, um encurtamento do período de inoculação da moléstia. Estes animais também foram sacrificados, sendo encontradas gliose marginal, gliose da substância branca, "lesão celular crônica" neuronal e proliferação da glia satélite, notadamente no tronco cerebral; vasos sangüíneos congestos; espongiose cortical. Os animais testemunhas, do mesmo lote, permaneceram normais. Acreditamos que as lesões observadas nos animais de 1.ª passagem, e que se repetiram com maior intensidade e com menor tempo de incubação nos de 2.ª passagem somente podem ser explicadas admitindo-se a existência de um agente virai que, pela natureza do quadro histopatológico (gliose, "lesão celular crônica" neuronal e espongiose cortical bem como pelo período longo de incubação, deva pertencer ao grupo dos chamados vírus lentos.

  11. Pelvimetria em macacos-da-noite (Aotus azarai infulatus - KUHL, 1820

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    Cristiane Macedo del Rio do Valle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se os diâmetros pelvicos de 72 Aotus azarai infulatus, adultos, 42 machos e 30 fêmeas não prenhes, correlacionando-os com o dimorfismo sexual, a biometria corpórea e a origem dos animais por meio de radiografias em projeção ventro-dorsal, digitalizadas. As médias verificadas foram: para o comprimento do corpo 30,94 cm; comprimento da cauda 35,63 cm; perímetro do tórax 18,97 cm; perímetro da pelve 17,11 cm e o peso 0,96 Kg, em média. As médias dos diâmetros pélvicos foram de 2,64 cm para o diâmetro diagonal direito; 2,66 cm para o diâmetro diagonal esquerdo; 1,97 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco médio; 1,41 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco superior; 1,58 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco inferior; 2,48 cm para o diâmetro sacro-púbico e 3,85 cm² para a área de entrada da pelve. Concluiu-se que, tanto nos machos quanto nas fêmeas, a pelve de Aotus azarai infulatus pode ser classificada como dolicopélvica, tendo-se verificado dimorfismo sexual pélvico nos adultos.

  12. [Arbovirus infections on the island of Nosy-Be; serologic and entomologic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Rodhain, F; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    Since 1977, the Pasteur Institute of madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of Nosy-Be area, in the north-west of Madagascar. 47.2 p. 100 out of 271 human sera and 11.3 p. 100 out of 150 animal sera (mostly from Lemurs), tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. The results show an important prevalence of Flaviviruses. West-Nile and Dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. Antibodies against Sindbis and Rift Valley Fever viruses, were found only in few subjects. Bunyamwera and Tahyna viruses are absent. The rate of positive Lemurs is weak, particularly in Lemur macaco species. Flaviviruses are the most frequent. 12262 haematophagous diptera (11965 Culicidae belonging to 40 species) were caught . Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both present. Arbovirus isolation attempts from 394 mosquito pools failed; only Mengo virus was isolated from four pools of Erethmapodites quinquevittatus and one pool of Aedes (Skusea) sp.

  13. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v9i2.6 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  14. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    griseorufus) activity period in a disturbed forest in southwestern .... Promoting African Publishing and Education www.ioeink. ... this dry deciduous forest is similar to the adjacent western edge of .... American Journal of Primatolology 73: 38–52.

  15. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this, we trapped M. murinus in four forest fragments and mixed tree plantations between the fragments. One of the corridors was ... During four years of study, only one male M.murinus used the Melaleuca corridor, while several M. murinus were caught in the Eucalyptus and the Acacia corridor in 2013. The density of the ...

  16. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deforestation and habitat fragmentation, caused by logging and agricultural practices, are the leading causes of biodiversity de- cline worldwide (e.g., Fischer and Lindenmayer 2007, Habel and. Zachos 2012). Fragmentation can result in a series of small sub- populations in the residual habitat, each with a high risk of going.

  17. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  18. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  19. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

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    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  20. "... cada macaco no seu galho". A participação democrática na escola pública

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    Pedro Patacho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La participación de las familias y la comunidad fue uno de los dos argumentos que apoyaron el régimen de autonomía, administración y gestión de las escuelas aprobado en Portugal en 2008. Sin embargo, no hay evidencia de que esta participación esté contribuyendo a mejoras significativas en las escuelas. Este artículo emerge de un estudio de caso más amplio que analiza la participación de las familias en dos grupos de escuelas en los suburbios deLisboa, ambos con buena reputación en la comunidad, pero diferentes en relación a las variables de contexto. 438 cuestionarios fueron entregados a los padres y a las madres, 122 al profesorado de educación básica, y se llevaron a cabo 20 entrevistas semi-estructuradas con varios participantes. Los resultados muestran una visión conservadora de la educación escolar y una contradicción marcada entre la retórica y la práctica de la participación democrática, quedando muchas veces reducida a un mero formalismo legal.

  1. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L. cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

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    Simone Alencar Maciel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11 Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum apresentam compostos metabólitos secundários como safrol e dilapiol de interesse comercial em seus óleos essenciais. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos anatômicos, relacionados a respostas fisiológicas das folhas de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Secções paradérmicas e transversais da lâmina foliar do cultivo in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo, feitas à mão-livre foram realizadas para a medição das estruturas anatômicas em microscópio de luz. A espessura da epiderme e hipoderme de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum sofrem alterações na transição de cultivo in vitro para o ex vitro. Os tecidos do mesofilo e a abertura do poro estomático de ambas as espécies são influenciados pelo ambiente in vitro. Diferentes ambientes de cultivo promovem a plasticidade das estruturas celulares da lâmina foliar e fundamentam o sucesso da micropropagação de ambas as espécies.

  2. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L.) cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Simone Alencar; Teixeira, Renata Beltrão; Raposo, Andrea; Fermino Junior, Paulo Cesar Poeta

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for ...

  3. Efeitos do trimetilaminoetano (TES e ringer lactato em sêmen de macacos-aranha mantidos em cativeiro ( Ateles paniscus e A. marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.M. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the diluents TES and CEBRAN II were compared as cryopreservatives of semen from non human primates of the genus Ateles. The experiment was carried out using one Ateles marginatus and two Ateles paniscus specimens, males and adults, maintained in the same captivity conditions at the National Center of Primates (CENP-SVS/MS. The animals were subjected to clinical and andrological examinations - testicular biometry - before the semen collection by eletroejaculation. Evaluations of motility and forward movement in the fresh semen were made. Semen were made dilution was made with the diluents TES and CEBRAN II. The ejaculates were diluted with the diluents (2:1proportion, packed in 0.25mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the packed ejaculates were appraised in thermo resistance test (TTR. The averages of volume and concentration were, respectively, 1.94mL (0.83 and 3,020,000 sptz/mL (275.97. The pH 8 and seminal coagulation were observed in all samples. The results suggest that the TES diluent presents better efficiency in the preservation of Ateles semen than CEBRAN II.

  4. Estudo anatômico descritivo dos órgãos genitais masculinos do macaco-prego (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Dulcinea Gonçalves Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    A Anatomia comparada de mamíferos é tema de grande interesse em pesquisas e tem como objetivo buscar conhecimentos que possam auxiliar o entendimento do binômio unidadevariedade. O conhecimento da Anatomia de qualquer animal silvestre é de importância capital para a sua preservação e proteção (RIBEIRO, 2002). Os primatas do novo mundo estão distribuídos na Região Neotropical das Américas Central e do Sul, (RYLANDS; MITTERMEIER; RODRÍGUEZ-LUNA, 1997). O Cebus apella, animal das matas do contin...

  5. TDT-2002 Topic Tracking at Maryland: First Experiments with the Lemur Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Daqing; Park, Hyuk R; Murray, G. C; Subotin, Michael; Oard, Douglas W

    2003-01-01

    .... Two of the Perl runs used native Arabic orthography with two-best translation based on a statistical lexicon, obtaining similar results to those obtained with the Arabic-to-English translations...

  6. Dynamic vs. static social networks in models of parasite transmission: predicting Cryptosporidium spread in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Kappeler, Peter M; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-05-01

    Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behaviour of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations. Here, we use empirically derived networks from a population of wild primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), and simulated networks to investigate pathogen spread in dynamic vs. static social networks. First, we constructed a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model of Cryptosporidium spread in wild Verreaux's sifakas. We incorporated social and environmental transmission routes and parameterized the model for two different climatic seasons. Second, we used simulated networks and greater variation in epidemiological parameters to investigate the conditions in which dynamic networks produce larger outbreak sizes than static networks. We found that average outbreak size of Cryptosporidium infections in sifakas was larger when the disease was introduced in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by an increase in home range overlap towards the end of the dry season. Regardless of season, dynamic networks always produced larger average outbreak sizes than static networks. Larger outbreaks in dynamic models based on simulated networks occurred especially when the probability of transmission and recovery were low. Variation in tie strength in the dynamic networks also had a major impact on outbreak size, while network modularity had a weaker influence than epidemiological parameters that determine transmission and recovery. Our study adds to emerging evidence that dynamic networks can change predictions of disease dynamics, especially if the disease shows low transmissibility and a long infectious period, and when environmental conditions lead to enhanced between-group contact after an infectious agent has been introduced. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  7. Anti-predator behaviour of Sahamalaza sportive lemurs, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, at diurnal sleeping sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, M.; Schwitzer, C.; Holderied, M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to predation pressure by raptors, snakes, and carnivores, primates employ anti-predator behaviours such as avoiding areas of high predation risk, cryptic behaviour and camouflage, vigilance and group formation (including mixedspecies associations), and eavesdropping on other species’

  8. Single-limb force data for two lemur species while vertically clinging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura E; Hanna, Jandy; Schmitt, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Vertical clinging and climbing have been integral to hypotheses about primate origins, yet little is known about how an animal with nails instead of claws resists gravity while on large, vertical, and cylindrical substrates. Here we test models of how force is applied to maintain posture, predicting (1) the shear component force (Fs ) at the hands will be higher than the feet; (2) the normal component force (Fn ) at the feet will be relatively high compared to the hands; (3) the component force resisting gravity (Fg ) at the feet will be relatively high compared to the hands; (4) species with a high frequency of vertical clinging postures will have low Fg at the hands due to relatively short forelimbs. Using a novel instrumented support, single-limb force data were collected during clinging postures for the hands and feet and compared across limbs and species for Propithecus verreauxi (N = 2), a habitual vertical clinger and leaper, and Varecia variegata (N = 3), a habitual above-branch arboreal quadruped. For both species, hand Fs were significantly higher than at the feet and Fn and Fg at the feet were significantly higher than at the hands. Between species, P. verreauxi has relatively low Fg at the hands and Fn at the feet than V. vareigata. These results support previous models and show that hindlimb loading dominance, characteristic of primate locomotion, is found during clinging behaviors and may allow the forelimbs to be used for foraging while clinging. These findings provide insight into selective pressures on force distribution in primates and primate locomotor evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Springer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  10. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  11. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Springer; Claudia Fichtel; Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer; Fabian H. Leendertz; Peter M. Kappeler

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy pr...

  12. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites. PMID:26767166

  13. Collecting and evaluation of germplasm of spiked pepper from Brazilian Amazon Pimenta-de-macaco: coleta e avaliação de germoplasma na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. is an aromatic plant species with high essential oil production. It is a species that occurs abundantly in the Brazilian Amazon. Its essential oil has exploitable biological properties in the human health and agriculture. Aiming to study its germplasm toward future use in genetic breeding programs, collecting was carried out (inflorescences, cuttings, leaves and thin branches in ten provenances from the Brazilian Amazon. Twelve morphoagronomic traits were determined to take the data: number of leaves by branch, length of leaf, width of the leaf, circumference of the older branch, height of the plant, number of orthotropic branches, number of plageotropic branches, length of the internodes, number of spikes per branches, yielding of oil, content and production of dillapiole, as well as data on the environment and populations of spiked pepper. The inflorescences and cuttings were encoded and sent for the Federal Rural University from Pará State (UFRA, Brazil, for propagation. The leaves and thin branches were sent for the Emílio Goeldi Museum, from Pará State (MPEG for extraction of essential oil (hydrodistillation. Estimators of amplitude of variation, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were utilized to study the phenotypical variability. The morphoagronomic traits of largest variability were number of orthotropic branches, number of spikes per branch, circumference of the older branch and the content and production of dillapiole. This species has adapted to many different environments of vegetation, soil, climate, relief and drainage becomming easy the domestication and cropping. There is morphoagronomic variability pleasing the selection and genetic breeding.Piper aduncum L. é uma planta que ocorre na Amazônia Brasileira com elevado teor de óleo essencial e que apresenta propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar germoplasma visando ao melhoramento genético e cultivo econômico, realizaram-se coletas (inflorescências, estacas, folhas e ramos finos em dez municípios da Amazônia Brasileira (Manaus, Marabá, Goianésia, Moju, Belém, Santa Izabel, Americano, Bonito, Santarém Novo e Aveiro. Tomaram-se dados do ambiente, populações e de doze caracteres morfoagronômicos (número de folhas por ramo, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, circunferência do ramo mais velho, altura da planta, número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, comprimento do entrenó, número de espigas por ramo, rendimento de óleo, teor e produção de dilapiol. As inflorescências e estacas foram identificadas e encaminhadas para a UFRA em Belém-PA e, as folhas e ramos finos, para o Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi-MPEG, para extração do óleo essencial (hidrodestilação. Utilizaram-se estimadores de média, desvio padrão, coeficiente de variação e amplitude total para estudo da variabilidade fenotípica. As matrizes prevalenceram em ambientes antropizados, solos argilosos, condições de drenagem variáveis, terrenos planos e clima Ami, como também predominaram populações definíveis pela agregação dos indivíduos, em terra alta e a pleno sol, serrapilheira, tamanho das populações e presença de plântulas no chão muito variáveis. Os caracteres de maior variabilidade foram número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de espigas por ramo, circunferência do ramo mais velho (morfológicos, teor e produção de dilapiol (agronômicos. Concluiu-se que a espécie apresenta adaptação a diferentes ambientes com relação à vegetação, solo, clima, relevo e drenagem, facilitando o cultivo e domesticação. Há variabilidade morfoagronômica favorecendo a seleção e fitomelhoramento.

  14. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin); Acao dos raios X corpo total sobre os neutrofilos do sangue periferico em primata Cebus apella (macaco prego)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Lilian Munao [Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0), Wright`s stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. (Strychnos madagascariensis) for conservation of L. ankaranensis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species such as sportive lemurs, one of the most species-rich groups of ... ventions to maintain or improve habitat quality for these lemurs. ..... 2008) and birds (as .... treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Ma-.

  16. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    .... Species: Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) Black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus monacha) Jackass...

  17. Social organisation of the northern giant mouse lemur Mirza zaza in Sahamalaza, north western Madagascar, inferred from nest group composition and genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, E.J.; Nekaris, K.A-I.; Markolf, M.; Schliehe-Diecks, S.; Seiler, M.; Radespiel, U.; Schwitzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Shelters such as leaf nests, tree holes or vegetation tangles play a crucial role in the life of many nocturnal mammals. While information about characteristics and availability of these resources may help in conservation planning, nest use gives an indication about a species’ social organisation.

  18. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para sugerirmos uma denominação que se adequasse ao modelo arterial desse primata. Os resultados nos permitiram verificar, no circuito arterial da base do encéfalo, segmento caudal ou vértebro-basilar as artérias (a: a. vertebral, suas partes (pé-vertebral, cervical, atlântica e intracraniana com ramos meníngeos e seus ramos (a. espinhal anterior, a. cerebelar inferior caudal, ramos para a medula oblonga; a. basilar e seus ramos (a. cerebelar inferior rostral, a. pontinas, a. cerebelar superior satélite, ilhas artérias, a. cerebelar anterior, a. cerebelar posterior; e no segmento rostral ou carótico os vasos: a. carótida interna (parte cerebral; a. comunicante posterior; a. coróidea; a. cerebral média; a. cerebral anterior; a. olfatória; a. inter-hemisférica. A análise dos resultados nos permitiu considerar que o Cebus apella apresentou um padrão arterial de relativa estabilidade morfológica em função das poucas variações encontradas nos vasos formadores dos circuitos arteriais considerados

  19. 50 CFR 14.151 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs... located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure. (b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur...

  20. Práticas discursivas na construção de uma gastronomia polifônica

    OpenAIRE

    Murta,Ivana Benevides Dutra; Souza,Mariana Mayumi Pereira de; Carrieri,Alexandre de Pádua

    2010-01-01

    Objetivamos neste trabalho contextualizar o desenvolvimento da gastronomia e as mudanças de significado espacial, observando as táticas e estratégias envolvidas nesse processo. As práticas cotidianas reconstroem continuamente os significados da culinária, e, no caso de Macacos, distrito mineiro, a 30 km de Belo Horizonte, observamos que o mosaico de ofertas gastronômicas reflete tais práticas e projeta certa identidade do distrito aos turistas. Macacos apareceu como um polo ou roteiro gastron...

  1. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  2. A history of conservation politics in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-04-03

    Apr 3, 1984 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT ... across multiple geographic and institutional sites. .... lected cases, I provide only general organizational associations for ... began studying ring-tailed lemurs in 1962, followed by Robert ...... Coordination issues in policy implementation networks: an.

  3. Extinction and ecological retreat in a community of primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, B. E.; Godfrey, L. R.; Guilderson, T. P.; Zermeno, P.; Koch, P. L.; Dominy, N. J.

    2012-05-23

    The lemurs of Madagascar represent a prodigious adaptive radiation. At least 17 species ranging from 11 to 160 kg have become extinct during the past 2000 years. The effect of this loss on contemporary lemurs is unknown. The concept of competitive release favours the expansion of living species into vacant niches. Alternatively, factors that triggered the extinction of some species could have also reduced community-wide niche breadth. Here, we use radiocarbon and stable isotope data to examine temporal shifts in the niches of extant lemur species following the extinction of eight large-bodied species. We focus on southwestern Madagascar and report profound isotopic shifts, both from the time when now-extinct lemurs abounded and from the time immediately following their decline to the present. Unexpectedly, the past environments exploited by lemurs were drier than the protected (albeit often degraded) riparian habitats assumed to be ideal for lemurs today. Neither competitive release nor niche contraction can explain these observed trends. We develop an alternative hypothesis: ecological retreat, which suggests that factors surrounding extinction may force surviving species into marginal or previously unfilled niches.

  4. Práticas discursivas na construção de uma gastronomia polifônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Benevides Dutra Murta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho contextualizar o desenvolvimento da gastronomia e as mudanças de significado espacial, observando as táticas e estratégias envolvidas nesse processo. As práticas cotidianas reconstroem continuamente os significados da culinária, e, no caso de Macacos, distrito mineiro, a 30 km de Belo Horizonte, observamos que o mosaico de ofertas gastronômicas reflete tais práticas e projeta certa identidade do distrito aos turistas. Macacos apareceu como um polo ou roteiro gastronômico regional a partir de finais do século XX, mas já se desenvolveu bastante nessa área e conta com restaurantes de culinária mineira e internacional. Nesse contexto, procuramos saber: como se constroem as estratégias e táticas gastronômicas em Macacos? Para tanto, foram feitas consultas documentais, consultas às cartas dos restaurantes e entrevistas com donos e funcionários. Ao final, encontramos que a polifonia era a estratégia em todas as atividades gastronômicas em Macacos. Todavia, percebemos uma diferenciação associada à origem dos donos dos restaurantes: os empreendedores autóctones tendem a trabalhar com a elaboração de comida típica mineira, ao passo que os forasteiros, em geral, fazem questão de se classificarem como inseridos em uma gastronomia internacional. Na coexistência do típico e do exótico, a polifonia e a pictoricidade são práticas evidenciadas.

