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Sample records for lemurs eulemur macaco

  1. Expectations about numerical events in four lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Laurie R; Barnes, Jennifer L; Mahajan, Neha

    2005-10-01

    Although much is known about how some primates--in particular, monkeys and apes--represent and enumerate different numbers of objects, very little is known about the numerical abilities of prosimian primates. Here, we explore how four lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, E. mongoz, Lemur catta, and Varecia rubra) represent small numbers of objects. Specifically, we presented lemurs with three expectancy violation looking time experiments aimed at exploring their expectations about a simple 1+1 addition event. In these experiments, we presented subjects with displays in which two lemons were sequentially added behind an occluder and then measured subjects' duration of looking to expected and unexpected outcomes. In experiment 1, subjects looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of only one object than at an expected outcome of two objects. Similarly, subjects in experiment 2 looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of three objects than at an expected outcome of two objects. In experiment 3, subjects looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of one object twice the size of the original than at an expected outcome of two objects of the original size. These results suggest that some prosimian primates understand the outcome of simple arithmetic operations. These results are discussed in light of similar findings in human infants and other adult primates.

  2. Mutual tolerance or reproductive competition? Patterns of reproductive skew among male redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Port, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The social organization of gregarious lemurs significantly deviates from predictions of the socioecological model, as they form small groups in which the number of males approximately equals the number of females. This study uses models of reproductive skew theory as a new approach to explain this unusual group composition, in particular the high number of males, in a representative of these lemurs, the redfronted lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We tested two central predictions of “concession”...

  3. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

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    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Better few than hungry: flexible feeding ecology of collared lemurs Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Donati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when

  5. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

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    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  6. Costs and benefits of multi-male associations in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Markus; Johnstone, Rufus A; Kappeler, Peter M

    2010-10-23

    The evolution of group-living has fascinated but also puzzled researchers from the inception of behavioural ecology. We use a simple optimality approach to examine some of the costs and benefits of group-living in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We show that dominant males profit from accepting subordinates within their groups, as the latter significantly decrease the likelihood that the group is taken over by intruders. This benefit is large enough to outweigh the costs of reproductive competition and may constitute the driving force behind the evolution of multi-male associations in this species.

  7. Cathemerality in the Mayotte brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus): seasonality and food quality.

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    Tarnaud, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In past decades, cathemerality--as defined by Tattersall [1987]--has been documented in two primate families: Cebidae and Lemuridae. In the Lemuridae, in particular the genus Eulemur, cathemeral activity seems to be a regular behavioural trait. Nevertheless, ultimate and proximate determinants responsible for this behaviour remain unclear. In this study, in a dry and deciduous forest on Mayotte (Comoro Archipelago), activities of 4 female brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) were recorded by focal animal sampling during the daylight period and by scan sampling on their respective groups during the night. Horizontal distances travelled by females and groups were measured using GPS. During the daylight period, food intakes were estimated in grams by extrapolation of counting of mouthfuls after weighing a large sample of plant parts eaten. Crude protein, crude lipid, soluble sugar and crude fibre were analyzed for each seasonal reconstituted diet. Records of temperature and rainfall were supplied by a local meteorological station. Observations confirmed cathemerality in the Mayotte brown lemur as reported by Tattersall in 1977. During the dry season, the animals increased their nocturnal activity--substantially increasing the time devoted to feeding and moving overall, but especially at night--and were less active during the daylight period. The quality of their diet in the dry season was poorer than that in the wet season, with soluble sugar content and protein content decreasing and fibre content increasing slightly. As a result, Mayotte brown lemurs may need to extend their foraging activity over the 24-hour cycle to balance nutritional requirements. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

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    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stuck in fragments: Population genetics of the Endangered collared brown lemur Eulemur collaris in the Malagasy littoral forest.

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    Bertoncini, Stefania; D'Ercole, Jacopo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Capelli, Cristian; Tofanelli, Sergio; Donati, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest. The overall genetic diversity of E. collaris in the southeastern coastal region of Madagascar was lower than in other populations, as well as in other lemur species. The population appears highly structured, with less variable and more inbred groups inhabiting the littoral forest fragments compared to the inland area. Major barriers to gene flow were identified isolating littoral forest fragments from each other and from the inland lowland humid forest. Medium to long-term drift and scarce gene flow is the scenario that best explains the current genetic distribution. Habitat discontinuities such as rivers and grassland between forest fragments played a major role in structuring the population. A common history of size contraction is pointed out by several genetic estimators, indicating a possible ecological crisis triggered around 1,300 years ago. The adoption of strategies aimed at facilitating gene flow and population growth appears crucial to delay further loss of genetic diversity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    to and flanking the human eye-color-associated region in these lemurs, as well as other primates (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, macaque, ring-tailed lemur, mouse lemur). Aligned sequences indicated that this region is strongly conserved in both Eulemur macaco subspecies as well as the other primates (except blue......Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work...... on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might...

  11. Circadian rhythms in diet and habitat use in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) and white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2004-08-01

    Daily variation in niche use among vertebrates is attributed to a variety of factors, including thermoregulatory, reproductive, and nutritional requirements. Lemuriform primates exhibit many behavioral and physiological adaptations related to thermoregulation and sharp, seasonal reproduction, yet they have rarely been subjects of a quantitative analysis of circadian (or daily) rhythms in niche use. In this study, I document daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use over an annual cycle in two sympatric, frugivorous lemurs, Varecia rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Data on diet, forest site, and forest height were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals and divided into three time blocks for analysis (06:00-10:00 hr, 10:00-14:00 hr, and 14:00-18:00 hr). I employed multivariate tests of independence to examine daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. Throughout the day, V. rubra is frugivorous and dwells in the upper canopy, with notable departures (especially for females) during the hot seasons, gestation, and lactation. E. f. albifrons has heterogeneous daily rhythms of food choice and microhabitat use, particularly across seasons, and both sexes are equally variable. These daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use appear related to thermoregulatory and nutritional requirements, seasonal food availability and circadian rhythms of plant (and possibly insect) palatability, predator avoidance tactics, and in the case of Varecia, to reproduction. Daily rhythms of food choice in V. rubra support two previously suggested hypotheses explaining why primates consume more nonfruit items late in the day, whereas those of E. f. albifrons are too variable to lend support to these hypotheses. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Host intrinsic determinants and potential consequences of parasite infection in free-ranging red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus).

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    Clough, Dagmar; Heistermann, Michael; Kappeler, Peter M

    2010-07-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases represent ecological forces shaping animal social evolution. Although empirical studies supporting this link abound in various vertebrate orders, both the study of the dynamics and impact of parasite infections and infectious diseases in strepsirrhine primates have received little empirical attention. We conducted a longitudinal parasitological study on four groups of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) at Kirindy Forest, Madagascar, during two field seasons in consecutive years to investigate i) the degree of gastrointestinal parasite infection on population and individual levels and ii) factors potentially determining individual infection risk. Using a comprehensive dataset with multiple individually assignable parasite samples as well as information on age, sex, group size, social rank, and endocrine status (fecal androgen and glucocorticoid), we examined parasite infection patterns and host traits that may affect individual infection risk. In addition, we examined whether parasite infection affects mating and reproductive success. Our results indicated high variability in parasite infection on individual and population levels. Time of year and group size was important determinants of variability in parasite infection. Variation in hormone levels was also associated with parasite species richness and parasite infection intensity. Differences in parasite infection between years indicate a potential immune-enhancing function of steroid hormones on nematode infections, which has not been reported before from other vertebrates studied under natural conditions. Male mating and reproductive success were not correlated to any measure of parasite infection, which suggests a nonfunctional role of the parasites we examined in primate sexual selection. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Opsin gene polymorphism predicts trichromacy in a cathemeral lemur.

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    Veilleux, Carrie C; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has identified polymorphic trichromacy in three diurnal strepsirrhines: Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), and red ruffed lemurs (V. rubra). Current hypotheses suggest that the transitions to diurnality experienced by Propithecus and Varecia were necessary precursors to their independent acquisitions of trichromacy. Accordingly, cathemeral lemurs are thought to lack the M/L opsin gene polymorphism necessary for trichromacy. In this study, the M/L opsin gene was sequenced in ten cathemeral blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). This analysis identified a polymorphism identical to that of other trichromatic strepsirrhines at the critical amino acid position 285 in exon 5 of the M/L opsin gene. Thus, polymorphic trichromacy is likely present in at least one cathemeral Eulemur species, suggesting that strict diurnality is not necessary for trichromacy. The presence of trichromacy in E. m. flavifrons suggests that a re-evaluation of current hypotheses regarding the evolution of strepsirrhine trichromacy may be necessary. Although the M/L opsin polymorphism may have been independently acquired three times in the lemurid-indriid clade, the distribution of opsin alleles in lemurids and indriids may also be consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in the last common ancestor of either the lemurids or the lemurid-indriid clade. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Gaze following and gaze priming in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, April; Gómez, Juan Carlos; Roeder, Jean Jacques; Byrne, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    Although primates have often been found to co-orient visually with other individuals, members of these same species have usually failed to use co-orientation to find hidden food in object-choice experiments. This presents an evolutionary puzzle: what is the function of co-orientation if it is not used for a function as basic as locating resources? Co-orientation responses have not been systematically investigated in object-choice experiments, and requiring co-orientation with humans (as is typical in object-choice tasks) may underestimate other species' abilities. Using an object-choice task with conspecific models depicted in photographs, we provide experimental evidence that two lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, n = 4, and Eulemur macaco, n = 2) co-orient with conspecifics. Secondly, by analysing together two measures that have traditionally been examined separately, we show that lemurs' gaze following behaviour and ultimate choice are closely linked. Individuals were more likely to choose correctly after having looked in the same direction as the model, and thus chose objects correctly more often than chance. We propose a candidate system for the evolutionary origins of more complex gaze following: 'gaze priming.'

  15. Evaluation of iron status in lemurs by analysis of serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cathy V; Junge, Randall E; Stalis, Ilse H

    2008-02-15

    To assess serum iron and ferritin concentrations, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation as indicators of iron metabolic status in 3 genera of lemurs and determine whether these variables are useful for screening for iron overload. Cross-sectional study. 11 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 11 black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco), and 11 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Blood samples were collected weekly for 3 weeks and assayed for serum iron and ferritin concentrations and total iron-binding capacity. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically and assayed for total iron, nonheme iron, and trace mineral concentrations. Deposition of iron was scored on Prussian blue-stained slides. Hepatic iron content ranged from 497 to 12,800 Pg/g dry weight (median, 2,165 Pg/g). Differences were seen in mean hepatic iron content across genera, with ruffed lemurs having the highest concentrations and ring-tailed lemurs having the lowest. Iron accumulation in the liver was mild, and cellular pathologic changes associated with iron storage disease were not detected in any lemur. Ferritin concentration was the only variable that correlated significantly with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera of lemurs; however, both transferrin saturation and serum iron concentration were correlated with hepatic iron concentration in ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs. Serum ferritin concentration was the only variable that was consistently correlated with hepatic iron content in all 3 genera. Mean hepatic iron content varied across genera, suggesting that the propensity for lemurs to develop iron overload in captivity may vary across taxa.

  16. Use of total dietary fiber across four lemur species (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus): does fiber type affect digestive efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2004-11-01

    In vivo digestibility and transit of two experimental diets were compared across four lemur species for which gastrointestinal morphology and preliminary data on physiology differ:Varecia variegata (VV), Eulemur fulvus (EF), Propithecus verreauxi (PV), and Hapalemur griseus (HG). Since free-ranging groups consume varied amounts of slowly fermentable insoluble fiber (IF) and rapidly fermentable soluble fiber (SF), differences in digestibility may be related to variation in the fiber types consumed. To investigate this, two diets were designed to provide 28% of dry matter (DM) as total dietary fiber (TDF). The ratio of IF/SF (g/g) differed across the diets (12.15:1 for the IF diet, and 3.76:1 for the IF/SF diet). The DM digestibility (DMD) of both diets differed across species: DMD was lower for EF and VV (approximately 56-58%), and higher for PV (72%) and HG (76%). The fiber digestibility results were as follows: TDF digestibility was similar for VV and EF (23% and 28%), higher for PV (56%), and highest for HG (66%). IF digestibility was lower for VV and EF (20% and 28%), and higher for PV and HG (53% and 62%). The transit times (TTs) of the two markers Cr and Co were similar (approximately 3.5 hr for VV and EF, 25 hr for PV, and 30 hr for HG). The mean retention times (MRTs) showed the same trend. The results from these captive groups suggest there are large differences in digestive efficiency that are likely related to the varied fiber composition of the free-ranging diet, and the amount of time the digesta are retained in the gut.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence and epidemiologic trends in lemurs on St. Catherines Island, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Chris A; Polizzi, Crystal; Yabsley, Michael J; Norton, Terry M

    2007-02-01

    Lemurs on St. Catherines Island, Georgia were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi infection to develop a better understanding of the epizootiology of the parasite in nonhuman primates in the southeastern United States. Fifty-six ring-tailed (Lemur catta), blue-eyed black (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), and black-and-white ruffed (Varecia variegata variegata) lemurs were tested by hemoculture and serology to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi in the population. Of those tested 3 (5%) were identified as culture positive and 25 (44.6%) as seropositive. When hemoculture results were compared with those from a similar study performed in 1997, prevalence remained unchanged. Genetic characterization of the 3 culture isolates indicated they belong to the T. cruzi IIa group, which is identical to strains previously isolated from raccoons on the island. Despite the occurrence of T. cruzi in the population, there was no evidence that the health of the lemurs was compromised as a result of infection. Based upon prevalence and available breeding records we speculate that both vertical and vector-mediated transmission play significant roles in the epidemiology of T. cruzi on the island. This also represents the first report of autochthonous infection in blue-eyed black and black-and-white ruffed lemurs.

  18. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...). black lemur (Eulemur macaco). brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegate). red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). cotton-headed tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Diana monkey...). black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variagata). red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). black lemur (Eulemur...

  19. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2002-10-01

    To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P H. griseus > V. variegata; P < 0.001). V. variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P < 0.02). Three-hour production rates of acetate and total SCFA were also greater for V. variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs.

  20. 78 FR 34118 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...), black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra), black lemur (Eulemur... 50 CFR 17.21(g) for ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra), black lemur (Eulemur macaco), cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus...

  1. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    with adult male coloration and female infants subsequently undergo a change in coloration. Using digital pictures and behavioral data collected on eight mother-offspring dyads from birth until the end of the coloration change, we 1) described timing and pattern of pelage development in redfronted lemur...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  2. Activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: Evidence of cathemerality in Varecia and Lemur catta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Joel; Samson, David R; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-06-01

    Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments. Using MotionWatch 8 ® actigraphy data loggers, we studied 88 lemurs across seven species at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC). Six species were members of the family Lemuridae (Eulemur coronatus, E. flavifrons, E. mongoz, L. catta, V. rubra, V. variegata), while a seventh was strictly diurnal and included as an out-group (Propithecus coquereli). For each 24-hr cycle (N = 503), we generated two estimates of cathemerality: mean night (MN) activity and day/night (DN) activity ratio (day and night cutoffs were based on astronomical twilights). As expected, P. coquereli engaged in the least amount of nocturnal activity according to both measures; their activity was also outside the 95% confidence intervals of all three cathemeral Eulemur species, which exhibited the greatest evidence of cathemerality. By these estimates, Varecia activity was most similar to Eulemur and exhibited substantial deviations from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.22 ± SE 0.12; β (DN) = -0.21 ± SE 0.12). L. catta activity patterns also deviated from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.12 ± SE 0.11; β (DN) = -0.15 ± SE 0.12) but to a lesser degree than either Varecia or Eulemur. Overall, L. catta displayed an intermediate activity pattern between Eulemur and P. coquereli, which is somewhat consistent with wild studies. Regarding Varecia, although additional observations in more diverse wild habitats are needed, our findings support

  3. Evolutionary roots of motor planning: the end-state comfort effect in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kate M; Weiss, Daniel J; Rosenbaum, David A

    2010-05-01

    Humans (Homo sapiens) anticipate the consequences of their forthcoming actions. For example, they grasp objects with uncomfortable grasps to afford comfortable end positions-the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. When did such sophisticated motor planning abilities emerge in evolution? We addressed this question by asking whether humans' most distant living primate relatives-lemurs-also exhibit the ESC effect. We presented 6 species of lemurs (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, Eulemur coronatus, Eulemur collaris, Hapalemur griseus, and Varecia rubra) with a food extraction task and measured the grasp used-either a canonical thumb-up posture or a noncanonical thumb-down posture. The lemurs adopted the thumb-down posture when that hand position afforded a thumb-up posture following object transport, thereby exhibiting the ESC effect. We conclude that the planning abilities underlying the ESC effect evolved at least 65 million years ago, or 25 million years earlier than previously supposed based on an earlier demonstration of the ESC effect in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus; Weiss, Wark, & Rosenbaum, 2007). Because neither cotton-tops nor lemurs are tool users, the data suggest that the cognitive abilities implicated by the ESC effect are not sufficient, although they may be necessary, for tool use. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of movement and seed dispersal by three lemur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Onja H; Jones, Thomas A; Dunham, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    We combined data on gut-passage times, feeding, and movement to explore the patterns of seed dispersal by Eulemur rubriventer, Eulemur rufrifrons, and Varecia variegata editorum lemurs in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. These lemur species deposited less than half of their consumed seeds >100 m away from conspecific trees (40-50%). Long-distance dispersal (>500 m) was rare and average dispersal distances were short relative to those reported of similar-sized haplorrhine primates. The three lemur species showed no significant differences in mean seed-dispersal distances. However, they differed in the shape of their frequency distributions of seed-dispersal distances as a result of differences in how they moved through their habitats. The short distances of seed dispersal we observed and the depauperate frugivorous fauna in Madagascar suggest seed-dispersal may be more limited than in other tropical forests with important implications for plant-community dynamics, biodiversity maintenance, and restoration efforts in Madagascar. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Daily activity and light exposure levels for five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G; Jones, Geoffrey E; Glander, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of all biological rhythms, yet little is known about the role of the 24-hour luminous environment on nonhuman primate circadian patterns, making it difficult to understand the photic niche of the ancestral primate. Here we present the first data on proximate light-dark exposure and activity-rest patterns in free-ranging nonhuman primates. Four individuals each of five species of lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra, and Varecia variegata variegata) were fitted with a Daysimeter-D pendant that contained light and accelerometer sensors. Our results reveal common as well as species-specific light exposure and behavior patterns. As expected, all five species were more active between sunrise and sunset. All five species demonstrated an anticipatory increase in their pre-sunrise activity that peaked at sunrise with all but V. rubra showing a reduction within an hour. All five species reduced activity during mid-day. Four of the five stayed active after sunset, but P. coquereli began reducing their activity about 2 hours before sunset. Other subtle differences in the recorded light exposure and activity patterns suggest species-specific photic niches and behaviors. The eventual application of the Daysimeter-D in the wild may help to better understand the adaptive evolution of ancestral primates. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 78 FR 53473 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... commerce, export, and cull of excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and...-13868B The applicant requests a permit authorizing interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of... variegata), red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra), black lemur (Eulemur macaco), cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus...

  7. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  8. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  9. Influence of abiotic factors on cathemeral activity: the case of Eulemur fulvus collaris in the littoral forest of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M

    2006-01-01

    The role environmental factors play in influencing circadian rhythms in natural habitats is still poorly described in primates, especially for those taxa with an activity cycle extended over the 24-hour cycle. In this paper, we elucidate the importance of abiotic factors in entraining the activity of cathemeral primates, focussing on results from a long-term study of Eulemur fulvus collaris (collared brown lemur) in south-eastern Malagasy littoral forest. Two groups of lemurs were followed for 60 whole-day and 59 whole-night observation periods over 14 months. Diurnal and nocturnal observations were equally distributed among moon phases and seasons. Temperature and humidity were recorded hourly by automatic data loggers. The littoral forest has a climatic environment where rainfall and humidity are uncorrelated with temperature and photoperiod. Diurnal and nocturnal activity varied seasonally, with the former increasing significantly with extended day length and the latter increasing significantly with shortened day length. Dusk seemed to act as a primary zeitgeber for these lemurs, coordinating the onset of evening activity throughout the entire year. Lunar phase and the nocturnal luminosity index correlated positively with the duration of nocturnal activity and negatively with the length of diurnal activity. Temperature was positively associated with diurnal activity but did not seem to influence lemur rhythms at night. Finally, lemur nocturnal activity significantly decreased when levels of humidity and rainfall were high. Cathemeral biorhythm is triggered by zeitgebers and influenced by masking factors. The activity of collared brown lemurs appears to be seasonally influenced by photoperiod and directly modulated by nocturnal ambient luminosity. These results are discussed by comparing data from other cathemeral species living in various climatic situations. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Spatial variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Shawn M

    2007-01-01

    I present data on variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities as well as tree characteristics (height, diameter and stem frequency) between edge and interior forest habitats in southeastern Madagascar. Line transect surveys were conducted from June 2003 to November 2005 in edge and interior forest habitats in the Vohibola III Classified Forest. Although E. f. rufus densities were significantly lower in edge habitats than in interior habitats, density estimates for L. mustelinus did not differ significantly between habitats. Trees in edge habitats were significantly shorter, had smaller diameters and had lower stem frequencies (for those >25 cm in diameter) than trees in interior habitats. Spatial characteristics of food abundance and quality may explain lemur density patterns in Vohibola III. Low E. f. rufus densities may reduce seed dispersal in edge habitats, which has important consequences for the long-term viability of forest ecosystems in Madagascar. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. An alu-based phylogeny of lemurs (infraorder: Lemuriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Adam T; Meyer, Thomas J; Faulk, Christopher; Herke, Scott W; Oldenburg, J Michael; Bourgeois, Matthew G; Abshire, Camille F; Roos, Christian; Batzer, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    LEMURS (INFRAORDER: Lemuriformes) are a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. As of 2012, 101 lemur species, divided among five families, have been described. Genetic and morphological evidence indicates all species are descended from a common ancestor that arrived in Madagascar ∼55-60 million years ago (mya). Phylogenetic relationships in this species-rich infraorder have been the subject of debate. Here we use Alu elements, a family of primate-specific Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs), to construct a phylogeny of infraorder Lemuriformes. Alu elements are particularly useful SINEs for the purpose of phylogeny reconstruction because they are identical by descent and confounding events between loci are easily resolved by sequencing. The genome of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) was computationally assayed for synapomorphic Alu elements. Those that were identified as Lemuriformes-specific were analyzed against other available primate genomes for orthologous sequence in which to design primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) verification. A primate phylogenetic panel of 24 species, including 22 lemur species from all five families, was examined for the presence/absence of 138 Alu elements via PCR to establish relationships among species. Of these, 111 were phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the results of this analysis. We demonstrate strong support for the monophyly of Lemuriformes to the exclusion of other primates, with Daubentoniidae, the aye-aye, as the basal lineage within the infraorder. Our results also suggest Lepilemuridae as a sister lineage to Cheirogaleidae, and Indriidae as sister to Lemuridae. Among the Cheirogaleidae, we show strong support for Microcebus and Mirza as sister genera, with Cheirogaleus the sister lineage to both. Our results also support the monophyly of the Lemuridae. Within Lemuridae we place Lemur and Hapalemur together to the exclusion of

  12. An alu-based phylogeny of lemurs (infraorder: Lemuriformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T McLain

    Full Text Available LEMURS (INFRAORDER: Lemuriformes are a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. As of 2012, 101 lemur species, divided among five families, have been described. Genetic and morphological evidence indicates all species are descended from a common ancestor that arrived in Madagascar ∼55-60 million years ago (mya. Phylogenetic relationships in this species-rich infraorder have been the subject of debate. Here we use Alu elements, a family of primate-specific Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, to construct a phylogeny of infraorder Lemuriformes. Alu elements are particularly useful SINEs for the purpose of phylogeny reconstruction because they are identical by descent and confounding events between loci are easily resolved by sequencing. The genome of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus was computationally assayed for synapomorphic Alu elements. Those that were identified as Lemuriformes-specific were analyzed against other available primate genomes for orthologous sequence in which to design primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction verification. A primate phylogenetic panel of 24 species, including 22 lemur species from all five families, was examined for the presence/absence of 138 Alu elements via PCR to establish relationships among species. Of these, 111 were phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the results of this analysis. We demonstrate strong support for the monophyly of Lemuriformes to the exclusion of other primates, with Daubentoniidae, the aye-aye, as the basal lineage within the infraorder. Our results also suggest Lepilemuridae as a sister lineage to Cheirogaleidae, and Indriidae as sister to Lemuridae. Among the Cheirogaleidae, we show strong support for Microcebus and Mirza as sister genera, with Cheirogaleus the sister lineage to both. Our results also support the monophyly of the Lemuridae. Within Lemuridae we place Lemur and Hapalemur together to the

  13. Individual Facial Coloration in Male Eulemur fulvus rufus: A Condition-dependent Ornament?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dagmar; Heistermann, Michael; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Researchers studying individual variation in conspicuous skin coloration in primates have suggested that color indicates male quality. Although primate fur color can also be flamboyant, the potential condition dependence and thus signaling function of fur remains poorly studied. We studied sources of variation in sexually dichromatic facial hair coloration in red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We collected data on 13 adult males in Kirindy Forest, Madagascar, during two study periods in 2006 and 2007, to determine whether variation in facial hair coloration correlates with male age, rank, androgen status, and reproductive success. We quantified facial hair coloration via standardized digital photographs of each male, assessed androgen status using fecal hormone measurements, and obtained data on reproductive success through genetic paternity analyses. Male facial hair coloration showed high individual variation, and baseline coloration was related to individual androgen status but not to any other parameter tested. Color did not reflect rapid androgen changes during the mating season. However, pronounced long-term changes in androgen levels between years were accompanied by changes in facial hair coloration. Our data suggest that facial hair coloration in red-fronted lemur males is under proximate control of androgens and may provide some information about male quality, but it does not correlate with dominance rank or male reproductive success.