  5. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquiroli, Lauriane S.S.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Rizk, Yasmin S.; Cunha, Marillin C.; Marques, Maria Carolina S.; Matos, Maria de Fátima C.; Kadri, Mônica C.T.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Arruda, Carla C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpene...

  6. Neurônios espelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Pablo Lameira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os neurônios espelho foram descritos inicialmente em macaco Rhesus. Estes neurônios disparavam quando o macaco realizava ações específicas (como pegar uvas passa ou quando ele observava a mesma ação realizada por outro macaco ou por um pesquisador. Assim, estes neurônios possibilitam a compreensão da ação e/ou da intenção de outro animal pela ativação subliminar desta ação nos circuitos fronto-parietais. Estes neurônios estariam envolvidos com a origem da linguagem humana e a sua disfunção poderia causar autismo. Nesta revisão, descrevemos, em humanos e em primatas não-humanos, as áreas corticais com atividade tipo “neurônio espelho” e as áreas envolvidas com o planejamento e a execução explícita e implícita de ações. Existe uma grande sobreposição entre estas áreas, bem como com as áreas envolvidas com o reconhecimento da lateralidade de partes do corpo. Sugerimos então que os neurônios espelho também podem estar envolvidos com o reconhecimento da lateralidade de partes do corpo.

  7. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  8. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  9. The danger of misunderstanding 'culture'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eva Keller

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... such as eating lemurs or bats or felling trees, taboos seem to provide a ... recounted the following myth: “The Creator asked the Malagasy whether they ... birth of a healthy child is a sign that the ancestors are satisfied and that ...

  10. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  11. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. IA Rodriguez, E Rasoazanabary, LR Godfrey. Abstract. The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as ...

  12. Les baobabs de Madagascar : quel cadre régle- mentaire pour leur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 juin 2014 ... dont trois 'En Danger' sur la liste rouge de l'UICN et trois ... With lemurs, baobabs are the most emblematic species of. Madagascar internationally. .... (CDB 2010) stipulant que 'd'ici à 2020, l'extinction d'espèces menacées ...

  13. 50 CFR 14.142 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary enclosures. 14.142 Section 14.142 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... outside the enclosure. Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae) ...

  14. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    have important implications for vector - born diseases at the reserve. Arthropod - borne disease agents have been reported in lemurs (Uilenberg 1970, Uilenberg et al. 1972). Haemaphysalis lemuris may be a vector of Babesia cheirogalei and B. propitheci and H. simplex may serve as a vector for B. brygooi (Uilenberg et al.

  15. Patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A McKenney

    Full Text Available Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes. Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 163 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2014), Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) activity period in a disturbed forest in southwestern Madagascar ... Vol 10, No 1 (2015), Improving livelihoods, training para-ecologists, enthralling children: Earning trust for effective community- based biodiversity ...

  17. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza; Jesús Ezquerro Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emocion...

  18. ¿Por qué los primates son los únicos mamíferos que poseen visión tricromática?

    OpenAIRE

    Urtubia Vicario, César

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos treinta años se ha aportado mucha información relativa a la comprensión de la visión en color de los primates., Lo que se conocía anteriormente, lo habían suministrado estudios psicofísicos de humanos con visión en color normal y defectuosa, e investigaciones fisiológicas del sistema visual del macaco. Las investigaciones incidieron en las variaciones normales en la visión en color en un amplio rango de especies de primates inferiores. Los resultados de estos estudios, han sido...

  19. Descrição morfológica de duas espécies de Sapajus encontradas na Paraíba: S. libidinosus e o recém-redescoberto e já criticamente ameaçado S. flavius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max B.M. Bacalhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Sapajus flavius e S. libidinosus são duas espécies de macacos-prego encontrados no Estado da Paraíba. S. flavius ou macaco-prego-galego foi recentemente redescoberto e está criticamente ameaçado de extinção, sendo encontrado em fragmentos remanescentes de mata Atlântica do litoral do RN, PB, PE e AL. S. libidinosus tem uma distribuição e população maior, coexistindo de S. flavius na PB, entretanto, ocupando o oeste da PB, na caatinga. Frente à lacuna no conhecimento sobre estas espécies foi realizada a descrição morfológica das mesmas, envolvendo biometria externa, dos órgãos do trato gastrointestinal, topografia visceral e a descrição anatômica. Apesar da literatura descrever S. flavius como o menor dos Sapajus, concluímos que não há diferenças morfológicas entre as espécies estudadas. Tais informações servem de subsídios para melhores manejos visando a conservação das espécies e ajudando na classificação taxonômica desse gênero recentemente modificado.

  20. Moderate evidence for a Lombard effect in a phylogenetically basal primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schopf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When exposed to enhanced background noise, humans avoid signal masking by increasing the amplitude of the voice, a phenomenon termed the Lombard effect. This auditory feedback-mediated voice control has also been found in monkeys, bats, cetaceans, fish and some frogs and birds. We studied the Lombard effect for the first time in a phylogenetically basal primate, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus. When background noise was increased, mouse lemurs were able to raise the amplitude of the voice, comparable to monkeys, but they did not show this effect consistently across context/individuals. The Lombard effect, even if representing a generic vocal communication system property of mammals, may thus be affected by more complex mechanisms. The present findings emphasize an effect of context, and individual, and the need for further standardized approaches to disentangle the multiple system properties of mammalian vocal communication, important for understanding the evolution of the unique human faculty of speech and language.

  1. A new world monkey microsatellite (ap74) highly conserved in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oklander, Luciana Ines; Steinberg, Eliana Ruth; Dolores Mudry, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRS became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of noninvasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: lemur catta, alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth, ateles chamek, pan troglodytes, papio sp., and Homo sapiens. in all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp), except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  2. BJUT at TREC 2015 Microblog Track: Real Time Filtering Using Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    all non- English language tweeter are supposed to be junk, thus we reduce that once we detect a non- English Unicode character in it. • Corpus Generation...new query. According to the new query, we use it to generate Lemur Query Parameter File. Noted that we simply select the unigram Language Model with...learning to rank of tweets. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics , pages 295–303. Association for Computational

  3. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...

  4. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  5. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A Novel System of Polymorphic and Diverse NK Cell Receptors in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Cornelia; Neff, Jennifer; Roos, Christian; Eberle, Manfred; Aujard, Fabienne; Münch, Claudia; Schempp, Werner; Carrington, Mary; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Knaust, Florian; Coggill, Penny; Sehra, Harminder; Beck, Stephan; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Reinhardt, Richard; Walter, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    There are two main classes of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in mammals, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and the structurally unrelated killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR). While KIR represent the most diverse group of NK receptors in all primates studied to date, including humans, apes, and Old and New World monkeys, KLR represent the functional equivalent in rodents. Here, we report a first digression from this rule in lemurs, where the KLR (CD94/NKG2) rather than KIR constitute the most diverse group of NK cell receptors. We demonstrate that natural selection contributed to such diversification in lemurs and particularly targeted KLR residues interacting with the peptide presented by MHC class I ligands. We further show that lemurs lack a strict ortholog or functional equivalent of MHC-E, the ligands of non-polymorphic KLR in “higher” primates. Our data support the existence of a hitherto unknown system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates and of combinatorial diversity as a novel mechanism to increase NK cell receptor repertoire. PMID:19834558

  7. Structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Lacruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL, the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates.

  8. Anatomia comparativa da dura-máter de Sapajus libidinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber F. Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O Sapajus libidinosus é um primata do novo mundo popularmente conhecido como macaco-prego, geograficamente distribuído por todo território sul-americano, possui características de inquietude e habilidade de manipulação de ferramentas para a obtenção de alimentos. Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever a morfologia dos seios da dura-máter de Sapajus libidinosus numa perspectiva comparativa. Foram utilizados um total de 3 animais adultos e machos oriundos da Universidade Federal de Goiás e fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10%. No encéfalo de S. libidinosus, foi possível observar a fissura longitudinal, profunda e que divide o mesmo em dois hemisférios, esquerdo e direito. O lobo parietal e frontal apresenta-se relativamente lisoencefálico, mas com giros e sulcos bem definidos e no lobo occipital nota-se a predominância do aspecto lisencefálico. Nota-se a presença de 8 seios da dura-máter, que corresponde de modo geral às descrições para outros primatas como Pan, Papio e homem. Notamos a presença dos seios sagital dorsal, seio sagital ventral, seio transverso, seio reto, seio sigmóide, seio temporal e seio basilar, que são semelhantes a Pan, Papio e homem, a presença do seio parietal semelhante à Saimiri sciureus e a ausência do seio occipital, assim como em Macaca mullata. No macaco prego não foram observados os seios intracavernosos, seio esfenoparietal, seio petroso superior, seio petroso inferior, sendo estes descritos em Pan, Papio e Homem. Sendo assim, estes dados demonstram uma possível maior proximidade evolutiva entre Papio e Pan em relação ao homem do que o macaco Sapajus.

  9. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+)/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Spolti,Pâmela; Moraes,Aury N. de; Tamanho,Renato B.; Gehrcke,Martielo I.; Souza Júnior,Júlio C.; Oleskovicz,Nilson

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol ...

  10. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emociones, sea parte de tal sistema. Parece ser que el sistema de neuronas espejo se reorganiza funcionalmente para compensar daños en la amígdala en algunos pacientes.

  11. The vertical dispersión of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzi in a forest in southern Brazil suggests that human cases of malaria of simian origin might be expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas M. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available By staining females of Anopheles cruzi with fluorescent coloured powders in a forest in the State of Santa Catarina, we showed that they move from canopy to ground and vice-versa to feed. This suggests that in areas where this mosquito is a vector of human and simian malarias sporadic infections of man with monkey plasmodia might be expected.Pintando fêmeas de Anopheles cruzi com pós fluorescentes coloridos, numa floresta de Santa Catarina, mostramos que elas movimentam-se da copa ao solo e vice-versa para se alimentar de sangue. Isso sugere que em áreas onde esse mosquito for tansmissor das malárias humana e simiana pode-se esperar que ocorram infecções humanas esporádicas por plasmódios de macacos.

  12. Padrões hematológicos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com quetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 124 macacos-prego (Cebus apella da Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, anestesiados com quetamina (10 mg/kg, IM, com a finalidade de determinar os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: contagens globais de hemácias e leucócitos, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos (VCM, HCM e CHCM, expressos em média e desvio padrão. Estudou-se a influência do sexo e da idade sobre os referidos parâmetros.

  13. Memórias, histórias e representações sociais do bairro de Vila Isabel e de uma de suas favelas (RJ, Brasil Memories, stories and social representations of the district of Vila Isabel and one of its slums (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Delvalhas Piccolo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir da etnografia realizada num Centro Comunitário do Morro dos Macacos, localizado no bairro de Vila Isabel, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil, o presente artigo discute a história e a memória do morro e do bairro, explorando alguns eventos realizados nesses locais, que ora reforçam a história e a memória oficiais, ora ressaltam outras versões e memórias existentes e, por vezes, divergentes. Esses eventos interessam como expressões simbólicas dos indivíduos e grupos, ao darem visibilidade às redes de relações, por reforçarem pertencimentos e criarem laços sociais. Importam por contribuírem para a criação de histórias e memórias - oficiais e não-oficiais - que atuam na construção de identidades e representações sociais que, por sua vez, orientam as práticas dos moradores dessas localidades.Based on an ethnography carried out in a community center in Morro dos Macacos, located in Bairro de Vila Isabel, a district in the Northern section of Rio de Janeiro city (Brazil, the present article is about the history and memories of that slum and neighborhood. It examines some events that reinforce its official history and memory or emphasize other stories and memories, different or alike. Those events are interesting symbolical expressions of individuals and groups, for they give visibility to social networks, since they reinforce a sense of belonging to a group and create social links. They are also important for contributing to create stories and memories - official and unofficial - that build social identities and representations that guide its inhabitants’ practices.

  14. A estrutura do fígado de micos-leões de cativeiro (Callithrichidae, Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Lins Brotto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Inúmeros fatores predisponentes podem acarretar doenças auriculares a partir de uma microbiota saprófita. A identificação da microbiota fúngica poderia auxiliar no diagnóstico e tratamento de micoses que possam se tornar patogênicas mediante um desequilíbrio homeostásico. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a microbiota fúngica saprófita no conduto auditivo médio de macacos rhesus (Macaca mulatta clinicamente saudáveis, destinados à pesquisa biomédica. Quarenta macacos rhesus foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo I foi formado por animais adultos, alojados em gaiolas individuais localizadas em containeres especiais de experimentação com temperatura e umidade controladas. O grupo II, originado da colônia de criação, foi formado por animais jovens, mantidos em ambientes livres, sem controle de temperatura e umidade. O cerúmen do conduto auditivo médio dos animais foi coletado através de swabs. A semeadura das amostras foi feita em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol 1%, lacradas com fita adesiva e incubadas à temperatura ambiente. Nos 20 animais do grupo I, foi encontrado o seguinte: Aspergillus (80%, Candida (60%, Cladosporium (5% e Rhodotorula (5%. O grupo II apresentou uma diversidade maior de fungos: Candida sp. (95%, Aspergillus (20%, Cladosporium sp. (60%, Penicillium sp. (30%, Rodotorulla sp., (15%, Trychophytum verrucosum (5%, Epidermophyton flocosum (5% e Scopulariopsis sp. (5%. Estes dados serão úteis nos diagnósticos e tratamentos de otites e sugerem que os fatores climáticos podem ser responsáveis pelo grande número de fungos presentes nos animais do grupo II, que se encontram expostos às condições climáticas naturais.

  15. Impaired control of body cooling during heterothermia represents the major energetic constraint in an aging non-human primate exposed to cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Terrien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12 degrees C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8 and aged animals (N = 7 acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12 degrees C and aged animals at 25 degrees C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing

  16. Testing Convergent Evolution in Auditory Processing Genes between Echolocating Mammals and the Aye-Aye, a Percussive-Foraging Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Richard J; Jerjos, Michael; Hohman, Baily; Lauterbur, M Elise; Kistler, Logan; Perry, George H

    2017-07-01

    Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation. Here we investigated whether there are signals of convergence in auditory processing genes between aye-ayes and known mammalian echolocators. We developed a computational pipeline (Basic Exon Assembly Tool) that produces consensus sequences for regions of interest from shotgun genomic sequencing data for nonmodel organisms without requiring de novo genome assembly. We reconstructed complete coding region sequences for the seven convergent echolocating bat-dolphin genes for aye-ayes and another lemur. We compared sequences from these two lemurs in a phylogenetic framework with those of bat and dolphin echolocators and appropriate nonecholocating outgroups. Our analysis reaffirms the existence of amino acid convergence at these loci among echolocating bats and dolphins; some methods also detected signals of convergence between echolocating bats and both mice and elephants. However, we observed no significant signal of amino acid convergence between aye-ayes and echolocating bats and dolphins, suggesting that aye-aye tap-foraging auditory adaptations represent distinct evolutionary innovations. These results are also consistent with a developing consensus that convergent behavioral ecology does not reliably predict convergent molecular evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Effects of Isometric Scaling on Vertical Jumping Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Jump height, defined as vertical displacement in the airborne phase, depends on vertical takeoff velocity. For centuries, researchers have speculated on how jump height is affected by body size and many have adhered to what has come to be known as Borelli’s law, which states that jump height does not depend on body size per se. The underlying assumption is that the amount of work produced per kg body mass during the push-off is independent of size. However, if a big body is isometrically downscaled to a small body, the latter requires higher joint angular velocities to achieve a given takeoff velocity and work production will be more impaired by the force-velocity relationship of muscle. In the present study, the effects of pure isometric scaling on vertical jumping performance were investigated using a biologically realistic model of the human musculoskeletal system. The input of the model, muscle stimulation over time, was optimized using jump height as criterion. It was found that when the human model was miniaturized to the size of a mouse lemur, with a mass of about one-thousandth that of a human, jump height dropped from 40 cm to only 6 cm, mainly because of the force-velocity relationship. In reality, mouse lemurs achieve jump heights of about 33 cm. By implication, the unfavourable effects of the small body size of mouse lemurs on jumping performance must be counteracted by favourable effects of morphological and physiological adaptations. The same holds true for other small jumping animals. The simulations for the first time expose and explain the sheer magnitude of the isolated effects of isometric downscaling on jumping performance, to be counteracted by morphological and physiological adaptations. PMID:23936494

  18. Effects of isometric scaling on vertical jumping performance.

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    Maarten F Bobbert

    Full Text Available Jump height, defined as vertical displacement in the airborne phase, depends on vertical takeoff velocity. For centuries, researchers have speculated on how jump height is affected by body size and many have adhered to what has come to be known as Borelli's law, which states that jump height does not depend on body size per se. The underlying assumption is that the amount of work produced per kg body mass during the push-off is independent of size. However, if a big body is isometrically downscaled to a small body, the latter requires higher joint angular velocities to achieve a given takeoff velocity and work production will be more impaired by the force-velocity relationship of muscle. In the present study, the effects of pure isometric scaling on vertical jumping performance were investigated using a biologically realistic model of the human musculoskeletal system. The input of the model, muscle stimulation over time, was optimized using jump height as criterion. It was found that when the human model was miniaturized to the size of a mouse lemur, with a mass of about one-thousandth that of a human, jump height dropped from 40 cm to only 6 cm, mainly because of the force-velocity relationship. In reality, mouse lemurs achieve jump heights of about 33 cm. By implication, the unfavourable effects of the small body size of mouse lemurs on jumping performance must be counteracted by favourable effects of morphological and physiological adaptations. The same holds true for other small jumping animals. The simulations for the first time expose and explain the sheer magnitude of the isolated effects of isometric downscaling on jumping performance, to be counteracted by morphological and physiological adaptations.

  19. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

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    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  20. Primates, computation, and the path to language. Reply to comments on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain"

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    Arbib, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    The target article [6], henceforth TA, had as its main title Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology. This unpacks into three claims: Comparative Primatology: If one wishes to understand the behavior of any one primate species (whether monkey, ape or human - TA did not discuss, e.g., lemurs but that study could well be of interest), one will gain new insight by comparing behaviors across species, sharpening one's analysis of one class of behaviors by analyzing similarities and differences between two or more species.