  14. Total energy expenditure and body composition in two free-living sympatric lemurs.

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    Bruno Simmen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp. of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. DISCUSSION: We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship

  15. Cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in the spiny forest of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle; Cuozzo, Frank; Yamashita, Nayuta; Jacky Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho; Bender, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. Though uncommon within Primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as Eulemur, Hapalemur, and Prolemur. Several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in Lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". We used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of L. catta at the Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, Madagascar. Nighttime activity occurred throughout the study period (September 2010-April 2011), and correlated with warm overnight temperatures but not daytime temperatures. Animals spent 25% of their daytime active behaviors on the ground, but appeared to avoid the ground at night, with only 5% of their time on the ground. Furthermore, at night, animals spent the majority of their active time feeding (53% nighttime, 43% daytime). These findings imply that both thermoregulation and diet play a role in the adaptive significance of cathemerality. Additionally, predator avoidance may have influenced cathemerality here, in that L. catta may limit nighttime activity as a result of predation threat by forest cats (Felis sp.) or fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Further data are needed on cathemeral lemurs generally, but particularly in L. catta if we are to fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms of cathemerality in the Lemuridae.

  16. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2002-06-01

    Based on a year-long field study in northeastern Madagascar, I summarize annual patterns of niche use (food patch size, diet, forest height, and forest site) in two sympatric lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Furthermore, I examine intraspecific patterns of niche use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage in these two lemurs that differ in terms of energetic investment in reproduction. Lemurs as a group provide a special opportunity to test hypotheses concerning sex differences in niche use. Due to their body size monomorphism and seasonal, synchronous pattern of breeding, it is possible to directly evaluate whether sex differences in diet reflect high energetic investment in reproduction by females. Results confirm the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in niche use (e.g., sex differences, seasonal differences) would be more pronounced in V. v. rubra than in E. f. albifrons, due in large measure to the former's relatively high energetic investment in reproduction: 1a) Dietary sex differences in V. v. rubra are most pronounced during costly reproductive stages and involve acquisition of low-fiber, high-protein plant foods. Females of both species consume more seasonally available low-fiber protein (young leaves, flowers) relative to conspecific males during the hot dry season, but only in V. v. rubra females is this pattern also evident during gestation and lactation. 1b) The diets of female V. v. rubra and female E. f. albifrons are more similar to each other than are the diets of conspecific males and females in the case of V. v. rubra. This is not uniformly the case for female E. f. albifrons. This finding confirms a hypothesis put forward in Vasey ([2000] Am J Phys Anthropol 112:411-431) that energetic requirements of reproductive females drive niche separation more than do the energetic requirements of males. 1c) Both species synchronize most or all of lactation with seasonal food abundance and diversity. E. f

  17. The Lemur Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2017-05-01

    In previous research we designed an interferometric quantum seismograph that uses entangled photon states to enhance sensitivity in an optomechanic device. However, a spatially-distributed array of such sensors, with each sensor measuring only nm-vibrations, may not provide sufficient sensitivity for the prediction of major earthquakes because it fails to exploit potentially critical phase information. We conjecture that relative phase information can explain the anecdotal observations that animals such as lemurs exhibit sensitivity to impending earthquakes earlier than can be done confidently with traditional seismic technology. More specifically, we propose that lemurs use their limbs as ground motion sensors and that relative phase differences are fused in the brain in a manner similar to a phased-array or synthetic-aperture radar. In this paper we will describe a lemur-inspired quantum sensor network for early warning of earthquakes. The system uses 4 interferometric quantum seismographs (e.g., analogous to a lemurs limbs) and then conducts phase and data fusion of the seismic information. Although we discuss a quantum-based technology, the principles described can also be applied to classical sensor arrays

  18. Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2017-11-01

    Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22541, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enumeration of Objects and Substances in Non-Human Primates: Experiments with Brown Lemurs ("Eulemur Fulvus")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Blanco, Marissa; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking…

  20. Day - time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agnalazaha Forest, a degraded fragment of littoral forest in southeast Madagascar, contains a small population of the endangered Eulemur cinereiceps To better conserve this species its feeding ecology was described by habituating two groups and recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and ...

  1. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Patterns of Dental Macrowear in Subfossil Lemur catta from Ankilitelo Cave, Madagascar: Indications of Ecology and Habitat Use over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The Ankilitelo cave site, Madagascar, contains a large collection of extant and recently extinct subfossil lemurs including the extant taxa Lemur catta and Eulemur rufifrons, which today are rarely found in sympatry. Dates for this assemblage range from 300 to 13,000 BP, though known dates for extinct primate specimens range between ∼500 and ∼600 BP. Data from Ankilitelo L. catta and E. rufifrons were compared to assess tooth wear in sympatric, related forms. Wear was scored using an ordinal scale from 0 to 5. For P4, M1 and M2, E. rufifrons displays significantly more wear than L. catta. Ankilitelo represents one of the most southerly samples of E. rufifrons, and wear data suggest that in the recent (i.e. Holocene) past, their diet near the edges of their geographic range included mechanically challenging foods. In contrast, sympatric L. catta was using foods in this transitional humid-dry forest with succulent woodlands that were not significantly impacted by recent human actions, and for which they were dentally adapted. Results also suggest that this non-gallery forest habitat may be the 'adaptive home' of L. catta, given the lack of notable tooth wear when compared to populations currently living in tamarind-dominated riverine gallery forests. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Anatomia descritiva da traqueia do macaco-prego (Sapajus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p179 O estudo descritivo da anatomia de animais silvestres experimenta, nos dias atuais, inegável importância. O cerrado constitui um bioma complexo que abriga uma grande variedade de espécies, entre elas, o macaco-prego (Sapajus apella; foram utilizados quatro espécimes, comparando os resultados encontrados com a literatura humana e veterinária, já bem estabelecidas. Os espécimes foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, dissecados, analisados descritivamente e fotografados. Os resultados evidenciam uma traqueia cuja extensão varia conforme a compleição física do animal, um número variável de anéis cartilaginosos incompletos, sendo o fechamento do tubo, na face dorsal, feito por tecido musculomembranoso. A parede musculomembranosa não é uniforme em toda a sua extensão, exibindo maior largura no terço médio-cranial. Então, a traqueia do S. apella não diverge muito daquela observada no homem e animais domésticos, sendo as variações, aparentemente, relacionadas às adaptações à compleição física do animal.

  4. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris) from the Berenty forest (Madagascar). They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1) by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI) on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2) by calculating normalized David's scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3) by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4) by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest) levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile, allows intergroup

  5. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris from the Berenty forest (Madagascar. They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1 by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2 by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3 by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4 by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile

  6. Evidence for social learning in wild lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel L; Custance, Deborah M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Vale, Gillian; Stoinski, Tara S; Rakotomalala, Nirina Lalaina; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2010-08-01

    Interest in social learning has been fueled by claims of culture in wild animals. These remain controversial because alternative explanations to social learning, such as asocial learning or ecological differences, remain difficult to refute. Compared with laboratory-based research, the study of social learning in natural contexts is in its infancy. Here, for the first time, we apply two new statistical methods, option-bias analysis and network-based diffusion analysis, to data from the wild, complemented by standard inferential statistics. Contrary to common thought regarding the cognitive abilities of prosimian primates, our evidence is consistent with social learning within subgroups in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), supporting the theory of directed social learning (Coussi-Korbel & Fragaszy, 1995). We also caution that, as the toolbox for capturing social learning in natural contexts grows, care is required in ensuring that the methods employed are appropriate-in particular, regarding social dynamics among study subjects. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  7. Naturally occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in two prosimian primate species: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cathy V; Van Steenhouse, Jan L; Bradley, Julie M; Hancock, Susan I; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2002-12-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. Organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with E. chaffeensis.

  8. Naturally Occurring Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in Two Prosimian Primate Species: Ring-tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) and Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia variegata)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Cathy V.; Van Steenhouse, Jan L.; Bradley, Julie M.; Hancock, Susan I.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2002-01-01

    A naturally occurring infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in lemurs is described. DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was identified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood from six of eight clinically ill lemurs. Organisms were cultured from the blood of one lemur exhibiting clinical and hematologic abnormalities similar to those of humans infected with E. chaffeensis.

  9. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ring - tailed lemurs live in a range of habitats in southwestern Madagascar. To date, much of the knowledge of ring - tailed lemur ecology, biology and behavior come from riverine gallery forests sites. Recent years have seen an expansion of comprehensive research on this resilient species, including areas of limestone ...

  10. Phylogeny and character behavior in the family Lemuridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Y; DeSalle, R; Absher, R

    2000-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the family Lemuridae was accomplished using multiple gene partitions and morphological characters. The results of the study suggest that several nodes in the lemurid phylogeny can be robustly resolved; however, the relationships of the species within the genus Eulemur are problematically nonrobust. The genus Varecia is strongly supported as the basal genus in the family. Hapalemur and Lemur catta are strongly supported as sister taxa and together are the sister group to the genus Eulemur. E. mongoz is the most basal species in the genus Eulemur. E. fulvus subspecies form a monophyletic group with three distinct lineages. E. coronatus is strongly supported as the sister taxon to E. macaco. The relationships of E. rubriventer, E. fulvus, and the E. macaco-E. coronatus pair are unresolved. Our combined molecular and morphological analysis demonstrates the lack of influence that morphology has on the simultaneous analysis tree when these two kinds of data are given equal weight. The effects of several extreme weighting schemes (removal of transitions and of third positions in protein-coding regions) and maximum-likelihood analysis were also explored. We suggest that these other forms of inference add little to resolving the problematic relationships of the species in the genus Eulemur. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Lemur Biorhythms and Life History Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T Hogg

    Full Text Available Skeletal histology supports the hypothesis that primate life histories are regulated by a neuroendocrine rhythm, the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO. Interestingly, subfossil lemurs are outliers in HHO scaling relationships that have been discovered for haplorhine primates and other mammals. We present new data to determine whether these species represent the general lemur or strepsirrhine condition and to inform models about neuroendocrine-mediated life history evolution. We gathered the largest sample to date of HHO data from histological sections of primate teeth (including the subfossil lemurs to assess the relationship of these chronobiological measures with life history-related variables including body mass, brain size, age at first female reproduction, and activity level. For anthropoids, these variables show strong correlations with HHO conforming to predictions, though body mass and endocranial volume are strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in this group. However, lemurs (possibly excepting Daubentonia do not follow this pattern and show markedly less variability in HHO periodicity and lower correlation coefficients and slopes. Moreover, body mass is uncorrelated, and brain size and activity levels are more strongly correlated with HHO periodicity in these animals. We argue that lemurs evolved this pattern due to selection for risk-averse life histories driven by the unpredictability of the environment in Madagascar. These results reinforce the idea that HHO influences life history evolution differently in response to specific ecological selection regimes.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among Lemuridae (Primates): evidence from mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorini, Jennifer; Forstner, Michael R J; Martin, Robert D

    2002-10-01

    The family Lemuridae includes four genera: Eulemur, Hapalemur, Lemur,Varecia. Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships between L. catta, Eulemur and Hapalemur, and of Varecia to these other lemurids, continue to be hotly debated. Nodal relationships among the five Eulemur species also remain contentious. A mitochondrial DNA sequence dataset from the ND 3, ND 4 L, ND 4 genes and five tRNAs (Gly, Arg, His, Ser, Leu) was generated to try to clarify phylogenetic relationships w ithin the Lemuridae. Samples (n=39) from all ten lemurid species were collected and analysed. Three Daubentonia madagascariensis were included as outgroup taxa. The approximately 2400 bp sequences were analysed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. The results support monophyly of Eulemur, a basal divergence of Varecia, and a sister-group relationship for Lemur/Hapalemur. Based on tree topology, bootstrap values, and pairwise distance comparisons, we conclude thatVarecia and Eulemur both represent distinct genera separate from L. catta. H. griseus andH. aureus form a clade with strong support, but the sequence data do not permit robust resolution of the trichotomy involving H. simus, H. aureus/H. griseus and L. catta. Within Eulemur there is strong support for a clade containing E. fulvus, E. mongoz and E. rubriventer. However, analyses failed to clearly resolve relationships among those three species or with the more distantly related E. coronatus and E. macaco. Our sequencing data support the current subspecific status of E.m. macaco and E.m. flavifrons, and that of V.v. variegata and V.v. rubra. However, tree topology and relatively large genetic distances among individual V.v. variegata indicate that there may be more phylogenetic structure within this taxon than is indicated by current taxonomy.

  13. Anatomia comparativa dos nervos da pelve de macacos-prego (Sapajus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Vasconcelos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macacos-prego (Sapajus sp, inesperadamente, compartilham com chimpanzés comportamentos como alta cognição e memória, uso de ferramentas com o bipedalismo intermitente, tolerância social. No entanto, sua anatomia ainda é pouco estudada. Para verificar a hipótese com qual espécie e/ou grupo de primatas os macacos-prego compartilham mais características, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os nervos pélvicos do Sapajus e compará-los com dados da literatura anatômica sobre os seres humanos, chimpanzés e babuínos, considerando aspectos como origem, trajetória e estruturas inervadas. Foi observado que existem grandes variações nos nervos pélvicos entre os primatas estudados aqui, quais sejam, 1 o problema da posição anatômica, i.e., alguns primatologistas consideram a posição anatômica humana para os primatas, outros consideram a posição anatômica animal, e a opção por um ou outro não é clara nos textos; 2 o problema dos membros pélvicos em primatas não humanos serem lateralizados e semi-fletidos em relação aos seres humanos modernos; 3 o problema da ausência, nos seres humanos modernos, de alguns músculos da coxa em relação aos outros primatas como o escansório e o iliosquiofemoral; e 4] o problema da diferença do número de vértebras nos primatas estudados aqui, inclusive com diferenças para a mesma espécie citadas por diferentes autores tanto para chimpanzés como para macacos-prego.

  14. Lemurs - Ambassadors for Madagascar | Thalmann | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this short article on lemurs I give a concise introduction for non-specialists to these conspicuous and unique animals on the island of Madagascar. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v1i1.44043 · AJOL African ...

  15. The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted the first comprehensive lemur survey of the. Fiherenana - Manombo Complex (Atsimo - Andrefana Region), site of PK32-Ranobe, a new protected area within the Madagascar Protected Area System. Our cross - seasonal surveys of three sites revealed the presence of eight lemur species representing seven ...

  16. Abundance and conservation status of two newly described lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and abundance of Danfoss' mouse lemurs (Microcebus danfossi) and Grewcock's sportive lemurs (Lepilemur grewcockorum), two regional endemics from northwestern Madagascar, were studied from May to December 2008 in the Sofia region between the rivers Sofia and Maevarano. The goal was to ...

  17. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cave use by several anthropoid primates has been explained as a thermoregulatory behavior. It is suggested that cliff - face and cave use by these ring-tailed lemurs serves several purposes, including resource acquisition, thermoregulation, and as an anti - predator avoidance strategy in the absence of suitable large ...

  18. Preliminary study to investigate the Delboeuf illusion in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta: Methodological Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santacà

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual illusions are commonly used in animal cognition studies to compare visual perception among vertebrates. To date, researchers have focused their attention mainly on birds and mammals, especially apes and monkeys, but no study has investigated sensitivity to visual illusions in prosimians. Here we investigated whether lemurs (Lemur catta perceive the Delboeuf illusion, a well-known illusion that occurs when subjects misperceive the relative size of an item because of its surrounding context. In particular, we adopted the spontaneous preference paradigm used in chimpanzees and observed lemurs’ ability to select the larger amount of food. In control trials, we presented two different amounts of food on two identical plates. In test trials, we presented equal food portion sizes on two plates differing in size: If lemurs were sensitive to the illusion, they were expected to select the food portion presented on the smaller plate. In control trials, they exhibited poor performance compared to other mammals previously observed, being able to discriminate between the two quantities only in the presence of a 0.47 ratio. This result prevented us from drawing any conclusion regarding the subjects’ susceptibility to the Delboeuf illusion. In test trials with the illusory pattern, however, the subjects’ choices did not differ from chance. Our data suggest that the present paradigm is not optimal for testing the perception of the Delboeuf illusion in lemurs and highlight the importance of using different methodological approaches to assess the perceptual mechanisms underlying size discrimination among vertebrates.

  19. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  20. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  1. Optimalizace krmné dávky vybraných druhů lemurů

    OpenAIRE

    ŽAHOUROVÁ, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta, red ruffed lemur Varecia rubra and black and white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata belongs to the family Lemuridae, living at Madagaskar as endemits. In wildlife is folivorous and frugivorous food strategy at the both genus ? in the process g. Varecia is more frugivorous. Study was divided into two parts ? the first about ration of feeding chosen species of lemurs in several czech zoos and the second about ethology feeding behaviour lemurs in zoo Jihlava. For nut...

  2. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    stimulation have been proposed to explain this behaviour based on the distinctive typology and context in which it occurs. We present here qualitative observations of non-feeding use of millipedes in a comparative perspective in two primate species. Opportunistic data were collected in a prosimian species (a hybrid form of Eulemur sp. in a gallery forest South of Madagascar (occurrences in January 2005 and in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella in a tropical rainforest in French Guyana (occurrences in March-April 1996. Whereas capuchin monkeys anoint large parts of their fur with millipede secretions, lemurs only rub the circum-genital area, usually after smelling the millipedes, which appears to trigger a stereotyped response analogous to flehmen. Handling the millipedes in itself does not automatically result in millipedes secreting benzoquinones so that when lemurs and capuchin monkeys bite the arthropods (eventually blowing the legs off, they increase the probability of repulsive liquid being oozed. Associative learning of the handling conditions required to trigger millipedes’ secretions appears very efficient given the rare and opportunistic use of these arthropods by both primate species. We suggest that millipede use in our study is either a marginal form of social communication by which the individual odour is reinforced by anointment with strong smelling odours (Eulemur in which olfaction and scent marking are of paramount importance to social relationships or, in agreement with self-protection hypotheses, a behaviour that contribute to eliminate or protect from external parasites (Cebus.

  3. The Alaotra gentle lemur: Population estimation and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust (DWCT) has conducted since 1994 several census' on the population of the Alaotran gentle lemur to observe the development of the population in time and space.

  4. Ring-tailed lemurs: a species re-imagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauther, Michelle L; Gould, Lisa; Cuozzo, Frank P; O'Mara, M Teague

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, ring-tailed lemurs have been studied continuously in the wild. As one of the most long-studied primate species, the length and breadth of their study is comparable to research on Japanese macaques, baboons and chimpanzees. They are also one of the most broadly observed of all primates, with comprehensive research conducted on their behaviour, biology, ecology, genetics, palaeobiology and life history. However, over the last decade, a new generation of lemur scholars, working in conjunction with researchers who have spent decades studying this species, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of ring-tailed lemurs. In addition, research on this species has expanded beyond traditional gallery forest habitats to now include high altitude, spiny thicket, rocky outcrop and anthropogenically disturbed coastal forest populations. The focus of this special volume is to 're-imagine' the 'flagship species of Madagascar', bringing together three generations of lemur scholars. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Evaluating ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) from southwestern Madagascar for a genetic population bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, Joyce A; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Jacky, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf; Lawler, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    In light of historical and recent anthropogenic influences on Malagasy primate populations, in this study ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) samples from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) and Tsimanampetsotsa National Park (TNP), were evaluated for the genetic signature of a population bottleneck. A total of 45 individuals (20 from BMSR and 25 from TNP) were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Three methods were used to evaluate these populations for evidence of a historical bottleneck: M-ratio, mode-shift, and heterozygosity excess tests. Three mutation models were used for heterozygosity excess tests: the stepwise mutation model (SMM), two-phase model (TPM), and infinite allele model (IAM). M-ratio estimations indicated a potential bottleneck in both populations under some conditions. Although mode-shift tests did not strongly indicate a population bottleneck in the recent historical past when samples from all individuals were included, a female-only analysis indicated a potential bottleneck in TNP. Heterozygosity excess was indicated under two of the three mutation models (IAM and TPM), with TNP showing stronger evidence of heterozygosity excess than BMSR. Taken together, these results suggest that a bottleneck may have occurred among L. catta in southwestern Madagascar in the recent past. Given knowledge of how current major stochastic climatic events and human-induced change can negatively impact extant lemur populations, it is reasonable that comparable events in the historical past could have caused a population bottleneck. This evaluation additionally functions to highlight the continuing environmental and anthropogenic challenges faced by lemurs in southwestern Madagascar. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S; Blumenfeld-Jones, Kathryn; Raharison, Sahoby Marin; Tsaramanana, Donald Raymond; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2011-10-01

    In Madagascar, the gallery forests of the south are among the most endangered. Tamarind trees (Tamarindus indica) dominate these riverine forests and are a keystone food resource for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). At Berenty Reserve, the presence of tamarind trees is declining, and there is little recruitment of young trees. Because mature tamarinds inhibit growth under their crowns, seeds must be dispersed away from adult trees if tree recruitment is to occur. Ring-tailed lemurs are likely seed dispersers; however, because they spend much of their feeding, siesta, and sleeping time in tamarinds, they may defecate a majority of the tamarind seeds under tamarind trees. To determine whether they disperse tamarind seeds away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns, we observed two troops for 10 days each, noted the locations of feeding and defecation, and collected seeds from feces and fruit for germination. We also collected additional data on tamarind seedling recruitment under natural conditions, in which seedling germination was abundant after extensive rain, including under the canopy. However, seedling survival to 1 year was lower when growing under mature tamarind tree crowns than when growing away from an overhanging crown. Despite low fruit abundance averaging two fruits/m(3) in tamarind crowns, lemurs fed on tamarind fruit for 32% of their feeding samples. Daily path lengths averaged 1,266 m, and lemurs deposited seeds throughout their ranges. Fifty-eight percent of the 417 recorded lemur defecations were on the ground away from overhanging tamarind tree crowns. Tamarind seeds collected from both fruit and feces germinated. Because lemurs deposited viable seeds on the ground away from overhanging mature tamarind tree crowns, we conclude that ring-tailed lemurs provide tamarind tree seed dispersal services.

  7. Urethral obstruction with a copulatory plug following natural breeding in a ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer A; Chatfield, Jerilyn J; Chatfield, John A

    2014-04-01

    An 18-year old captive male lemur (Varecia rubra) housed in a breeding situation presented for lethargy and anorexia. Physical exam revealed urethral obstruction. Urethral plugs secondary to semen collection are common in lemurs. Here, we report the first case of naturally occurring urethral copulatory plug in a ruffed lemur. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Population demography and social structure changes in Eulemur fulvus rufus from 1988 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Elizabeth M; Overdorff, Deborah J

    2008-06-01

    Eulemur fulvus rufus has been described as having stable multi-male/multi-female groups, a male-biased sex ratio, and female philopatry. However, in a 16-year study of this subspecies we documented a great deal of demographic change as several groups permanently fissioned, some groups disappeared, and new groups formed. We split the dataset into two periods, 1988 to 1993 and 1994 to 2003, which coincided with the first disappearance of a study group (in August 1994) and the first permanent group fission (in December 1994). The average group size decreased by nearly half between the study periods (10.5-5.6), while the frequency of group membership changes increased (2.0-8.3 times/year), and the birth rate decreased (0.56-0.38). Females, as well as males, immigrated into study groups and transferred between groups, something that has been rarely seen in this subspecies. We also found a significant decline in the amount of fruit from the earliest part of the study to the latter part of the study. Study groups did not switch to other types of foods during periods of fruit shortage, but traveled outside of their home range areas more often over the study period. Finally, the density E. f. rufus decreased in the study area while the densities of their main food competitors, Varecia variegata and Eulemur rubriventer, increased. Although few primate populations are numerically stable over time, we suggest that female behavioral responses to decreases in fruit availability may have influenced some of the demographic changes we witnessed in this study. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Prevention of urethral blockage following semen collection in two species of lemur, Varecia variegata variegata and Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Penfold, Linda

    2007-06-01

    Lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered. The effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. Introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging because of the highly social nature of lemurs. Semen collection in lemur species is notoriously challenging, as the ejaculate forms a coagulum. During normal breeding, the coagulum forms a copulatory plug in the female. However, this coagulum can present a life-threatening situation when retained in the urethra abnormally following electroejaculation. This study investigates the use of ascorbic acid in preventing urethral blockage in two lemur species during semen collection, demonstrates successful collection of semen by electroejaculation from two species of lemur during the breeding season, and discusses removal of urethral plugs subsequent to semen collection. Semen was collected successfully from all animals. Urethral plugs formed during each collection and were abnormally retained in 2/11 collections. Both plugs were successfully and immediately removed with the use of retropulsion through a urethral catheter. Although the results of this study are encouraging, more investigation is required to establish whether or not this procedure can be safely performed in the field.

  10. Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Health Parameters across Two Habitats with Varied Levels of Human Disturbance at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cora L; Norris, Aimee M; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho

    2015-01-01

    The health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and Alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. While there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male lemurs in the gallery forest. Lemurs from the degraded spiny habitat had significantly higher mean packed cell volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, chloride, ionized calcium and urine specific gravity than lemurs from the reserve gallery forest. These findings may reflect lower hydration levels in lemurs living in degraded habitat, providing evidence that environmental degradation has identifiable impacts on the physiology and health of wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs living in nearby habitats. Given the greater evidence of human impact in the mixed dry deciduous/spiny forest habitat, a pattern seen throughout southern Madagascar, biomedical markers suggestive of decreased hydration can provide empirical data to inform new conservation policies facilitating the long-term survival of this lemur community. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Análise da morfologia interna do tronco encefálico de macaco-prego (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina do Valle Marques

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia e a morfologia interna do tronco encefálico (TE do macaco-prego (Cebus apella foram descritas com base nas observações feitas em troncos encefálicos de macacos adultos. Seis macacos Cebus apella adultos foram utilizados para as observações anatômicas. Para os estudos da morfologia interna os TE foram cortados seriadamente em seis níveis diferentes: decussação piramidal, porção superior da oliva, porção inferior da oliva, ponte, colículo superior e colículo inferior. Após esse procedimento eles foram corados com a técnica de Mulligan modificada por nós. Nossos resultados mostram que o TE de Cebus apella é caracterizado pela presença do sulco bulbo-pontino, aumento do tamanho do TE, especialmente da medula oblonga, com consequente lateralização do corpo trapezoide, presença do sulco ântero-lateral separando as pirâmides das olivas; desenvolvimento expressivo do corpo trapezoide, da ponte, dos núcleos da ponte e do pedúnculo cerebral. Estes resultados são consistentes com descrições prévias para outros primatas na literatura e sugerem que a organização e desenvolvimento do TE exibe semelhanças com primatas superiores, incluindo o homem, o que reflete as habilidades motoras da espécie estudada.

  12. Do gorila amestrado de taylor ao macaco de nicolelis From taylor's tamed gorilla to nicolelis' monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laymert Garcia dos Santos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de uma análise de Gramsci das transformações pelas quais passava o trabalhador humano no capitalismo do início do século XX, busca-se neste texto indicar aspectos de como tais processos de transformação vêm se dando no capitalismo do início do século XXI. Para isso, abordamos a transição da problemática muscular e energética da substituição do trabalhador humano pela máquina para a problemática cognitiva e informacional do controle nos acoplamentos homem-máquina. Do gorila amestrado de Taylor ao macaco de Nicolelis, mudaram as formas de subsunção do trabalhador ao capital, mas não a própria subsunção.With Gramsci's analysis of the transformations the human worker underwent in capitalism in the early 20th century as a starting point, this article seeks to point to aspects of how such transformation processes are taking place in capitalism in the early 21st century. To achieve this, we approach the transition from muscular and energetic problem of substituting human for machine labor to the cognitive and informational issue of control in the man-machine couplings. From Taylor's tamed gorilla to Nicolelis' monkey, the forms of subsumption of the worker to capital changed, but not the actual subsumption.

  13. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Seiler

    Full Text Available As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in breeding colonies of ruffed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, J F; Whitworth, U G; Hayes, Y; Summers, E; Pollock, J

    1984-12-01

    Two outbreaks of yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica occurred in breeding colonies of red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) housed in outdoor enclosures during the winter breeding season and spring birth season, respectively. Seven of 11 animals at risk in the combined outbreaks became ill, and 3 died of acute to chronic infection. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hyperpyrexia. Necropsy findings included ulcerative enterocolitis and multifocal necrosis and abscess formation in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs. Histologically, lesions were characterized by necrotizing inflammation containing masses of basophilic bacteria. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:2 was isolated from lesions. Neomycin sulfate given orally and chloramphenicol given intramuscularly were effective in treatment early in the course of the disease or in mild cases. In severe cases, lemurs did not respond to antibiotic and fluid therapy. Exposure to soil contaminated with infected rodent feces, stress, and behavioral factors in the ruffed lemur species are believed to have precipitated the infection.

  15. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The

  16. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat disturbances may impact behaviors of animals, includ- ing their activity patterns. In southwestern Madagascar ... activities including hunting of animals, illegal harvesting of plants, and clearing of land for agriculture disturb ... 2001), nocturnal mouse lemurs consume an omnivorous diet (Radespiel 2007, Atsalis 2008) ...

  17. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-11-09

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variation in hair length, hair and skin coloration as well as color brightness. Phylogenetically controlled analyses revealed that group size and the number of sympatric species did not influence the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs. Climatic factors, however, influenced facial color complexity, pigmentation and hair length in a few facial regions. Hair length in two facial regions was also correlated with group size and may facilitate individual recognition. Since phylogenetic signals were moderate to high for most models, genetic drift may have also played a role in the evolution of facial color patterns of lemurs. In conclusion, social factors seem to have played only a subordinate role in the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs, and, more generally, group size appears to have no systematic functional effect on facial color complexity across all primates.

  18. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Thoracic Limb Morphology of the Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Evidenced by Gross Osteology and Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-08-01

    There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES IN ENDANGERED, WILD RING-TAILED LEMURS ( LEMUR CATTA) AT THE BEZÀ MAHAFALY SPECIAL RESERVE, MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cora L; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Jacky, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf

    2018-03-01

    The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: Age- and sex-related differences were detected. Old lemurs had significantly lower lymphocyte count than adult and young lemurs, leading to markedly lower total leukocyte count and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Decreased lymphocyte count with advanced age is consistent with immunosenescence. Young lemurs had significantly higher total protein, monocyte count, and potassium than adult and old lemurs but significantly lower ionized calcium than adult lemurs. Males had significantly higher leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; lower percentage basophils; and higher blood urea nitrogen than females. Females had markedly higher glucose than males. Young females had the highest monocyte count and total protein, which were significantly lower in the adult and old age classes. Basophil count was stable in females across age but dropped precipitously in males in the adult and old age classes. Within adult and old age classes, males had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and lower basophils than females. Glucose was significantly higher after α2 agonist administration. Identifying age-related hematologic and biochemical changes in apparently healthy wild ring-tailed lemurs will aid in clinical diagnosis and treatment of lemurs in human care, which is especially relevant for management of geriatric animals in zoo populations. Equally important, a better understanding of the ability of aging lemurs to tolerate environmental stressors will inform the capacity for this species to cope with ongoing and future habitat alteration.

  1. Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.

  2. Gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A

    2013-03-01

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs.

  3. Spatial memory during foraging in prosimian primates: Propithecus edwardsi and Eulemur fulvus rufus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Elizabeth M; Overdorff, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    A variety of anthropoids travel efficiently from one food source to another, although there is disagreement over how this is accomplished over large-scale space. Mental maps, for example, require that animals internally represent space, geometrically locate landmarks, use true distance and direction, and generate novel shortcuts to resources. Alternately, topological or route-based maps are based on a network of fixed points, landmarks and routes so that one food patch can be linked with another. In this study we describe travel patterns between food sources for two prosimian species found in southeastern Madagascar, Propithecus edwardsi and Eulemur fulvus rufus. Both species are dependent on fruit and have large home range sizes. By comparing interpatch distances, patch size and turning angles, we found that both species prefer nearest neighbor food patches and P. edwardsi travels in relatively straight lines. The amount of backtracking seen in E. f. rufus may be linked to their large group size and dependence on large-crowned fruit trees. We suggest that the goal-oriented foraging of both prosimian species is dependent on a topological or route-based map. These are rare behavioral data relevant to ecological and social contexts of primate cognitive evolution. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Similaridade genética de populações naturais de pimenta-de-macaco por análise RAPD Genetic similarity of natural populations of pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. obtained throug RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria D. Gaia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie conhecida como pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. possui grande potencial para exploração econômica em função da comprovada utilidade do seu óleo essencial na agricultura e saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de populações naturais dessa planta. Um total de dezoito acessos da planta, provenientes de quatro procedências da Amazônia Brasileira, foi examinado por meio de locos de DNA, gerados por análise RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso. O estudo evidenciou a existência de real diversidade entre as populações examinadas, sendo provável que dentro das localidades investigadas, os padrões da diversidade genética acompanhem os padrões de distribuição geográfica.The species known as pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. has great economic explotation potential based on the proved usefulness of the essential oil in agriculture and human health. The genetic diversity of their natural populations was characterized. A total of eighteen accessions of the plant, obtained from four different origins in the Brazilian Amazon, was examined by means of DNA loci, generated by RAPD analysis. Real genetic diversity was observed between the analyzed populations and it appear that the patterns of the genetic diversity follow the patterns of the geographical distribution.

  5. Artista Artesão ou Artista Igual Pedreiro: de Mozart a Macaco Bong, uma história de lutas por autonomia * Artist Craftsman or Artist Equal Mason: from Mozart to "Macaco Bong", a history of struggles for autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL LAGE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: No livro "Mozart – Sociologia de um gênio", Norbert Elias descreve embates em torno de artistas artesãos (presos ao gosto musical da corte aristocrata e artistas autônomos (com certa autonomia musical, só que menos estruturados socialmente, apresentando Mozart como um agente de transição. Já em pleno século XXI, surge com a banda brasileira Macaco Bong o conceito de artista igual pedreiro, a ideia de envolvimento do músico nos processos produtivos, não apenas na hora de subir ao palco, apontando novas tecnologias digitais como democratizadoras. Neste artigo, discutirei reapropriações de antigas estratégias da indústria fonográfica, e de que forma elas retornam reconfiguradas com esses jovens oriundos da indústria musical do século XXI.Palavras-chave: Autonomia – Reconfigurações – Indústria fonográfica. Abstract: In the book "Mozart – Sociology of a Genius", Norbert Elias describes clashes around craftsmen artists (attached to the musical tastes of the court aristocracy and independent artists (with more freedom and musical autonomy, only less socially structured, presenting Mozart as an agent of transition. On the other hand, in the XXI century, comes up with the Brazilian band "Macaco Bong" the concept artist like mason, i. e., the idea of Musician’s involvement in the production process, not just in time to take the stage, pointing out the new digital technologies as a way for democratizing music. In this article, I will discuss reappropriations of ancient strategies of the music industry, and how they return reconfigured with these young people from the new music industry of the XXI century.Keywords: Autonomy – Reconfigurations – Music industry.

  6. Artist Craftsman or Artist Equal Mason: from Mozart to "Macaco Bong", a history of struggles for autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL LAGE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the book "Mozart – Sociology of a Genius", Norbert Elias describes clashes around craftsmen artists (attached to the musical tastes of the court aristocracy and independent artists (with more freedom and musical autonomy, only less socially structured, presenting Mozart as an agent of transition. On the other hand, in the XXI century, comes up with the Brazilian band "Macaco Bong" the concept artist like mason, i. e., the idea of Musician’s involvement in the production process, not just in time to take the stage, pointing out the new digital technologies as a way for democratizing music. In this article, I will discuss reappropriations of ancient strategies of the music industry, and how they return reconfigured with these young people from the new music industry of the XXI century.

  7. Generalidade da Aprendizagem em Situações de Uso de Ferramentas por um Macaco-Prego, Cebus Apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Elias Gotardelo Audebert Delage

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre o uso de ferramentas em primatas do gênero Cebus divergem sobre se esta habilidade seria do tipo associativa ou "por compreensão". Estudos mostraram que o uso de ferramentas aprendido em um contexto pode se transferir para outros contextos, indicando que algo além da aprendizagem "estímulo-e-resposta" estaria envolvido. Neste estudo um macaco-prego foi exposto a duas situações problema, uma em que o animal precisava encaixar duas varetas para alcançar um pedaço de alimento e outra em que o animal precisava encaixar outro modelo de varetas para golpear um equipamento. Os resultados mostraram que a resolução do primeiro problema facilitou a resolução do segundo, indicando que em novas situações respostas anteriormente bem sucedidas se tornam mais prováveis.

  8. Delimiting species without nuclear monophyly in Madagascar's mouse lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Weisrock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Speciation begins when populations become genetically separated through a substantial reduction in gene flow, and it is at this point that a genetically cohesive set of populations attain the sole property of species: the independent evolution of a population-level lineage. The comprehensive delimitation of species within biodiversity hotspots, regardless of their level of divergence, is important for understanding the factors that drive the diversification of biota and for identifying them as targets for conservation. However, delimiting recently diverged species is challenging due to insufficient time for the differential evolution of characters--including morphological differences, reproductive isolation, and gene tree monophyly--that are typically used as evidence for separately evolving lineages. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from the analysis of mtDNA and nDNA sequence data for the delimitation of a high diversity of cryptically diverged population-level mouse lemur lineages across the island of Madagascar. Our study uses a multi-faceted approach that applies phylogenetic, population genetic, and genealogical analysis for recognizing lineage diversity and presents the most thoroughly sampled species delimitation of mouse lemur ever performed. CONCLUSIONS: The resolution of a large number of geographically defined clades in the mtDNA gene tree provides strong initial evidence for recognizing a high diversity of population-level lineages in mouse lemurs. We find additional support for lineage recognition in the striking concordance between mtDNA clades and patterns of nuclear population structure. Lineages identified using these two sources of evidence also exhibit patterns of population divergence according to genealogical exclusivity estimates. Mouse lemur lineage diversity is reflected in both a geographically fine-scaled pattern of population divergence within established and

  9. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M.; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variatio...

  10. Biodiversity, phylogeography, biogeography and conservation: lemurs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Urs

    2007-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar represent a spectacular example of adaptive radiation among primates. Given the special setting under which they evolved (i.e. long isolation, geographical location, geological relief), they provide excellent models for study in many realms, and at different levels and scales, including diversity. At the same time, they occur in a 'hottest hot spot' region for biodiversity conservation. Although there is no single definition of biodiversity, the most commonly used units to measure biodiversity are species-species richness, species abundance and, for conservation purposes in particular, species endemism. However, what a species actually is or how, precisely, it should be defined are unresolved issues. Many species concepts have been proposed and several have been used in primatology in recent years. Nowadays, one of the more common approaches to measuring diversity, and eventually inferring species status, is to look at genetic diversity as reflected by mitochondrial DNA differences. Not enough attention has been paid, however, to the different levels at which genetic differences may occur. Lemurs provide instructive examples to highlight the questions involved in species recognition and definition. Using lemurs as examples, I will highlight the strengths and limitations of some analytical tools, including phylogeography and cladistic biogeography and, I will, in particular, emphasize the questions arising at the interface of scientific and conservation perceptions, both of which influence decisions in the field of biodiversity preservation. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF CAPTIVE AND FREE-LIVING LEMURS AND DOMESTIC CARNIVORES IN EASTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Poirotte, Clémence; Porton, Ingrid J; Freeman, Karen L M; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa; Olson, Kimberly G; Iambana, Bernard; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Fecal samples from captive and free-living lemurs at Ivoloina Zoological Park (IZP) and domestic carnivores from six villages surrounding IZP were evaluated between July and August 2012. Free-living lemurs from Betampona Natural Reserve (BNR), a relatively pristine rainforest fragment 40 km away, were also evaluated in November 2013. All 33 dogs sampled (100%) and 16 of 22 cats sampled (72.7%) were parasitized, predominantly with nematodes (strongyles, ascarids, and spirurids) as well as cestodes and protozoans. Similar types of parasites were identified in the lemur populations. Identification of spirurid nematodes and protozoans in the lemur fecal samples were of concern due to previously documented morbidity and mortality in lemurs from these parasitic agents. Twelve of 13 free-living (93%) and 31 of 49 captive (63%) lemurs sampled at IZP had a higher parasite prevalence than lemurs at BNR, with 13 of 24 (54%) being parasitized. The lemurs in BNR are likely at risk of increased exposure to these parasites and, therefore, increased morbidity and mortality, as humans and their domestic animals are encroaching on this natural area.

  12. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, N

    2000-07-01

    Niche separation was documented in a year-long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. lbifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. ubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different-sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species-specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low-fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Discovery of an island population of dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus) on Nosy Hara, far northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J; Jasper, Louise D

    2015-10-01

    The species-level diversity of Madagascar's lemurs has increased hugely over the last two decades, growing from 32 species in 1994 to 102 species in 2014. This growth is primarily due to the application of molecular phylogenetic analyses and the phylogenetic species concept to known populations, and few previously unknown lemur populations have been discovered during this time. We report on a new population of dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus sp.) from Nosy Hara, a 312-ha island in far northern Madagascar, which constitutes the northernmost distribution record for the genus. The dwarf lemurs appeared to show two characteristics of island populations-insular dwarfism and predator naïveté-that suggest a long isolation, and may thus represent an undescribed taxon. If this is the case, the dwarf lemurs of Nosy Hara are probably one of the rarest primate taxa on Earth.

  14. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The textuality of O Macaco Brasileiro in the foundation of the brazilian journalistic discourse (1821-1822=A textualidade do Macaco Brasileiro na fundação do discurso jornalístico brasileiro (1821-1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Benedetto Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of my doctorate research1, which aimed at understanding the foundation and the operation of the journalistic discourse in Brazil and the meaning of nation, freedom and independence during the years 1821 and 1822. This research is theoretically based on the Discourse Analysis (Pêcheux, 1969, 1975; Orlandi, 1996, 1999 producing interpretation moves that will make it possible to understand part of the functioning of an epoch, as well as of a social practice that produces founding principles. We realize that it was not the arrival of the Portuguese Court to Brazil that produced a Brazilian journalistic discourse, but the presence of a Brazilian press. It was from 1821, with the bill that abolished the previous censorship, that there was a displacement from the journalism determined by the Court to another discursivity. This happens in the textuality of O Macaco Brasileiro. As it installs a new discursivity, it materializes a new Brazilian journalist subject position which corresponds to the foundation of the Brazilian journalistic discourse.Este artigo é um recorte da minha pesquisa de doutorado, cujo objetivo foi compreender a fundação e o funcionamento do discurso jornalístico no Brasil e os sentidos de nação, liberdade e independência nos anos de 1821-1822. Nossa pesquisa tem como suporte teórico a Análise do Discurso, (Pêcheux, 1969, 1975; Orlandi, 1996, 1999 produzindo gestos de interpretação que vão possibilitar compreender parte do funcionamento de uma época, de uma prática social que produzem sentidos fundadores. Entendemos que a vinda da Corte para o Brasil não produziu um discurso brasileiro jornalístico, mas a presença de uma imprensa brasileira. Foi a partir de 1821, com o decreto abolindo a censura prévia, que houve um deslocamento do jornalismo determinado pela Corte para uma outra discursividade. Isso se dá na textualidade de O Macaco Brasileiro que ao inaugurar uma nova discursividade

  16. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

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    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  17. Indução do Uso de Ferramentas como Enriquecimento Ambiental para Macacos-prego (Sapajus libidinosus Cativos

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    Murilo Reis Camargo

    Full Text Available RESUMO Testamos o efeito de um aparato que pudesse induzir o uso de ferramentas no comportamento de seis macacos-prego cativos. Utilizamos “animal focal” para o tempo gasto em estados comportamentais gerais e estados indicativos de estresse, concomitantemente com “todas as ocorrências” de eventos agonísticos e de comportamentos estereotipados. O grupo mostrou perfis de orçamento de atividades diversificados, com respostas variadas aos fatores estressantes a que estavam expostos. Alguns indivíduos reduziram alguns comportamentos indicativos de estresse, porém não houve variação significativa para o grupo. Conclui-se que o aparato não foi eficiente, mostrando suas limitações como medida de enriquecimento para a espécie. Em razão dos efeitos individuais, sugerimos, no entanto, que a técnica possa ser eficaz em grupos específicos ou condições muito estressantes.

  18. Peracute Bacterial Meningitis due to Infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in Captive-bred Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia variegate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, E; Tokiwa, T; Tsugo, K; Higashi, Y; Hori, H; Une, Y

    We describe the development of neurological signs in four juvenile black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate), housed at a petting zoo in Japan. The clinical course was severe, with three lemurs dying within 1 day of the appearance of clinical signs. The other lemur was treated and survived. Pathological analyses demonstrated meningitis and the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum, cerebellum, palatine tonsil and liver. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the brain of all of the dead lemurs. Multilocus sequence typing analysis showed that all the isolates were sequence type 86 (ST86). To our knowledge, this is the first determination of K. pneumoniae infection in ruffed lemurs of this genus. K. pneumoniae infection may represent a risk to lemurs and people who come into contact with infected animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in a lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata)--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, P; Petzold, D R; Brandt, H P

    1996-05-01

    This case report describes a spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma in a six years-old female lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata) with widespread metastases. Potential causes of hepatic neoplasms are discussed.

  20. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dominance hierarchy in the male group of ruffed lemurs (Varecia spp.) in the Ostrava ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    STEHLÍKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates a dominance hierarchy in a male group of ruffed lemurs (Varecia spp.). I introduce a new method of data processing in unstable and inconsistent dominance hierarchy. Data were collected in the Ostrava ZOO during 30 days in the summer of 2009 and 28 days in the of winter 2010. The results demonstrate unusual structure in the sequences of agonistic interactions. The lemur group exhibited unstable and inconsistent dominance hierarchy with a low level of linearity. It appea...

  2. Functional analysis of aggression in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    A functional analysis was conducted to assess the antecedent and reinforcing conditions underlying aggressive behavior in a female lemur in captivity. Results showed that her aggression was primarily the result of human attention. A replacement behavior-training program was introduced, and the lemur's aggression was successfully eliminated. These results demonstrate the utility of using functional assessment and analyses in zoos with captive wild nonhuman animals.

  3. Hematology and serum chemistry values of juvenile and adult ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, W B; Olson, T P

    1985-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are presented for adult and juvenile red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) and black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) maintained in a zoological collection. Hematologic and serum chemical values are compared between age groups and subspecies and with other primate species. Elevated hematocrit, total protein, and serum albumin values were noted. Significant differences in cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin values between the two age groups are discussed.

  4. Behavioral thermoregulation in Lemur catta: The significance of sunning and huddling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Jablonski, Nina G; Chaplin, George; Sussman, Robert W; Kamilar, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of body temperature poses significant problems for organisms that inhabit environments with extreme and seasonally fluctuating ambient temperatures. To help alleviate the energetic costs of autonomic responses, these organisms often thermoregulate through behavioral mechanisms. Among primates, lemurs in Madagascar experience uncharacteristically seasonal and unpredictable climates relative to other primate-rich regions. Malagasy primates are physiologically flexible, but different species use different mechanisms to influence their body temperatures. Lemur catta, the ring-tailed lemur, experiences particularly acute diurnal temperature fluctuations in its mostly open-canopy habitat in south and southwest Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs are also atypical among lemurs in that they appear to use both sun basking postures and huddling to maintain body temperature when ambient temperatures are cold. To our knowledge, however, no one has systematically tested whether these behaviors function in thermoregulation. We present evidence that ring-tailed lemurs use these postures as behavioral thermoregulation strategies, and that different environmental variables are associated with the use of each posture. Major predictors of sunning included ambient temperature, time of day, and season. Specifically, L. catta consistently assumed sunning postures early after daybreak when ambient temperatures were thermoregulation and the absence of a dynamic, insulating pelage. Sunning and huddling help to account for the great ecological flexibility of the species, but these adaptations may be insufficient in the face of future changes in protective vegetation and temperature. Am. J. Primatol. 78:745-754, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Atividade antimcrobiana e caracterização molecular de microorganismos endofíticos isolados de folhas de Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul.) Malme (rabo de macaco)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Pinto, Luciane

    2003-01-01

    Foram isolados de folhas desinfetadas de rabo-de-macaco (Lonchocarpus guilleminianus) 36 microrganismos endofíticos, sendo 12 bactérias (9 Gramnegativas e 3 Gram-positivas) e 24 fungos filamentosos. No ensaio primário em Bloco de Gelose as 12 bactérias endofíticas não apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, enquanto 10 (27,8%) fungos endofíticos foram ativos para Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida sp...

  6. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

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    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  7. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Andreas; Gligor, Mark; Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Rosenkranz, David; Zupke, Oliver

    2011-10-11

    Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs in different environmental settings. This sheds light on the

  8. SYSTEMIC BLASTOMYCOSIS IN A CAPTIVE RED RUFFED LEMUR (VARECIA RUBRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Michael F; Lindemann, Dana M; Barger, Anne M; Allender, Matthew C; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Howes, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement. Thoracic ultrasound confirmed a large, hypoechoic mass in the right lung lobes. Fine-needle aspiration of the lung mass and cytology revealed fungal yeast organisms, consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Blastomyces Quantitative EIA Test on urine was positive. Postmortem examination confirmed systemic blastomycosis involving the lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, cerebrum, and eye. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of blastomycosis in a prosimian species.

  9. Monitoring Impacts of Natural Resource Extraction on Lemurs of the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Merenlender; Claire Kremen; Marius Rakotondratsima; Andrew Weiss

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring the influence of human actions on flagship species is an important part of conserving biodiversity, because the information gained is crucial for the development and adaptation of conservation management plans. On the Masoala Peninsula in Madagascar, we are monitoring the two largest prosimian species, Eulemur fulvus albifrons and Varecia variegata rubra, at disturbed and undisturbed forest sites to determine if extraction of forest resources has a significant impact on the populat...

  10. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  11. Análise de alguns parâmetros normais do espermograma de macaco-prego (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758

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    Renato Campanarut Barnabe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidos a eletro-ejaculação 9 macacos-prego, adultos, pertencentes à Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, com o uso de eletrodo retal bipolar, sob anestesia geral obtida pela aplicação da associação tiletamina-zolazepan. Do sêmen assim obtido foram analisadas apenas as frações líquidas resultantes após a coagulação do ejaculado, não havendo nenhum tratamento químico para sua dissolução, apenas a separação das frações após a ejaculação. O volume médio obtido foi de 0,2ml, a concentração média de 56.169 x 10(6 espermatozóides/ml, com motilidade média de 68,4% e vigor médio de 2,6.O percentual médio de espermatozóides morfológicamente normais foi de 39%. A técnica é eficiente em macacos-prego (Cebus apella e estes resultados permitem a avaliação do sêmen evitando-se os danos causados pela dissolução química do coágulo seminal.

  12. Description of the gastrointestinal tract of five lemur species: Propithecus tattersalli, Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, Varecia variegata, Hapalemur griseus, and Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J L; Eisemann, J H; Williams, C V; Glenn, K M

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this project was to better define the similarities and differences in gastrointestinal morphology present in lemur species. Measurements of the gastrointestinal tract of lemurs were obtained at necropsy from the captive population at Duke University Primate Center. Measurements of body length and weight, as well as gastrointestinal length, were recorded from five prosimian species: Propithecus tattersalli, Propithecus verreauxi, Varecia variegata, Hapalemur griseus, and Lemur catta. Photographs and measurements were used to obtain illustrations. Preliminary results suggest differences in gastrointestinal morphology among lemur species that coincide with differences in diet. Distinct sacculations in either the cecum or the colon were present for H. griseus, L. catta, P. verreauxi, and P. tattersalli, but not for V. variegata. The Propithecus specimens possessed a much greater ratio of gastrointestinal length to body length than the other three species. A short, blunt cecum and a shortened and sacculated colon were unique characteristics of the H. griseus specimens. These differences correlate well with a dietary shift from consumption of large amounts of structural plant cell wall (Propithecus sp.) to consumption of variable or moderate amounts (H. griseus, L. catta, and V. variegata). They also suggest that captive groups would benefit from further diet refinement in captivity.