  1. Sex-specific asymmetries in communication sound perception are not related to hand preference in an early primate

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    Scheumann Marina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left hemispheric dominance of language processing and handedness, previously thought to be unique to humans, is currently under debate. To gain an insight into the origin of lateralization in primates, we have studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. We explored potential functional asymmetries on the behavioral level by applying a combined handedness and auditory perception task. For testing handedness, we used a forced food-grasping task. For testing auditory perception, we adapted the head turn paradigm, originally established for exploring hemispheric specializations in conspecific sound processing in Old World monkeys, and exposed 38 subjects to control sounds and conspecific communication sounds of positive and negative emotional valence. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not show an asymmetry in hand preference or in orientation towards conspecific communication sounds. However, males, but not females, exhibited a significant right ear-left hemisphere bias when exposed to conspecific communication sounds of negative emotional valence. Orientation asymmetries were not related to hand preference. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for sex-specific asymmetries for conspecific communication sound perception in non-human primates. Furthermore, they suggest that hemispheric dominance for communication sound processing evolved before handedness and independently from each other.

  2. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aye-aye population genomic analyses highlight an important center of endemism in northern Madagascar.

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    Perry, George H; Louis, Edward E; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Burhans, Richard C; Lei, Runhua; Johnson, Steig E; Schuster, Stephan C; Miller, Webb

    2013-04-09

    We performed a population genomics study of the aye-aye, a highly specialized nocturnal lemur from Madagascar. Aye-ayes have low population densities and extensive range requirements that could make this flagship species particularly susceptible to extinction. Therefore, knowledge of genetic diversity and differentiation among aye-aye populations is critical for conservation planning. Such information may also advance our general understanding of Malagasy biogeography, as aye-ayes have the largest species distribution of any lemur. We generated and analyzed whole-genome sequence data for 12 aye-ayes from three regions of Madagascar (North, West, and East). We found that the North population is genetically distinct, with strong differentiation from other aye-ayes over relatively short geographic distances. For comparison, the average FST value between the North and East aye-aye populations--separated by only 248 km--is over 2.1-times greater than that observed between human Africans and Europeans. This finding is consistent with prior watershed- and climate-based hypotheses of a center of endemism in northern Madagascar. Taken together, these results suggest a strong and long-term biogeographical barrier to gene flow. Thus, the specific attention that should be directed toward preserving large, contiguous aye-aye habitats in northern Madagascar may also benefit the conservation of other distinct taxonomic units. To help facilitate future ecological- and conservation-motivated population genomic analyses by noncomputational biologists, the analytical toolkit used in this study is available on the Galaxy Web site.

  4. Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar.

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    Salmona, Jordi; Heller, Rasmus; Quéméré, Erwan; Chikhi, Lounès

    2017-10-01

    The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans are yet unclear. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of human-driven deforestation. However, recent studies have shown that vegetation and fauna structure substantially fluctuated during the Holocene. Here, we study the Holocene history of habitat fragmentation in the north of Madagascar using a population genetics approach. To do so, we infer the demographic history of two northern Madagascar neighbouring, congeneric and critically endangered forest dwelling lemur species-Propithecus tattersalli and Propithecus perrieri-using population genetic analyses. Our results highlight the necessity to consider population structure and changes in connectivity in demographic history inferences. We show that both species underwent demographic fluctuations which most likely occurred after the mid-Holocene transition. While mid-Holocene climate change probably triggered major demographic changes in the two lemur species range and connectivity, human settlements that expanded over the last four millennia in northern Madagascar likely played a role in the loss and fragmentation of the forest cover. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

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    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  6. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

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    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  7. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-08-07

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species' habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

  8. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  9. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  10. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  11. Individualidade, conhecimento e linguagem na concepção dialética de desenvolvimento em Vigotski

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    Newton Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são exploradas as relações, na psicologia vigotskiana, entre o indivíduo em desenvolvimento e as formas mais ricas de individualidade, de conhecimento e de linguagem. A proposição metodológica que Karl Marx apresenta em sua clássica análise do método da economia política, segundo a qual, a anatomia humana é uma chave para a anatomia do macaco, ou seja, a forma mais desenvolvida é uma referência para a compreensão da menos desenvolvida, é vista por Vigotski como força motora do desenvolvimento psíquico humano. Esse psicólogo defende que a relação com o adulto é necessária ao desenvolvimento da criança. Igualmente ele postula que a individualidade se desenvolve do “em si” ao “para si” e que os sistemas de instrumentos psicológicos mais ricos são indispensáveis ao alcance de níveis mais elevados de desenvolvimento psíquico.

  12. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions

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    Alexandra Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

  13. OFICINA DE ORIGAMI: ATIVIDADE DESENVOLVIDA NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL A PARTIR DO TEMA OLIMPÍADAS

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    Joyce dos Santos Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizar diferentes metodologias e ferramentas em sala de aula exige do professor conhecimento e interesse por propiciarem um estímulo no processo de ensino-aprendizagem dos alunos. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma oficina de origami para uma turma do 6º Ano do Ensino Fundamental da E.E.E.F.M. ”Professor Pedro Simão” no município de Alegre-ES. O objetivo da mesma foi confeccionar/representar alguns animais e plantas da fauna e flora brasileira para compor uma maquete para o projeto da escola com o tema das olimpíadas. A oficina foi realizada em três aulas com a confecção dos modelos de uma borboleta, um macaco e da flor vinca Catharanthus roseus, abordando a sustentabilidade e a preservação ambiental, ambos os temas relacionados às olimpíadas. A participação e o empenho dos alunos foram surpreendentes, evidenciando que atividades diferenciadas podem aproximar o aluno de qualquer tema que o professor queira abordar, quando trabalhado de forma contextualizada, propiciando uma interação entre alunos e professores.

  14. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

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    Lauriane S.S. Bosquiroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. The main compounds were spathulenol (23.8% and caryophyllene oxide (13.1%. P. angustifolium essential oil was highly active [the half maximum inhibitory concentration = 1.43 μg/ml] against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old World. Activity was obtained 24 h after addition of the oil (6.25–50 μg/ml, with a reduction of 100% in the infection index at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml. P. angustifolium essential oil showed low cytotoxicity for mammalian fibroblasts and macrophages (the half maximum inhibitory concentration values of 31.67 and 48.22 μg/ml, respectively, and it was 33 and 22 times more toxic to amastigotes than to mammalian cells, as indicated by selectivity indexes. The results demonstrated that P. angustifolium essential oil is a promising alternative for the study of potential drugs for visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. A dialética do método da economia política na introdução aos Grundrisse

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    Cláudio Gontijo

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo procura examinar, ainda que de forma sintética, a Introdução aos Grundrisse, cotejando-a não apenas com outros textos de Marx, mas também com Hegel, de forma a esclarecer alguns dos aspectos essenciais da dialética marxista. Em particular, discute-se a dicotomia método de pesquisa x método de exposição; a differentia specifica da dialética hegeliano-marxista em relação à lógica aristotélica; a questão da forma e conteúdo; as relações entre entendimento e razão dialética e entre o silogismo formal e o silogismo dialético; a crítica marxista do idealismo hegeliano; as razões pelas quais "a anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco"; assim como as limitações da Introdução aos Grundrisse, em face de outras dimensões da dialética marxista.

  16. Ensaio laboratorial e clínico com Hycanthone, nôvo agente esquistossomicida

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    Naftale Katz

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do Miracil D, um derivado hidroximetílico (Hycanthone pode ser obtido através da atividade biológica do Aspergillus sclerotiorum. Êste derivado mostrou-se muito ativo quando administrado a camundongos, hamsters e macacos Cebus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Ensaios clínicos com o Hycanthone foram feitos em 52 pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni ativa. A droga foi administrada, nas doses de 2 e 3 mg/kg/ dia, junto com um anti-ácido, duas vêzes ao dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Com exceção de 2 casos, todos os pacientes completaram o tratamento. Náusea e/ou vômito, anorexia, tonturas e cefaléia foram os efeitos colaterais mais comuns. Atividade terapêutica foi avaliada através de repetidos exames de fezes (4 a 6 e uma biópsia retal realizada a partir do 4.° mês após o tratamento. As percentagens de cura foram de 83,3 e 80,0% com o esquema de 2 e 3 mg/kg, respectivamente. Os dados laboratoriais e clínicos sôbre a atividade esquistossomicida do Hycanthone até agora obtidos mostram a necessidade de novos ensaios com êste promissor medicamento.

  17. JOGO COMPUTACIONAL PARA APOIO A PESSOAS COM PARALISIA CEREBRAL

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    Jorlei Luis Baierle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um jogo computacional educacional desenvolvido para atuar como uma nova tática de ensino em um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem com agentes pedagógicos emocionais, que executam diferentes funções. O jogo computacional tem como objetivo desenvolver o raciocínio lógico oferecendo desafios aos estudantes em um ambiente 3D, incluindo personagens tais como macacos, abelhas, jacaré, morcegos e gorila no trajeto de um trem que carrega mantimentos. O cenário do jogo possui elementos diversificados, tais como pontes, túnel, lago, floresta, montanhas e aldeia de índios. Este projeto visa contribuir no processo de ensino-aprendizagem, oferecendo um ambiente dinâmico e de interação com os estudantes, respeitando e adaptando-se às suas características de aprendizagem. Pretende-se adaptar o jogo desenvolvido para trabalhar com pessoas com deficiência física motora, mas com capacidade de aprendizagem, a fim de auxiliar com a sua inclusão em nossa sociedade.

  18. Caracteres morfo-anatômicos de folha e caule de Bauhinia microstachya

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    M. do R. Duarte

    Full Text Available Bauhinia microstachya (Fabaceae é um arbusto escandente, de caule comprimido e flexuoso e folhas bilobadas, denominado popularmente de escada-de-macaco e empregado como analgésico na medicina tradicional. A morfo-anatomia foliar e caulinar dessa espécie foi analisada a fim de contribuir com informações farmacognósticas e taxonômicas. O material botânico foi fixado, seccionado e corado com azul de toluidina e com a dupla coloração fucsina básica / azul de astra, bem como submetido a testes histoquímicos. A folha apresenta epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos paracíticos e anomocíticos na face abaxial, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral e nervura central com feixe vascular colateral único, envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. O caule mostra estrutura atípica característica, devido ao crescimento irregular do câmbio vascular, que é mais ativo em dois lados opostos, determinando expansões laterais. A medula possui forma de cruz, e idioblastos contendo prismas e raras drusas de oxalato de cálcio são observados.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

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    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  20. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

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    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  1. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

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    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  2. Receiver bias and the acoustic ecology of aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsier, Marissa A; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-11-01

    The aye-aye is a rare lemur from Madagascar that uses its highly specialized middle digit for percussive foraging. This acoustic behavior, also termed tap-scanning, produces dominant frequencies between 6 and 15 kHz. An enhanced auditory sensitivity to these frequencies raises the possibility that the acoustic and auditory specializations of aye-ayes have imposed constraints on the evolution of their vocal signals, especially their primary long-distance vocalization, the screech. Here we explore this concept, termed receiver bias, and suggest that the dominant frequency of the screech call (~2.7 kHz) represents an evolutionary compromise between the opposing adaptive advantages of long-distance sound propagation and enhanced detection by conspecific receivers.

  3. Comparing aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) presence and distribution between degraded and non-degraded forest within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

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    Farris, Zach J; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Sefczek, Timothy; Wright, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    The aye-aye is considered the most widely distributed lemur in Madagascar; however, the effect of forest quality on aye-aye abundance is unknown. We compared aye-aye presence across degraded and non-degraded forest at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We used secondary signs (feeding sites, high activity sites) as indirect cues of aye-aye presence and Canarium trees as an indicator of resource availability. All 3 measured variables indicated higher aye-aye abundance within non-degraded forest; however, the differences across forest type were not significant. Both degraded and non-degraded forests showed a positive correlation between feeding sites and high activity sites. We found that Canarium, an important aye-aye food source, was rare and had limited dispersal, particularly across degraded forest. This preliminary study provides baseline data for aye-aye activity and resource utilization across degraded and non-degraded forests. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  5. Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmona, Jordi; Heller, Rasmus; Quéméré, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates......-Holocene transition. While mid-Holocene climate change probably triggered major demographic changes in the two lemur species range and connectivity, human settlements that expanded over the last four millennia in northern Madagascar likely played a role in the loss and fragmentation of the forest cover.......—Propithecus tattersalli and Propithecus perrieri—using population genetic analyses. Our results highlight the necessity to consider population structure and changes in connectivity in demographic history inferences. We show that both species underwent demographic fluctuations which most likely occurred after the mid...

  6. Dossier Madagascar - Introduction générale Special section on Madagascar - General introduction.

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    Dominique Gommery

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce dossier spécial est consacré à Madagascar, le royaume naturel des lémuriens. Douze articles de disciplines diverses ont été regroupés dans le but de présenter une vue générale sur ce qui se fait en primatologie par ou impliquant des francophones. La majorité des travaux présentés concerne la conservation et la protection des lémuriens actuels dont beaucoup sont en danger. Les activités en conservation sont diverses mais les projets relatifs impliquent de plus en plus les relations avec les communautés locales et leur développement. Le soutien et l'engagement de celles-ci est une clé de réussite. Ces projets ne pourraient voir le jour s’il n'y avait pas d'études scientifiques en amont par exemple sur la biologie, le comportement et l'écologie de chaque population ou groupe taxonomique. Pour pouvoir protéger les lémuriens avec l'aide des populations locales, il faut aussi comprendre les traditions et les perceptions des habitants vis-à-vis de ces primates. La diversité des lémuriens était encore plus importante dans un passé assez proche et constitue une partie du patrimoine naturel malgache. Il est important de comprendre le passé pour comprendre l'actuel, et inversement. L'évolution de ces primates reste assez complexe et les recherches récentes permettent de corriger notre vision de celle-ci.This special issue is devoted to Madagascar, the natural kingdom of the lemurs. Twelve articles of various disciplines were gathered to present a general overview on what is done in primatology by or implying French-speaking people. The greatest part of this special issue relates to the conservation and the protection of the extant lemurs of which lot are in danger. The activities in conservation are varied but the projects are more and more in relationship with the local communities and implicated in their development. The support and the commitment of these populations are a key of success. These projects could not come

  7. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg−1.day−1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

  9. The natural history of class I primate alcohol dehydrogenases includes gene duplication, gene loss, and gene conversion.

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    Matthew A Carrigan

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates

  10. Genetic variation and selection of MHC class I loci differ in two congeneric frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M; Tracy, Karen E; Lips, Karen R; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2018-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins in the acquired immune response pathway that often show distinctive selection-driven patterns in wild vertebrate populations. We examined genetic variation and signatures of selection in the MHC class I alpha 1 (A1)- and alpha 2 (A2)-domain encoding exons of two frog congeners [Agalychnis callidryas (n = 20) and A. lemur (n = 20)] from a single locality in Panama. We also investigated how historical demographic processes may have impacted MHC genetic diversity by analyzing a neutral mitochondrial marker. We found that both MHC domains were highly variable in both species, with both species likely expressing three loci. Our analyses revealed different signatures of selection between the two species, most notably that the A. callidryas A2 domain had experienced positive selection while the A2 domain of A. lemur had not. Diversifying selection acted on the same number of A1 and A2 allelic lineages, but on a higher percentage of A1 sites compared to A2 sites. Neutrality tests of mitochondrial haplotypes predominately indicated that the two species were at genetic equilibrium when the samples were collected. In addition, two historical tests of demography indicated both species have had relatively stable population sizes over the past 100,000 years; thus large population size changes are unlikely to have greatly influenced MHC diversity in either species during this time period. In conclusion, our results suggest that the impact of selection on MHC diversity varied between these two closely related species, likely due to a combination of distinct ecological conditions and past pathogenic pressures.

  11. Limited replication of yellow fever 17DD and 17D-Dengue recombinant viruses in rhesus monkeys

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    Gisela F. Trindade

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available For the development of safe live attenuated flavivirus vaccines one of the main properties to be established is viral replication. We have used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus titration by plaque assay to determine the replication of yellow fever 17DD virus (YFV 17DD and recombinant yellow fever 17D viruses expressing envelope proteins of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 (17D-DENV-2 and 17D-DENV-4. Serum samples from rhesus monkeys inoculated with YFV 17DD and 17D-DENV chimeras by intracerebral or subcutaneous route were used to determine and compare the viremia induced by these viruses. Viral load quantification in samples from monkeys inoculated by either route with YFV 17DD virus suggested a restricted capability of the virus to replicate reaching not more than 2.0 log10 PFU mL-1 or 3.29 log10 copies mL-1. Recombinant 17D-dengue viruses were shown by plaquing and real-time PCR to be as attenuated as YF 17DD virus with the highest mean peak titer of 1.97 log10 PFU mL-1 or 3.53 log10 copies mL-1. These data serve as a comparative basis for the characterization of other 17D-based live attenuated candidate vaccines against other diseases.Uma das principais propriedades a serem estabelecidas para o desenvolvimento de vacinas seguras e atenuadas de flavivirus,é a taxa de replicação viral. Neste trabalho, aplicamos a metodologia de amplificação pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real e titulação viral por plaqueamento para determinação da replicação do vírus 17DD (FA 17DD e recombinantes, expressando proteínas do envelope de dengue sorotipos 2 e 4 (17D-DENV-2 e 17D-DENV-4. As amostras de soros de macacos inoculados por via intracerebral ou subcutânea com FA 17DD ou 17D-DENV foram usadas para determinar e comparar a viremia induzida por estes vírus. A quantificação da carga viral em amostras de macacos inoculados por ambas as vias com FA 17DD sugere restrita capacidade de replicação com

  12. PERCEPÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE VISITANTES DA RPPN SERRA DAS ALMAS, CRATEÚS/CE: A ESCOLHA DA ESPÉCIE GUARDA-CHUVA COMO POTENCIAL EDUCATIVO E DE GESTÃO

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    Iris Rianne Santana Alves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se baseia em Dietz e Nagagata (1997 que propõe o direcionamento de programas em educação conservacionista aos visitantes e comunidades do entorno das áreas protegidas utilizando-se de espécies que proporcionam rápida identificação com as pessoas, também chamados de espécies guarda-chuva. Partindo da ideia do uso de espécies guarda-chuva como forma de contribuir para a conservação, foram utilizados questionários como ferramenta para o estudo da percepção de visitantes (professores e público variado quanto a possível espécie que poderia ser símbolo da RPPN. Os questionários (67 foram aplicados entre os meses de agosto à dezembro de 2010, período caracterizado como de extrema seca. Os resultados obtidos foram: I quanto ao perfil do visitante: a referente ao gênero (67% mulheres e faixa etária (entre 16 a 25 anos; b procedência (33% Crateús/CE, 43% Fortaleza/CE e 24% Buriti dos Montes/PI; c formação: professores com formação diversificada (pedagogia, ciências biológicas e química. Os resultados obtidos para a espécie guarda-chuva para a área foram: a espécies botânicas: plantas xerófilas e bromeliáceas, juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro. b espécies da fauna: macaco-prego (Cebus apella. Vale destacar que, dos entrevistados, 75% desconheciam a área e o animal mais preferido (macaco-prego era de fácil visualização em uma das trilhas da RPPN. Tais resultados possibilitam o uso didático da espécie escolhida junto aos visitantes e população do entorno visando se estimular a biofilia, buscando estabelecer aspectos perceptivos e de sensibilidade ambiental na referida comunidade. O resultado da percepção para a definição de uma espécie guarda-chuva foi confirmado com a literatura especializada quanto a maior preferência por espécies antropomórficas e que despertam sentimento de compaixão, neste caso o primata (Cebus apella. Logo podemos refletir à respeito dos benefícios da escolha de uma