  13. High reproductive effort is associated with decreasing mortality late in life in captive ruffed lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, Morgane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Douay, Guillaume; Whipple, Mylisa; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-01

    Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions. We report clear evidence of actuarial senescence (i.e., the decline of annual survival with increasing age) in both sexes and for both species of ruffed lemurs. RRL had a lower baseline mortality and senesced faster than BWRL, resulting in similar distributions of longevities for both species. No between-sex difference was observed in any species. Lastly, a higher reproductive effort was positively associated with an increase of survival late in life, and thereby an increased longevity. These findings indicate that individual quality rather than trade-off drives the association between reproductive success and survival pattern among individual lemurs of both species in the protected environment provided by zoos. Lemurs are among the world's highest conservation priorities and better understanding factors influencing their longevity and actuarial senescence patterns should improve their conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Interstitial cell tumor in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, D L; Klein, E C

    2001-06-01

    A 14.5-yr-old, male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegatus variegatus) presented for acute enlargement of the left testicle and hemiscrotum. Physical examination also revealed poor pelage quality with short guard hairs, sparse undercoat, and areas of alopecia. Increased aggression was also reported. A unilateral, open orchiectomy was performed, with the left testicle, epidydymis, associated vaginal tunic, and attached spermatic cord removed. Microscopic evaluation was consistent with an interstitial cell tumor, with many morphologic features similar to this neoplasm in people. No overt histopathologic criteria of malignancy were present. Following orchiectomy, gradual improvement in pelage quality was noted and was considered almost normal by 5 mo postoperative. In contrast with the aggressive preoperative behavior, the lemur was extremely submissive for 3 mo following the surgery. Gradual return to normal behavior and social status occurred over the next 2 mo. Multiple follow-up examinations and radiographs revealed no evidence of metastasis, and biopsy of the remaining testicle 4 mo later revealed no evidence of neoplasia. Serial measurements of testosterone and estradiol revealed levels within the range of those for other ruffed lemurs, as were repeated measurements taken of the remaining testicle. At 19 mo postoperative, the lemur had a coat quality considered nearly normal and maintained its historical social position in the lemur group without abnormal aggressive behavior.

  15. The behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Seeligson, M L; Macedonia, J M

    1988-01-01

    A stable social group of 7 semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) was studied for 4 months to catalog the behavioral repertoire of this species. Observations focussed on particular aspects of behavior were conducted before and after this 4-month period to supplement information gathered. Behavior in 11 major categories is detailed: postures, terrestrial locomotion, arboreal locomotion, feeding behavior, vocalizations, scent-marking, affinitive social behavior, agonistic social behavior, play behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. Ruffed lemurs frequently used body positions and locomotor patterns unusual among lemurids, including bipedal hanging and long-descent leaps. These behaviors reinforce dental evidence that Varecia are among the most frugivorous of the Malagasy lemurs. Low intragroup cohesion, infrequent social interaction, and antiphonal use of several long-distance vocalizations suggest that ruffed lemurs naturally exhibit fission-fusion sociality. Social structure based on interindividual familiarity probably extends across foraging parties for several of the diurnally active lemurs; however, thus far only Varecia seems likely to exhibit fission-fusion sociality analogous to that seen in spider monkeys and chimpanzees.

  16. Preliminary biomedical evaluation of wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2005-05-01

    Complete medical examinations were performed on 11 wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra) from three sites in Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination, several physiological parameters were analyzed (complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, and fecal bacterial culture), and the animals were examined for endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. Additional tests were performed as samples were available, including fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, toxoplasmosis serology, and viral serology. We found that the ruffed lemurs were in good health, harbored a low endoparasite load, and frequently had external parasites (e.g., ticks (Haemophysalis lemuris)). Statistically significant differences between captive and wild lemurs were found for the following serum biochemical and blood count parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, glucose, amylase, band neutrophil count, and eosinophil count. Low blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum cholesterol values in wild lemurs (compared to those of North American captive zoo ruffed lemurs) may suggest differences between diets in the wild and captivity. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Fatal echinococcosis in three lemurs in the United Kingdom--A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Daniela; Boufana, Belgees; Masters, Nicholas J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2016-03-15

    Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus reside in the small intestine of a number of carnivorous species, predominantly canids. In enzootic areas, hydatidosis caused by taeniid metacestodes can present a significant problem in accidental intermediate hosts, including humans. Whereas the United Kingdom is currently considered free of Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Echinococcus equinus are endemic in the UK and have been reported in a variety of captive mammals. The presentation of echinoccocosis in non-human primates widely parallels disease in humans, and public health concerns are related to the four genera, E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. In contrast, sporadic outbreaks and individual hydatid disease cases in non-human primates have been associated with several Echinococcus and Taenia species. Here we describe three fatal cases of cystic echinococcosis in two captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and one captive red-ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and provide molecular tapeworm characterisation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this includes the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi in a UK born ring-tailed lemur and provides the first in depth case reports of echinococcosis due to E. equinus in UK born ring-tailed and red ruffed lemurs with detailed clinical and pathological findings. The cestode life cycle and implications for zoo collections are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why all those spines? Anachronistic defences in the Didiereoideae against now extinct lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants evolve physical defences, such as spines, against browsing herbivores. However, in some cases, these defences may be anachronistic because the principal consumers of protected parts of the plant are extinct. In such cases, there may be few extant species consuming heavily defended resources. Here we examine the spiny defences of Madagascar’s endemic Didiereoideae, and ask whether they may be anachronistic. To accomplish this aim, we reviewed the literature to determine which species consume these plants today, and then used stable isotope biogeochemistry to determine who may have exploited Didiereoideae in the recent past. There are four major groups of browsers that are now extinct in Madagascar: giant lemurs, elephant birds (Aepyornis and Mullerornis: Aepyornithidae, pygmy hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus and giant tortoises (Aldabrachelys: Testudinidae. Each group was evaluated for isotopic evidence of didiereoid plant consumption. Given the structure of members of this plant clade (especially Alluaudia, we predicted that lemurs would be their most important consumers. Three extant lemur species consume Didiereoideae. Several of the extinct lemurs, particularly Hadropithecus stenognathus, may have relied heavily on these spiny plants. None of the non-lemur megafaunal browsers (elephant birds, hippopotamuses and giant tortoises were important consumers of Didiereoideae.

  19. Beyond the Gallery Forest: Contrasting Habitat and Diet in Lemur catta Troops at Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho

    2015-01-01

    Ring-tailed lemurs have been studied intensively in the Parcel 1 gallery forest of Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve. Here, we report on lemur groups in a mixture of deciduous dry forest and spiny forest just 5 km to the west. Compared to Parcel 1, Parcel 2 (P2) has a lower density of Tamarindus indica, a major dietary plant species for gallery forest lemurs. Recent studies in drier habitats have called into question the association of lemur density and tamarind presence. In order to address this question, we measured forest structure and composition of plant plots between parcels and conducted lemur feeding observations. The trees and shrubs within the parcels did not differ in height or diameter at breast height, but the frequencies of plant species that were common between parcels were significantly different. Numbers of feeding observations on foods common to both parcels did not differ, but their relative rankings within parcels did. Frequencies of food plants corresponded to earlier reports of lemur population densities. However, we found that the ring-tailed lemur diet is a mixture of plants that are eaten in abundance regardless of frequency and those that are locally available. In terms of their reliance on Tamarindus, P2 animals appear intermediate between those in gallery forests and nontamarind sites. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Diurnal distribution of loud calls in sympatric wild indris (Indri indri) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata): implications for call functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Thomas; Mutschler, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    We carried out a short study on the diurnal call distribution of two sympatric lemurs in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale Zahamena (eastern Madagascar). Whereas indris (Indri) song bouts were clearly concentrated in the early morning hours, the roar/shriek choruses of ruffed lemurs (Varecia) exhibited a much more even distribution throughout the day. These differences in distribution pattern support earlier claims that indri song bouts are more likely to serve territorial functions, whereas ruffed lemur loud calls may serve both spacing and/or alarm call functions.

  1. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was

  2. Does nonnutritive tree gouging in a rainforest-dwelling lemur convey resource ownership as does loud calling in a dry forest-dwelling lemur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Joly-Radko, Marine

    2010-12-01

    Nonhuman primates may defend crucial resources using acoustic or chemical signals. When essential resources are limited, ownership display for a resource may be enhanced. Defending resources may depend on population density and habitat characteristics. Using the Milne Edwards' sportive lemurs (Lepilemur edwardsi) and weasel sportive lemurs (L. mustelinus) as models, we tested whether two cryptic nocturnal lemur species differing in population density and habitat show differences in their vocal and chemical communication for signaling ownership of resources. L. edwardsi inhabits a western dry deciduous forest in a high-density population, whereas L. mustelinus is found in an eastern rainforest in low density. We followed ten L. edwardsi (six males and four females) and nine L. mustelinus (four males and five females) for 215 hr during the early evening (06:00-10:00 p.m.) and the early morning (02:00-05:00 a.m.) and recorded their behavior using focal animal sampling. We found that both species differed in their vocal and chemical communication. L. edwardsi was highly vocal and displayed loud calling in the mornings and evenings while feeding or in the vicinity of resting places. In contrast, L. mustelinus never vocalized during observations, but displayed tree-gouging behavior that was never observed in L. edwardsi. Tree gouging occurred more often during early evening sessions than early morning sessions. Subjects gouged trees after leaving their sleeping hole and before moving around. We suggest that, in weasel sportive lemurs, non-nutritive tree gouging is used as a scent-marking behavior in order to display ownership of sleeping sites. Altogether, our findings provide first empirical evidence on the evolution of different communication systems in two cryptic nocturnal primate species contrasting in habitat quality and population density. Further investigations are needed to provide more insight into the underlying mechanisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: I. Differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    An index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. Coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. Adult males did not differ overall from adult females. Coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old subadults; 1-year-old juveniles were intermediate. Mothers and adult males lost coat condition as the season progressed: non-mother females maintained condition. Years 1999-2002 scored better coats than either 1996-1997 or 2003-2006. Lemurs in high population density areas had worse coats than in natural forest, but tourist presence had less effect than density. Monitoring coat condition in an apparently healthy population reveals differences between population segments, and in a forest fragment with limited immigration or emigration it can track progressive changes, correcting impressions of progressive improvement or degradation over time. Above all it gives a baseline for response to climate changes or eventual pathology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dietary and faecal iron levels in captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)

    OpenAIRE

    Caravaggi, Anthony; Bishop, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A poster derived from an undergraduate study of iron in captive ruffed lemur diets. The project was supported by the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Presented at the 11th BIAZA Research Symposium, Blackpool Zoo, 2009.

  5. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

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    Clément Gilbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  6. Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.

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    Julie Rushmore

    Full Text Available Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli, frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp, and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta. We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically. We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant. Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

  7. Nutrient composition of plants consumed by black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, in the Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Debra A; Iambana, R Bernard; Britt, Adam; Junge, Randall E; Welch, Charles R; Porton, Ingrid J; Kerley, Monty S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations were also determined. A total of 122 samples from 33 plant families and more than 60 species were collected and analyzed for their nutritional content. The specific nutrient needs of black and white ruffed lemurs are unknown, but quantifying the nutritional composition of the foods they consume in the wild will help nutritionists and veterinarians formulate more appropriate diets for captive ruffed lemurs. This information will also supply information on how man-induced habitat changes affect the nutritional composition of foods consumed by free-ranging lemurs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Use of desferoxamine and S-adenosylmethionine to treat hemochromatosis in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos R; Murray, Suzan; Montali, Richard J

    2004-02-01

    Hemochromatosis was diagnosed in a 14-year-old, male, red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata ruber) on the basis of abnormal results of serum biochemical analysis, including high serum ferritin and transferrin saturation values, and of liver biopsy. Therapy included chelation, using desferoxamine to remove excess iron and S-adenosylmethionine to improve liver function, and monthly peripheral blood removal by phlebotomy to reduce total body iron content. Response to treatment was assessed by changes in the lemur's attitude and appetite, as well as variations in serum biochemical and iron panel values. Initial improvement was associated with the onset of therapy. After 56 days of treatment, results of serum biochemical analysis indicated a decrease in iron panel values. Treatment was temporarily discontinued from days 56 to 65, and the lemur's condition worsened, so therapy was re-instituted. However, the lemur died of hepatocellular carcinoma on day 110 of treatment.

  9. O papel do sistema pecuário familiar na qualidade de vida dos agricultores-criadores das comunidades Monte Macaco e Santa Margarida - Ilha de São Tomé The paper of familiar pecuniary system in the life quality of: livestock smallholders of Monte Macaco and Santa Margarida comunities - São Tomé Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Bandeira Bonfim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visa levantar problemas prioritários e propor estratégias e acções que o sistema pecuário familiar pode desempenhar para redução da pobreza e melhoria da qualidade de vida das Comunidades Monte Macaco e Santa Margarida na Ilha de São Tomé. Não é conclusivo, mas aponta como principal causa das dificuldades a falta de dinheiro para fazer face a problemas sanitários, de alojamento e de alimentação para animais, situação agravada pelo roubo destes e mau funcionamento das Associações. A discussão sobre as causas levou à proposta de soluções tendentes a ultrapassar as dificuldades. Os agricultores-criadores propõem a elaboração de um projecto de intervenção para melhorar o sistema e a qualidade de vida. Nesse sentido, o estudo sugere realização de uma oficina comunitária, planeamento participativo e um inquérito formal concomitante.The study aimed to identify main problems and find out strategies and actions to be taken by livestock smallholders to reduce poverty and improve quality of life of Monte Macaco and Santa Margarida Comunities of São Tomé Island. Although it is inconclusive, the result shows that lack of fïnancing support to invest on animal health, housing and feeding is the main constraint for livestock smalholders production and it becomes worst due to animal robbery and weakness of Comunnity Associations. Discussion about causes led to the proposal of actions to overcome difficulties. Livestock smallholders suggested an intervention project to enhance the system and the quality of life. In this sense, there should be workshops, leading to the participative planning of Community and based on formal surveys.

  10. Pachydermoperiostosis-Like Disease In Captive Red Ruffled Lemurs (Varecia Variegatus Rubra)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Rothschild; Donald Neiffer; Steve Marks

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermatoperiostosis, a rare form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is of unknown etiology and previously thought limited to humans. The only periosteal reaction previously reported in prosimians is related to renal disease. Notation of hypertrophic osteoarthritis in three prosimians led to recognition that this was the first non-human documentation of the disease. Three related red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegatus rubra) had diaphyseal periosteal reaction classic for hypertrophic osteoar...

  11. Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Lemurs Inferred with Recent and Ancient Fossils in the Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-09-01

    Paleontological and neontological systematics seek to answer evolutionary questions with different data sets. Phylogenies inferred for combined extant and extinct taxa provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of life. Primates have an extensive, diverse fossil record and molecular data for living and extinct taxa are rapidly becoming available. We used two models to infer the phylogeny and divergence times for living and fossil primates, the tip-dating (TD) and fossilized birth-death process (FBD). We collected new morphological data, especially on the living and extinct endemic lemurs of Madagascar. We combined the morphological data with published DNA sequences to infer near-complete (88% of lemurs) time-calibrated phylogenies. The results suggest that primates originated around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, slightly earlier than indicated by the fossil record and later than previously inferred from molecular data alone. We infer novel relationships among extinct lemurs, and strong support for relationships that were previously unresolved. Dates inferred with TD were significantly older than those inferred with FBD, most likely related to an assumption of a uniform branching process in the TD compared with a birth-death process assumed in the FBD. This is the first study to combine morphological and DNA sequence data from extinct and extant primates to infer evolutionary relationships and divergence times, and our results shed new light on the tempo of lemur evolution and the efficacy of combined phylogenetic analyses. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

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    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  13. Estudo das artérias cerebelares do macaco-prego: considerações sobre a nomenclatura (Cebus apella, L.1766

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    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos as artérias cerebelares no macaco prego (Cebus apella. Para tanto utilizamos 57 hemisférios cerebelares obtidos de animais já utlizados em pesquisas anteriores o que permitiu-nos não sacrificar vidas para esta pesquisa. O método incluiu microdissecações sob mesoscopi de luz após injeção do sistema arterial com látex corrado (neopreme 450 e sulvinil corante. A análise do material evidenciou que o suprimento sanguíneo do cerebelo é dependente do sistema vértebro basilar que emitiu vasos em geral pares para as diferentes regiões cerebelares e porção ventral do tronco cerebral. Identificamos os seguintes troncos de suprimento arteriais cerebelares: inferiores caudais, inferiores rostrais, anteriores, superior e pontinos. O primeiro tronco é dependente da artéria vertebral (100%, o segundo da artéria basilar (63,15%, e os três últimos dependentes da artéria basilar. A nominação destas artérias não esta plenamente estabelecida acreditmaos que em razão da tendência de comparar os primatas em geral com os humanos, o que vai de encontro ao estabelecido na nomenclatura Veterinária Oficial.

  14. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus During Torpor

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    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF, and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2 but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others. Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  15. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF MACACOS STREAM IN THE WATER QUALITY OF MOGI GUAÇU RIVER, IN THE COUNTY OF MOGI GUAÇU, STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Araujo de Medeiros3; Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis; Fernando Verdenacci Madruga; Lucilia do Carmo Giordano

    2008-01-01

    The continuous and disorganized growth of the population and of the cities, associated to the absence of sanitation has caused to a degradation of the water resources at the main brazilian watersheds. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the influence of the Macacos stream on water quality of the Mogi Guaçu river, at county of Mogi Guaçu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was carried out on months of July and August of 2006, by means of the analysis of the water quality in ...

  17. PERCEPÇÕES E ATITUDES DE MORADORES RURAIS EM RELAÇÃO AOS MACACOS-PREGO NA ÁREA DE INFLUÊNCIA DA USINA HIDRELÉTRICA DONA FRANCISCA, SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA, LARA CRISTIANI; FORTES, VANESSA BARBISAN

    2015-01-01

    As frequentes alterações dos habitats naturais promovidas pelo ser humano aumentam a proximidade com a fauna silvestre e favorecem o surgimento de conflitos. Nos últimos anos, moradores de comunidades rurais na área de influência da Usina Hidrelétrica Dona Francisca (UHEDF), na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, têm reclamado de um suposto aumento na população de macacos-prego, que estariam causando danos aos cultivos agrícolas. Visando fornecer subsídios para a mitigação dos conflitos, est...

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate serum ferritin in black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Crawford, Graham

    2005-12-01

    Lemurs in captivity progressively accumulate iron deposits in a variety of organs (hemosiderosis) including duodenum, liver, and spleen throughout their lives. When excessive, the toxic effects of intracellular iron on parenchymal cells, particularly the liver, can result in clinical disease and death. The pathogenesis of excessive iron storage in these species has been attributed to dietary factors related to diets commonly fed in captivity. Tissue iron stores can be directly estimated by tissue biopsy and histologic examination, or quantitated by chemical analysis of biopsy tissue, However, expense and risk associated with anesthesia and surgery prevent routine use of tissue biopsy to assess iron status. A noninvasive means of assessing total body iron stores is needed to monitor iron stores in lemurs to determine whether dietary modification is preventing excessive iron deposition, and to monitor potential therapies such as phlebotomy or chelation. Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, cats, and pigs. Serum ferritin is considered the best serum analyte to predict total body iron stores in these species and is more reliable than serum iron or total iron binding capacity, both of which may be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy or excess including hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, renal disease, and drug administration. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin in lemurs. The assay uses polyclonal rabbit anti-human ferritin antibodies in a sandwich arrangement. Ferritin isolated from liver and spleen of a black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was used as a standard. Ferritin standards were linear from 0 to 50 microg/L. Recovery of purified ferritin from lemur serum varied from 95% to 110%. The within-assay variability was 4.5%, and the assay-to-assay variability for three different samples ranged

  19. Lemurs in a complex landscape: mapping species density in subtropical dry forests of southwestern Madagascar using data at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Anne C; Maurer, Brian A

    2011-01-01

    The study of southern dry forest lemurs has been largely restricted to small reserves; yet, the majority of the region's lemur populations reside outside protected areas. Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi occupy the same forests but have different dietary preferences. This study assessed L. catta and P. verreauxi population densities across a 3-km dry forest gradient (1,539 ha) in southern Madagascar. The study was designed to allow lemur densities to be related to particular forest types. A particular aim of this study was to collect lemur data in both protected and unprotected areas. Density estimates were calculated using point transect distance sampling in a study area that contained the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and the adjacent disturbed forests. The highest densities recorded for each species were in the protected area where the two species were most segregated in their distribution, with L. catta density highest in gallery forest type and P. verreauxi density highest in dry deciduous. Densities of both species varied widely outside the protected area, but P. verreauxi density was more uniform than was L. catta. Results of this study indicate that patterns of lemur density in protected areas are not representative of patterns in disturbed forests; this also suggests that we cannot fully understand the ecological constraints facing primate species by studying them only in protected areas. This research highlights the value of pairing the study of landscape-level patterns of species distribution with both local ground-level ecological interpretations and broad-scale satellite data; information from only one level may give an incomplete view of the community. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Modulation of Gene Expression in Key Survival Pathways During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of mammals employ torpor as an energy-saving strategy in environments of marginal or severe stress either on a daily basis during their inactive period or on a seasonal basis during prolonged multi-day hibernation. Recently, a few Madagascar lemur species have been identified as the only primates that exhibit torpor; one of these is the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie daily torpor in a primate, we analyzed the expression of 28 selected genes that represent crucial survival pathways known to be involved in squirrel and bat hibernation. Array-based real-time PCR was used to compare gene expression in control (aroused versus torpid lemurs in five tissues including the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, and brown adipose tissue. Significant differences in gene expression during torpor were revealed among genes involved in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, antioxidant defense, apoptosis, hypoxia signaling, and protein protection. The results showed upregulation of select genes primarily in liver and brown adipose tissue. For instance, both tissues showed elevated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (ppargc, ferritin (fth1, and protein chaperones during torpor. Overall, the data show that the expression of only a few genes changed during lemur daily torpor, as compared with the broader expression changes reported for hibernation in ground squirrels. These results provide an indication that the alterations in gene expression required for torpor in lemurs are not as extensive as those needed for winter hibernation in squirrel models. However, identification of crucial genes with altered expression that support lemur torpor provides key targets to be explored and manipulated toward a goal of translational applications of inducible torpor as a treatment option in human biomedicine.

  1. Species concepts, diversity, and evolution in primates: lessons to be learned from mouse lemurs.

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    Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Humans primarily rely on vision when categorizing the world. If you just look at the same-sized but strikingly differently colored Neotropical poison-dart frogs such as strawberry frogs (Fig. ), you would be convinced that they must belong to different species. However, this is an excellent example of a polymorphic species, meaning that although these frogs look quite different, mating decisions are made based on their conspicuous and species-specific advertisements calls, which are not primarily linked to specific color pattern. The situation is quite different among nocturnal primates living in dense forest environments, such as the tiny nocturnal Malagasy mouse lemurs. In this case, even geographically isolated, well-accepted species look superficially quite similar and are therefore often termed cryptic species (Fig. ). Some morphs are a bit larger than others or show minor phenotypic differences, but morph-specific differences are difficult to detect in living subjects. This phenomenon explains why, until the end of the last century, species diversity in mouse lemurs was assumed to be low, with only two morphologically distinct species. Over the last two decades, several international working groups, including our own, undertook a massive island-wide sampling effort, including DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mouse lemurs. These revealed a 10-fold higher species diversity, with 21 currently described species. Are these new species, mostly defined based on the phylogenetic species concept (sensu Cracraft), or independent evolutionary lineages or, perhaps, only artifacts of taxonomic inflation? What is a species? How can we identify primate species? How and why do species emerge during evolution? Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recurrent calcium phosphate urolithiasis in a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata).

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    Cushing, Andrew C; Kollias, George; Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Streeter, Renee; Ahou-Madi, Noha

    2014-03-01

    An adult intact male black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) suffered recurrent bouts of urethral blockage over a 3-yr period caused by calcium phosphate (apatite form) uroliths. Surgical intervention was required in two of the three instances. Various attempts at medical management failed to control formation of the stones, and the underlying etiology remains unclear. In addition, there have been consistent, multiple, unchanging renal mineralizations over the course of the case. Medical management failed to significantly alter the urinary pH; although, to date, no further problems have been noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of calcium phosphate stones in a prosimian species.

  3. The breeding system of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra): a preliminary report.

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    Vasey, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Captive studies have shown that ruffed lemurs (Varecia) have an unusual suite of reproductive traits combined with extremely high maternal reproductive costs. These traits include the bearing of litters, nesting of altricial young, and absentee parenting. To characterize the breeding system of this enigmatic lemur, reproductive traits must be contextualized in the wild. Here, I provide a preliminary report of mating and infant care in one community of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Observations span a 15-month period covering two birth seasons and one mating season on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Factors that are not possible to replicate in captivity are reported, such as mating pattern, natality and mortality rates, the location of nests within the home range, and the structuring of infant care within a natural community. V. rubra at Andranobe have a fission-fusion, multifemale-multimale grouping pattern and a polygamous mating system. They do not mate monogamously or live strictly in family-based groups as suggested by previous workers. During the first 2 months of life, nests and infant stashing localities are situated within each mother's respective core area, and inhabitants of each core area within the communal home range provide care for young. As part of their absentee parenting system, infants are left in concealed, protected, and supportive spots high in the canopy, while mothers travel distantly. This practice is termed 'infant stashing'. Alloparenting appears to be an integral part of V. rubra's overall reproductive strategy in the wild, as it was performed by all age-sex classes. Among the alloparental behaviors observed were infant guarding, co-stashing, infant transport, and allonursing. Alloparenting and absentee parenting may mitigate high maternal reproductive costs. Furthermore, V. rubra may have a breeding system in which genetic partners (i.e., mating partners) do not always correspond to infant care-providers. Combined with

  4. Estudo comparativo das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina no macaco (Macacus rhesus A comparison of the inclusion bodies of alastrim and vaccinia in the monkey (Macacus rhesus

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1934-02-01

    Full Text Available Vesiculas e pustulas contendo numerosas inclusões citoplasmicas nas celulas epidermicas, foram regularmente produzidas no macaco (Macacus rhesus, quer com o virus do alastrim, quer com o da vacina, após inoculação endovenosa e sem previa escarificação. O virus do alastrim parece menos virulento para essa especie de macaco que o da vacina. Ao passo que 12 macacos rhesus injetados por via endovenosa com sete amostras diferentes de virus do alastrim, após apresentarem com regularidade um infecção experimental, sobreviveram e se conservaram em boa saúde, a injecção endovenosa do virus da vacina recentemente preparado (polpa bruta produziu a morte em 2, dentre 4 animais experimentados. 2. - Foram notadas diferenças pequenas, mas nitidas, na morfologia das inclusões do alastrim e da vacina, em material fixado no liquido de Helly, incluido em parafina e corado pela hematoxilina-eosina. Dizem elas respeito ao numero de inclusões encontradas em cada celula epidermica e às suas reações de coloração. 3. - As inclusões do alastrim, quando apresentam grandes dimensões, conservam-se unicas ou solitarias no citoplasma das celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus, e coram-se em tonalidade que varia do azul escuro ao cinzento-azulado. Comtudo, em celulas que sofreram necrose, ou naquelas contendo 2 a 4 inclusões de pequenas dimensões, por vezes elas se mostram coradas em roseo. 4. - As inclusões da vacina, quando em faze adeantada de desenvolvimento, são multiplas nas celulas epidermicas do macaco rhesus e mostram, regularmente, uma policromatofilia caracteristica.1. - Vesicles and pustules containing numerous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within the epidermal cells were regularly produced in monkeys (Macacus rhesus by intravenous inoculation either of alastrim virus or of recently prepared vaccine emulsion, no previous scarifications being required. Alastrim virus seems less virulent for this species of monkey than the virus of vaccinia is

  5. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

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    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  6. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

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    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Genetic architecture of two red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) populations of Masoala national park.

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    Razakamaharavo, Vololoniaina R; McGuire, Susie M; Vasey, Natalie; Louis, Edward E; Brenneman, Rick A

    2010-01-01

    The current range of the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) population is primarily restricted to forests of the Masoala Peninsula on the northeastern coast of Madagascar. Whereas much of the peninsula is protected as Masoala National Park, parts of the forest are at risk from anthropogenic pressures and habitat fragmentation. We sampled 32 individual red ruffed lemur from two sites: Ambatoledama (DAMA), a narrow forest corridor across an area of degraded habitat connecting larger blocks of forest in the northwestern reaches of the park, and Masiaposa (MAS) forest, a largely pristine forest on the lower western side of the peninsula. Population genetic parameters were estimated for these two populations employing 15 microsatellite loci derived from the V. variegata genome. We found that by exceeding the expected heterozygosity at mutation-drift equilibrium, the DAMA population has undergone a recent population bottleneck. Population structure analysis detected individuals harboring genotypic admixture of the DAMA genetic cluster in the MAS population, suggesting a possibility of unilateral gene flow or movement between these populations.

  8. Can black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) solve object permanence tasks?

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    Mallavarapu, Suma; Perdue, Bonnie M; Stoinski, Tara S; Maple, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    We examined object permanence in black-and-white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) at Zoo Atlanta. A series of visible and invisible displacement tasks with suitable controls were presented to five adult subjects. Subjects performed significantly above chance on all regular tasks, except for the double invisible displacements. Subjects failed visible and invisible controls. Failure on the control trials did not appear to be because subjects used the "last box touched" strategy (subjects did not choose the last box touched significantly more than expected by chance). However, a substantial percentage of choices was made to the last box touched by the experimenter. There was no significant difference between this percentage, and the percentage of choices made to the baited box (on both visible and invisible controls), which indicates that subjects were drawn to both boxes which the experimenter visited/touched, and thus failed the controls. Based on the results from the present study, we believe that there is no evidence that black-and-white ruffed lemurs understand visible and invisible tasks in the traditional object permanence battery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Edge effects on morphometrics and body mass in two sympatric species of mouse lemurs in Madagascar.

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    Burke, Ryan J; Lehman, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Edge effects are an inevitable and important consequence of forest loss and fragmentation. These effects include changes in species biology and biogeography. Here we examine variations in body mass and morphometrics for 2 sympatric species of mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) between edge and interior habitats in the dry deciduous forest at Ankarafantsika National Park. Between May and August 2012, we conducted mark-recapture experiments on mouse lemurs trapped along edge and interior forest transects within continuous forest adjacent to a large savannah. Of the 34 M. murinus captured during our study, 82% (n = 28) were trapped in interior habitats. Conversely, 72% (n = 47) of M. ravelobensis were captured in edge habitats. We found that mean body mass of M. murinus and M. ravelobensis did not differ between edge and interior habitats. However, female M. ravelobensis weighed significantly more in edge habitats (56.09 ± 1.74 g) than in interior habitats (48.14 ± 4.44 g). Our study provides some of the first evidence of sex differences in edge responses for a primate species. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Speciation in Malagasy lemurs: a review of the cryptic diversity in genus Lepilemur

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    Wilmet, L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Madagascar is one of the highest biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, it is also one of the most heavily impacted countries in the world in terms of forest degradation and general habitat destruction. Literature. Genus Lepilemur, in family Lepilemuridae, is a genus of small, nocturnal, exclusively arboreal Malagasy folivores. All species in the genus have small ranges of distribution. Fully forest-dependent, they have a high risk of extinction. Various models and theories of speciation mechanisms have been developed for the fauna and flora of Madagascar. For instance, in the northwestern part of the island, some authors used Lepilemur spp. to test two existing models of distribution: the "Martin model" and "Wilmé model". Conclusion. Regarding the impact of forest destruction and habitat degradation in Madagascar, conservation strategies for Lepilemur need to be put in place. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the genus Lepilemur and examines speciation for Malagasy lemurs. The understanding of species distribution within biodiversity hotspots is important to identify target for conservation. Therefore, we summarize and compare three biogeography models related to lemurs distribution in order to understand the reasons behind the high diversity (26 species in total among the genus Lepilemur. Particular attention is also given to the concept of species regarding biodiversity issues and the taxonomic explosion in genus Lepilemur.

  11. Naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

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    Campbell, G A; Hoover, J P; Russell, W C; Breazile, J E

    1997-06-01

    During September and October 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the Tulsa Zoological Park. The following February and April, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. Necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. Nematode larvae consistent with Baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one lemur. A retrospective study revealed three cases of ataxia in emus (Dromaius novaeholloandiae) that were previously housed in the same enclosure. Archival paraffin-embedded tissue from one emu revealed tractlike foci of malacia within the white matter of the cerebellum. Circumstantial evidence, including the observation of numerous raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the vicinity, and the presence of numerous Baylisascaris. procyonis in the intestine of a single trapped raccoon implicate this roundworm as the pathologic agent in the lemurs.

  12. Telemetered electromyography of peroneus longus in Varecia variegata and Eulemur rubriventer: implications for the functional significance of a large peroneal process.

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    Boyer, Doug M; Patel, Biren A; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2007-08-01

    A foot specialized for grasping small branches with a divergent opposable hallux (hallucal grasping) represents a key adaptive complex characterizing almost all arboreal non-human euprimates. Evolution of such grasping extremities probably allowed members of a lineage leading to the common ancestor of modern primates to access resources available in a small-branch niche, including angiosperm products and insects. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which euprimates use their feet to grasp will help clarify the functional significance of morphological differences between the euprimate grasp complex and features representing specialized grasping in other distantly related groups (e.g., marsupials and carnivorans) and in closely related fossil taxa (e.g., plesiadapiforms). In particular, among specialized graspers euprimates are uniquely characterized by a large peroneal process on the base of the first metatarsal, but the functional significance of this trait is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the large size of the peroneal process corresponds to the pull of the attaching peroneus longus muscle recruited to adduct the hallux during grasping. Using telemetered electromyography on three individuals of Varecia variegata and two of Eulemur rubriventer, we found that peroneus longus does not generally exhibit activity consistent with an important function in hallucal grasping. Instead, extrinsic digital flexor muscles and, sometimes, the intrinsic adductor hallucis are active in ways that indicate a function in grasping with the hallux. Peroneus longus helps evert the foot and resists its inversion. We conclude that the large peroneal tuberosity that characterizes the hallucal metatarsal of prosimian euprimates does not correlate to "powerful" grasping with a divergent hallux in general, and cannot specifically be strongly linked to vertical clinging and climbing on small-diameter supports. Thus, the functional significance of this hallmark

  13. Evidence of social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

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    Stoinski, T S; Drayton, L A; Price, E E

    2011-06-23

    Although many studies have examined social learning capabilities in apes and monkeys, experiments involving prosimians remain largely absent. We investigated the potential for social learning in black-and-white ruffed lemurs using a two-action foraging task. Eight individuals were divided into two experimental groups and exposed to conspecifics using one of two techniques to access food. Subjects were then given access to the apparatus and their retrieval techniques were recorded and compared. All subjects made their first retrieval using the technique they observed being demonstrated, and there were significant differences between the two groups in their overall response patterns. These results suggest that prosimians are capable of social learning and that additional long-term field studies may reveal the presence of behavioural traditions similar to those found in other primates.

  14. New developments in the behavioral ecology and conservation of ruffed lemurs (Varecia).

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    Vasey, Natalie

    2005-05-01

    The papers in this issue were presented at a symposium during the 25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in June 2002. This symposium brought together many of the scientists who have contributed to our knowledge of ruffed lemur ecology, behavior, and conservation in the past decade. One objective was to share and compare key findings about ruffed lemurs (Varecia) resulting from long-term field studies at various sites in Madagascar. A second objective was to cross-fertilize work being done in the wild with that being done in captivity, with the aim of advancing a common conservation mission for this critically endangered genus. Varecia is a prime candidate for synthetic assessments such as these because it has now been studied in both the northern and southern reaches of its geographic range, and has also been the focus of a captive-to-wild reinforcement project. The papers in this issue contribute to 1) the establishment of reference ranges for a suite of physiological parameters in healthy wild Varecia populations; 2) environmental enrichment aimed at preserving species-typical behaviors in captivity; 3) an understanding of how forest structure, floristic composition, and fruiting phenology in areas with differing disturbance histories correlate with the natural occurrence and abundance of Varecia; 4) primary knowledge concerning dominance relations between the sexes and group leadership in wild Varecia; and 5) primary knowledge concerning how wild Varecia, with their unusual reproductive pattern and heavy reliance on fruit, modulate their activity budgets seasonally and in tandem with reproductive stages. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Morphometrics of wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs [Varecia variegata; Kerr, 1792].

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    Baden, Andrea L; Brenneman, Rick A; Louis, Edward E

    2008-10-01

    This study presents the first detailed morphometric measurements of wild caught black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) from the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and aims to quantify the morphological variation present throughout their recognized range. One hundred and forty-four adult and juvenile individuals from 15 sites were sampled for 20 cranial, dental and postcranial morphometric and body mass measurements. Data were collected from an equal number of male and female individuals sampled across seasons over a 7-year period (1999-2002, 2004-2006). Results indicate that adult body mass and morphometric measurements varied between sexes across sites; however, the only significant intersexual difference found was that females possessed, on average, longer tails than males. Contrary to previous studies, significant seasonal variation could not be detected in either male or female body mass or testicular volume (i.e., breeding vs. nonbreeding, food-scarce vs. food-abundant seasons). Measurements did, however, vary significantly by site and subspecies, though clinal variation could not explain these differences. The introduced population from Nosy Mangabe exhibited significantly lower body mass and overall body length than all other populations; however, this distinction may not have been attributable to natural variation, and may have instead resulted from the ecologically restrictive habitat (e.g., unusually high lemur population densities, limited food resources, ecological isolation) of this introduced population. Finally, although fore-to-hindlimb, brachium-to-thigh and hindlimb indices were comparable to previous values, forelimb indices calculated here deviate significantly from previous reports, placing V. variegata within the upper range of lemurid taxa. It is currently unknown whether this is an artifact of sampling methods (i.e., live vs. skeletal specimens) or whether this is an avenue that warrants further investigation.

  16. Signals of recent spatial expansions in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

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    Chikhi Lounès

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene events have shaped the phylogeography of many taxa worldwide. Their genetic signatures in tropical species have been much less explored than in those living in temperate regions. We analysed the genetic structure of a Malagasy primate species, a mouse lemur with a wide distribution (M. murinus, in order to investigate such phylogeographic processes on a large tropical island. We also evaluated the effects of anthropogenic pressures (fragmentation/deforestation and natural features (geographic distance, rivers on genetic structure in order to complement our understanding of past and present processes of genetic differentiation. Results The analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 195 samples from 15 study sites (10 from a continuous forest and five from isolated forest fragments from two adjacent Inter-River-Systems (IRSs revealed that forest fragmentation and the river restrict gene flow, thereby leading to an increased genetic differentiation between populations beyond the effect of isolation-by-distance. Demographic simulations detected signals of two successive spatial expansions that could be preliminarily dated to the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The haplotype network revealed geographic structure and showed deep molecular divergences within and between the IRSs that would be congruent with a two-step colonization scenario. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis of a relatively recent spatial expansion of the grey mouse lemur in northwestern Madagascar, which may also explain why this taxon, in contrast to its congeners, has not yet undergone allopatric speciation in the studied area and possibly across its presently wide range.

  17. Morphologic characterization of spiked pepper's germplasm Caracterização morfológica de germoplasma de pimenta-de-macaco

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper is a plant species with properties that allow the development of natural agrochemicals and medicines, showing large potential of use by humanity. With aim to ascertain the phenotypical variability, 41 parentals were analyzed, sampled in the States of Pará and Amazonas. Principal Component analysis and Jolliffe's criterion were utilized for discarding of variables, subsidized by the Pearson's Correlation. It took seven components to explain 80% of the variation. The essential oil yield and number of leaves per branch were suggested to be discarded because they are the characteristics that have contributed least to the total variance. The 3D scatter diagram constituted a relatively homogeneous and continuous clustering, identifing a divergent pair: PA-020 (Marabá-PA and PA-035 (Santa Isabel-PA. The analyzed traits have variability potentially able to discriminate the parentals, whereas 83.3% of such traits can be used for this purpose. The divergent genotypes identified on 3D scatter diagram analysis can be used in breeding programs for the development of superior genotypes. A comparison with preexisting molecular data of some genotypes permited to conclude that there was one certain agreement degree between morphological and molecular characterizations and that molecular characterization presented higher discriminatory power, using a smaller number of genotypes, identifying dissimilar genotypes and clusters, although analyzed by different multivariate statistic methods.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie que possui propriedades que permitem o desenvolvimento de defensivos agrícolas naturais e medicamentos, apresentando, portanto, grande potencial de uso pela humanidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a variabilidade fenotípica, foram estudadas 41 matrizes amostradas nos Estados do Pará e Amazonas. Utilizou-se análises de componentes principais e critério de Jolliffe para descarte de variáveis, subsidiado pela correlação de

  18. Sex ratio affects sex-specific innovation and learning in captive ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra).

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    Dean, Lewis G; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N; Kendal, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed extensive research into problem solving and innovation in primates, yet lemurs have not been subjected to the same level of attention as apes and monkeys, and the social context in which novel behavior appears has rarely been considered. We gave novel foraging puzzlebox devices to seven groups of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra) to examine the factors affecting rates of innovation and social learning. We found, across a range of group sex ratios, that animals of the less-represented sex were more likely to contact and solve the puzzlebox sooner than those of the more-represented sex. We established that while some individuals were able to solve the puzzleboxes there was no evidence of social learning. Our findings are consistent with previously reported male deference as a sexual strategy, but we conclude that the need for male deference diminishes when, within a group, males are rare. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Captive Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) Caused by Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype.

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    Gaide, N; Pelandakis, M; Robveille, C; Albaric, O; Jouvion, G; Souchon, M; Risler, A; Abadie, J

    2015-11-01

    A mature male, black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) died in a zoological garden after a 4-day history of lethargy and non-responsive convulsions. Necropsy and histopathological examinations revealed acute necrotizing and haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis with intralesional amoebas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype was identified as the causative agent of the brain lesion, based on amplification and sequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The presence of free-living amoebas in water and mud from the lemur's environment was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. The two predominant genera, representing 80% of isolated amoebas, were Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. All Acanthamoeba isolates belonged to the T4 genotype. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a meningoencephalitis due to Acanthamoeba T4 genotype in Lemuridae with concurrent analysis of pathological tissues and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resource seasonality and reproduction predict fission-fusion dynamics in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

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    Baden, Andrea L; Webster, Timothy H; Kamilar, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    Ruffed lemurs (genus Varecia) are often described as having a flexible social organization, such that both cohesive (low fission-fusion dynamics) and fluid (high fission-fusion dynamics) grouping patterns have been observed. In ruffed lemur communities with high fission-fusion dynamics, group members vary in their temporal and spatial dispersion throughout a communally defended territory. These patterns have been likened to those observed in several haplorrhine species that exhibit the most fluid types of fission-fusion social organization (e.g., Pan and Ateles). To substantiate and further refine these claims, we describe the fission-fusion dynamics of a black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) community at Mangevo, an undisturbed primary rainforest site in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We collected instantaneous group scan samples from August 2007-December 2008 (4,044 observation hours) to study and characterize patterns of subgroup size, composition, cohesion, and social association. In 16 consecutive months, we never found all members of the community together. In fact, individuals spent nearly half of their time alone. Subgroups were small, cohesive, and typically of mixed-sex composition. Mixed-sex subgroups were significantly larger, less cohesive, and more common than either male-only or female-only subgroups. Subgroup dynamics were related to shifts in climate, phenology of preferred fruit species, and female reproductive state. On average, association indices were low. Males and females were equally gregarious; however, adult male-male associations were significantly weaker than any other association type. Results presented herein document striking differences in fission-fusion dynamics between black-and-white ruffed lemurs and haplorrhines, while also demonstrating many broad-scale similarities to haplorrhine taxa that possess the most fluid fission-fusion societies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

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    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus.Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages.Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  2. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

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    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  3. Stable isotopes complement focal individual observations and confirm dietary variability in reddish-gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus griseorufus) from southwestern Madagascar.

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    Crowley, Brooke E; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R

    2014-09-01

    We examine the ecology of reddish-gray mouse lemurs from three habitats at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve using focal follows and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data. Focal observations indicate dietary differences among habitats as well as sexes and seasons. Both sexes consume more arthropods during the rainy season but overall, females consume more sugar-rich exudates and fruit than males, and individuals from riparian forest consume fewer arthropods and more fruit than those in xeric or dry forest. We ask whether these observations are isotopically detectable. Isotope data support differences between seasons and sexes. Nitrogen isotope values are higher during the rainy season when lemurs consume more arthropods, and higher in males than females, particularly during the dry season. However, differences among populations inferred from focal observations are not fully supported. Lemurs from riparian forest have lower isotope values than those in xeric scrub, but isotope data suggest that lemurs from the dry forest eat the least animal matter and that focal observations overestimated dry forest arthropod consumption. Overall, our results suggest that observational and isotopic data are complementary. Isotope data can be obtained from a larger number of individuals and can quantify ingestion of animal matter, but they apparently cannot quantify the relative consumption of different sugar-rich foods. Combined focal and isotope data provide valuable insight into the dietary constraints of reddish-grey mouse lemurs, with implications for their vulnerability to future habitat change. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

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    Joly, Marine; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Schmidtke, Daniel; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD) and reversal learning (PDR) tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  5. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus.

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    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD and reversal learning (PDR tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

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    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  7. Le mythe du microcèbe primitif The myth of the primitive mouse lemur

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    Fabien Génin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we

  8. Lice and ticks of the eastern rufous mouse lemur, Microcebus rufus, with descriptions of the male and third instar nymph of Lemurpediculus verruculosus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

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    Durden, Lance A; Zohdy, Sarah; Laakkonen, Juha

    2010-10-01

    Sucking lice and ticks were collected from live-trapped eastern rufous mouse lemurs, Microcebus rufus Geoffroy, in and around the periphery of Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar, from 2007 to 2009. Samples of 53 sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and 28 hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from 36 lemur captures representing 26 different host individuals. All of the lice were Lemurpediculus verruculosus (Ward) (6 males, 46 females, 1 third instar nymph). Only the holotype female was known previously for this louse and the host was stated to be a "mouse lemur." Therefore, we describe the male and third instar nymph of L. verruculosus and confirm M. rufus as a host (possibly the only host) of this louse. All of the ticks were nymphs and consisted of 16 Haemaphysalis lemuris Hoogstraal, 11 Haemaphysalis sp., and 1 Ixodes sp. The last 2 ticks listed did not morphologically match any of the Madagascar Haemaphysalis or Ixodes ticks for which nymphal stages have been described.

  9. Laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding.

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    Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates.

  10. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata.

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    Wyner, Y M; Amato, G; Desalle, R

    1999-12-01

    A character-based phylogenetic species concept approach was used to examine conservation unit status for three wild populations of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia vareigata variegata, from Betampona (N = 3), Manombo (N = 6), and Ranomafana (N = 14), Madagascar. Population aggregation analysis was performed on 548 bp from the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twenty-one diagnostic sites were found to differentiate the Betampona (northern) population from the Manombo/Ranomafana (southern) populations. Additionally, individuals from the North American captive population (N = 11) and from Parc Ivoloina, Madagascar (N = 6) were examined for the same mtDNA fragment. The captive animals more closely resembled the southern populations and the Parc Ivoloina animals were more similar to the northern population. However, the inclusion of these ex situ animals reduced the number of diagnostic sites differentiating the northern and southern populations. Our genetic data were used to assess the ongoing management strategy for reintroducing individuals into the Betampona population and for introducing new founders into the ex situ population. This study demonstrates the utility of combining genetic information with a consideration of conservation priorities in evaluating the implementation of management strategies.

  11. Need for speed: Sexual maturation precedes social maturation in gray mouse lemurs.

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    Hohenbrink, Sarah; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2015-10-01

    The life history of mammals underlies a fast-slow continuum, ranging from "slow" species with large body size, delayed sexual maturation, low fertility, and long lifespan, to "fast" species showing the opposite traits. Primates fall into the "slow" category, considering their relatively low offspring numbers and delayed juvenile development. However, social and sexual maturation processes do not necessarily have to be completed simultaneously. The comparison of the timeframes for sexual and social maturation is largely lacking for primates, with the prominent exception of humans. Here, we compare both maturation processes in a basal primate, the gray mouse lemur, which ranges in many aspects at the fast end of the slow-fast life history continuum among primates. We compared the patterns and frequencies of various social and solitary behaviors in young adults (YA, 12-13 months old) and older individuals (A, ≥2 years) of both sexes outside estrus. Observations were conducted during mix-sexed dyadic encounter experiments under controlled captive conditions (eight dyads per age class). Results indicate that although all young adults were sexually mature, social maturation was not yet completed in all behavioral domains: Age-dependent differences were found in the number of playing dyads, female marking behavior, female aggression, and social tolerance. Thus, this study provides a first indication that social maturation lags behind sexual maturation in an ancestral nocturnal primate model, indicating that these two developmental schemes may have been decoupled early and throughout the primate lineage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The lemur revolution starts now: the genomic coming of age for a non-model organism.

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    Yoder, Anne D

    2013-02-01

    Morris Goodman was a revolutionary. Together with a mere handful of like-minded scientists, Morris established himself as a leader in the molecular phylogenetic revolution of the 1960s. The effects of this revolution are most evident in this journal, which he founded in 1992. Happily for lemur biologists, one of Morris Goodman's primary interests was in reconstructing the phylogeny of the primates, including the tooth-combed Lorisifomes of Africa and Asia, and the Lemuriformes of Madagascar (collectively referred to as the suborder Strepsirrhini). This paper traces the development of molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary genetic trends and methods over the 50-year expanse of Morris Goodman's career, particularly as they apply to our understanding of lemuriform phylogeny, biogeography, and biology. Notably, this perspective reveals that the lemuriform genome is sufficiently rich in phylogenetic signal such that the very earliest molecular phylogenetic studies - many of which were conducted by Goodman himself - have been validated by contemporary studies that have exploited advanced computational methods applied to phylogenomic scale data; studies that were beyond imagining in the earliest days of phylogeny reconstruction. Nonetheless, the frontier still beckons. New technologies for gathering and analyzing genomic data will allow investigators to build upon what can now be considered a nearly-known phylogeny of the Lemuriformes in order to ask innovative questions about the evolutionary mechanisms that generate and maintain the extraordinary breadth and depth of biological diversity within this remarkable clade of primates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tracking year-to-year changes in intestinal nematode communities of rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus).

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    Aivelo, Tuomas; Medlar, Alan; Löytynoja, Ari; Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2015-07-01

    While it is known that intestinal parasite communities vary in their composition over time, there is a lack of studies addressing how variation in component communities (between-hosts) manifests in infracommunities (within-host) during the host lifespan. In this study, we investigate the changes in the intestinal parasite infracommunities in wild-living rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from Ranomafana National Park in southeastern Madagascar from 2010 to 2012. We used high-throughput barcoding of the 18S rRNA gene to interrogate parasite community structure. Our results show that in these nematode communities, there were two frequently occurring putative species and four rarer putative species. All putative species were randomly distributed over host individuals and they did not occur in clear temporal patterns. For the individuals caught in at least two different years, there was high turnover of putative species and high variation in fecal egg counts. Our study shows that while there was remarkable variation in infracommunities over time, the component community was relatively stable. Nevertheless, the patterns of prevalence varied substantially between years in each component community.

  14. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

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    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  15. Does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in southeastern Madagascar?

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    Overdorff, Deborah J; Erhart, Elizabeth M; Mutschler, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Although many Malagasy lemurs are thought to be female dominant and to have female feeding priority, to date the relationship between these behaviors has been rigorously established only in Lemur catta, and other ways that females might achieve feeding priority have not been examined closely. Erhart and Overdorff [International Journal of Primatology 20:927-940, 1999] suggested that one way female primates achieve feeding priority is to initiate and lead groups to food, thereby gaining access to the food first and positively influencing their food intake compared to other group members. Here we describe female dominance patterns and potential measures of feeding priority in two groups of black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) that were observed over a 15-month period in southeastern Madagascar. We predicted that the females would 1) be consistently dominant to males, 2) lead groups to food sources more often than males, and 3) have higher feeding rates compared to males when they arrived at food sources first. The results were dissimilar between the study groups. During the study, the oldest adult female in group 1 died. There was no evidence for female dominance in this group, and the remaining (likely natal) female did not lead the group more often, nor did she have a higher food intake than males. Group 1 dispersed shortly after the time frame reported here. In contrast, the resident female in group 2 was dominant to group males (based on agonistic interactions), led the group to food sources more often, and experienced a higher food intake when she arrived first at a food source. How these patterns vary over time and are influenced by the number of females in groups, group stability, food quality, and reproductive condition will be examined in future analyses. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus

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    Rasoloarison Rodin M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species are viewed as the fundamental unit in most subdisciplines of biology. To conservationists this unit represents the currency for global biodiversity assessments. Even though Madagascar belongs to one of the top eight biodiversity hotspots of the world, the taxonomy of its charismatic lemuriform primates is not stable. Within the last 25 years, the number of described lemur species has more than doubled, with many newly described species identified among the nocturnal and small-bodied cheirogaleids. Here, we characterize the diversity of the dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus and assess the status of the seven described species, based on phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of mtDNA (cytb + cox2 and three nuclear markers (adora3, fiba and vWF. Results This study identified three distinct evolutionary lineages within the genus Cheirogaleus. Population genetic cluster analyses revealed a further layer of population divergence with six distinct genotypic clusters. Conclusion Based on the general metapopulation lineage concept and multiple concordant data sets, we identify three exclusive groups of dwarf lemur populations that correspond to three of the seven named species: C. major, C. medius and C. crossleyi. These three species were found to be genealogically exclusive in both mtDNA and nDNA loci and are morphologically distinguishable. The molecular and morphometric data indicate that C. adipicaudatus and C. ravus are synonymous with C. medius and C. major, respectively. Cheirogaleus sibreei falls into the C. medius mtDNA clade, but in morphological analyses the membership is not clearly resolved. We do not have sufficient data to assess the status of C. minusculus. Although additional patterns of population differentiation are evident, there are no clear subdivisions that would warrant additional specific status. We propose that ecological and more geographic data should be collected to confirm these results.