  13. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

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    Rhea U. Vallente-Samonte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.Homologias entre os padrões de bandamento de cromossomos e seqüências de DNA em grandes macacos e humanos sugerem uma aparente origem comum para estas duas linhagens. A disponibilidade de sondas de DNA para regiões específicas de cromossomos humanos (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 e 19q13.1 nos levou a realizar hibridação cruzada com cromossomos de chimpanzé (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorila (Gorilla gorilla, GGO e orangotango (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY em um pesquisa de regiões equivalentes em grandes macacos. Sinais positivos de hibridação para a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 5q31 foram observados em HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 e PPY 4q31, enquanto que sinais fluorescentes usando a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 10q22 foram

  14. Circulation of antibodies against yellow fever virus in a simian population in the area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, São Paulo, Brazil Circulação de anticorpos contra o vírus amarílico em população simiana da região da usina hidrelétrica de Porto Primavera, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Maura Antonia Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (YF is an acute viral infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes which occurs in two distinct epidemiological cycles: sylvatic and urban. In the sylvatic cycle, the virus is maintained by monkey's infection and transovarian transmission in vectors. Surveillance of non-human primates is required for the detection of viral circulation during epizootics, and for the identification of unaffected or transition areas. An ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for estimation of the prevalence of IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus in monkey sera (Alouatta caraya from the reservoir area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 570 monkey sera samples were tested and none was reactive to antibodies against yellow fever virus. The results corroborate the epidemiology of yellow fever in the area. Even though it is considered a transition area, there were no reports to date of epizootics or yellow fever outbreaks in humans. Also, entomological investigations did not detect the presence of vectors of this arbovirus infection. ELISA proved to be fast, sensitive, an adequate assay, and an instrument for active search in the epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever allowing the implementation of prevention actions, even before the occurrence of epizootics.A febre amarela (FA é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral transmitida por mosquitos. No ciclo silvestre, o vírus é mantido por meio da infecção de macacos e da transmissão transovariana nos vetores. A vigilância sobre populações de primatas não humanos torna-se necessária para detectar a circulação viral, quando ainda está restrito a epizootias, e para determinar sua presença em regiões indenes ou de transição para a doença. Padronizou-se a técnica ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay para determinar a prevalência de anticorpos da classe IgG contra o vírus da FA em soros de bugios (Alouatta

  15. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  16. Morfologia dos músculos do ombro do Sapajus apella (Primates: Cebidae

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    Mariana Oliveira Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p129 O estudo de primatas não humanos tem sido de grande interesse, devido às semelhanças com a espécie humana. Várias espécies animais, principalmente de primatas, têm sido usadas em pesquisas médicas e biológicas. O Sapajus apella é uma espécie de ocorrência comum e abundante na Região Sudeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os músculos estabilizadores do ombro do macaco-prego e compará-los com os do ser humano, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para interpretações anátomo-funcionais que auxiliarão em futuros trabalhos de anatomia comparada. Foram utilizados quatro exemplares de S. apella provenientes do Laboratório de Anatomia Humana da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Os espécimes foram preparados por meio de dissecação dos músculos estabilizadores do ombro e preservados em solução de formaldeído. Observou-se que os músculos do ombro no S. apella apresentam enorme semelhança morfológica, em relação à origem e inserção, com aqueles que se encontram nos seres humanos, bem como em outros primatas.

  17. Genetic diversity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from patients with different clinical conditions Diversidade genética de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de pacientes com diferentes condições clínicas

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    Mario J. Avila-Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 23 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from 15 periodontal patients, eight from seven healthy subjects, nine from nine AIDS patients and two from two Cebus apella monkeys were analyzed. EcoRI restricted the bacterial DNA and 28 ribotypes grouped from A to J groups were obtained. Isolates formed 24 ribotypes which were contained into A, B, C, D, E and F groups, and three reference strains and two clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and E. coli CDC formed four different ribotypes into the G, H, I and J groups. Moreover, from nine F. nucleatum from AIDS patients, six were ribotyped as group C and three as group D. By using ribotyping we distinguished F. nucleatum recovered from different sources. It is possible that isolates from AIDS patients may contain some phenotypic or genotypic factor did not observed in this study.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética de 23 amostras de Fusobacterium nucleatum isoladas da cavidade bucal de 15 pacientes com doença periodontal, de oito cepas isoladas de sete indivíduos sadios, de nove isoladas de nove pacientes com AIDS e de duas isoladas de dois macacos Cebus apella. Pela ação da enzima EcoRI sobre o DNA bacteriano foram reconhecidos 28 ribotipos agrupados de A a J. Os isolados testados formaram 24 ribotipos os quais foram contidos nos grupos A, B, C, D, E e F, e as três cepas de referência e dois isolados clínicos de A. actinomycetemcomitans e E. coli CDC formaram quatro diferentes ribotipos contidos nos grupos G, H, I e J. Em adição, as nove cepas de F. nucleatum isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, seis pertenciam ao grupo C e três ao grupo D. Usando-se a ribotipagem foi possível distinguir F. nucleatum isolados de diferentes origens.

  18. Humoral immune response in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella after vaccination with inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine: comparison of two schedules of immunization

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    Estevão de Camargo Passos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram vacinados contra a raiva, dois grupos de macacos-pregos adultos, com a vacina inativada preparada em cérebros de camundongos lactentes, administrada pela via intramuscular, na Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Os animais em momento algum haviam sido imunizados contra a raiva. O grupo I consistia de nove animais, que receberam três doses de 1,0 mL nos dias 0, 30 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias, e o grupo II continha 10 animais que receberam duas doses de 1,0 mL no dia 0 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas aos 0, 30º, 60º, 90º, 150º, 210º, 240º, 300º e 365º dias, e os anticorpos neutralizantes titulados pela técnica simplificada da inibição de focos fluorescentes. A vacina induziu uma resposta imune de curta duração com títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes acima de 0.5 UI/mL em ambos os grupos; entretanto a resposta imune persistiu por apenas 54,9 + 57,0 e 36,1 + 60,2 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após a primo vacinação, e, por apenas 62,6 + 74,0 e 86,4 + 61,5 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após o reforço. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos estudados (p >; 0,05.

  19. Modelo Bio-inspirado para el Reconocimiento de Gestos Usando Primitivas de Movimiento en Visión

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    Sandra E. Nope

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda el problema del reconocimiento de gestos usando la información de movimiento con el fin de obtener un modelo bio-inspirado para, en un futuro, utilizarlo en la programación de robots mediante el paradigma del aprendizaje por imitación. En este trabajo se extraen las primitivas de movimiento a partir de imágenes consecutivas, capturadas por una cámara web estándar. Para la programación por imitación de robots se identificó, como primera fase, el reconocimiento de gestos, en el cual es necesario resolver tres aspectos principales: La representación instantánea del movimiento, la integración temporal de dicha información y, la estrategia de clasificación. Estos tres aspectos serán tratados a lo largo de este trabajo y, en contraste con otros, la extracción del movimiento y su codificación está inspirada en el procesamiento del movimiento realizado en el cerebro de macacos. El modelo obtenido fue aplicado al reconocimiento de cuatro tipos de gestos realizados con la mano por diferentes personas. El porcentaje de aciertos varió entre 91.42% y 97.14%, utilizando diferentes estrategias estándar de clasificación. Palabras clave: Reconocimiento de gestos, modelo bio-inspirado, primitivas de movimiento, codificación del movimiento, integración temporal, visión artificial

  20. Primatology in southern Brazil: a transdisciplinary approach to the conservation of the brown-howler-monkey Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates, Atelidae

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    Leandro Jerusalinsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human interventions in natural environments are the main cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. The situation is not different in southern Brazil, home of five primate species. Although some earlier studies exist, studies on the primates of this region began to be consistently carried out in the 1980s and have continued since then. In addition to important initiatives to study and protect the highly endangered Leontopithecus caissara Lorrini & Persson, 1990 and Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806, other species, including locally threatened ones, have been the focus of research, management, and protection initiatives. Since 1993, the urban monkeys program (PMU, Programa Macacos Urbanos has surveyed the distribution and assessed threats to populations of Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 in Porto Alegre and vicinity. PMU has developed conservation strategies on four fronts: (1 scientific research on biology and ecology, providing basic knowledge to support all other activities of the group; (2 conservation education, which emphasizes educational presentations and long-term projects in schools near howler populations, based on the flagship species approach; (3 management, analyzing conflicts involving howlers and human communities, focusing on mitigating these problems and on appropriate relocation of injured or at-risk individuals; and finally, (4 Public Policies aimed at reducing and/or preventing the impact of urban expansion, contributing to create protected areas and to strengthen environmental laws. These different approaches have contributed to protect howler monkey populations over the short term, indicating that working collectively and acting on diversified and interrelated fronts are essential to achieve conservation goals. The synergistic results of these approaches and their relationship to the prospects for primatology in southern Brazil are presented in this review.

  1. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

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    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  2. Estudo da patogenicidade para camundongos recém-nascidos de amostras de echovirus tipo 9 isoladas de casos de meningite durante um surto epidêmico no Rio de Janeiro Pathogenicity for newborn mice of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do echovirus tipo 9 para camundongos recém-nascidos foi estudada, utilizando-se 12 amostras isoladas em cultura de células primárias de rim de macaco, a partir do liquor de crianças com meningite. Os animais inoculados com o fluido da primeira passagem em células desenvolveram paralisia flácida, após um período de 5 dias, com a morte ate o 8º dia. Os especimens originais de liquor não continham suficiente vírus para provocar sinais clínicos nos animais inoculados no período de 21 dias de observação. Ao exame histopatológico os animais doentes apresentaram miopatia necrotizante da musculatura paravertebral, língua e diafragma. Animais inoculados que não desenvolveram paralisia durante o período de observação apresentaram miosite discreta, sem que tenha sido encontrada necrose das fibras musculares.The pathogenicity for baby-mice of 12 strains of echovirus type 9, isolated in primary monkey kidney cells, from liquor specimens of children with meningitis, have been studied. The animals inoculated with the first passage in tissue culture show after a period of 5 days, a flaccid paralysis and died by the 8th day after inoculation. The original liquor specimens did not contain enough virus to cause clinical signs in the inoculated animals, during the 21 days of observation. Histopathologicals studies in the sick animals, show a necrosis of the paravertebral muscles, tongue and diafragm. Inoculated animals wich did not develop paralysis during the observation period, show light miositis without necrosis of the muscle tissue.

  3. Fronteiras na investigação da esquizofrenia

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    Marcelo Blaya

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available O conceito bleuleriano de esquizofrenia continua a ser o mais acatado pelos investigadores. Apesar da existência de correntes nitidamente biológicas ou psicológicas nota-se, nos trabalhos de pesquisa, uma tendência marcadamente psicobiológica. No presente trabalho são discutidos os resultados obtidos por três grupos de investigadores, um operando com variáveis biológicas, e os outros dois, com variáveis de relação interpessoal, especialmente infrafamiliares. O primeiro grupo é liderado por Heath que tem chamado a atenção para a atividade bioelétrica anormal de certas estruturas subcorticais (região septal e hipocampo em relação às variações posturais e de conduta, tanto em macacos como em sêres humanos. O isolamento de uma proteína específica no sôro de pacientes esquizofrênicos, capaz de produzir sintomas em voluntários injetados com esse material, parece mostrar que existe uma falha metabólica, possivelmente enzimática, nesses pacientes. Os outros dois grupos, liderados por Bowen e Lidz, estudam características das funções e interrelações em famílias com pacientes esquizofrênicos. As conclusões de ambos os grupos apoia o conceito de famílias esquizofrênicas contra o ponto de vista clássico de pacientes esquizofrênicos.

  4. Study of some parameters affecting the in vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum within saimiri sciureus red blood cells

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    T. Fandeur

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro growth and multiplication of the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum within Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey red blood cells have been studied. Various parameters, such as the origin of the red blood cells and serum supplement, nature of the buffer, influence of the final pH of the medium, role of proteose peptone and glucose addition, were investigated. The selection of the best culture conditions led to the obtention of a reproducible in vitro growth of two parasite cycles in Saimiri erythrocytes, which is an useful achievement for in vitro studies. Our failure to establish a continuous culture line for longer than 19 days, could be explained by a dramatic increasing of osmotic fragility of the Saimiri red blood cells related to their small size.O crescimento e a multiplicação dos estágios eritrocíticos do Plasmodium falciparum in vitro foi estudado em cultivos com hemácias do Saimiri sciureus (macaco de cheiro. Foram investigados vários parâmetros tais como, origem das hemácias e suplementação de soro, tipo de tampão, influência do pH final do meio, papel da proteose-peptona e da glicose adicionados. A seleção das condições ideais de cultivo permitiram, de maneira reprodutível, a obtenção de crescimento do parasita durante dois ciclos nas hemácias do Saimiri. Nosso fracasso em estabelecer uma linhagem contínua de cultivo por mais de 19 dias poderia ser explicado pelo aumento dramático da fragilidade osmótica das hemácias do Saimiri relacionado com seu pequeno tamanho.

  5. Reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008 Reemergência de febre amarela: detecção de transmissão no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.INTRODUÇÃO: A partir do isolamento do vírus febre amarela (VFA, de macacos, da região de São José do Rio Preto e de dois casos humanos autóctones fatais, da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, foram realizadas duas expedições para pesquisa entomológica e avaliação ecoepidemiológica. M

  6. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  7. Sleeping site ecology, but not sex, affect ecto- and hemoparasite risk, in sympatric, arboreal primates (Avahi occidentalis and Lepilemur edwardsi).

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    Hokan, May; Strube, Christina; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology. The Western woolly lemur ( Avahi occidentalis ) sleeps on open branches and frequently changes sleeping sites, whereas the Milne-Edward's sportive lemur ( Lepilemur edwardsi ) uses tree holes, displaying strong sleeping site fidelity. Sleeping in tree holes should confer protection from mosquito-borne hemoparasites, but should enhance the risk for ectoparasite infestation with mites and nest-adapted ticks. Sex may affect parasite risk in both species comparably, with males bearing a higher risk than females due to an immunosuppressive effect of higher testosterone levels in males or to sex-specific behavior. To explore these hypotheses, ectoparasites and blood samples were collected from 22 individuals of A. occidentalis and 26 individuals of L. edwardsi during the dry and rainy season. L. edwardsi, but not A. occidentalis , harbored ectoparasites, namely ticks ( Haemaphysalis lemuris [Ixodidae], Ornithodoros sp. [Argasidae]) and mites ( Aetholaelaps trilyssa , [Laelapidae]), suggesting that sleeping in tree holes promotes infestation with ectoparasites. Interestingly, ectoparasites were found solely in the hot, rainy season with a prevalence of 75% ( N  = 16 animals). Blood smears were screened for the presence and infection intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were detected in both species. Morphological characteristics suggested that each lemur species

  8. The dynamics of transmission and the dynamics of networks.

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    Farine, Damien

    2017-05-01

    A toy example depicted here highlighting the results of a study in this issue of the Journal of Animal Ecology that investigates the impact of network dynamics on potential disease outbreaks. Infections (stars) that spread by contact only (left) reduce the predicted outbreak size compared to situations where individuals can become infected by moving through areas that previously contained infected individuals (right). This is potentially important in species where individuals, or in this case groups, have overlapping ranges (as depicted on the top right). Incorporating network dynamics that maintain information about the ordering of contacts (central blocks; including the ordering of spatial overlap as noted by the arrows that highlight the blue group arriving after the red group in top-right of the figure) is important for capturing how a disease might not have the opportunity to spread to all individuals. By contrast, a static or 'average' network (lower blocks) does not capture any of these dynamics. Interestingly, although static networks generally predict larger outbreak sizes, the authors find that in cases when transmission probability is low, this prediction can switch as a result of changes in the estimated intensity of contacts among individuals. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]. Springer, A., Kappeler, P.M. & Nunn, C.L. (2017) Dynamic vs. static social networks in models of parasite transmission: Predicting Cryptosporidium spread in wild lemurs. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 419-433. The spread of disease or information through networks can be affected by several factors. Whether and how these factors are accounted for can fundamentally change the predicted impact of a spreading epidemic. Springer, Kappeler & Nunn () investigate the role of different modes of transmission and network dynamics on the predicted size of a disease outbreak across several groups of Verreaux's sifakas, a group-living species of lemur. While some factors

  9. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of sardine (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker oil using response surface methodology (RSM

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    Gedi, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from freeze-dried sardine (Sardinella lemur fillets using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and a few milliliters of ethanol were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM. The impact of extraction pressure (200–400 bars and temperature (40–70 °C were studied on the total extraction yields, ratios of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The results were compared with those of Soxhlet and modified Kinsella methods (MKM. The oils obtained using the SC-CO2 and MKM methods were significantly (P El aceite se extrae de filetes de sardinas (Sardinella lemur liofilizando, mediante dióxido de carbono supercrítico (SC-CO2 y unos mililitros de etanol, optimizándose mediante la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM. Se ha estudiado la influencia de la presión de extracción (200–400 bars y la temperatura (40–70 °C sobre los rendimientos de extracción total, y sobre las relaciones de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA y ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos mediante extracción con Soxhlet y el método de Kinsella modificado (MKM. Los aceites obtenidos mediante SC-CO2 y métodos MKM fueron significativamente (P < 0.05 superiores en rendimientos de aceite (8,04% y 6,83%, EPA (5,43% y 5,45% y DHA (18,76% y 18,54%, respectivamente, en comparación con rendimientos mediante Soxhlet (5,10%, EPA (2,17% y DHA (06,46%. De las dos variables independientes, la presión tuvo un efecto crítico sobre el rendimiento, mientras que los porcentajes de EPA y DHA estuvieron notablemente influenciados por la temperatura. Los valores óptimos fueron para una presión de 328 bar y una temperatura de 40 °C, y sus correspondientes respuestas fueron 7,20%, 5,68% y 20,09% para el rendimiento, EPA y DHA, respectivamente. Los valores experimentales de este estudio fueron los previstos y son comparables razonablemente con sus homólogos.