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

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    Rahman, Anisur; Languille, Solène; Lamberty, Yves; Babiloni, Claudio; Perret, Martine; Bordet, Regis; Blin, Olivier J; Jacob, Tom; Auffret, Alexandra; Schenker, Esther; Richardson, Jill; Pifferi, Fabien; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD) impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial retrieval but not spatial learning in the non-human primate grey mouse lemur.

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    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available A bulk of studies in rodents and humans suggest that sleep facilitates different phases of learning and memory process, while sleep deprivation (SD impairs these processes. Here we tested the hypothesis that SD could alter spatial learning and memory processing in a non-human primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, which is an interesting model of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Two sets of experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of SD on spatial learning and memory retrieval after one day of training in a circular platform task. Eleven male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in three different conditions: without SD as a baseline reference, 8 h of SD before the training and 8 h of SD before the testing. The SD was confirmed by electroencephalographic recordings. Results showed no effect of SD on learning when SD was applied before the training. When the SD was applied before the testing, it induced an increase of the amount of errors and of the latency prior to reach the target. In a second set of experiments, we tested the effect of 8 h of SD on spatial memory retrieval after 3 days of training. Twenty male mouse lemurs aged between 2 to 3 years were tested in this set of experiments. In this condition, the SD did not affect memory retrieval. This is the first study that documents the disruptive effects of the SD on spatial memory retrieval in this primate which may serve as a new validated challenge to investigate the effects of new compounds along physiological and pathological aging.

  19. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

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    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  20. REDE DE DRENAGEM URBANA EM ÁREA TROPICAL: MUDANÇAS NA MORFOLOGIA DO CANAL E NÍVEIS DE POLUIÇÃO DAS ÁGUAS – RIO DOS MACACOS – RIO DE JANEIRO – RJ

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    Luciano Marin Lucas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work, accomplished in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, aimed to analyze the variation occurred in the morphology of Macacos river channel. The levels of pollution in the waters along the longitudinal profile was also evaluated due to human actuation. The area was monitored from March 2002 until February 2003. The changes in the morphology were identified through the relation among variables obteined in field, as width, depth, cross-sectional area, hydraulic ray and relation width/depth (W/D. In order to evaluate the levels of pollution in the waters of the channel some interpretation of the obtained values from parameters pH, DO, BOD and colimetry were performed. In the studied period, the largest variation in the morphology were identified in the cross-sections area where occurred the erosion of the channel (which increased the channel capacity to 0,28m2 in PT1 and high deposition identified through the reduction of the channel to 0,90m2 in PT5. Regarding to the level of water pollution, extremely high rates of fecal coliform were identified (1.600.00 NMP/100 ml for all the points, whereas reduced values of DO and BOD were identified next to downstream, due to the largest effluent concentration.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of human serum on oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates from humans and monkeys Atividade antimicrobiana do soro humano sobre isolados de Fusobacterium nucleatum obtidos de humanos e macacos

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    Elerson GAETTI-JARDIM JÚNIOR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of eighty F. nucleatum isolates from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys to human pooled sera was tested. The resistance to serum bactericidal effects was observed in 46.9% of the isolates from periodontal patients, 28.6% of the healthy subjects and 40% of the monkeys. These results support the hypothesis that serum plays an ecological role by controlling the microbial population inside either the gingival crevice or periodontal pocket.Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade de oitenta isolados de F. nucleatum obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e Cebus apella (macaco-prego frente ao soro humano. A resistência à atividade bactericida do soro foi observada em 46,9% das fusobactérias isoladas de pacientes com doença periodontal, 28,6% das obtidas de indivíduos sadios e em 40% das fusobactérias de primatas não humanos. Esses resultados suportam o conceito de que o soro possui um papel ecológico em controlar a população microbiana no interior do sulco gengival ou bolsa periodontal.

  2. Micro-MRI study of cerebral aging: ex vivo detection of hippocampal sub-field reorganization, micro-hemorrhages and amyloid plaques in mouse lemur primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Anne; Petiet, Alexandra; Dhenain, Marc; Pasquier, Adrien; Kraska, Audrey; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wiggins, Christopher; Aujard, Fabienne; Mestre-Frances, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are non-human primate models of cerebral aging and neuro-degeneration. Much smaller than other primates, they recapitulate numerous features of human brain aging, including progressive cerebral atrophy and correlation between regional atrophy and cognitive impairments. Characterization of brain atrophy in mouse lemurs has been done by MRI measures of regional CSF volume and by MRI measures of regional atrophy. Here, we further characterize mouse lemur brain aging using ex vivo MR microscopy (31 μm in-plane resolution). First, we performed a non-biased, direct volumetric quantification of dentate gyrus and extended Ammon's horn. We show that both dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn undergo an age-related reorganization leading to a growth of the dentate gyrus and an atrophy of the Ammon's horn, even in the absence of global hippocampal atrophy. Second, on these first MR microscopic images of the mouse lemur brain, we depicted cortical and hippocampal hypointense spots. We demonstrated that their incidence increases with aging and that they correspond either to amyloid deposits or to cerebral micro-hemorrhages. (authors)

  3. The impact of dental impairment on ring-tailed lemur food processing performance.

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    Millette, James B; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Ness, Jenifer L

    2012-06-01

    During mastication, foods are reduced into particles suitable for swallowing and digestion. Smaller particles possess a greater surface area per unit of volume on which digestive enzymes and bacteria may work than relatively larger particles, and are thus more readily digested. As dental morphology facilitates the breakdown of diets with specific mechanical properties, extensive dental wear and/or tooth loss may impede an individual's ability to break down and exploit foods. We present data demonstrating a relationship between dental impairment and particle size in 43 fecal samples from 33 ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar. All fecal samples were sifted through three sieves of decreasing size (11.2 mm, 4.75 mm, and 1.0 mm). The resulting fraction in each sieve was then weighed and assessed in relation to individual dental impairment status. With increasing wear, the percentage of each sample within the 1.0 mm sieve decreases, whereas that in the 11.2 mm sieve increases with increasing postcanine wear, although these effects are not present when limited to individuals without tooth loss. Individuals with tooth loss also demonstrate larger proportions of fecal material 1.0-4.75 mm in size. Dental impairment results in larger food particles and potentially less efficient utilization of foods. When fecal material was examined by leaf vs. fruit content, individuals with tooth loss demonstrated reduced proportions of fruit in the 1.0 mm and 11.2 mm sieves. These data suggest individuals with tooth loss consume less fruit than those without loss, potentially reflecting a reduced ability to process tamarind fruit, a key fallback resource at BMSR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The befuddling nature of mouse lemur hands and feet at Bezà Mahafaly, SW Madagascar.

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    Agostini, Gina; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R

    2017-09-01

    The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy. We demonstrate significant interpopulation differences in autopod morphophology despite no evidence of divergence in mitochondrial cytochrome b. We test two hypotheses regarding ultimate causation. The first, based on the Fine Branch Arborealism Hypothesis (FBAH), holds that autopod differences are related to different locomotor practices in the two environments, and the second, based on the Narrow Niche Hypothesis (NNH), holds that the observed differences reflect a relaxation (from ancestral to descendant conditions) of selective pressure for terrestrial locomotion and/or use of large, vertical supports combined with positive selection for locomoting in peripheral branch settings. Our data conform well to FBAH expectations and show some support for the NNH. Individuals from the gallery forest possess disproportionally long posterior digits that facilitate locomotion on small, flexible canopy supports while individuals from the spiny forest possess shorter posterior digits and a longer pollex/hallux that increase functional grasping diameter for large vertical supports and facilitate efficient ground locomotion. Focal individual data confirm differences in how often individuals descend to the ground and use vertical supports. We further show that predispersal juveniles, like adults, possess autopod morphologies suited to their natal forest. We explore two proximate mechanisms that could generate these

  5. The ranging behavior of Lemur catta in the region of Cap Sainte-Marie, Madagascar.

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    Kelley, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Large home ranges and extreme flexibility in ranging behaviors characterize most subarid dwelling haplorhines. However, the most comparable extant strepsirhine, Lemur catta, is characterized as having small home ranges with consistent boundaries. Since ranging studies on this species have been limited to gallery forest habitat, the author's goal is to identify ecological factors that affect range use of L. catta in one of the most resource-limited environments of its distribution. To conduct this study, ranging and behavioral data were collected on two nonoverlapping groups through all-day follows in the semidesert scrub environment of Cap Sainte-Marie (CSM), Madagascar. Data were collected from August 2007 through July 2008. Home range areas and day range lengths were generated using ArcGIS(®) 9.3. Other variables measured were habitat composition, diet richness, daily activity, and microclimate. Home range areas of CSM L. catta were very large relative to those of gallery forest L. catta, and there was great monthly variation. In contrast, day range lengths at CSM were either smaller than or approximated the size of comparative gallery forest groups. Temperature, sunning, and diet richness were associated with day range length for one but not for both groups and appear to be related to energy management needs. Based on these findings, the author suggests that L. catta is capable of extensive behavioral and ranging flexibility in the extremes of its environment. However, physiological constraints impose limitations that can interfere with its ability to adapt to even seemingly minor variations in microclimate and habitat structure within the same site. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Attenuated effect of increased daylength on activity rhythm in the old mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

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    Aujard, Fabienne; Cayetanot, Florence; Terrien, Jérémy; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2007-11-01

    Adaptation of physiological and behavioral functions to seasonal changes in daylength is of major relevance for optimal fitness and survival. Because aging is characterized by changes in biological rhythms, it may be hypothesized that old animals fall short of showing a full adaptation to prolonged changes in the duration of daily light exposure, as naturally occurring in relation to season in younger individuals. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed changes in the patterns of daily locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms of young and old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Primates) exposed to short and long daylengths. The effect of an increase in the duration of daily light exposure was attenuated in old animals, as compared to younger lemurs. Although some age-related differences in the locomotor activity rhythm could be seen under exposure to short daylength, they were predominant under long daylength. Some mechanisms allowing adaptation to changing daylength thus seem to be impaired at old age. Changes in coupling of circadian oscillators to the light-dark cycle and disturbances in the physiological responses to change in light duration should be further investigated.

  7. Assessing reproductive profiles in female brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from Ranomafana National Park, southeast Madagascar, using fecal hormone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Marina B; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on reproductive endocrinology in wild primate populations have greatly increased in the last decades owing to the development of noninvasive techniques that can be applied under field conditions. However, small-bodied nocturnal species are not well represented on the long list of primates surveyed in the wild, and reproductive inferences regarding these animals in their natural habitats have not benefited from direct observations of hormonal changes. We collected fecal samples from female brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) in a southeastern rainforest of Madagascar in order to determine whether or not fecally excreted steroid levels show a consistent pattern of change during the reproductive season and are a useful complement to reproductive observations in wild-trapped individuals. Initial data show variation in reproductive hormone levels before and after estrus and estimated day of parturition. Elevated levels of excreted estradiol (E(2)) were observed around the time of estrus, whereas high levels of fecal progesterone (P) were seen during later stages of pregnancy and around parturition. A more complete picture of reproductive profiles in female mouse lemurs, and how they may change over the life span, can be obtained if hormone analyses are used to supplement field observations.

  8. BASELINE HEALTH AND NUTRITION EVALUATION OF TWO SYMPATRIC NOCTURNAL LEMUR SPECIES (AVAHI LANIGER AND LEPILEMUR MUSTELINUS) RESIDING NEAR AN ACTIVE MINE SITE AT AMBATOVY, MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Williams, Cathy V; Rakotondrainibe, Hajanirina; Mahefarisoa, Karine L; Rajaonarivelo, Tsiky; Faulkner, Charles; Mass, Vanessa

    2017-09-01

    Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible. This report presents the baseline health, nutrition, and trace mineral evaluation for 33 Avahi laniger (Eastern wooly lemur) and 15 Lepilemur mustelinus (greater sportive lemur) captured and given complete health evaluations that included the measurement of fat-soluble vitamins and trace minerals in addition to routine complete blood counts, serum chemistries, and parasite evaluations. All lemurs appeared healthy on physical examination despite the presence of minor wounds consistent with interspecies aggression in some individuals. Serum chemistry values were within expected ranges for other lemur species; however, A. laniger erythrocytes were significantly smaller than those of L. mustelinus. Serum nickel values were markedly higher than expected in both species, and selenium, copper, and cobalt levels were higher in L. mustelinus compared with A. laniger at the study site, as well as values for I. indri or P. diadema reported from other locations. Endoparasites and ectoparasites were typical of those reported in other wild lemur species, but load and diversity varied between A. laniger and L. mustelinus despite inhabiting the same forest ecosystem. This baseline assessment provides the foundation for ongoing monitoring.

  9. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

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    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  10. Infecção experimental de macacos Cebus apella sp pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (cepa "y" I - curva da parasitemia na fase aguda da doença de Chagas

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    Geraldo Chaia

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete macacos (Cebus apella sp foram inoculados por via subcutânea peto Trypanosoma cruzi com um número de formas tripomastigotas que variou de 25 x 103 a 5 x 1O6. Um outro primata, também da mesma espécie, foi inoculado por via palpebral com fezes de Triatoma infestans contendo formas de T. cruzi provenientes da mesma cepa "Y". A presença do T. cruzi foi assinalada na maioria dos animais, pela primeira vez, no 8º dia após a infecção. Os picos máximos da parasitemia foram observados entre o 9º e o 12º dia da infecção. O número de tripanosomas caiu acentuadamente do 19º ao 25º dia. Todos os animais infectados sobreviveram. Estudos estão sendo conduzidos com o intuito de se observar o comportamento destes animais na fase crônica da doença.Seven monkeys Cebus apella sp were inoculated by subcutaneous route with an amount of tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi ranging from 25 x 10³ to 5 x 1O6. Another primate of the same species was inoculated by palpebral route with feces of Triatoma infestans containing T. cruzi forms originating from the same "Y" strain. The presence of T. cruzi was first observed in most of the animais on the 8th day after the infection. The maximum peaks of parasitemia occurred between the 9th and the 12th day of infection. The number of T. cruzi decreased markedly from the 19th to the 25th day and ail of the infected animais survived. Further studies are being conducted in order to observe the behaviour of these animais in the chronic phase of the disease.

  11. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  12. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

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    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  13. Unpredictable environments, opportunistic responses: Reproduction and population turnover in two wild mouse lemur species (Microcebus rufus and M. griseorufus) from eastern and western Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Marina B; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R

    2015-06-01

    Small-bodied, nocturnal mouse lemurs (Microcebus) are widespread across diverse forest habitats in Madagascar. They are strict seasonal breeders and can, depending on the habitat and species, undergo daily or prolonged torpor to minimize energy expenditure during periods of food and water scarcity. Duration of reproduction, number of litters per season and timing of births vary across individuals and species. The "polyestry-seasonality" hypothesis proposes that the duration of reproduction and number of litters per year are positively correlated with rainfall but negatively correlated with longevity, whereas the "hypervariability" hypothesis suggests that the duration of reproduction is negatively correlated with the degree of predictability of food resources. We test these hypotheses in two mouse lemur species inhabiting contrasting habitats, the brown mouse lemurs, Microcebus rufus, from Ranomafana (a less seasonal and more climatically predictable habitat) and the gray-brown mouse lemurs, M. griseorufus, from Beza Mahafaly (a more seasonal and less climatically predictable environment). We use capture/mark/recapture techniques and records of female reproductive status. We found evidence of polyestry at both study sites but faster population turnover and longer duration of the reproductive season at Beza Mahafaly. The "polyestry-seasonality" hypothesis is not supported but the "hypervariability" hypothesis could not be rejected. We conclude that reproductive output cannot be tied to climatic factors in a simple manner. Paradoxically, polyestry can be expressed in contrasting habitats: less seasonal forests where females can sustain multiple reproductive events, but also highly seasonal environments where females may not fatten sufficiently to sustain prolonged torpor but instead remain active throughout the year by relying on fallback resources. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Survey and clinical application of serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham C; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Dunker, Freeland H; Garner, Michael M; Sargent, Eva L

    2005-12-01

    Serum samples from 63 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were analyzed to survey serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin levels. Data analysis showed no differences in these analytes attributable to sex, but significantly higher levels of serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in older animals. The survey data were examined in light of two black and white ruffed lemurs that were treated for iron overload with serial phlebotomies. Prior to therapy, both phlebotomized lemurs had excess hepatic iron deposition, but had serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin below the upper limits observed in the survey animals, suggesting that some clinically normal animals included in the survey may have accumulated excess systemic iron. Serial phlebotomy therapy reduced serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin in both animals. Three years after the conclusion of therapy in the one remaining case, serum iron and transferrin saturation have risen substantially, whereas serum ferritin has risen slightly. Serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin may be useful predictors of systemic iron stores in this species, though the correlation between these parameters and systemic iron stores needs to be determined.

  15. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation differentially affects behavior and cognition in the young and aged non-human primate Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus

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    Pifferi Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are divergent about the ability of dietary ω3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Most of the clinical trials failed to demonstrate a protective effect of ω3 fatty acids against cognitive decline and methodological issues are still under debate. Conversely to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that long chain ω3 fatty acids play a beneficial role in behavioral and cognitive functions. Inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. We recently started a series of experiments on Grey mouse lemurs, an emerging non-human primate model of aging in order to assess the impact of ω3 fatty acids dietary supplementation on several brain functions. These experiments started with the determination of the fatty acids composition of target organs (brain, adipose tissue, liver, plasma of animals fed under control diet. We then explored the impact of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation on cognition and behavior in young and aged grey mouse lemurs. The aim of the present review is to compare the observations made in young and aged grey mouse lemurs and to explore the possibilities of new experiments in order to bridge the gap between rodents and Humans.

  16. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  17. Shape of the lateral mandibular outline in Lemuridae: a quantitative analysis of variability using elliptical Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveloson, Herimalala; Le Minor, Jean-Marie; Rumpler, Yves; Schmittbuhl, Matthieu

    2005-01-01

    While several morphometric analyses in lemurids have focused on the craniofacial complex, the characterization of their mandibular morphology has received less attention. The mandibular outline, in lateral perspective, was quantified using elliptical Fourier analysis, in an osteological sample encompassing 189 lemurid mandibles (66 Eulemur, 51 Hapalemur, 22 Lemur and 50 Varecia), and compared using multivariate statistical techniques. The taxonomic value of this outline in Lemuridae was demonstrated by the existence of significant separations between the four genera studied. In particular, the mandibular morphology of Hapalemur was markedly different from that in the group Eulemur-Lemur-Varecia. Excluding Hapalemur from analysis, the distinctions between Eulemur, Lemur and Varecia were enhanced suggesting the existence of more subtle intergeneric differences in mandibular morphology. Variation in mandibular form was greatest in Hapalemur and smallest in Eulemur and Varecia (as demonstrated by the mean values of interindividual distances); variation was higher in Lemur than in Eulemur and Varecia, but not higher than in Hapalemur. This morphological diversity may be related to functional adaptation in response to particular dietary habits. The patterns of intergeneric and intrageneric shape variations of the mandible in Lemuridae presented here provide a valuable resource for the analysis of variation among living and fossil lemurids.

  18. [Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible

  19. Feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) following a cyclone at the Beza Mahafaly special reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, M; Gould, L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a cyclone hit southern Madagascar, including the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of Tamarindus indica, leaving Lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. We studied two adjacent groups of L. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. The Red group (RG) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leaves and stems of the invasive terrestrial flowering herb Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), growing outside the reserve. The Green group (GG) spent significantly more time feeding than did RG, and more time feeding inside the forest compared to outside. The members of RG spent half of their time feeding in the crops, and nearly half of their diet consisted of easy-to-process sweet potato leaves. Additionally, RG defended and restricted GG's access to the crop territory. Of the two non-forest foods, A. mexicana leaves were higher in protein and most minerals (P, Mg, K and Na, but not Ca) and lower in fiber than sweet potato leaves, but sweet potato leaves were preferred by RG. L. catta is a markedly flexible primate with respect to diet, and switches to fallback foods from outside the forest during periods of low food availability. In the highly seasonal and unpredictable climate of southern Madagascar, such behavioral adaptations are important to the survival of this species.

  20. Presença de Campylobacter spp. em macacos-de-cheiro (Saimiri spp. assintomáticos cativos e sua correlação com as condições de manejo Campylobacter spp. in asymptomatic captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp. and its correlation with the handling conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.R. Andrade

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a circulação de Campylobacter spp. em uma criação de primatas neotropicais macacos-de-cheiro (Saimiri spp., clinicamente saudáveis, utilizados em investigações biomédicas. A análise foi feita no decorrer de sete anos não consecutivos, de 1995 a 1999, 2002 e 2003. Os resultados revelaram um maior índice de positividade no ano de 1996, em contraste com a ausência do agente em 2003. Os dados sugerem que as alterações realizadas no manejo animal, ao longo deste estudo, foram eficazes para a eliminação do Campylobacter spp. na criação de macacos-de-cheiro, levando os animais a uma melhor qualidade de vida e, consequentemente, obtendo-se um melhor produto para fins de pesquisas.The circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a breeding colony of clinically healthy neotropical primates squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp. used in biomedical investigation was evaluated. Analyses were undertaken during seven non-consecutive years: 1995 to 1999, 2002 and 2003. Results revealed a higher rate of positivity in 1996, in contrast to the absence of the agent in 2003. The data suggest that the changes made in the animal management during this study were effective for the Campylobacter spp. elimination of the squirrel monkeys breeding colony, leading to a better quality of life and, hence, resulting in a better animal for research.

  1. Survey of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins in captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham C; Puschner, Birgit; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Dunker, Freeland

    2009-12-01

    Serum and whole blood samples from 64 clinically normal captive black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), aged 6 mo to 32 yr, were analyzed to survey mineral and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. All animals were fed a commercial primate food and a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Specific commercial diet information was available for 52 animals that were fed one of 10 different diets. Data analysis showed no differences in the analytes attributable to sex or access to natural ultraviolet light. Serum phosphorus (range: 1.4-3.1 mmol/L) was significantly higher and retinol (range: 0.38-1.23 micromol/L) was significantly lower in young animals (Varecia rubra), a closely related species. Selenium (range: 3.5-7.7 micromol/L) was within the range expected for a mammal, but higher than concentrations reported in wild V rubra. Zinc (range: 9.2-62.7 micromol/L) was similar to concentrations reported in V. rubra. Calcidiol (range: <12.5-144.8 nmol/L) and retinol (range: 0.38-2.95 micromol/L) were both lower and higher than concentrations reported in V. rubra. Lower serum calcidiol concentration correlated with lower commercial dietary vitamin D3. Alpha-tocopherol (range: 1.2-17.6 micromol/L) and y-tocopherol (range: 0.3-3.9 micromol/L) were within a range expected in a captive frugivorous primate but higher than concentrations found in wild V. rubra.

  2. Lemur tyrosine kinase-2 signalling regulates kinesin-1 light chain-2 phosphorylation and binding of Smad2 cargo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manser, C

    2012-05-31

    A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2) as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The identified genetic alteration is within intron 9, but the mechanisms by which LMTK2 may impact upon prostate cancer are not clear because the functions of LMTK2 are poorly understood. Here, we show that LMTK2 regulates a known pathway that controls phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chain-2 (KLC2) by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK3β induces the release of cargo from KLC2. LMTK2 signals via protein phosphatase-1C (PP1C) to increase inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β on serine-9 that reduces KLC2 phosphorylation and promotes binding of the known KLC2 cargo Smad2. Smad2 signals to the nucleus in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor stimulation and transport of Smad2 by kinesin-1 is required for this signalling. We show that small interfering RNA loss of LMTK2 not only reduces binding of Smad2 to KLC2, but also inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 signalling. Thus, LMTK2 may regulate the activity of kinesin-1 motor function and Smad2 signalling.

  3. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    realizados. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo consiste em avaliar histologicamente a biocompatibilidade do implante do polímero de mamona no dorso nasal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizados quatro macacos-pregos da espécie Cebus apella. Um defeito ósseo foi realizado no osso nasal em todos os animais e colocado um implante de polímero de mamona. A eutanásia foi realizada com 270 dias de pós-operatório, e as amostras foram submetidas a estudo histológico. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica não foi observada a presença de granuloma de corpo estranho ou células fagocitárias. Progressiva formação óssea e maturação foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados macroscópicos e microscópicos mostraram que o implante de polímero de mamona foi biocompatível.

  4. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP). From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%). Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted. PMID:21988762

  5. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Cave David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP. From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%. Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.

  6. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Federica; Prisco, Cristina; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Di Cave, David; De Liberato, Claudio

    2011-10-12

    Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP). From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%). Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.

  7. ESTIMATED COMPOSITION OF DIETS FED TO CAPTIVE BLACK-AND-WHITE RUFFED LEMURS (VARECIA VARIEGATA) AT 33 U.S. ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadeo, Brett C; Kerr, Katherine R; Morris, Cheryl L; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-01

    Data on captive diets for black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) are limited. Information on food items used, inclusion amounts, and the chemical composition of diets is needed to improve the management of nutrition-related health problems seen in captive lemurs (e.g., obesity) that have not been reported in their wild counterparts. To determine the ingredient and nutrient composition of diets for captive V. variegata, U.S. zoological institutions were surveyed. Chemical composition of reported diets was estimated using Nutritionist Pro™ (Axxya Systems, Stafford, Texas 77477, USA), and these values were compared numerically to wild lemur diets from the literature. Institutions included from six to greater than 30 different ingredients in their diets, including fruits (0.0-84.1%), vegetables (7.5-70.0%), greens (1.0-28.5%), and commercially available feeds (1.5-68.6%). Nutrient concentrations of captive diets ranged as follows: dry matter (DM), 14.5-67.6%; organic matter, 93.1-97.2% DM basis (DMB); crude protein, 7.9-23.9% DMB; fat, 2.0-6.5% DMB; total dietary fiber, 10.1-28.1% DMB; and N-free extract, 38.9-74.4% DMB. Captive diets had lower fat and total dietary fiber and higher protein and N-free extract compared to wild fruit items from Madagascar. Reducing the amount of fruit in captive diets for V. variegata would be expected to decrease digestible carbohydrate content and increase fiber content of these diets, which has implications for the prevalence of obesity in captive animals.

  8. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  10. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

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    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  11. Mutualism, reciprocity, or kin selection? Cooperative rescue of a conspecific from a boa in a nocturnal solitary forager the gray mouse lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

    2008-04-01

    Predator mobbing is a widespread phenomenon in many taxa but the evolution of cooperative mobbing as an adaptive behavior is still subject to debate. Here, we report evidence for cooperative predator defense in a nocturnal solitarily foraging primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Several mouse lemurs mobbed a snake that held a non-related male conspecific until he could escape. Evolutionary hypotheses to explain cooperative mobbing include (1) by-product mutualism, when individuals defend others in the process of defending themselves; (2) reciprocity, where animals achieve a higher fitness when helping each other than when they do not cooperate; and (3) kin selection where animals help each other only if they share genes by common descent. Owing to the solitary activity of this species, reciprocity seems to be least likely to explain our observations. By-product mutualism cannot be ruled out entirely but, if costs of snake mobbing are relatively low, the available detailed socio-genetic information indicates that kin selection, rather than any of the other proposed mechanisms, is the primary evolutionary force behind the observed cooperative rescue.

  12. Étude anatomique d'une espèce de lémurien (Eulemur fulvus) : coupes topographiques et tomodensitométriques du thorax, de l'abdomen et du bassin. Application à la pratique de l'échographie du cœur et des reins

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina

    2008-01-01

    L'objectif de notre étude est d'élaborer un document de référence mettant en relation l'anatomie, l'imagerie et la clinique du lémurien brun (Eulemur fulvus) et débouchant sur des mesures échographiques normales des reins et du cœur. Les études anatomique et tomodensitométrique ont été effectuées sur deux lémuriens et l'étude échographique sous différents modes sur 16 animaux après anesthésie. Les coupes anatomiques et tomodensitométriques nous ont permis de préciser la position et la conform...

  13. Diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, A

    2000-01-01

    The feeding behaviour and diet of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) was investigated in the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. The highly frugivorous diet of this subspecies was confirmed - feeding on fruits accounting for 92.0% of feeding records. Most feeding at Betampona was observed at 10-25 m above the forest floor amongst flexible, small (0.5-5.0 cm diameter) and oblique/horizontal (0-45 degrees ) supports. The Varecia spent on average 21.7% (+/- 1.5) of their daily activity budget feeding and employ a variety of postures that enable them to harvest fruits in the rain forest canopy. The suspensory postures were the most important in allowing Varecia to compete with other smaller-bodied frugivores. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Avaliação ultrassonográfica e mensurações das glândulas adrenais em primatas não humanos neotropicais: mico-de-cheiro (Saimiri sciureus, macaco-da-noite (Aotus azarae infulatus e bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As glândulas adrenais possuem funções endócrinas relacionadas a múltiplas funções vitais, estando intimamente relacionadas à capacidade do animal em se adaptar ao estresse. O exame ultrassonográfico é o método diagnóstico de escolha para avaliação das glândulas em diferentes espécies. Considerando a escassa literatura, questiona-se se as doenças adrenais em primatas não humanos são incomuns ou subdiagnosticadas, havendo a hipótese desse fato ser determinado pela falta de parâmetros. Objetivou-se descrever as características ultrassonográficas das glândulas adrenais para três espécies de primatas não humanos mantidas em cativeiro: Saimiri sciureus (mico-de-cheiro, Aotus azarae infulatus (macaco-da-noite e Alouatta guariba clamitans (bugio-ruivo. Conclui-se que é possível a identificação das glândulas adrenais por meio de exame ultrassonográfico, sendo que os padrões de referência foram estabelecidos com sucesso para as espécies em questão. Ressalta-se que a adequação de animais em ambientes estressantes é frequentemente acompanhada por uma hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, portanto deve-se levar em consideração que as mensurações realizadas nesse estudo foram estabelecidas em animais de cativeiro.

  15. A anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco: a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx e a questão do saber objetivo na educação escolar The man anatomy is the key to the monkey anatomy: the dialectics in Vigotski and in Marx and the issue about objective knowledge in school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Duarte

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigotski, em seu "Manuscrito de 1929" afirma que a relação filogênese-ontogênese no desenvolvimento orgânico é distinta da mesma relação no desenvolvimento cultural: enquanto que o embrião humano se desenvolve sem interagir com o organismo adulto, o desenvolvimento cultural da criança só ocorre por meio da interação com o adulto, isto é, com o ser mais desenvolvido. Partindo dessa afirmação, o artigo analisa as relações entre a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx, apoiando-se na reflexão metodológica e epistemológica desenvolvida por Marx no texto em que afirmou que "a anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco". O artigo conclui com a defesa da tese de que a psicologia vigotskiana fornece apoio a uma pedagogia que valorize a transmissão das formas mais desenvolvidas do saber objetivo produzido pela humanidade.Vygotsky, in his manuscript Concrete Human Psychology, asserts that the relationship ontogeny-philogeny in cultural development is different from the same relationship in organic development: the human fetus develops itself without an interection with a mature biotype, whereas in cultural development this interaction is the most important force for all development. Thus, this article analysis the relationship between the dialectics present in Vygotsky and in Marx, substantiated in methodological and epistemological reflexion done by Marx on the text whereby he asserts that "the human anatomy is the key for monkey anatomy". The conclusion of this article defends that Vygotsky's psychology supports a pedagogy which one appreciates the conduction of children to learn the highest objective knowledge produce by all mankind.

  16. Frugivory and seed dispersal patterns of the red-ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra, at a forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Barbara T; Razafindratsima, Onja H

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous primates can play a critical role in the regeneration of degraded habitats by dispersing seeds of their food plants. We studied the diet and seed dispersal patterns of 3 groups of habituated red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) in a rain forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar, to assess the species' seed dispersal effectiveness. Fruits accounted for 61% of the diet, with an average foraging time of 10 min per fruit patch per day. Seeds from 75% of the consumed fruit species were recovered in the collected V. rubra feces. We traced the potential parent plants of 20 dispersed-seed species to calculate a gut passage range (63-423 min; mean = 225, n = 35). The median seed dispersal distance from the potential parent plant was 48 m (mean = 83 m, range 0-568 m, n = 194). The home ranges of 2 of the 3 groups overlapped with the regenerating forest parcels. Although 92% of fecal samples with seeds were dispersed into the undisturbed forest, V. rubra fed on the fruits of the non-native pioneer shrub Clidemia hirta, while also dispersing native and non-native seed species into the regenerating forest parcels. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Effects of acute administration of donepezil or memantine on sleep-deprivation-induced spatial memory deficit in young and aged non-human primate grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation. The non-human primate grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is increasingly used in aging research, but there is no published results related to the impact of known pharmacological treatments on age-related cognitive impairment observed in this primate. In the present study we investigated the effects of DON and MEM on sleep-deprivation (SD-induced memory impairment in young and aged male mouse lemurs. In particular, spatial memory impairment was evaluated using a circular platform task after 8 h of total SD. Acute single doses of DON or MEM (0.1 and 1mg/kg or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before the cognitive task during the SD procedure. Results indicated that both doses of DON were able to prevent the SD-induced deficits in retrieval of spatial memory as compared to vehicle-treated animals, both in young and aged animals Likewise, MEM show a similar profile at 1 mg/kg but not at 0.1mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that two widely used drugs for mitigating cognitive deficits in AD were partially effective in sleep deprived mouse lemurs, which further support the translational potential of this animal model. Our findings demonstrate the utility of this primate model for further testing cognitive enhancing drugs in development for AD or other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  18. Effects of acute administration of donepezil or memantine on sleep-deprivation-induced spatial memory deficit in young and aged non-human primate grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Lamberty, Yves; Schenker, Esther; Cella, Massimo; Languille, Solène; Bordet, Régis; Richardson, Jill; Pifferi, Fabien; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation. The non-human primate grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is increasingly used in aging research, but there is no published results related to the impact of known pharmacological treatments on age-related cognitive impairment observed in this primate. In the present study we investigated the effects of DON and MEM on sleep-deprivation (SD)-induced memory impairment in young and aged male mouse lemurs. In particular, spatial memory impairment was evaluated using a circular platform task after 8 h of total SD. Acute single doses of DON or MEM (0.1 and 1mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before the cognitive task during the SD procedure. Results indicated that both doses of DON were able to prevent the SD-induced deficits in retrieval of spatial memory as compared to vehicle-treated animals, both in young and aged animals Likewise, MEM show a similar profile at 1 mg/kg but not at 0.1mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that two widely used drugs for mitigating cognitive deficits in AD were partially effective in sleep deprived mouse lemurs, which further support the translational potential of this animal model. Our findings demonstrate the utility of this primate model for further testing cognitive enhancing drugs in development for AD or other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  19. Des lémuriens et des hommes : mythes, représentations et pratiques à Madagascar Lemurs and humans: myths, representations and social practices in Madagascar

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    Claire Harpet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les mythes et les pratiques associées témoignent de la richesse des relations que les populations humaines ont entretenu avec les lémuriens, animaux endémiques de l’île, depuis l’arrivée des hommes à Madagascar. Les représentations à l’égard des lémuriens diffèrent en tout point du territoire : Ancêtres fondateurs, bienfaiteurs, interdits (à la chasse, à la consommation, au toucher, sacrés, apprivoisés, redoutés ou portes malheur, les lémuriens occupent de nombreux statuts au cœur du bestiaire malgache. Certaines traditions fragilisent leur existence, d’autres au contraire participent à leur préservation. Ce présent article propose une lecture anthropologique des relations des hommes et des lémuriens à Madagascar, à l’épreuve du temps et à l’heure de la mondialisation.Myths and related practices reflect the richness of relationships that people have had since the beginning with lemurs, animals endemic to the island of Madagascar. Depending on the species and the ethnic group involved, the representations of lemurs differ throughout the territory: founder ancestors, benefactors, taboo, sacred, feared or evil omen, lemurs occupy many status in the heart of Madagascan bestiary.  Some traditionsare underminingtheir existence;others on the contrarycontribute totheir preservation.Thepresent article proposesreading anthropological relationshipsof men andlemursin Madagascar tothe test of timeand theglobalizing world.

  20. Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473 Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473

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    Zenon Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais é em virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos específicos, o fato marcante foi a ocorrência de uma curta artéria braquial, que em alguns casos pode estar ausente, nos Cebus. O modelo arterial braquial em Cebus corrobora seu comportamento arbóreo e constante uso dos membros torácicos.The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urban environments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterial system of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans

  1. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaf chemistry as a predictor of primate biomass and the mediating role of food selection: a case study in a folivorous lemur (Propithecus verreauxi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Bruno; Tarnaud, Laurent; Marez, André; Hladik, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Folivorous primate biomass has been shown to positively correlate with the average protein-to-fiber ratio in mature leaves of tropical forests. However, studies have failed to explain the mismatch between dietary selection and the role of the protein-to-fiber ratio on primate biomass; why do not folivores always favor mature leaves or leaves with the highest protein-to-fiber ratio? We examined the effect of leaf chemical characteristics and plant abundance (using transect censuses; 0.37 ha, 233 trees) on food choices and nutrient/toxin consumption in a folivorous lemur (Propithecus verreauxi) in a gallery forest in southern Madagascar. To assess the nutritional quality of the habitat, we calculated an abundance-weighted chemical index for each chemical variable. Food intake was quantified using a continuous count of mouthfuls during individual full-day follows across three seasons. We found a significant positive correlation between food ranking in the diet and plant abundance. The protein-to-fiber ratio and most other chemical variables tested had no statistical effect on dietary selection. Numerous chemical characteristics of the sifaka's diet were essentially by-products of generalist feeding and "low energy input/low energy crop" strategy. The examination of feeding behavior and plant chemistry in Old World colobines and folivorous prosimians in Madagascar suggests that relative lack of feeding selectivity and high primate biomass occur when the average protein-to-fiber ratio of mature leaves in the habitat exceeds a threshold at 0.4. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

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    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific

  4. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

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    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL (p = 0.05. The mean percentage of live spermatozoa after 7 hours incubated at 37 °C was 72 + 3%. Only in one sample was observed sperm motility (20% and vigor (2. The results suggest that electroejaculation protocol using 100mA maximum amperage is efficient to obtain semen from adult Cebus apella. The coconut water extender can be used to maintain sperm viability for up to 7 hours at 37 °C. However, studies are necessary to evaluate the sperm functionality extended in natura coconut water based solution.

    KEY WORDS: Cebus apella, electroejaculation water, extender, semen.
    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de um diluidor de sêmen à base de água de coco in natura a 37 °C na dissolução da fração coagulada e conservação do sêmen de macacos-prego. Analisaram-se quinze ejaculados colhidos de cinco (n=5 machos adultos de Cebus apella através de eletroejaculação. Os volumes médios das frações líquida e coagulada foram 0,26 + 0,06 mL e 0,98 + 0,02 mL, respectivamente. A fração líquida apresentou baixa concentração média de espermatozoides (210. 106 + 50 106 mL em relação à fração coagulada (1600. 106+ 900 106 mL (p ? 0,05. O percentual médio de espermatozoides vivos após sete horas de incubação a 37°C foi 72 + 3%. Em apenas uma amostra observaram-se 20% de motilidade e vigor 2. Os resultados sugerem que o protocolo de eletroejaculação utilizando amperagem máxima de 100 mA é eficaz para a obtenção de sêmen de Cebus apella e que o diluidor à base

  5. Origem do plexo braquial do macaco Cebus apella

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    Adriana Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The monkey Cebus apella, native to South American forests, is geographically distributed through the Brazilian land and presents satisfactory adaptation to the captive life showing great capacity of reproduction. Thus, we have described the origin of the brachial plexus in the monkey Cebus apella. The aim of this study was to add information for morphofunctional and comparative studies focusing on Cebus apella, humans and domestic animals. Twenty adult animals, 10 males and 10 females, belonging to the collection of Anatomy Laboratory of the Federal University of Uberlândia were obtained and prepared through fixation and dissection. In the dissected specimens, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella was comprised of nerve roots from C5 to T1 (55,00 ±± 11,12%, from C5 to T2 (25,00 ±± 9,68%, from C4 to T1 (15,00 ±± 7,98% and from C4 to T2 (5,00 ±± 4,87%. In addition, the occurrence of pre- and post- fixation of the plexus as well as its cranial and caudal extent have been discussed. In conclusion, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella is constituted by nerve roots from C5 to T1.

  6. Performance evaluation of MACACO: a multilayer Compton camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Enrique; Barrio, John; Etxebeste, Ane; Ortega, Pablo G.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Solaz, Carles; Llosá, Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    Compton imaging devices have been proposed and studied for a wide range of applications. We have developed a Compton camera prototype which can be operated with two or three detector layers based on monolithic lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 ) crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), to be used for proton range verification in hadron therapy. In this work, we present the results obtained with our prototype in laboratory tests with radioactive sources and in simulation studies. Images of a 22 Na and an 88 Y radioactive sources have been successfully reconstructed. The full width half maximum of the reconstructed images is below 4 mm for a 22 Na source at a distance of 5 cm.

  7. Predation on the black capuchin monkey Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae by domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil Predação de macaco-prego Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae por cães domésticos Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Valeska B. de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Predation on an adult male black capuchin monkey, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 by two domestic dogs was observed in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais. Predation occurred in an area of well preserved native forest 800 m from the nearest forest edge. This is the first confirmed record of predation by domestic dogs in this reserve, yet data from a study in the same area indicates that the domestic dog is the most frequently recorded mammal species, which suggests that it is common in the area. The few published reports indicate that this problem occurs in other conservation units in Brazil and should, therefore, be treated with more rigor by the environmental agencies.A predação de um macho adulto de macaco-prego, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 por dois cães-domésticos é relatada no interior do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, localizado na Mata Atlântica do sudeste de Minas Gerais. A observação foi registrada em local de mata nativa bem preservada, a cerca de 800 m da borda mais próxima da reserva. Embora este seja o primeiro registro confirmado de predação por cão doméstico nesta unidade de conservação, dados de um estudo sobre a mastofauna local, usando parcelas de pegadas, indicam que o cão-doméstico é a espécie de mamífero mais freqüentemente registrada, sugerindo que sua presença é constante e amplamente distribuída na área. Os poucos relatos existentes na literatura indicam que este problema está presente em outras unidades de conservação e deveria, portanto, ser tratado com maior rigor pelas agências ambientais.

  8. time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the Agnalazaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hubert Andriamaharoa, Chris Birkinshaw, Ludovic Reza

    time spent feeding averaged 9.6 % of total observation time. ... des observations. L'espèce s'est montrée nettement frugivore. (93 % de la durée totale consacrée à l'alimentation) mais elle consommait également des feuilles, des inflorescences, des ...... Geoffroy, 1796) à la suite d'une perturbation cyclonique dans la Parc.

  9. time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the Agnalazaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hubert Andriamaharoa, Chris Birkinshaw, Ludovic Reza

    . We are also grateful to Porter P. Lowry II and several anonymous reviewers for valuable comments and to. Christian Camara for translating the abstract into French. REFERENCES. Altmann, J. 1974. Observation study of behaviour: Sampling ...

  10. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. The anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of Lemur catta and Propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia L; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. Herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms Lemur catta (Lemuridae) and Propithecus coquereli (Indriidae). These two species belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features within primates. We compare the muscular anatomy of the fetuses with that of infants and adults and discuss the evolutionary and developmental implications. The fetal anatomy reflects a phylogenetically more plesiomorphic condition in nine of the muscles we studied and a more derived condition in only two, supporting a parallel between ontogeny and phylogeny. The derived exceptions concern muscles with additional insertions in the fetus which are lost in adults of the same species, that is, flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal III and levator claviculae inserts on the clavicle. Interestingly, these two muscles are involved in movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, which are mainly important for activities in later stages of life, such as locomotion and prey capture, rather than activities in fetal life. Accordingly, our findings suggest that some exceptions to the "ontogeny parallels phylogeny" rule are probably driven more by ontogenetic constraints than by adaptive plasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fragmentation des habitats et le devenir des lémuriens du Sud et du Sud-ouest de Madagascar Habitat fragmentation and the future of lemurs in the South and South-west of Madagascar

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    Germain Jules Spiral

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualifiée jadis d’île verte, Madagascar est aujourd’hui l’une des parties du monde la plus tragiquement érodée par l’action humaine sous toutes ses formes. Depuis l’arrivée de l’Homme sur la grande île, la dégradation progressive des forêts malgaches dont les causes sont nombreuses est à l’origine des conséquences alarmantes qui pèsent non seulement sur la population des lémuriens, mais aussi sur la nation toute entière, la région du Sud et du Sud-ouest en particulier : ce qui ne fait qu’hypothéquer le développement du pays. A cet égard, des mesures urgentes de protection et de préservation doivent figurer parmi les priorités régionales, voire nationales, pour réparer au moins partiellement les dégâts constatés et assurer un avenir meilleur aux générations futures.Once called "green island", Madagascar is now one of the most degraded part of the world due to all kinds of human activities. Since men arrived on the island, progressive degradation of forests became more and more alarming for the survival of lemur populations as well as the whole nation, particularly in the southern and south western regions leading to the handicap of the development of the country. Therefore, urgent rules of conservation and preservation must be undertaken as priority in the region or even in the country in order to limit at least partially the observed degradations and insure a better future for the next generations.

  13. Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife: 15 years research on nocturnal lemurs in the Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife :15 ans de recherche sur les lémuriens nocturnes dans le Parc National d´Ankarafantsika, Madagascar

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    Marine Joly

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife from the Malagasy: Mouse lemur, sportive lemur and woolly lemur. "The Ankarafantsika Lemur Project", is based at the field station of Ampijoroa in the National Park of Ankarafantsika in the North-West of Madagascar and is conducted by the Institute of Zoology from the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany in close collaboration with the local universities of Antananarivo, of Mahajanga and Madagascar National Parks (authorities for the management of protected areas in Madagascar. The project started in 1996. The goal is to enhance our knowledge on the adaptation and evolution of a previously neglected group of primates, the nocturnal lemurs, and to contribute to their conservation. Thus, researchers study the diversity, ecology, communication and socio-biology of the nocturnal lemurs. They discovered one new mouse lemur species (Microcebus ravelobensis in this area. They characterised aspects of the morphometry, genetics, communication, ecology, social traits and recently, cognitive abilities of sympatrically living mouse-sized (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis and cat-sized lemur species (Lepilemur edwardsi and Avahi occidentalis. Some major results are presented in this article showing the importance of exchanging experience, educating Malagasy students and field guides and joint work with Malagasy partners in order to deepen our knowledge on the biology of endemic species. This knowledge is crucial to establish efficient management plans and thus contribute to the conservation of threatened species.Tsidy, Repahaka sy Fotsife en langue Malgache : Microcèbe, Lépilémur et Avahi. Le projet de recherche sur les lémuriens nocturnes d´Ankarafantsika est basé à la station d´Ampijoroa dans le Parc National d´Ankarafantsika dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar. Il est mené par l´Institut de Zoologie de l´Ecole Vétérinaire de Hanovre (Allemagne en collaboration étroite avec les universit

  14. Programme Sahamalaza-Iles Radama de l’AEECL : étude et conservation des espèces menacées d’extinction de lémuriens dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar AEECL’s Sahamalaza-Iles Radama Program: study and conservation of threatened species of lemurs in north-west of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dumoulin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’AEECL, Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, est un consortium de parcs zoologiques et d’universités européennes mettant en commun leurs connaissances et leurs efforts en faveur de projets de recherche et de protection des lémuriens menacés d’extinction de Madagascar depuis plus de trente ans. Pour ce faire, l’AEECL mène ou finance des études afin d’améliorer les connaissances scientifiques concernant les lémuriens. Ces informations sont indispensables pour mettre en place les mesures concrètes adaptées pour protéger ces animaux. Ses travaux ont notamment aidé à la reconnaissance de la péninsule de Sahamalaza en tant que réserve de biosphère de l’UNESCO, en 2001 et à la création du parc national Sahamalaza-Iles Radama, en 2007, principal site de recherches menées par l’association. De plus l’AEECL met un point d’honneur à impliquer la population locale. Des associations communautaires locales ont été créées dans les villages de quatre communes. Elles ont le pouvoir de gérer les ressources naturelles de leur juridiction de façon durable.The European Association for the Study and Conservation of Lemurs (Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, AEECL is a consortium of European zoological gardens and universities who have joined forces to carry out conservation and research projects for Madagascar’s highly endangered lemurs since more than 30 years. AEECL implements or finances various different research projects to improve the scientific knowledge of lemurs. Information is essential to be able to develop comprehensive conservation and management plans to protect these animals. The work of AEECL has led to the implementation of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Sahamalaza in 2001 and to the creation of the Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park in 2007. In addition to the research, AEECL is carrying out a community-based natural resource

  15. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

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    Rachel L Jacobs

    Full Text Available Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134 large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency. By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck. To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the

  16. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  17. Limbed Excursion Mechanical Utility Rover: LEMUR II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B.; Aghazarian, H.; Cheng, Y.; Garrett, M.; Hutsberger, T.; Magnone, L.; Okon, A.; Robinson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The assembly inspection, and maintenance requirements of permanent installations in space demand robotic agents that provide a high level of operational flexibility relative to the mass and volume of the robotic system.

  18. tion in rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: Herman Andry Rafalinirina. University of Antananarivo, Department of Paleontology and. Biological Anthropology. E-mail: rafaherman01 @gmail.com. I. University of Antananarivo, Department of Paleontology and Biological Anthropology, Madagascar. II. University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology, ...

  19. Les activités de conservation des lémuriens par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP Conservation activities of lemurs by the Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP- Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Randrianarison

    2011-10-01

    prosimian primates of Madagascar, the development of action plans for their conservation, the discovery of new species, the translocation of lemurs living in deforested or threatened habitats, the abundance estimates and the revision of area distributions and the publication of results research in national and international scientific journals. In fact, capacity building of local community associations and primary and higher education systems concerning lemur conservation linked to aiding the sustainable development of local communities, it seems necessary, so that the lemur conservation will be lasting.

  20. Phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, J M; Stanger, K F

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. Among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. First, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated DNA fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between Lemur catta and the genus Hapalemur. Moreover, our results indicate that L. catta is nested within the Hapalemur clade as the sister taxon to Hapalemur griseus/Hapalemur aureus. We interpret character states shared between Hapalemur simus and L. catta as primitive retentions by L. catta. Second, our findings agree with the DNA data in proposing a sister group relationship for Eulemur coronatus and Eulemur rubriventer. Third, our results question the validity of assigning Varecia variegata to the Lemuridae. For the characters we examined, Varecia more resembled indrids than lemurids, and the position of Varecia could be swapped with any of our outgroups (Indri, Propithecus, Daubentonia) without affecting tree topology. Previous workers sometimes have linked Varecia with various lemurids on grounds of ambiguously defined characters or on incorrect data gleaned from the literature. In those studies, the placement of Varecia in the Lemuridae usually has depended more on the minimization of character state conflicts (i.e. parsimony), than on demonstrable synapomorphies. In addition, data from DNA research have failed to demonstrate any pattern that links Varecia with Lemur, Hapalemur, or Eulemur. Results of the present study suggest that shared Varecia-indrid character states may be symplesiomorphic retentions in the Indridae, and that Varecia could be phyletically more primitive than either the indrids or lemurids.