  10. Were Malagasy Uncarina fruits dispersed by the extinct elephant bird?

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    N. Illing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesise that the spiny fruits of the endemic Madagascar
    genus Uncarina (Pedaliaceae are trample burrs that evolved to be
    dispersed on the feet of the extinct elephant bird (Aepyornis. Our
    evidence is: i the morphology of the fruit with its large grapple
    hooks is more likely to attach to a foot than to adhere to fur and
    ii the presentation of mature fruits on the ground rather than in the
    canopy. These differences to adhesive burrs make lemurs unlikely
    dispersers. We argue, given the absence of other large terrestrial
    mammals in Madagascar, that the most likely dispersers of
    Uncarina fruits were the extinct large birds. If correct, our hypothesis
    has implications for conservation of Uncarina, the biogeography
    of the elephant birds and dispersal biology. For
    example, we predict that the demography of Uncarina will be
    skewed towards adult plants, and that the dispersal mutualism
    could possibly be rescued by domestic animals.

  11. Incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Callmander, Martin W; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Labat, Jean-Noël; Forest, Félix

    2015-02-19

    There is increased evidence that incorporating evolutionary history directly in conservation actions is beneficial, particularly given the likelihood that extinction is not random and that phylogenetic diversity (PD) is lost at higher rates than species diversity. This evidence is even more compelling in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, where less than 10% of the original vegetation remains. Here, we use the Leguminosae, an ecologically and economically important plant family, and a combination of phylogenetics and species distribution modelling, to assess biodiversity patterns and identify regions, coevolutionary processes and ecological factors that are important in shaping this diversity, especially during the Quaternary. We show evidence that species distribution and community PD are predicted by watershed boundaries, which enable the identification of a network of refugia and dispersal corridors that were perhaps important for maintaining community integrity during past climate change. Phylogenetically clustered communities are found in the southwest of the island at low elevation and share a suite of morphological characters (especially fruit morphology) indicative of coevolution with their main dispersers, the extinct and extant lemurs. Phylogenetically over-dispersed communities are found along the eastern coast at sea level and may have resulted from many independent dispersal events from the drier and more seasonal regions of Madagascar. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  13. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A primitive endogenous lentivirus in a colugo: insights into the early evolution of lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviruses infect a wide range of mammal species. Much remains unknown about their deep history and host distribution. Here, we report the discovery of an endogenous lentivirus within the genome of the Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) (which we designate "Galeopterus variegatus endogenous lentivirus" [GvaELV]). We estimate the GvaELV genome invasion to have occurred more than 14 Ma, supporting an ancient origin of the lentivirus clade and an ancient lentiviral infection in colugo. Phylogenetic analyses show that GvaELV is a sister group of all previously known lentiviruses. The GvaELV genome appears to possess some primitive genomic features of a lentivirus, encoding not only a trans-activator of transcription (tat) gene but also two additional putative accessory genes that share no discernible similarity with other lentiviral accessory genes. The discovery of GvaELV provides novel insights into the prehistory and host distribution of lentivirus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. First comparative approach to touchscreen-based visual object-location paired-associates learning in humans (Homo sapiens) and a nonhuman primate (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Joly, Marine; Zimmermann, Elke

    2018-05-10

    A recent study suggests that a specific, touchscreen-based task on visual object-location paired-associates learning (PAL), the so-called Different PAL (dPAL) task, allows effective translation from animal models to humans. Here, we adapted the task to a nonhuman primate (NHP), the gray mouse lemur, and provide first evidence for the successful comparative application of the task to humans and NHPs. Young human adults reach the learning criterion after considerably less sessions (one order of magnitude) than young, adult NHPs, which is likely due to faster and voluntary rejection of ineffective learning strategies in humans and almost immediate rule generalization. At criterion, however, all human subjects solved the task by either applying a visuospatial rule or, more rarely, by memorizing all possible stimulus combinations and responding correctly based on global visual information. An error-profile analysis in humans and NHPs suggests that successful learning in NHPs is comparably based either on the formation of visuospatial associative links or on more reflexive, visually guided stimulus-response learning. The classification in the NHPs is further supported by an analysis of the individual response latencies, which are considerably higher in NHPs classified as spatial learners. Our results, therefore, support the high translational potential of the standardized, touchscreen-based dPAL task by providing first empirical and comparable evidence for two different cognitive processes underlying dPAL performance in primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  17. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell T Irwin

    Full Text Available Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements and proportions (nutrient balancing. Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1 lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2 abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3 primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons.

  18. A massively parallel strategy for STR marker development, capture, and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Johnson, Stephen M; Irwin, Mitchell T; Louis, Edward E; Ratan, Aakrosh; Perry, George H

    2017-09-06

    Short tandem repeat (STR) variants are highly polymorphic markers that facilitate powerful population genetic analyses. STRs are especially valuable in conservation and ecological genetic research, yielding detailed information on population structure and short-term demographic fluctuations. Massively parallel sequencing has not previously been leveraged for scalable, efficient STR recovery. Here, we present a pipeline for developing STR markers directly from high-throughput shotgun sequencing data without a reference genome, and an approach for highly parallel target STR recovery. We employed our approach to capture a panel of 5000 STRs from a test group of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema, n = 3), endangered Malagasy rainforest lemurs, and we report extremely efficient recovery of targeted loci-97.3-99.6% of STRs characterized with ≥10x non-redundant sequence coverage. We then tested our STR capture strategy on P. diadema fecal DNA, and report robust initial results and suggestions for future implementations. In addition to STR targets, this approach also generates large, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels from flanking regions. Our method provides a cost-effective and scalable solution for rapid recovery of large STR and SNP datasets in any species without needing a reference genome, and can be used even with suboptimal DNA more easily acquired in conservation and ecological studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  19. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND FREQUENCY CROCOBER PLUS AS ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER GIVING ON THE ONION CROPS (Allium ascalonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Munir Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of liquid organic fertilizer (POC Crocober plus and frequency of application to the crop of onion (Allium ascalonicum L. had been conducted in Sub Kajai, District lemur, Solok regency for 3 months starting from May to July 2015. The goal was to get the POC concentration and Crocober plus frequency to increase growth and yield of onion. Experiments using a randomized block design in a factorial form that consists of 2 factors. Factor 1 was 5 degree of concentration POC was 0% (P0, 2.5% (P1, 5% (P3, 7.5% (P4 and 10% (P5 while Factor 2, was the frequency of POC consists of two levels ie ; The data obtained and analyzed variance. If the F count larger than F table 5% followed by a test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The experimental results indicated that application of 5% POC Crocober plus concentration given weekly was the exact interaction to improve the growth and yield of onion with the result reached 13.83 tons/ha.Doi: 10.22216/jit.2014.v8i2.340

  20. Ida and Ardi: The Fossil Cover Girls of 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    -million-year-old Ida was promoted as the Eighth Wonder of the World, a Rosetta Stone of palaeontology, the Holy Grail of human evolution. Her 4.4-million-year-old contender was advanced as the Real Thing and won the title as scientific breakthrough of the year. One was supposedly “our earliest ancestor......By the autumn of 2009, contestants for the ultimate prize in the Greatest Show on Earth had narrowed down to two: from Germany, a flat, squirrel-sized lemur-looking creature in artificial resin and glass fibers; and from Ethiopia, a partial, small-brained hominin skeleton. Both had been locked away...... for years, guarded by their sentinels from the curious eyes of the public and from competitors supposedly lurking everywhere. On center stage were Darwinius massilae and Ardipithecus ramidus, or, as they were soon known to palaeontology geeks and breakfast television hosts alike, Ida and Ardi. The 47...

  1. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish; King, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    To grip rocks on the surfaces of asteroids and comets, and to grip the cliff faces and lava tubes of Mars, a 250 mm diameter omni-directional anchor is presented that utilizes a hierarchical array of claws with suspension flexures, called microspines, to create fast, strong attachment. Prototypes have been demonstrated on vesicular basalt and a'a lava rock supporting forces in all directions away from the rock. Each anchor can support >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A two-actuator selectively- compliant ankle interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for climbing trials. A rotary percussive drill was also integrated into the anchor, demonstrating self-contained rock coring regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, 20mm diameter boreholes were drilled 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples, retaining a 12 mm diameter rock core in 3-6 pieces while in an inverted configuration, literally drilling into the ceiling.

  3. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  4. Berenty Reserve—A Gallery Forest in Decline in Dry Southern Madagascar—Towards Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Winchester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berenty Reserve, a fully protected gallery forest beside the Mandrare River is renowned for its lemurs, but the continuous canopy of the main forest is shrinking, fragmenting and degrading. The aim of this study, before any restoration can be considered, is to investigate why canopy-cover is declining and define the forest’s vegetation status and composition. Our study includes analysis of tamarind age (the dominant species and regeneration, forest extent, climate and soil. Measurement of trunk circumference and annual rings indicated a median age of 190 years, near the accepted maximum for tamarinds. There is no regeneration of tamarind seedlings under the canopy and an invasive vine, Cissus quadrangularis suffocates any regeneration on the forest margins. A vegetation survey, based on fifteen transects, broadly characterized three forest areas: continuous canopy near the river, transitional canopy with fewer tall trees, and degraded dryland; the survey also provided a list of the 18 most common tree species. Ring counts of flood-damaged roots combined with measurement to the riverbank show that erosion rates, up to 19.5 cm/year, are not an immediate threat to forest extent. The highly variable climate shows no trend and analysis of forest soil indicates compatibility with plant growth.

  5. Structural diversity of nuptial pads in Phyllomedusinae (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maria Celeste; Taboada, Carlos; Baêta, Délio; Faivovich, Julián

    2012-07-01

    We studied the morphological variation of the nuptial pads using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in 26 species of phyllomedusines (Anura: Hylidae), representing the five currently recognized genera. All phyllomedusines have single nuptial pads with dark colored epidermal projections (EPs). Spine-shaped EPs occur in Cruziohyla calcarifer, Phrynomedusa appendiculata and in one species of Phasmahyla. The other species have roundish EPs. The density of the EPs on the pad is variable. Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group have EPs with a density that varies between 764 ± 58/mm(2) and 923 ± 160/mm(2). In all other studied species (including the Phyllomedusa burmeisteri and Phyllomedusa perinesos groups, Phyllomedusa camba, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Phyllomedusa bicolor, and Phyllomedusa tomopterna) the density of EPs varies between 108 ± 20/mm(2) and 552 ± 97/mm(2). Pores were observed with SEM in C. calcarifer, Agalychnis lemur, Agalychnis moreletii, but its presence is confirmed through histological sections on several other species. Its visibility using SEM seems to be related with the level of separation between adjacent EPs. The pores in the four studied species of Agalychnis are shown with SEM and histological sections to have a characteristic epidermal rim, that is absent in the otherphyllomedusines. Unlike most previous reports on breeding glands, those of phyllomedusines are alcian blue positive, indicating the presence of acidic mucosubstances on its secretions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  7. Kinome screening for regulators of the estrogen receptor identifies LMTK3 as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamas, Georgios; Filipović, Aleksandra; Jacob, Jimmy; Messier, Walter; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Dongyun; Zhang, Wu; Shifa, Belul Assefa; Photiou, Andrew; Tralau-Stewart, Cathy; Castellano, Leandro; Green, Andrew R; Coombes, R Charles; Ellis, Ian O; Ali, Simak; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Stebbing, Justin

    2011-06-01

    Therapies targeting estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1) have transformed the treatment of breast cancer. However, large numbers of women relapse, highlighting the need for the discovery of new regulatory targets modulating ERα pathways. An siRNA screen identified kinases whose silencing alters the estrogen response including those previously implicated in regulating ERα activity (such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT). Among the most potent regulators was lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3), for which a role has not previously been assigned. In contrast to other modulators of ERα activity, LMTK3 seems to have been subject to Darwinian positive selection, a noteworthy result given the unique susceptibility of humans to ERα+ breast cancer. LMTK3 acts by decreasing the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473), thereby increasing binding of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) to the ESR1 promoter. LMTK3 phosphorylated ERα, protecting it from proteasomal degradation in vitro. Silencing of LMTK3 reduced tumor volume in an orthotopic mouse model and abrogated proliferation of ERα+ but not ERα- cells, indicative of its role in ERα activity. In human cancers, LMTK3 abundance and intronic polymorphisms were significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival and predicted response to endocrine therapies. These findings yield insights into the natural history of breast cancer in humans and reveal LMTK3 as a new therapeutic target.

  8. Design of a Robotic Ankle Joint for a Microspine-Based Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Successful robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids necessitates a method of securely anchoring to the surface of these bodies without gravitational assistance. Microspine grip- per arrays that can grasp rock faces are a potential solution to this problem. A key component of a future microspine-based rover will be the ankle used to attach each microspine gripper to the robot. The ankle's purpose is twofold: 1) to allow the gripper to conform to the rock so a higher percentage of microspines attach to the surface, and 2) to neutralize torques that may dislodge the grippers from the wall. Parts were developed using computer aided design and manufactured using a variety of methods including selective laser sintering, CNC milling, and traditional manual machining techniques. Upon completion of the final prototype, the gripper and ankle system was tested to demonstrate robotic engagement and disengagement of the gripper and to determine load bearing ability. The immediate application of this project is to out t the Lemur IIb robot so it can climb and hang from rock walls.

  9. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002 and Vonk & MacDonald (2004 concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1, and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2. Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  10. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  11. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Sharon E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1 Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2 High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3 Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged.

  12. New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine-haplorhine divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rachel H; Rose, Kenneth D; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates-though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates-may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Análisis comparativo de herramientas de recuperación y análisis de información de acceso libredesde una concepción docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Plasencia-Salgueiro

    Full Text Available En el Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y Física de la República de Cuba se imparte el curso"Bases de datos y biblioteca digital" dentro de la Maestría de Cibernética Aplicada. Parte esencial del curso la constituye la creación de bases de datos documentales a partir de la recuperación de información en Internet. Para poder realizar los laboratorios requeridos para un mejor aprendizaje se requiere seleccionar las herramientas de recuperación de información más idóneas, tanto desde el punto de vista docente como desde las facilidades para su adquisición. Se definieron entonces las características para evaluar esas herramientas y la metodología para realizar la selección. Como resultado, de trece herramientas de recuperación y análisis de la información de software libre analizadas que pudieron ser descargadas se seleccionaron ocho herramientas, Lemur Toolkit con Indri, Sphinx, WebSphinx con Rapid Miner, Solr/Lucene/Hadoop/Mahout, Terrier, Dragon lo cual permitió garantizar la calidad del curso impartido y su concatenación con otros cursos de la misma maestría.

  14. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Enders, Allen C.; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. PMID:25602074

  15. Effects of caller characteristics on auditory laterality in an early primate (Microcebus murinus.

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    Lisette M C Leliveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory laterality is suggested to be characterized by a left hemisphere dominance for the processing of conspecific communication. Nevertheless, there are indications that auditory laterality can also be affected by communicative significance, emotional valence and social recognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to gain insight into the effects of caller characteristics on auditory laterality in the early primate brain, 17 gray mouse lemurs were tested in a head turn paradigm. The head turn paradigm was established to examine potential functional hemispheric asymmetries on the behavioral level. Subjects were presented with playbacks of two conspecific call types (tsak calls and trill calls from senders differing in familiarity (unfamiliar vs. familiar and sex (same sex vs. other sex. Based on the head turn direction towards these calls, evidence was found for a right ear/left hemisphere dominance for the processing of calls of the other sex (Binomial test: p = 0.021, N = 10. Familiarity had no effect on the orientation biases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings in this study support the growing consensus that auditory laterality is not only determined by the acoustic processing of conspecific communication, but also by other factors like the sex of the sender.

  16. [Does Alzheimer's disease exist in all primates? Alzheimer pathology in non-human primates and its pathophysiological implications (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, A; Álvarez, M I; López-Rodríguez, A B; Toledano-Díaz, A; Fernández-Verdecia, C I

    2014-01-01

    In the ageing process there are some species of non-human primates which can show some of the defining characteristics of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) of man, both in neuropathological changes and cognitive-behavioural symptoms. The study of these species is of prime importance to understand AD and develop therapies to combat this neurodegenerative disease. In this second part of the study, these AD features are discussed in the most important non-experimental AD models (Mouse Lemur -Microcebus murinus, Caribbean vervet -Chlorocebus aethiops, and the Rhesus and stump-tailed macaque -Macaca mulatta and M. arctoides) and experimental models (lesional, neurotoxic, pharmacological, immunological, etc.) non-human primates. In all these models cerebral amyloid neuropathology can occur in senility, although with different levels of incidence (100% in vervets;primates, such as the macaque, the existence of a possible continuum between "normal" ageing process, "normal" ageing with no deep neuropathological and cognitive-behavioural changes, and "pathological ageing" (or "Alzheimer type ageing"), may be considered. In other cases, such as the Caribbean vervet, neuropathological changes are constant and quite marked, but its impact on cognition and behaviour does not seem to be very important. This does assume the possible existence in the human senile physiological regression of a stable phase without dementia even if neuropathological changes appeared. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Evolutionary Characterization of a V1R Subfamily Unique to Strepsirrhine Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Anne D.; Chan, Lauren M.; dos Reis, Mario; Larsen, Peter A.; Campbell, C. Ryan; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Barrett, Meredith; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter; Bielawski, Joseph; Yang, Ziheng

    2014-01-01

    Vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. Here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (V1R) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). Phylogenetic analysis confirms our intensive sampling from a single V1R subfamily, apparently unique to the strepsirrhine primates. We designate this subfamily as V1Rstrep. The subfamily retains extensive repertoires of gene copies that descend from an ancestral gene duplication that appears to have occurred prior to the diversification of all lemuriform primates excluding the basal genus Daubentonia (the aye-aye). We refer to the descendent clades as V1Rstrep-α and V1Rstrep-β. Comparison of the two clades reveals different amino acid compositions corresponding to the predicted ligand-binding site and thus potentially to altered functional profiles between the two. In agreement with previous studies of the mouse lemur (genus, Microcebus), the majority of V1Rstrep gene copies appear to be intact and under strong positive selection, particularly within transmembrane regions. Finally, despite the surprisingly high number of gene copies identified in this study, it is nonetheless probable that V1R diversity remains underestimated in these nonmodel primates and that complete characterization will be limited until high-coverage assembled genomes are available. PMID:24398377

  18. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-05

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of Octarepeats in Two Processed Prion Pseudogenes in the Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Timothy T.; Hupkes, Marlinda; Kohlen, Wouter; van Rheede, Teun; de Jong, Wilfried W.

    2010-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the mammalian prion protein (PrP) contains an ‘octapeptide’ repeat which is involved in copper binding. This eight- or nine-residue peptide is repeated four to seven times, depending on the species, and polymorphisms in repeat number do occur. Alleles with three repeats are very rare in humans and goats, and deduced PrP sequences with two repeats have only been reported in two lemur species and in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. We here describe that the red squirrel two-repeat PrP sequence actually represents a retroposed pseudogene, and that an additional and older processed pseudogene with three repeats also occurs in this species as well as in ground squirrels. We argue that repeat numbers may tend to contract rather than expand in prion retropseudogenes, and that functional prion genes with two repeats may not be viable. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9390-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20878152

  20. Peptide microarray analysis of substrate specificity of the transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase KPI-2 reveals reactivity with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2006-11-01

    Human lemur (Lmr) kinases are predicted to be Tyr kinases based on sequences and are related to neurotrophin receptor Trk kinases. This study used homogeneous recombinant KPI-2 (Lmr2, LMTK2, Cprk, brain-enriched protein kinase) kinase domain and a library of 1,154 peptides on a microarray to analyze substrate specificity. We found that KPI-2 is strictly a Ser/Thr kinase that reacts with Ser either preceded by or followed by Pro residues but unlike other Pro-directed kinases does not strictly require an adjacent Pro residue. The most reactive peptide in the library corresponds to Ser-737 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the recombinant R domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was a preferred substrate. Furthermore the KPI-2 kinase phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the single site in phosphorylase and purified phosphorylase b, making this only the second known phosphorylase b kinase. Phosphorylase was used as a specific substrate to show that KPI-2 is inhibited in living cells by addition of nerve growth factor or serum. The results demonstrate the utility of the peptide library to probe specificity and discover kinase substrates and offer a specific assay that reveals hormonal regulation of the activity of this unusual transmembrane kinase.

  1. Degeneração oxychromatica ("inclusões intranucleares" na febre amarella

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1931-05-01

    Full Text Available 1- No interior do nucleo de cellulas hepaticas de Macacus rhesus e M. cynomolgus (figs. 13-34 inoculado com o virus da febre amarella e de cellulas hepaticas de doentes de febre amarella (figs. 61-65 e 68-69 ocorre o processo regressivo referido na literatura sob o nome de «degeneração oxychromatica». Tal processo apresenta grande intensidade nos macacos, sendo, porém, assaz escasso no material humano colhido em autopsias. Esta alteração está intimamente associada ao effeito nocivo causado pelo proprio virus da febre amarella, sendo, neste sentido, a unica alteração verdadeiramente especifica na febre amarella. Não foram encontradas alterações do cytoplasma nem granulos intracellulares que tivessem relação com o virus da febre amarella. Assim sendo, a febre amarella pertencerá ao grupo de doenças de virus filtraveis produzindo alterações cellulares caracteristicas ou corpusculos especificos, exclusivamente limitados ao nucleo. Deve ser incluida, portanto no grupo karyo-oikon da classificação de Lipschütz, juntamente com herpes, varicella, virus III do coelho, «submaxillary disease», etc. Como acontece em geral, nas doenças de virus filtraveis, formando inclusões intracellulares, observa-se na febre amarella que a inclusão celular especifica predomina ou existe exclusivamente em determinada especie cellular. Até agora, no nosso material só conseguimos evidenciar a degeneração oxychromatica da febre amarella na cellula hepatica. Quando existe, porém, a sua abundancia é notavel, não raro attingido a quasi totalidade das cellulas hepaticas nos cortes histologicos examinados. Esse facto não poude ser observado nos casos humanos que examinamos,provavelmente em virtude de condições proprias do virus no homem e da phase da molestia na qual foi retirado o material para estudo. Nas cellulas da camada cortical das suprarenaes de M. rhesus infectados encontramos aspectos nucleares suggestivos de degenera

  2. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  3. Rendimento e composição do óleo essencial de Piper aduncum L. cultivado em Manaus, AM, em função da densidade de plantas e épocas de corte

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    A.L. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. - Piperaceae é uma espécie usada na medicina popular em quase todo o Brasil e apresenta alto teor de óleo essencial (2,5 a 4,0% rico em dilapiol - éter fenílico com ação inseticida. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir para o sistema de cultivo da espécie P. aduncum nas condições de Manaus - AM. O experimento foi realizado na área experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, cada repetição com quatro plantas na área útil. Sete densidades de plantas (0,5 m x 0,5 m; 1,0 m x 0,5 m; 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 1,5 m e 2,0 m x 2,0 m, E1 a E7, respectivamente e três épocas de corte (C1 - 6 meses após transplantio; C2 - rebroto de C1 aos 6 meses - plantas com idade de 12 meses, no campo; C3 - rebroto de C2 aos 6 meses - plantas com 18 meses, no campo, portanto em esquema fatorial. Foi observado que o segundo corte (C2 apresentou maior produção, no espaçamento E4. Não houve diferença estatística para o teor de óleo essencial em C1, independente da densidade de plantas. Com relação ao rendimento (produção em óleo essencial, o melhor foi observado com o corte C2, nos espaçamentos E3 e E4, com 76,0 kg/ha e 88 kg/ha, respectivamente, contendo até 85,6% de dilapiol no óleo. Assim, a melhor condição de cultivo nas condições de teste foi observada para o período de corte C2 e espaçamentos de 1,0 m x 1,0 m, e de 1,0 m x 1,5 m.

  4. Leptopirosis in animal of animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University / Leptospirose em animais do biotério central do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina

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    Ernst Eckehardt Muller

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has been described in laboratory animal house of several countries happening among mice. albino rats. guinea pigs, dogs, rabbits, monkeys and man. The laboratory animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University maintains and breeds several species of animals and stray dogs trapped in citíes of Paraná State. In this paper w e r e utilized for leptospirosis research, 325 wistar rats. 323 albino mice. 289 dogs, 135 rabbits. 119 guinea pigs, and 57 black rats trapped around of animal house. The microscopic agglutination test with 22 cultures of Leptospira interrogans showed positive results in 110 dogs and o n e guinea pig, having been found antibodies against serovars canicola (62, 7%, pyrogenes (51,8%, castellonis (30.9% and icterobaemorrhagiae (23,6%. The dark field microscopy examination of 574 urine samples (282 albino mice, 224 wistar rats, 29 black rats, 24 dogs, 13 rabbits and two guinea pigs showed positive resuíts in six dogs. The seven attempts of urine and kidneys isolation were negatives.A leptospirose tem sido descrita em biotérios de vários países, acometendo camundongos, ratos albinos, cobaios, cães, coelhos e macacos além do manipuladores. O Biotério Centrai do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina mantém e cria várias espécies de animais além de receber cães de rua, capturados em municípios do Estado do Paraná. Neste trabalho foram utilizados para a pesquisa de leptospirose, soros de 325 ratos wistar, 323 camundongos albinos. 289 cães de rua, 135 coelhos, 119 cobaios, além de 57 ratos pretos capturados nas proximidades do biotério. A prova de somaglutinação microscópica com 22 soroiipos de Lepiospira interrogans mostrou resultados positivos em 110 cães e um cobaio, sendo encontrado anticorpos principalmente contra os soroiipos canicola (62. 7%. pyrogenes (51.8%. castellonis (30,9% e icterohaemorrhagiae (23.6%. A pesquisa direta de leptospira em

  5. Environment, arbovirus transmission and control of epidemics Ambiente, transmissão de arbovírus e controle de epidemias

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    Roger Cordellier

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the relationships between the biotopes (or phytogeographical zones, arbovirus vectors and vertebrate hosts (including man, and epidemiology, current knowledge on the transmission of Yellow Fever virus in West Africa is reported. A dynamic scheme has been devised to integrate the observed geographical distribution of cases and the timing of their occurrence. Two principal areas, endemicity and epidetnicity, were defined according to the presence or absence of sylvatic monkey-mosquito transmission. The intensity and potential of contacts between humans and vectors depends on the degree of man-made changes in the environment, often increasing the extension of ecotone areas where the mosquitoes are easily biting at the ground level. Prevention and/or control of arbovirus diseases require detailed eco-epidemiological studies to determine: (1 the effective role of each potential vector in each phytogeographical region; (2 the risk factors for the people living in or near areas with a sylvatic transmission cycle; (3 the priorities - vaccination and/or control - for preventing the expansion of natural foci.Para ilustrar as relações existentes entre os biótopos (ou zonas fitogeográficas, os vetores e hospedeiros vertebrados (incluindo o homem de arbovírus e a epidemiologia, o conhecimento atual sobre a transmissão do vírus de febre amarela na África Ocidental é apresentado e discutido. Um modelo dinâmico foi desenvolvido para integrar a distribuição geográfica dos casos observados e o momento de sua ocorrência. Duas áreas principais, endemicidade e epidemicidade, foram definidas de acordo com a presença ou ausência de transmissão silvática macaco-mosquito. A intensidade e o potencial dos contatos entre homem e vetores depende do grau das alterações ambientais produzidas pelas atividades humanas, geralmente aumentando a extensão das áreas de ecótono onde os mosquitos estão ativos ao nível do solo. A preven

  6. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

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    Saulo Luis da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, A-549 (human lung carcinoma, HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma, Vero (monkey kidney cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool were also tested to verify their possible influence in the oil cytotoxic activity. The results obtained permitted to confirm that the essential oil is cytotoxic against tumoral cells (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 and 113.6 µg/ml for A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectively, while it did not show cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cells (Vero and mice macrophages. Thus, the essential oil from Z. rhoifolium leaves seems to present a possible therapeuthic role due to its selective cytotoxic activity against tumoral cell lines.O Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. é uma planta popularmente utilizada como antimicrobianos, no tratamento da malária e de inflamações. O óleo volátil do Z. rhoifolium foi extraído e posteriormente foi avaliada a sua citotoxicidade contra células HeLa (carcinoma cervical humano, A-549 (carcinoma de pulmão humano, HT-29 (adenocarcinoma de cólon humano, Vero (rim de macaco e macrófagos de camundongos. Alguns terpenos constituintes do óleo volátil (beta-cariofileno, alfa -humuleno, alfa -pineno, mirceno e linalool também foram testados para verificar as possíveis influências sobre a citotoxicidade do óleo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que o óleo volátil é citotóxico contra células as tumorais (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 e 113.6 µg/ml para A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectivamente, mas não apresenta citotoxicidade contra as células não tumorais (Vero e macrófagos de camundongos. Desta forma o óleo volátil das folhas do Z. rhoifolium demonstra

  7. Yellow fever in Brazil: thoughts and hypotheses on the emergence in previously free areas Fiebre amarilla en Brasil: reflexiones e hipótesis sobre la emergencia en áreas previamente libres Febre amarela no Brasil: reflexões e hipóteses sobre a emergência em áreas previamente livres

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2010-12-01

    circulação de pessoas ou macacos infectados em fase virêmica. Apenas um programa eficiente de vigilância pode prevenir ocorrências similares nesses estados brasileiros.

  8. Impact of the tsunami (December, 2004 on the long tailed macaque of Nicobar Islands, India

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    Kuppusamy Sivakumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    We carried out a standard survey to assess the distribution and abundance of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa of Nicobar Islands (India after the tsunami which washed the whole region in 2004 and compared them with those reported for 2000. A total of 40 groups, comprising 814 monkeys, was sighted, group size varying from 7 to 98 animals (mean ± SD = 20.35 ± 1.82. There was no significant change in the number of groups sighted in the interior parts of the islands before and after the tsunami, whilst the number of groups sighted in coastal areas was significantly lower after the tsunami. Also, the adults/juveniles ratio in the group varied from ca. 1:1 to 1:0.4. A fairly low ratio of immatures to adult females suggests that the tsunami also affected the population structure of the monkeys. The destruction of major coastal fruit-trees exploited by monkeys might be the reason for their lower presence in coastal areas. Future restoring of fruit plantations could enhance the human-wildlife conflict.

    Riassunto
    Impatto dello tsunami (Dicembre 2004 sul macaco delle Isole Nicobar, India
    La distribuzione e l’abbondanza di Macaca fascicularis umbrosa sulle Isole Nicobar (India sono state stimate tramite campionamenti standardizzati dopo lo tsunami che ha colpito l’intera regione nel 2004 e comparate a quelle ottenute nel 2000. Sono stati avvistati 40 gruppi, formati da 7 a 98 animali (media ± DS = 20.35 ± 1.82, per un totale di 814 macachi. Non sono state rilevate variazioni significative del numero di gruppi presenti nelle parti interne delle isole, mentre sono diminuiti i gruppi osservati nelle foreste costiere. Il rapporto tra adulti e giovani è variato da circa 1:1 a 1:0.4. In particolare, il basso numero di giovani per femmina adulta suggerisce che lo tsunami possa aver influito negativamente sulla struttura della popolazione. La distruzione

  9. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence test for measles antibodies with haemagglutination inhibition and plaque neutralization tests Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta para o vírus do sarampo com as reações de inibição da hemaglutinação e neutralização por redução de placas

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    Vanda Akico Ueda Fick de Souza

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFA, Plaque Reduction Neutralization (PRN and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI tests for measles antibodies were carried out in 197 sera obtained from umbilical cord and vaccinated children. The IFA was also applied to blood samples collected with filter paper. IFA results demonstrated that the test is relatively simple to perform, with good reproducibility for different antigen lots. Good correlation was obtained between IFA, PRN and HI antibody titers. Better correlation was demonstrated with IFA and PRN than with HI and PRN tests. Sensitivity of IFA in detecting antibody was less effective than PRN, however more effective than HI using rhesus monkey red blood cells. PRN antibody titers over 100 were detected by IFA but not by HI (9.7% with negative results. IFA may be of considerable practical use and able to substitute HI in Seroepidemiological surveys and to evaluate vaccine efficacy. It also can be simplified by employing filter paper collected samples.As reações de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF, neutralização por redução de placas (RNP e inibição da hemaglutinação (RIH para detecção de anticorpos para o vírus do sarampo foram aplicadas a 197 soros provenientes de cordão umbilical e de crianças vacinadas contra o sarampo. Avaliou-se ainda a aplicação da RIF em amostras colhidas em papel de filtro. A RIF apresentou-se como uma prova de execução relativamente simples, de boa reprodutibilidade com diferentes partidas de antígeno. Observou-se boa correlação entre os títulos de anticorpos obtidos por RIF, RNP e RIH. Com a RNP, a RIF apresentou maior correlação que a RIH. A sensibilidade da RIF na detecção de anticorpos contra o sarampo foi menor que RNP, porém superior à da RIH com hemácias de macaco rhesus. Anticorpos com títulos superiores a 100 pela RNP foram sistematicamente detectados pela RIF, mas não por RIH (9,7% de resultados negativos. A RIF pode ser de grande utilidade

  10. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

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    Jens L Franzen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  11. Microbat paraphyly and the convergent evolution of a key innovation in Old World rhinolophoid microbats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Madsen, Ole; Van den Bussche, Ronald A; de Jong, Wilfried W; Stanhope, Michael J; Springer, Mark S

    2002-02-05

    Molecular phylogenies challenge the view that bats belong to the superordinal group Archonta, which also includes primates, tree shrews, and flying lemurs. Some molecular studies also challenge microbat monophyly and instead support an alliance between megabats and representative rhinolophoid microbats from the families Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats, Old World leaf-nosed bats) and Megadermatidae (false vampire bats). Another molecular study ostensibly contradicts these results and supports traditional microbat monophyly, inclusive of representative rhinolophoids from the family Nycteridae (slit-faced bats). Resolution of the microbat paraphyly/monophyly issue is essential for reconstructing the temporal sequence and deployment of morphological character state changes associated with flight and echolocation in bats. If microbats are paraphyletic, then laryngeal echolocation either evolved more than once in different microbats or was lost in megabats after evolving in the ancestor of all living bats. To examine these issues, we used a 7.1-kb nuclear data set for nine outgroups and twenty bats, including representatives of all rhinolophoid families. Phylogenetic analyses and statistical tests rejected both Archonta and microbat monophyly. Instead, bats are in the superorder Laurasiatheria and microbats are paraphyletic. Further, the superfamily Rhinolophoidea is polyphyletic. The rhinolophoid families Rhinolophidae and Megadermatidae belong to the suborder Yinpterochiroptera along with rhinopomatids and megabats. The rhinolophoid family Nycteridae belongs to the suborder Yangochiroptera along with vespertilionoids, noctilionoids, and emballonuroids. These results resolve the apparent conflict between previous molecular studies that sampled different rhinolophoid families. An important implication of rhinolophoid polyphyly is independent evolution of key anatomical innovations associated with the nasal-emission of echolocation pulses.

  12. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites-axons and dendrites-that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. © 2014 Takano et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  14. A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range.

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    Erwan Quéméré

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the

  15. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  16. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the southern Ethiopian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Addisu; Fashing, Peter J; Bekele, Afework; Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Rueness, Eli K; Nguyen, Nga; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Revision of the jawfish genus Lonchopisthus with description of a new Atlantic species (Teleostei: Opistognathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Synonymies, diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations, an identification key, and meristic frequency tables are provided for all species of Lonchopisthus. Most of the skeletal anatomy of L. higmani is also illustrated. A new jawfish, Lonchopisthus ancistrus n. sp., is described from the Gulf of Mexico and off Honduras based on 21 specimens 41–89 mm SL. The new species differs from other congeners by the following combination of characters: the posterior end of the maxilla strongly hooked; the membrane connecting the maxilla and premaxilla and the inner membrane covering the posterior part of the dentary pale; segmented dorsal-fin rays 11–13, with unbranched rays 2–5; longitudinal body-scale rows 33–39; and very long pelvic fins, 39.4–75.3% SL. Lonchopisthus lemur (and its synonym L. meadi) shares most characters with L. ancistrus, but differs in having shorter pelvic fins, 19.2–29.9% SL; fewer longitudinal body-scale rows, 26–33; and 5 infraorbitals (vs. 4). Both are relatively deep-water species, occurring from 100 m to at least 375 m (vs. 3–139 m in the other species). Lonchopisthus micrognathus is unique in having no branched caudal-fin rays at any size and the middle caudal-fin rays with free tips that may be used to maintain tactile contact with the substrate while hovering over its burrow. The western Atlantic Lonchopisthus higmani and eastern Pacific L. sinuscalifornicus are sister species that differ from the other Atlantic species in having the posterior end of the maxilla with a notch instead of a strong hook, the opercle with a large dark blotch, and one supraneural (vs. no supraneural).

  19. The inside tract: The appendicular, cecal, and colonic microbiome of captive aye-ayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lydia K; McKenney, Erin A

    2018-04-17

    The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology. During necropsies, we collected digestive content from the appendix, cecum, and distal colon. We determined microbiome structure at these sites via amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and an established bioinformatics pipeline. The aye-ayes' microbiomes exhibited low richness and diversity compared to the consortia of other lemurs housed at the same facility, and were dominated by a single genus, Prevotella. Appendicular microbiomes were differentiated from more homogenized cecal and colonic consortia by lower richness and diversity, greater evenness, and a distinct taxonomic composition. The simplicity of the aye-aye's gut microbiome could be attributed to captivity-induced dysbiosis, or it may reflect this species' extreme foraging investment in a digestible diet that requires little microbial metabolism. Site-specific appendicular consortia, but more similar cecal and colonic consortia, support the theory that the appendix functions as a safe-house for beneficial bacteria, and confirm fecal communities as fairly reliable proxies for consortia along the lower gut. We encourage others to make similar use of natural or accidental losses for probing the primate gut microbiome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Djebelemur, a tiny pre-tooth-combed primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: a glimpse into the origin of crown strepsirhines.

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    Laurent Marivaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi. This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous, and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb, but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation ("pre-tooth-comb". CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid

  1. Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rose T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T

    2017-04-01

    The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. We surveyed 2.16 ha within five fragments (range 5-228 ha) surrounding human settlements to quantify the density of dead trees and traces of both human and aye-aye activity. Neither aye-aye nor human traces were distributed according to the availability of particular trees species, and aye-ayes and Malagasy apparently preferred several different species. Although overlap was recorded in tree species used, human use tended to be positively correlated with a species' desirability as firewood, while a negative relationship was seen for aye-ayes. Both consumers used trees of similar diameter at breast height, but those used by aye-ayes tended to be older, suggesting that human use might precede usefulness for aye-ayes. Finally, the density of dead trees and aye-aye traces were highest in smaller fragments, but human traces did not vary across fragment size. Although further study is needed to better quantify the aye-aye diet in this region, these data suggest that aye-ayes and local people compete for dead trees, and this competition could constitute a pressure on aye-aye populations.

  2. The evolutionary history of the SAL1 gene family in eutherian mammals

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    Callebaut Isabelle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAL1 (salivary lipocalin is a member of the OBP (Odorant Binding Protein family and is involved in chemical sexual communication in pig. SAL1 and its relatives may be involved in pheromone and olfactory receptor binding and in pre-mating behaviour. The evolutionary history and the selective pressures acting on SAL1 and its orthologous genes have not yet been exhaustively described. The aim of the present work was to study the evolution of these genes, to elucidate the role of selective pressures in their evolution and the consequences for their functions. Results Here, we present the evolutionary history of SAL1 gene and its orthologous genes in mammals. We found that (1 SAL1 and its related genes arose in eutherian mammals with lineage-specific duplications in rodents, horse and cow and are lost in human, mouse lemur, bushbaby and orangutan, (2 the evolution of duplicated genes of horse, rat, mouse and guinea pig is driven by concerted evolution with extensive gene conversion events in mouse and guinea pig and by positive selection mainly acting on paralogous genes in horse and guinea pig, (3 positive selection was detected for amino acids involved in pheromone binding and amino acids putatively involved in olfactory receptor binding, (4 positive selection was also found for lineage, indicating a species-specific strategy for amino acid selection. Conclusions This work provides new insights into the evolutionary history of SAL1 and its orthologs. On one hand, some genes are subject to concerted evolution and to an increase in dosage, suggesting the need for homogeneity of sequence and function in certain species. On the other hand, positive selection plays a role in the diversification of the functions of the family and in lineage, suggesting adaptive evolution, with possible consequences for speciation and for the reinforcement of prezygotic barriers.

  3. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  4. Towards a unified scheme of cortical lamination for primary visual cortex of primates: insights from NeuN and VGLUT2 immunoreactivity

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    Pooja eBalaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex (V1 is clearly distinguishable from other cortical areas by its distinctive pattern of neocortical lamination across mammalian species. In some mammals, primates in particular, the layers of V1 are further divided into a number of sublayers based on their anatomical and functional characteristics. While these sublayers are easily recognizable across a range of primates, the exact number of divisions in each layer and their relative position within the depth of V1 has been inconsistently reported, largely due to conflicting schemes of nomenclature for the V1 layers. This conflict centers on the definition of layer 4 in primate V1, and the subdivisions of layer 4 that can be consistently identified across primate species. Brodmann’s (1909 laminar scheme for V1 delineates three subdivisions of layer 4 in primates, based on cellular morphology and geniculate inputs in anthropoid monkeys. In contrast, Hässler’s (1967 laminar scheme delineates a single layer 4 and multiple subdivisions of layer 3, based on comparisons of V1 lamination across the primate lineage. In order to clarify laminar divisions in primate visual cortex, we performed NeuN and VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry in V1 of chimpanzees, Old World macaque monkeys, New World squirrel, owl, and marmoset monkeys, prosimian galagos and mouse lemurs, and nonprimate, but highly visual, tree shrews. By comparing the laminar divisions identified by each method across species, we find that Hässler’s (1967 laminar scheme for V1 provides a more consistent representation of neocortical layers across all primates, including humans, and facilitates comparisons of V1 lamination with nonprimate species. These findings, along with many others, support the consistent use of Hässler’s laminar scheme in V1 research.

  5. The First Endogenous Herpesvirus, Identified in the Tarsier Genome, and Novel Sequences from Primate Rhadinoviruses and Lymphocryptoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Amr; Katzourakis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviridae is a diverse family of large and complex pathogens whose genomes are extremely difficult to sequence. This is particularly true for clinical samples, and if the virus, host, or both genomes are being sequenced for the first time. Although herpesviruses are known to occasionally integrate in host genomes, and can also be inherited in a Mendelian fashion, they are notably absent from the genomic fossil record comprised of endogenous viral elements (EVEs). Here, we combine paleovirological and metagenomic approaches to both explore the constituent viral diversity of mammalian genomes and search for endogenous herpesviruses. We describe the first endogenous herpesvirus from the genome of the Philippine tarsier, belonging to the Roseolovirus genus, and characterize its highly defective genome that is integrated and flanked by unambiguous host DNA. From a draft assembly of the aye-aye genome, we use bioinformatic tools to reveal over 100,000 bp of a novel rhadinovirus that is the first lemur gammaherpesvirus, closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus. We also identify 58 genes of Pan paniscus lymphocryptovirus 1, the bonobo equivalent of human Epstein-Barr virus. For each of the viruses, we postulate gene function via comparative analysis to known viral relatives. Most notably, the evidence from gene content and phylogenetics suggests that the aye-aye sequences represent the most basal known rhadinovirus, and indicates that tumorigenic herpesviruses have been infecting primates since their emergence in the late Cretaceous. Overall, these data show that a genomic fossil record of herpesviruses exists despite their extremely large genomes, and expands the known diversity of Herpesviridae, which will aid the characterization of pathogenesis. Our analytical approach illustrates the benefit of intersecting evolutionary approaches with metagenomics, genetics and paleovirology. PMID:24945689

  6. Degeneration of the olfactory guanylyl cyclase D gene during primate evolution.

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    Janet M Young

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system consists of several subsystems that detect specific sets of chemical cues and underlie a variety of behavioral responses. Within the main olfactory epithelium at least three distinct types of chemosensory neurons can be defined by their expression of unique sets of signal transduction components. In rodents, one set of neurons expresses the olfactory-specific guanylyl cyclase (GC-D gene (Gucy2d, guanylyl cyclase 2d and other cell-type specific molecules. GC-D-positive neurons project their axons to a small group of atypical "necklace" glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, some of which are activated in response to suckling in neonatal rodents and to atmospheric CO2 in adult mice. Because GC-D is a pseudogene in humans, signaling through this system appears to have been lost at some point in primate evolution.Here we used a combination of bioinformatic analysis of trace-archive and genome-assembly data and sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA to determine when during primate evolution the functional gene was lost. Our analysis reveals that GC-D is a pseudogene in a large number of primate species, including apes, Old World and New World monkeys and tarsier. In contrast, the gene appears intact and has evolved under purifying selection in mouse, rat, dog, lemur and bushbaby.These data suggest that signaling through GC-D-expressing cells was probably compromised more than 40 million years ago, prior to the divergence of New World monkeys from Old World monkeys and apes, and thus cannot be involved in chemosensation in most primates.

  7. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the euarchontoglires.

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    Vikas Kumar

    Full Text Available Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs. Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods.

  9. COMPARISON OF THREE SHORT-TERM IMMOBILIZATION REGIMES IN WILD VERREAUX'S SIFAKAS (PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI): KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE-ATROPINE, AND TILETAMINE-ZOLAZEPAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Razafimanantsoa, Léonard; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Although research on lemurid primates in Madagascar has been ongoing for several decades, reports on different drug regimes to immobilize wild lemurs are limited. This study compares the efficacy, reliability, and side effects of ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-atropine, and tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization in wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). In the course of a long-term study in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, eight animals each received a mixture of ketamine (5.32±1.71 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.56±0.19 mg/kg) (KX; 7 males, 1 female) and ketamine (6.58±1.36 mg/kg), xylazine (1.28±0.28 mg/kg), and atropine (0.013±0.003 mg/kg) (KXA; 5 males, 3 females), respectively, and 14 individuals received tiletamine-zolazepam (7.73±1.37 mg/kg) (TZ; 9 males, 5 females). Induction was smooth in all protocols, but showed considerable variation in duration when animals had received KXA. Immobilization as well as recovery lasted significantly longer with TZ than with KX (Pimmobilized with TZ. Heart rate measurement at 10 min after onset of complete immobilization yielded significantly higher values if the animals had been immobilized with TZ compared to KX (Pimmobilized animals, whereas immobilization with TZ resulted in an increase in heart rate. The results suggest that KX produces good, but short, immobilization in Verreaux's sifakas at approximately 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine and a smoother and shorter recovery phase than 5 to 10 mg/kg TZ, whereas adding atropine to KX did not provide any benefits.

  10. “BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF PRIMATES IN A ZOO SETTING IN MONTEVIDEO (URUGUAY”.

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    Ana Lucia Ilardia Elhordoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En una búsqueda permanente de innovación educativa, surge el presente proyecto de trabajo interinstitucional, que contó con apoyo de la Facultad de Ciencias (UDELAR. El objetivo principal del mismo es que los estudiantes conozcan y se familiaricen con una investigación científica de comportamiento animal y de esa forma intentar responder a la pregunta: “Todos somos primates, pero ¿qué tan primates somos?” El proyecto se basa en el estudio del comportamiento en cautiverio de dos especies de primates, Papio hamadryas  y Lemur catta, en el Zoológico “Villa Dolores”, Montevideo, Uruguay. Se realizó una valoración de aspectos positivos y negativos (tipo de recinto, ambientación y cuidados, estructura de grupo, habilitando una nueva dimensión de análisis: el “Enriquecimiento ambiental”. A partir de la construcción conjunta de un Etograma (entre estudiantes de los diferentes Centros Educativos de Secundaria se realizó un análisis de los comportamientos más frecuentes registrados, en una comparación con el comportamiento humano. La Evaluación, considerada un aspecto fundamental, ha sido continua y coordinada durante el proceso. El trabajo deja abierto el debate sobre los objetivos y los roles que deberían cumplir los Parques Zoológicos, las Reservas. ¿Podríamos hablar de “Centros de Recuperación de Fauna”? ¿Quiénes deberían participar en la toma de decisiones al respecto?

  11. Djebelemur, a Tiny Pre-Tooth-Combed Primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: A Glimpse into the Origin of Crown Strepsirhines

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    Marivaux, Laurent; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Ammar, Hayet Khayati; Lebrun, Renaud; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. Methodological/Principal Findings Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (“pre-tooth-comb”). Conclusions/Significance These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view

  12. Do Muscles Constrain Skull Shape Evolution in Strepsirrhines?

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    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Perry, Jonathan M G; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lowie, AuróLien; Boens, Andy; Dumont, MaÏtena

    2018-02-01

    Despite great interest and decades of research, the musculoskeletal relationships of the masticatory system in primates are still not fully understood. However, without a clear understanding of the interplay between muscles and bones it remains difficult to understand the functional significance of morphological traits of the skeleton. Here, we aim to study the impacts of the masticatory muscles on the shape of the cranium and the mandible as well as their co-variation in strepsirrhine primates. To do so, we use 3D geometric morphometric approaches to assess the shape of each bone of the skull of 20 species for which muscle data are available in the literature. Impacts of the masticatory muscles on the skull shape were assessed using non-phylogenetic regressions and phylogenetic regressions whereas co-variations were assessed using two-blocks partial least square (2B-PLS) and phylogenetic 2B-PLS. Our results show that there is a phylogenetic signal for skull shape and masticatory muscles. They also show that there is a significant impact of the masticatory muscles on cranial shape but not as much as on the mandible. The co-variations are also stronger between the masticatory muscles and cranial shape even when taking into account phylogeny. Interestingly, the results of co-variation between the masticatory muscles and mandibular shape show a more complex pattern in two different directions to get strong muscles associated with mandibular shape: a folivore way (with the bamboo lemurs and sifakas) and a hard-object eater one (with the aye-aye). Anat Rec, 301:291-310, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution.

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    Darren W Logan

    Full Text Available Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1 diversity, to enable the signaling of multiple behaviors, 2 dynamic regulation, to indicate age and dominance, and 3 species-specificity. Recently, the major urinary proteins (Mups have been shown to function themselves as genetically-encoded pheromones to regulate species-specific behavior. Mups are multiple highly related proteins expressed in combinatorial patterns that differ between individuals, gender, and age; which are sufficient to fulfill the first two criteria. We have now characterized and fully annotated the mouse Mup gene content in detail. This has enabled us to further analyze the extent of Mup coding diversity and determine their potential to encode species-specific cues.Our results show that the mouse Mup gene cluster is composed of two subgroups: an older, more divergent class of genes and pseudogenes, and a second class with high sequence identity formed by recent sequential duplications of a single gene/pseudogene pair. Previous work suggests that truncated Mup pseudogenes may encode a family of functional hexapeptides with the potential for pheromone activity. Sequence comparison, however, reveals that they have limited coding potential. Similar analyses of nine other completed genomes find Mup gene expansions in divergent lineages, including those of rat, horse and grey mouse lemur, occurring independently from a single ancestral Mup present in other placental mammals. Our findings illustrate that increasing genomic complexity of the Mup gene family is not evolutionarily isolated, but is instead a recurring mechanism of generating coding diversity consistent with a species

  14. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

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    Franzen, Jens L; Gingerich, Philip D; Habersetzer, Jörg; Hurum, Jørn H; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Smith, B Holly

    2009-05-19

    The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record. We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest. Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  15. Documenter le futur: fantasmes, projections et decalages spatiotemporels

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    Alice Forge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de documentation future recèle un paradoxe : le mot documenter renvoie à des traces relevées dans un passé factuel, tandis que le futur ne peut, par définition, être qu’incertain, que l’objet de fantasmes, de projections. L’analyse suivante questionne ce paradoxe à travers l’analyse d’un motif cinématographique : un homme et une femme face à une tranche de séquoia, représentation symbolique du temps. Ce motif apparait dans trois oeuvres majeures du cinéma : Vertigo, d’Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, et l’Armée des douze singes, de Terry Gilliam. La répétition de ce motif est mise en rapport avec l’ouvrage de Pierre Bayard, Le plagiat par anticipation, afin de l’envisager sous l’angle du paradoxe temporel, plutôt que sous le régime de la chronologie historique. Cette analyse prend pour point de départ une oeuvre intitulée Vozes Fantasmas, qui sur le principe de la documentation future propose d’écouter des murmures de spectateurs visitant une exposition qui n’a pas eu lieu. RESUMO O conceito de documentação do futuro evoca um paradoxo: o verbo documentar refere-se a traços ou rastros preservados de um passado factual, enquanto o futuro por definição é algo incerto, objeto de especulações, fantasias e projeções. Nossa reflexão questiona este paradoxo a partir da análise de uma cena cinematográfica: um homem e uma mulher em frente de um corte de sequoia, que é a representação simbólica do tempo. Esta cena aprece em três grandes obras do cinema: Vertigo (Um corpo que cai de Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, e Os Doze Macacos de Terry Gilliam. A repetição desta cena é abordada em relação à obra de Pierre Bayard, Plágio por antecipação, a fim de considerá-la em termos de paradoxo temporal, e não como uma cronologia histórica. Esta análise tem como ponto de partida um trabalho artístico intitulado Vozes Fantasmas, que seguindo o princípio de

  16. Febre amarela Yellow fever

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  17. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans

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    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  18. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

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    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  19. Panencefalite subaguda esclerosante: estudo comparativo entre as lesões humanas e as experimentais determinadas por agente encefalitogênico de origem humana

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    Alexandre Alencar

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudamos as alterações histopatológicas encontradas no sistema nervoso central de dois pacientes com "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante" comparando-as com as modificações estruturais determinadas no sistema nervoso central de sete macacos rhesus nos quais este material foi inoculado. Os animais apresentaram sinais de comprometimento neurológico, traduzido por caquexia e paralisia do trem posterior, após um longo período de incubação, em torno de 18 meses. Dois animais morreram antes de qualquer manifestação neurológica, de infecção pulmonar intercorrente acidental. Nas passagens sucessivas houve um encurtamento do periódo de incubação para cerca de 40 dias. As alterações histopatológicas encontradas, consistiram, nos casos humanos, em leptomeningite focal, focos de neuronofagia, granulomas corticais e nos núcleos basais, grande perda da população neuronal com ocasional estado esponjoso do córtice cerebral, infiltrados perivasculares, e gliose da substância branca, sem perda de mielina. No material experimental foram observadas estas mesmas modificações, se bem que de caráter muito menos intenso. Tanto no material humano como no experimental a mielina estava praticamente normal. Sugere-se que o quadro anátomo-clínico chamado "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante (SSPE possa ser determinado, não apenas pelo vírus do sarampo, mas também por outros vírus, especialmente os do grupo papova, já encontrado por outros autores, em casos de "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante".The authors describes the histopathological changes found in the central nervous system of two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. These lesions are compared to those found in the central nervous system of seven rhesus monkeis that had received inoculations of nervous tissue from the two patients. After an incubation period of approximately 18 months, the monkeys presented signs of damage to the nervous system

  20. Citotoxicidade de plantas com indicativo etnográfico para a desinfecção de água Cytotoxicity of plants as an ethnographic indicator for water disinfection

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    A.R. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A água para o consumo humano e animal é um patrimônio cada vez mais escasso que é necessário preservar. O processo de desinfecção utilizado atualmente tem como base desinfetantes clorados, que em combinação com resíduos orgânicos, resultam em trihalometanos (potencialmente oncogênicos. A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de cinco extratos de plantas, capazes de promover desinfecção da água, frente a seis linhagens celulares, a saber: Vero (ATCC CCl81 African green monkey cells; MDBK (ATCC CCL 24 Martin Darby Bonne Kidney cells; MDCK (ATCC CCL 34 Canis familiaris kidney cells; CRFK (ATCC CCL 94 Felix catus kidney cells; PK 15 (ATCC CCL 33 Sus scrofa kidney cells; RK13 (ATCC CCL 37 Orytolagus cuniculus Kidney cells, e avaliar cultivos celulares mais sensíveis para o teste de toxicidade de extratos de plantas. Destes extratos, o mais tóxico foi o de Erva de Formigueiro (Chenopodium álbum diante de todas as células testadas. O extrato de chapéu de couro (Sagittaria montevidensis foi medianamente tóxico e os demais baleeira (Cordia curassavica, folha da fortuna (Bryophyllum pinnatum [Kurz] e sete sangrias (Cuphea carthagenensis [Jacq.] J.F. Macbride foram os menos tóxicos. Este resultado foi estatisticamente significativo (p=0,99, quando se comparou o extrato das plantas frente às concentrações e às células estudadas. Entre as células utilizadas, as mais sensíveis foram a VERO (rim de macaco e a CRFK (rim de gato quando comparadas com as demais foram (MDBK, MDCK, PK 15, RK 13, com diferença significativa (p=0,99. Conclui-se que há necessidade de serem avaliados os extratos vegetais quanto a toxicidade, antes do emprego como recursos de saúde, e que algumas células são mais eficazes que outras na detecção de efeito citopatogênico.Freshwater for human and animal consumption is an increasingly rare patrimony that needs to be preserved. The currently adopted disinfection process uses chloride

  1. Cardiomiopatía de Chagas.

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    Fernando Rosas A.

    2000-08-01

    insectos fueron enviados posteriormente al instituto. Allí el Dr. Cruz logró infectar un macaco mediante la picadura de tales ejemplares. Después de ocurrida la picadura, se encontraron en la sangre periférica del animal, un gran número de tripanosomas con morfolo-gía diversa. Posteriormente se hallaron flagelados con características similares en la sangre periférica de individuos infectados en residentes de la misma zona.,,

  2. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  3. A juvenile subfossil crocodylian from Anjohibe Cave, Northwestern Madagascar

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    Joshua C. Mathews

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s subfossil record preserves a diverse community of animals including elephant birds, pygmy hippopotamus, giant lemurs, turtles, crocodiles, bats, rodents, and carnivorans. These fossil accumulations give us a window into the island’s past from 80,000 years ago to a mere few hundred years ago, recording the extinction of some groups and the persistence of others. The crocodylian subfossil record is limited to two taxa, Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus, found at sites distributed throughout the island. V. robustus is extinct while C. niloticus is still found on the island today, but whether these two species overlapped temporally, or if Voay was driven to extinction by competing with Crocodylus remains unknown. While their size and presumed behavior was similar to each other, nearly nothing is known about the growth and development of Voay, as the overwhelming majority of fossil specimens represent mature adult individuals. Here we describe a nearly complete juvenile crocodylian specimen from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. The specimen is referred to Crocodylus based on the presence of caviconchal recesses on the medial wall of the maxillae, and to C. niloticus based on the presence of an oval shaped internal choana, lack of rostral ornamentation and a long narrow snout. However, as there are currently no described juvenile specimens of Voay robustus, it is important to recognize that some of the defining characteristics of that genus may have changed through ontogeny. Elements include a nearly complete skull and many postcranial elements (cervical, thoracic, sacral, and caudal vertebrae, pectoral elements, pelvic elements, forelimb and hindlimb elements, osteoderms. Crocodylus niloticus currently inhabits Madagascar but is locally extinct from this particular region; radiometric dating indicates an age of ∼460–310 years before present (BP. This specimen clearly represents a juvenile based on the extremely small

  4. Is evolutionary biology becoming too politically correct? A reflection on the scala naturae, phylogenetically basal clades, anatomically plesiomorphic taxa, and 'lower' animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta

    2015-05-01

    , or the strepsirrhines and lemurs within the Primates, for instance. This review will contribute to improving our understanding of these broad evolutionary issues and of the evolution of the vertebrate Bauplans, and hopefully will stimulate future phylogenetic, evolutionary and developmental studies of these clades. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories.

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    Waeber, Patrick O; Gardner, Charlie J; Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to

  6. Chromosome phylogenies of man, great apes, and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grouchy, J

    1987-08-31

    The karyotypes of man and of the closely related Pongidae--chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan--differ by a small number of well known rearrangements, mainly pericentric inversions and one fusion which reduced the chromosome number from 48 in the Pongidae to 46 in man. Dutrillaux et al. (1973, 1975, 1979) reconstructed the chromosomal phylogeny of the entire primate order. More and more distantly related species were compared thus moving backward in evolution to the common ancestors of the Pongidae, of the Cercopithecoidae, the Catarrhini, the Platyrrhini, the Prosimians, and finally the common ancestor of all primates. Descending the pyramid it becomes possible to assign the rearrangements that occurred in each phylum, and the one that led to man in particular. The main conclusions are that this phylogeny is compatible with the occurrence during evolution of simple chromosome rearrangements--inversions, fusions, reciprocal translocation, acquisition or loss of heterochromatin--and that it is entirely consistent with the known primate phylogeny based on physical morphology and molecular evolution. If heterochromatin is not taken into account, man has in common with the other primates practically all of his chromosomal material as determined by chromosome banding. However, it is arranged differently, according to species, on account of chromosome rearrangements. This interpretation has been confirmed by comparative gene mapping, which established that the same chromosome segments, identified by banding, carry the same genes (Finaz et al., 1973; Human Gene Mapping 8, 1985). A remarkable observation made by Dutrillaux is that different primate phyla seem to have adopted different chromosome rearrangements in the course of evolution: inversions for the Pongidae, Robertsonian fusions for the lemurs, etc. This observation may raise many questions, among which is that of an organized evolution. Also, the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements observed during evolution

  7. Preliminary analysis of Psoroptes ovis transcriptome in different developmental stages

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    Man-Li He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoroptic mange is a chronic, refractory, contagious and infectious disease mainly caused by the mange mite Psoroptes ovis, which can infect horses, sheep, buffaloes, rabbits, other domestic animals, deer, wild camels, foxes, minks, lemurs, alpacas, elks and other wild animals. Features of the disease include intense pruritus and dermatitis, depilation and hyperkeratosis, which ultimately result in emaciation or death caused by secondary bacterial infections. The infestation is usually transmitted by close contact between animals. Psoroptic mange is widespread in the world. In this paper, the transcriptome of P. ovis is described following sequencing and analysis of transcripts from samples of larvae (i.e. the Pso_L group and nymphs and adults (i.e. the Pso_N_A group. The study describes differentially expressed genes (DEGs and genes encoding allergens, which help understanding the biology of P. ovis and lay foundations for the development of vaccine antigens and drug target screening. Methods The transcriptome of P. ovis was assembled and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The unigenes of P. ovis from each developmental stage and the unigenes differentially between developmental stages were compared with allergen protein sequences contained in the allergen database website to predict potential allergens. Results We identified 38,836 unigenes, whose mean length was 825 bp. On the basis of sequence similarity with seven databases, a total of 17,366 unigenes were annotated. A total of 1,316 DEGs were identified, including 496 upregulated and 820 downregulated in the Pso_L group compared with the Pso_N_A group. We predicted 205 allergens genes in the two developmental stages similar to genes from other mites and ticks, of these, 14 were among the upregulated DEGs and 26 among the downregulated DEGs. Conclusion This study provides a reference transcriptome of P. ovis in absence of a reference genome. The analysis of DEGs and

  8. Associação de cetamina S(+ e midazolam pelo método convencional de cálculo e pela extrapolação alométrica em bugios-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans: resposta clínica e cardiorrespiratória S(+ ketamine and midazolam association by the conventional method of calculation and allometric extrapolation in red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans: clinical and cardiopulmonary response

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    Joana Aurora Braun Chagas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o protocolo de contenção química com cetamina S(+ e midazolam em bugios-ruivos, comparando o cálculo de doses pelo método convencional e o método de extrapolação alométrica. Foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios (Alouatta guariba clamitans hígidos, com peso médio de 4,84±0,97kg, de ambos os sexos. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de seis horas, realizou-se contenção física manual e aferiram-se os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, temperatura retal (TR, pressão arterial sistólica não invasiva (PANI e valores de hemogasometria arterial. Posteriormente, os animais foram alocados em dois grupos: GC (Grupo Convencional, n=06, os quais receberam cetamina S(+ (5mg kg-1 e midazolam (0,5mg kg-1, pela via intramuscular, com doses calculadas pelo método convencional; e GA (Grupo Alometria, n=06, os quais receberam o mesmo protocolo, pela mesma via, utilizando-se as doses calculadas pelo método de extrapolação alométrica. Os parâmetros descritos foram mensurados novamente nos seguintes momentos: M5, M10, M20 e M30 (cinco, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos, respectivamente. Também foram avaliados: qualidade de miorrelaxamento, reflexo podal e caudal, pinçamento interdigital, tempo para indução de decúbito, tempo hábil de sedação, qualidade de sedação, e tempo e qualidade de recuperação. O GA apresentou menor tempo para indução ao decúbito, maior grau e tempo de sedação, bem como redução significativa da FC e PANI de M5 até M30, quando comparado ao GC. Conclui-se que o grupo no qual o cálculo de dose foi realizado por meio da alometria (GA apresentou melhor grau de relaxamento muscular e sedação, sem produzir depressão cardiorrespiratória significativa.The aim of this study was to evaluate a protocol of chemical restraint comparing the conventional method of

  9. Study on the growth promoting capacity of calf and fetal bovine serum for animal cells "in vitro" II: electrophoretic study and survey on the antiproteolytic activity of pools of calf and fetal bovine serum Estudo sobre a capacidade promotora de crescimento de soros de vitelas e de soros fetais bovinos para células de origem animal cultivadas "in vitro" II: estudo eletroforético e pesquisa da atividade antiproteolítica de soros de vitelas e de soros fetais bovinos

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    Edda de Rizzo

    1984-04-01

    ", assim como manter a viabilidade das mesmas. Quando 14 lotes de soro de vitelas apresentando diferentes CPC tiveram seu teor total de proteínas, assim como as percentagens séricas presentes determinados, não foram observadas diferenças significativas que justificassem a variação daquela capacidade. Na avaliação da atividade antiproteolítica (AA de 19 lotes de soros de vitelas e de 18 de soros de bezerros de tenra idade, foi constatado que os primeiros apresentavam títulos antiproteolíticos mais baixos (1:40 a 1:80 do que os registrados para os segundos (1:80 a 1:160. Doze lotes de soros fetais bovinos, avaliados em paralelo, exibiram concentração elevada de fatores antiproteolíticos, evidenciada por títulos de 1:320. A inativação a 56°C durante 30 min. a que são geralmente submetidos os soros de origem bovina (com exceção dos fetais demonstrou ser responsável pela baixa da AA dos mesmos, o que talvez justifique a incapacidade que certos soros inativados têm, de promoverem a multiplicação de algumas células "in vitro", como é o caso das células primárias de rim de macaco. Os resultados obtidos salientam a conveniência de se determinar previamente, para cada lote de soro de origem bovina a ser introduzido em cultura celular, certas características, tais como a capacidade promotora de crescimento, a atividade antiproteolítica e também a ausência de agentes adventícios, toxicidade, etc, de modo a minimizar a possibilidade de, ao utilizar lotes de soro de qualidade questionável, incorrer em perda de linhagens celulares, assim como em indesejáveis atrasos.

  10. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

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    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  11. Malaria infection and the anthropological evolution Infecção por Malária e evolução antropológica

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    Sergio Sabbatani

    2010-03-01

    malária exerceu papel biológico chave, influenciando até o desenvolvimento antropológico. Os Plasmódios causadores da malária desenvolveram dois tipos de evolução, segundo um ponto de vista biológico, e filogenético. Em particular, os Plasmódios vivax, malariae, e ovale poderiam ter coevoluído com a espécie humana ou ter atingido esta durante as fases mais antigas da evolução do gênero HOMO. Por outro lado, o Plasmódio falciparum teria sido transmitido aos humanos por macacos num período mais recente, provavelmente entre o fim da Idade Mesolítica e o início da Neolítica. Os Autores mostram evidências biomoleculares, tanto diretas como indiretas, de infecção por malária, observada em indivíduos enterrados, reportando ao Mundo Antigo, e trazidas à luz no decorrer de escavações arqueológicas em alguns sítios relevantes Mediterrâneos. Nesta revisão da literatura, os autores organizam evidências modernas. Confirmam o papel da malária ao afetar a evolução das populações no Mediterrâneo. As pessoas que moram nas várias regiões do Mediterrâneo foram progressivamente influenciadas pela malária, ao longo do avanço desta doença. Além disso, as populações afetadas desenvolveram adaptações culturais, alimentares, e de comportamento, contribuindo para uma redução no risco da doença. Entretanto, pode ser que ambas modificações (as biológicas e as dos hábitos usadas pelos Plasmódios da malária, favoreceram a emergência de grupos de pessoas com maior resistência contra a malária. Todos estes fatores considerados reduziram o impacto demográfico, influenciando de uma maneira favorável o desenvolvimento em geral, e o crescimento da civilização.

  12. Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roberta M. de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica, apesar de ainda sofrer uma intensa devastação, abriga 261 espécies de mamíferos, sendo 73 endêmicos. Mamíferos de grande porte estão entre os mais vulneráveis à caça, perda de habitat e tráfico de animais. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro existem somente duas Reservas Biológicas de Mata Atlântica de baixada, a Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas e a Reserva Biológica União. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da prática da caça ilegal sobre a fauna de mamíferos nestas duas Unidades de Conservação. O levantamento populacional foi realizado utilizando o método de transecção linear e 375 quilômetros foram percorridos durante o período de dezembro de 2003 a janeiro de 2005. Os dados de estimativa de densidade populacional foram analisados no programa DISTANCE 5.0. Através de encontros visuais foram confirmadas 12 espécies durante o levantamento, sendo estas regularmente caçadas na região. As espécies que apresentaram maior densidade nas duas Unidades de Conservação foram o macaco-prego (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, o bugio (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, tatu-galinha (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758 e o tatu (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies mais raras ou ausentes foram a anta (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, o veado (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 e o queixada (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. Evidências diretas e indiretas da ação da caça ilegal foram observadas nas duas áreas de estudo, indicando que a caça é uma prática comum nessas Reservas Biológicas. A sobrevivência a longo prazo dessas espécies é questionável, já que as populações remanescentes em fragmentos são pequenas e isoladas, o que as tornam muito susceptível à extinção mesmo sob uma baixa pressão de caça.The Atlantic Rain Forest even though suffering intense devastation, shelters 261 species of mammals, 73 endemic. Large mammals were among the most vulnerable to

  13. Gestion en métapopulation de Propithecus coronatus: une approche originale et multidisciplinaire pour la conservation d’une espèce en danger à Madagascar Metapopulation management of Propithecus coronatus : an original and multidisciplinary approach for the conservation of an endangered species in Madagascar

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    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le propithèque couronné, Propithecus coronatus, est l’un des lémuriens les plus menacés à Madagascar. Un projet de conservation a été créé par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP et The Aspinall Foundation en partenariat avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen de l’espèce après la découverte de plusieurs groupes de propithèques couronnés isolés au Centre de Madagascar. L’isolement total de ces groupes dans des fragments de forêt dégradée et soumis à de fortes pressions anthropiques a conduit à l’élaboration d’une stratégie de conservation originale et unique à Madagascar de ces groupes dont la conservation séparée n’a pas de sens. Il s’agit de mettre en place une gestion en métapopulation de ces groupes dont l’objectif est de les connecter à nouveau entre eux. C’est un projet multidisciplinaire qui concerne l’ensemble des populations de propithèques couronnés sauvages et captives et qui implique la recherche et la protection de nouveaux groupes, des études sur les populations isolées, mais également sur celle préservée du Nord-Ouest de Madagascar, sur les habitats, des suivis écologiques, des projets d’éducation environnementale, des projets de cogestion avec la population locale, et une collaboration inédite avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen. Ce projet pourra également servir de modèle pour la conservation d’autres espèces dans la même situation que les propithèques couronnés.The crowned sifaka, Propithecus coronatus, is one of the most endangered lemur species in Madagascar. A conservation project has been established in partnership between GERP (Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar, The Aspinall Foundation Madagascar and the European Endangered species Programme (EEP following the discovery of isolated crowned sifaka populations along the central highlands of Madagascar. The complete isolation of these

  14. Mielencefalite espontânea dos camundongos

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    Hermínio Linhares

    1944-02-01

    ástrica deu sempre resultados negativos. Camundongos muito jovens são mais suscetíveis do que os adultos. 9 — O vírus foi sempre isolado ate 90 dias pos-inoculação, do cérebro e da medula de camundongos com paralisia. Animais inoculados por via i.c., que permaneceram aparentemente normais, albergam o vírus no cérebro pelo menos durante 30 dias. 10 — Não foi possível isolar vírus do fígado, pulmão, bago, rim e sangue de camundongos infetados por via intracerebral. 11 — Camundongos que foram inoculados por via i.c. e não apresentaram sintomas de infecção, mostraram-se em geral imunes a uma posterior inoculação de vírus. Os soros de animais convalescentes apresentam anticorpos neutralizantes verificados por provas de proteção. 12 — A inoculação intracerebral do vírus em macaco, coelho, cobaia e rato, todos jovens, não produziu infecção. 13 — As lesões encontradas foram de poliomielencefalite aguda, com atrofia do corno anterior da medula. Ao nível da substancia cinzenta medular e cerebral encontram-se abundantes focos inflamatórios, com predominância de mononucleares, bem como em torno de numerosos vasos. Em certos pontos do cérebro, sobretudo no rinencéfalo, foram vistos focos extensos de encefalite hemorrágica. É evidente que em torno do foco e participando das infiltrações celulares, muitos elementos microgliais puderam ser reconhecidos. As meninges, especialmente a pia-máter, mostraram-se levemente alteradas e assim mesmo em focos esparsos.1 — Two strains of virus which produce myeloencephalitis were isolated from two white swiss mice, from breeding, spontaneously infected, among 7000 mice examined; another strain was obtained by trituration and filtration of the intestines of normal mice. 2 — There were made separately ten serial passages in young and adult mice by intracerebral route. By crossed immunological test it was verified that the three strains were identical, and so only one was continued. 3 — The infective

  15. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  16. Projet MAMIA (Manompana mikajy ny ala : étude, gestion et conservation des forêts de Manompana. Actions, bilan et perspectives MAMIA Project (Manompana mikajy ny ala: survey, management and conservation of Manompana forest. Actions, outcomes and futur prospects

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    Ségolène Beaucent

    2011-10-01

    conservation des milieux naturels et du développement des communautés locales.The MAMIA Project was initiated back in 2007, and is designed to study then optimize conservation of the rainforest of Manompana, a coastal district located in the Analanjirofo area (north-east Madagascar. Two thirds of Manompana district still show a unique and rich natural heritage forest formations, made of lowland evergreen humid forest, littoral forest and mangrove. While human activities progressively damage and fragment those natural habitats, fauna inventories carried out in the forest of Manompana (lemurs, birds and herpetofauna keep on showing high species diversity and rich natural area, much of those being still well preserved due to their remoteness. Manompana’s forest is also a key resource for local communities, which keep quite close relationships with their land. A survey relating to the various uses of forest resources confirms that, apart from hunting and poaching, majority of forest harvestings performed by inhabitants are compatible with sustainability of this natural forest. Dislike traditional forest harvestings, business oriented forest harvestings, focusing on high value wood species such as ebony and rosewood, are more likely the main reason of deforestation issue. In order to get the inhabitants more concerned and involved in sustainable control of their forest resources, a “community advisory council” was put in place then operated. In the meantime an environmental awareness display was performed to Manompana’s young people. Alternative economic activities such as sustainable agriculture, ecotourism and forest products marketing were initiated so that irrational use of forest resources may decrease. These alternative activities are targeted to facilitate sustainable use of forest resources, as well as serving biodiversity conservation and on site development.