  1. Les lémuriens subfossiles dans le Nord-Ouest de Madagascar, du terrain à la diffusion des connaissances ou 15 ans de recherches franco-malgaches The subfossils lemurs from the North-West of Madagascar, from the fieldwork to the access of knowledge: 15 years of French-Malagasy research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beby Ramanivosoa

    2011-10-01

    a été mise en place.Madagascar is one of the most important hotspot of the world biodiversity. Among the numerous endemic animals living in the island, the lemurs are the more emblematic. Within the primate order, this group is one of the most diversified. If their origin is still not clear, numerous extinct subfossils species have been recorded for at least 26 000 years, the more recent ones being only a few hundred years old. The lemurs are mentioned in ancient texts or legends because of their size which made an impression on people. The causes of their extinction remain poorly known. Historically, the majority of the subfossil sites were known in two geographical areas: the South-West and the Center of Madagascar, which shared a few species. More recently, some subfossils have been discovered in the North of the island, but almost nothing was known in the North-West of Madagascar until 1997 when explorations were undertaken in the framework of a collaboration between malagasy and french researchers.Currently, 19 sites are known and many subfossils were discovered. A new species of extinct lemur was described, Palaeopropithecus kelyus. Numerous non-lemur taxa are recorded (micro-and macrofauna and contribute to understand the history of the past biodiversity and palaeoenvironments.This fair collaboration is also a human adventure. The different participants of the two countries take an equal part in the fieldwork, the studies, the technical and academic training of the students at the University of Mahajanga, and the popularization of the results. Through exhibitions the new Malagasy generations are sensitized to the preservation of their geological and natural heritage.

  2. Pelvimetria em macacos-da-noite (Aotus azarai infulatus - KUHL, 1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Macedo del Rio do Valle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se os diâmetros pelvicos de 72 Aotus azarai infulatus, adultos, 42 machos e 30 fêmeas não prenhes, correlacionando-os com o dimorfismo sexual, a biometria corpórea e a origem dos animais por meio de radiografias em projeção ventro-dorsal, digitalizadas. As médias verificadas foram: para o comprimento do corpo 30,94 cm; comprimento da cauda 35,63 cm; perímetro do tórax 18,97 cm; perímetro da pelve 17,11 cm e o peso 0,96 Kg, em média. As médias dos diâmetros pélvicos foram de 2,64 cm para o diâmetro diagonal direito; 2,66 cm para o diâmetro diagonal esquerdo; 1,97 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco médio; 1,41 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco superior; 1,58 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco inferior; 2,48 cm para o diâmetro sacro-púbico e 3,85 cm² para a área de entrada da pelve. Concluiu-se que, tanto nos machos quanto nas fêmeas, a pelve de Aotus azarai infulatus pode ser classificada como dolicopélvica, tendo-se verificado dimorfismo sexual pélvico nos adultos.

  3. Panencefalite subaguda esclerosante: transmissão de agente encefalitogênico humano ao macaco rhesus

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    Alexandre Alencar

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Material proveniente do cérebro de um paciente com "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante" foi inoculado, por via intracerebral, em dois Macacus rhesus. Os animais permaneceram assintomáticos, aparentemente bem, por mais de um ano. Entretanto, 21 e 22 meses após as inoculações começaram a apresentar sinais de comprometimento neurológico, traduzido por paralisia dos membros posteriores, com apatia e caquexia progressivas. Os animais foram sacrificados. O exame histopatológico do sistema nervoso central mostrou gliose marginal e gliose da substância branca, com os neurônios exibindo sinais de "lesão celular crônica". Foram vistos discretos manguitos inflamatórios perivasculares. Em um animal foi encontrada inclusão acidófila intra- nuclear. Havia também proliferação da glia satélite perineuronal, com satelitose, notadamente no tronco cerebral. No exame das vísceras foi encontrado discreto processo de miocardite crônica. Foram retirados fragmentos dos encéfalos destes animais e inoculados em 4 outros, também por via intracerebral. Estes animais de 2.ª passagem após 2 meses de inoculação, em média, apresentaram sinais de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central semelhante ao dos animais doadores, de 1ª passagem. Houve, portanto, um encurtamento do período de inoculação da moléstia. Estes animais também foram sacrificados, sendo encontradas gliose marginal, gliose da substância branca, "lesão celular crônica" neuronal e proliferação da glia satélite, notadamente no tronco cerebral; vasos sangüíneos congestos; espongiose cortical. Os animais testemunhas, do mesmo lote, permaneceram normais. Acreditamos que as lesões observadas nos animais de 1.ª passagem, e que se repetiram com maior intensidade e com menor tempo de incubação nos de 2.ª passagem somente podem ser explicadas admitindo-se a existência de um agente virai que, pela natureza do quadro histopatológico (gliose, "lesão celular crônica" neuronal e espongiose cortical bem como pelo período longo de incubação, deva pertencer ao grupo dos chamados vírus lentos.

  4. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, and three times with dejections from infected bugs, and five times injected in the skin (four times with contaminated blood, and one time with dejections from infected bugs, and necropsied after 233 days. The microscopic picture was uniform presenting, however, considerable individual variations, and was represented by diffuse interstitial myocarditis, frequently more (marked in the right ventricle base of the heart, accompanied by lymphatic stasis. The infiltration consists of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, the cellular reaction having sometimes a perivascular distribution, involving the auriculo-ventricular system of conduction, endocardium, epicardium and cardiac sympathetic gangliae. The loss of cardiac muscle fibers was always minimal. Leishmanial forms of S. cruzi in myocardial fibers are scanty and, in two cases, absent. Fatty necrosis in the epicardium was noted in two cases. Obliterative changes of medium-sized branches of coronary arteries (hypersensitivity reaction? and multiple infarcts of the myocardium was found in one instance. The diffuse myocarditis induced by S. cruzi in several species of monkeys of the genus Cebus observed after 233 days (several inoculations and 252 days (single inoculation is not associated with disseminated fibrosis such as is reported in chronic cases of Chagas' disease. Definite capacity of reversion is another characteristic of the interstitial myocarditis observed in the series of Cebus monkeys here studied. The impression was gained that repeated inoculation with S. cruzi may influence the myocardial changes differently according to the period between the reinoculations. A short period after the first inoculation is followed by more marked changes, while long periods are accompanied by slight changes, which suggests an active immunisation produced by the first inoculation. More data are required, however before a definite statement is made on this subject considering that individual variations, the natural capacity of reversion of the interstitial myocarditis and the employement of more than a species of Cebus monkeys probably exerts influence also in the results here reported.

  5. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

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    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.

  6. Survival of a wild ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) with abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She was observed monthly for 13 months until her remains, which showed evidence of dog predation, were found. Until then, she was in good body condition, had gained weight from the previous year and was observed to exhibit normal behaviour and produce an infant. This report documents a wild strepsirrhine primate ...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in primates. The example of the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus: From detection of pathological aging to therapeutic evaluations Imagerie par résonance magnétique chez les primates. L’exemple du microcèbe murin (Microcebus murinus : De la détection du vieillissement cérébral pathologique à l'évaluation thérapeutique

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    Nadine El Tannir El Tayara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aging is a major public health issue in our societies as the aged population increases dramatically. It leads in many cases to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD. Rodents and particularly transgenic mice are widely used as models for research on physiopathology of cerebral aging, neurodegenerative diseases and for the evaluation of therapies. However these models do not mimic all the pathophysiological aspects of human diseases. Complementary models such as non-human primates are phylogenetically close to humans and thus more predictive of drug efficiency in humans. Mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate (about 12cm, 100g described as a useful model of cerebral aging and as a potential model of AD. Indeed several animals develop age-associated cerebral alterations like amyloidosis and other cerebral changes. Non invasive medical imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to follow-up brain changes in these animals. In this review, we present how mouse lemurs can be followed-up by MRI and how MRI can be used during therapeutic evaluations and other applications in this model. MR images can be used to follow-up cerebral anatomy in mouse lemurs. It allows for the description of age-associated atrophic processes, age-associated iron accumulation, and vascular anatomy (thanks to MR angiography. Cerebral glucose uptake can be studied in mouse lemurs with other in vivo imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET. In this case, MRI can be used as a support for quantification of radioligand uptake in specific structures. Ex vivo MR imaging is another MR protocol that can be used to describe cerebral aging in lemurs. It provides high resolution 3D histological brain images and allows for studying exquisite anatomical details or microhemorrhages. Finally, MRI can be used to practice cerebral surgery in lemurs and determine coordinates for stereotactic injections. It can

  8. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

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    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  9. SelectionDrove the Evolution of the Lemur Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Anna

    2016-01-01

    @VareciaRubraFrameworkMultidimensional morphological structures like the cranium can describe the amount of variance available to evolution. Using comparative quantitative genetics models we investigated the stability of variance structure, and the evolutionary processes underlying the morphological diversification of the Strepsirrhini primate lineage. HighlightsWe report considerable stability in phenotypic covariance patterns. We detected deviations from neutrality a...

  10. Selection Drove the Evolution of the Lemur Skull

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Anna

    2016-01-01

    @VareciaRubraFrameworkMultidimensional morphological structures like the cranium can describe the amount of variance available to evolution. Using comparative quantitative genetics models we investigated the stability of variance structure, and the evolutionary processes underlying the morphological diversification of the Strepsirrhini primate lineage. HighlightsWe report considerable stability in phenotypic covariance patterns. We detected ...

  11. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Evan L; Sandel, Aaron A; Bray, Joel; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Reddy, Rachna B; Hare, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that living in large social networks was the primary selective pressure for the evolution of complex cognition in primates. This hypothesis is supported by comparative studies demonstrating a positive relationship between social group size and relative brain size across primates. However, the relationship between brain size and cognition remains equivocal. Moreover, there have been no experimental studies directly testing the association between group size and cognition across primates. We tested the social intelligence hypothesis by comparing 6 primate species (total N = 96) characterized by different group sizes on two cognitive tasks. Here, we show that a species' typical social group size predicts performance on cognitive measures of social cognition, but not a nonsocial measure of inhibitory control. We also show that a species' mean brain size (in absolute or relative terms) does not predict performance on either task in these species. These data provide evidence for a relationship between group size and social cognition in primates, and reveal the potential for cognitive evolution without concomitant changes in brain size. Furthermore our results underscore the need for more empirical studies of animal cognition, which have the power to reveal species differences in cognition not detectable by proxy variables, such as brain size.

  12. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat fragmentation has reached a dramatic level in Madagascar. As the size of many remaining forest fragments is unlikely to maintain viable animal populations in the long-term, connecting isolated subpopulations by creating corridors is important to support gene flow and the persistence of the endemic fauna, including ...

  13. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v9i2.6 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  14. Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco M Andreína

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timing the origin of human malarias has been a focus of great interest. Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host switches were common. Those investigations, however, assumed constant rate of evolution and tightly bound (fixed calibration points based on host fossils or host distribution. We investigate the effect of such assumptions using different molecular dating methods. We include parasites from Lemuroidea since their distribution provides an external validation to time estimates allowing us to disregard scenarios that cannot explain their introduction in Madagascar. Results We reject the assumption that the Plasmodium mitochondrial genome, as a unit or each gene separately, evolves at a constant rate. Our analyses show that Lemuroidea parasites are a monophyletic group that shares a common ancestor with all Catarrhini malarias except those related to P. falciparum. However, we found no evidence that this group of parasites branched with their hosts early in the evolution of primates. We applied relaxed clock methods and different calibrations points to explore the origin of primate malarias including those found in African apes. We showed that previous studies likely underestimated the origin of malarial parasites in primates. Conclusions The use of fossils from the host as absolute calibration and the assumption of a strict clock likely underestimate time when performing molecular dating analyses on malarial parasites. Indeed, by exploring different calibration points, we found that the time for the radiation of primate parasites may have taken place in the Eocene, a time consistent with the radiation of African anthropoids. The radiation of the four human parasite lineages was part of such events. The time frame estimated in this investigation, together with our phylogenetic analyses, made plausible a scenario where gorillas and humans acquired malaria from a Pan lineage.

  15. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deforestation and habitat fragmentation, caused by logging and agricultural practices, are the leading causes of biodiversity de- cline worldwide (e.g., Fischer and Lindenmayer 2007, Habel and. Zachos 2012). Fragmentation can result in a series of small sub- populations in the residual habitat, each with a high risk of going.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  17. Le Parc National Sahamalaza - Iles Radama serait-il l'ultime refuge pour certaines espèces de lémuriens du nord-ouest de Madagascar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmet, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sahamalaza National Park - Radama Island may be the last Shelter for some Species of Lemurs of North-west Madagascar?. Most of the plant and animal species found in Madagascar have evolved in long isolation over the millennia. The level of endemism is very high and the island is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots on the planet. But Madagascar is also one of the world's most heavily impacted countries in terms of habitat destruction; 90% of the original vegetation has already been lost. The endemic primates of the island, the lemurs, are particularly affected by continuous deforestation and forest fragmentation. The island is considered by many international organizations as a priority for nature conservation. The first protected area was created in Madagascar in 1927 and the island has now a total of 47 protected areas. This paper recalls the history and the current status of the Sahamalaza – Radama islands National Park, located in northwest Madagascar. We focus particularly on two emblematic species of lemurians for the park; Eulemur flavifrons and Lepilemur sahamalazensis, as well as on the existing threats on the ecosystems. Several measures have been proposed in the Conservation Action Plan in order to improve the management of the park and long term survival of the species.

  18. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

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    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  19. Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar

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    Adina Merenlender

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the influence of human actions on flagship species is an important part of conserving biodiversity, because the information gained is crucial for the development and adaptation of conservation management plans. On the Masoala Peninsula in Madagascar, we are monitoring the two largest prosimian species, Eulemur fulvus albifrons and Varecia variegata rubra, at disturbed and undisturbed forest sites to determine if extraction of forest resources has a significant impact on the population viability of these species. To test the sensitivity of lemur species to routine extraction of natural resources by local villagers, we compared population demography and density for both species across six study sites, using a new census technique. Three of the study sites were closer to villages and, therefore, were more impacted by resource extraction than the others. Our data on more than 600 individual primates suggest that the level of resource extraction did not significantly influence group size, fecundity, or density for either species over the two-year period of this study; however sex ratios in Eulemur were biased toward juvenile and adult females in more disturbed areas, suggesting that males may be emigrating from areas of less suitable habitat. Population densities at each site and estimates of population size across the entire peninsula were calculated and used to evaluate the design of a new park in the area, and to ensure that it will be large enough to support viable populations of these threatened primates. These estimates were calculated by obtaining the surface area of each study region from a geographic information system. Monitoring of these species continues in buffer zone areas of the park, where resource extraction is still permitted.

  20. Efeitos do trimetilaminoetano (TES e ringer lactato em sêmen de macacos-aranha mantidos em cativeiro ( Ateles paniscus e A. marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.M. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the diluents TES and CEBRAN II were compared as cryopreservatives of semen from non human primates of the genus Ateles. The experiment was carried out using one Ateles marginatus and two Ateles paniscus specimens, males and adults, maintained in the same captivity conditions at the National Center of Primates (CENP-SVS/MS. The animals were subjected to clinical and andrological examinations - testicular biometry - before the semen collection by eletroejaculation. Evaluations of motility and forward movement in the fresh semen were made. Semen were made dilution was made with the diluents TES and CEBRAN II. The ejaculates were diluted with the diluents (2:1proportion, packed in 0.25mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the packed ejaculates were appraised in thermo resistance test (TTR. The averages of volume and concentration were, respectively, 1.94mL (0.83 and 3,020,000 sptz/mL (275.97. The pH 8 and seminal coagulation were observed in all samples. The results suggest that the TES diluent presents better efficiency in the preservation of Ateles semen than CEBRAN II.

  1. Modelagem do estímulo-modelo para estabelecer relações condicionais arbitrárias em macacos-prego (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilara Reis Nogueira da Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbitrary conditional discriminations are difficult to obtain in non-human subjects. This study evaluates the efficacy of sample stimulus shaping procedure. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment I two capuchin monkeys, M12 and M15, acquired quickly the discriminations, and a third subject, M09, required longer training. In Experiment II, the procedure was modified and a new training with M09 was carried out, and M09 performance improved. However, lack of stimulus control coherence was found, precluding the conclusion of the shaping process. Key procedural variables in stimulus control research and intervention with non-humans and people with developmental disabilities are discussed.

  2. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae Mammary high-grade carcinoma in a monkey, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.Mammary tumors in non-human primates are rare. The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence and treatment outcomes of a female Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae with high-grade mammary carcinoma received at the Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens (SAAS, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. A right mammary gland nodule was identified and at radiographic examination a point of radiopacity due to gun projectile entrapped within the mammary mass was seen. After the patient stabilization, the mass was excised and submitted to histopathological examination. The diagnosis was of high-grade carcinoma, compatible with adenosquamous carcinoma. The monkey was transported to Wild Animals Treat and Receiving Center (CETAS and introduced into a colony. More than 20 months after surgery no evidence of relapse was seen and the patient is living with the group. That suggests that the adopted therapy was effective, achieving quality of life and increased survival.

  3. Dynamic vs. static social networks in models of parasite transmission: predicting Cryptosporidium spread in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Kappeler, Peter M; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-05-01

    Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behaviour of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations. Here, we use empirically derived networks from a population of wild primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), and simulated networks to investigate pathogen spread in dynamic vs. static social networks. First, we constructed a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered model of Cryptosporidium spread in wild Verreaux's sifakas. We incorporated social and environmental transmission routes and parameterized the model for two different climatic seasons. Second, we used simulated networks and greater variation in epidemiological parameters to investigate the conditions in which dynamic networks produce larger outbreak sizes than static networks. We found that average outbreak size of Cryptosporidium infections in sifakas was larger when the disease was introduced in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by an increase in home range overlap towards the end of the dry season. Regardless of season, dynamic networks always produced larger average outbreak sizes than static networks. Larger outbreaks in dynamic models based on simulated networks occurred especially when the probability of transmission and recovery were low. Variation in tie strength in the dynamic networks also had a major impact on outbreak size, while network modularity had a weaker influence than epidemiological parameters that determine transmission and recovery. Our study adds to emerging evidence that dynamic networks can change predictions of disease dynamics, especially if the disease shows low transmissibility and a long infectious period, and when environmental conditions lead to enhanced between-group contact after an infectious agent has been introduced. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  4. Anti-predator behaviour of Sahamalaza sportive lemurs, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, at diurnal sleeping sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiler, M.; Schwitzer, C.; Holderied, M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to predation pressure by raptors, snakes, and carnivores, primates employ anti-predator behaviours such as avoiding areas of high predation risk, cryptic behaviour and camouflage, vigilance and group formation (including mixedspecies associations), and eavesdropping on other species’

  5. TDT-2002 Topic Tracking at Maryland: First Experiments with the Lemur Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Daqing; Park, Hyuk R; Murray, G. C; Subotin, Michael; Oard, Douglas W

    2003-01-01

    .... Two of the Perl runs used native Arabic orthography with two-best translation based on a statistical lexicon, obtaining similar results to those obtained with the Arabic-to-English translations...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09140-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 52 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isolate JP333... 35 1.3 AF224548_4( AF224548 |...pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isolate JP176... 35 1.3 AF224550_4( AF224550 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus ...isolate JP206... 35 1.3 AF224547_4( AF224547 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isolate JP171... 35 1.3 AF22454...9_4( AF224549 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isolate JP181... 35 1.3 AF224545_4( AF224545 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus...r fulvus fulvus isolate JP41... 32 6.2 AF224544_4( AF224544 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus

  7. A anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco: a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx e a questão do saber objetivo na educação escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Newton

    2000-01-01

    Vigotski, em seu "Manuscrito de 1929" afirma que a relação filogênese-ontogênese no desenvolvimento orgânico é distinta da mesma relação no desenvolvimento cultural: enquanto que o embrião humano se desenvolve sem interagir com o organismo adulto, o desenvolvimento cultural da criança só ocorre por meio da interação com o adulto, isto é, com o ser mais desenvolvido. Partindo dessa afirmação, o artigo analisa as relações entre a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx, apoiando-se na reflexão metodoló...

  8. Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Frances J

    2005-05-01

    I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2005-05-01

    The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  11. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Springer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  12. Modification of a Limbed Robot to Favor Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi; Kennedy, Brett; Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows the LEMUR IIb, which is a modified version of the LEMUR II the second generation of the Limbed Excursion Mechanical Utility Robot (LEMUR). Except as described below, the LEMUR IIb hardware is mostly the same as that of the LEMUR II. The IIb and II versions differ in their kinematic configurations and characteristics associated with their kinematic configurations. The differences are such that relative to the LEMUR II, the LEMUR IIb is simpler and is better suited to climbing on inclined surfaces. The first-generation LEMUR, now denoted the LEMUR I, was described in Six-Legged Experimental Robot (NPO-20897), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 12 (December 2001), page 58. The LEMUR II was described in Second-Generation Six-Limbed Experimental Robot (NPO-35140) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 55. To recapitulate: the LEMUR I and LEMUR II were six-legged or sixlimbed robots for demonstrating robotic capabilities for assembly, maintenance, and inspection. They were designed to be capable of walking autonomously along a truss structure toward a mechanical assembly at a prescribed location. They were equipped with stereoscopic video cameras and image-data-processing circuitry for navigation and mechanical operations. They were also equipped with wireless modems, through which they could be commanded remotely. Upon arrival at a mechanical assembly, the LEMUR I would perform simple mechanical operations by use of one or both of its front legs (or in the case of the LEMUR II, any of its limbs could be used to perform mechanical operations). Either LEMUR could also transmit images to a host computer. The differences between the LEMUR IIb and the LEMUR II are the following: Whereas the LEMUR II had six limbs, the LEMUR IIb has four limbs. This change has reduced both the complexity and mass of the legs and of the overall robot. Whereas each limb of the LEMUR II had four degrees of freedom (DOFs), each limb of the LEMUR IIb has three DOFs

  13. The value of the spineless monkey orange tree ( Strychnos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interventions to maintain or improve habitat quality for these lemurs. During an extensive survey of sportive lemurs in northern Madagascar, we identified one tree species, Strychnos madagascariensis (Loganiaceae), the spineless monkey orange tree, as a principal sleeping site of two species of northern sportive lemurs, ...

  14. Social organisation of the northern giant mouse lemur Mirza zaza in Sahamalaza, north western Madagascar, inferred from nest group composition and genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, E.J.; Nekaris, K.A-I.; Markolf, M.; Schliehe-Diecks, S.; Seiler, M.; Radespiel, U.; Schwitzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Shelters such as leaf nests, tree holes or vegetation tangles play a crucial role in the life of many nocturnal mammals. While information about characteristics and availability of these resources may help in conservation planning, nest use gives an indication about a species’ social organisation.

  15. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para sugerirmos uma denominação que se adequasse ao modelo arterial desse primata. Os resultados nos permitiram verificar, no circuito arterial da base do encéfalo, segmento caudal ou vértebro-basilar as artérias (a: a. vertebral, suas partes (pé-vertebral, cervical, atlântica e intracraniana com ramos meníngeos e seus ramos (a. espinhal anterior, a. cerebelar inferior caudal, ramos para a medula oblonga; a. basilar e seus ramos (a. cerebelar inferior rostral, a. pontinas, a. cerebelar superior satélite, ilhas artérias, a. cerebelar anterior, a. cerebelar posterior; e no segmento rostral ou carótico os vasos: a. carótida interna (parte cerebral; a. comunicante posterior; a. coróidea; a. cerebral média; a. cerebral anterior; a. olfatória; a. inter-hemisférica. A análise dos resultados nos permitiu considerar que o Cebus apella apresentou um padrão arterial de relativa estabilidade morfológica em função das poucas variações encontradas nos vasos formadores dos circuitos arteriais considerados

  16. A anatomia do homem é a chave da anatomia do macaco: a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx e a questão do saber objetivo na educação escolar The man anatomy is the key to the monkey anatomy: the dialectics in Vigotski and in Marx and the issue about objective knowledge in school education

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Duarte

    2000-01-01

    Vigotski, em seu "Manuscrito de 1929" afirma que a relação filogênese-ontogênese no desenvolvimento orgânico é distinta da mesma relação no desenvolvimento cultural: enquanto que o embrião humano se desenvolve sem interagir com o organismo adulto, o desenvolvimento cultural da criança só ocorre por meio da interação com o adulto, isto é, com o ser mais desenvolvido. Partindo dessa afirmação, o artigo analisa as relações entre a dialética em Vigotski e em Marx, apoiando-se na reflexão metodoló...

  17. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    OpenAIRE

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow ...

  18. Sheet1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choong Yong

    Gorilla gorilla), Orangutan (Pongo abelii), Gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys), Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), Mouse (Mus ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08397-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 659_4( AY582659 |pid:none) Microcebus griseorufus isolate PET... 49 1e-05 AF224565_4( AF224565 |pid:none) Eu...sanfordi isolate JP... 49 1e-05 AF224544_4( AF224544 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus...AF224637_4( AF224637 |pid:none) Microcebus rufus isolate JP315 cyt... 49 1e-05 T11346( T11346 ) NADH2 dehydr...ogenase (ubiquinone) (EC 1.6.5.3) cha... 49 1e-05 AF224552_4( AF224552 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isola...te JP333... 49 1e-05 AF224548_4( AF224548 |pid:none) Eulemur fulvus rufus isolate

  20. Práticas discursivas na construção de uma gastronomia polifônica

    OpenAIRE

    Murta,Ivana Benevides Dutra; Souza,Mariana Mayumi Pereira de; Carrieri,Alexandre de Pádua

    2010-01-01

    Objetivamos neste trabalho contextualizar o desenvolvimento da gastronomia e as mudanças de significado espacial, observando as táticas e estratégias envolvidas nesse processo. As práticas cotidianas reconstroem continuamente os significados da culinária, e, no caso de Macacos, distrito mineiro, a 30 km de Belo Horizonte, observamos que o mosaico de ofertas gastronômicas reflete tais práticas e projeta certa identidade do distrito aos turistas. Macacos apareceu como um polo ou roteiro gastron...

  1. Genomic Imprinting of the M6P/IGF2 Receptor: A Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    i.e. echidna and platypus ), marsupials (i.e. opossum) and eutherian mammals (i.e. mouse, rat, pig, cow, bat, flying lemur, tree shrew, ringtail lemur...and humans). Our findings demonstrate that M6P/IGF2R is not imprinted in the egg-laying platypus and echidna, whereas it is imprinted in the opossum

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development Volume 5, Issue 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development

    of both newly described lemur species and on the presence of other nocturnal lemur species at eleven different locations in northwestern Madagascar. In addition, we estimated the amount of anthropogenic disturbance at each site in order to determine the actual conservation status of M. danfossi and. L. grewcockorum and ...

  3. 78 FR 112 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... (Pharomachrus mocinno) from Mexico for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: St... derived from captive-bred specimens of Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) to Canada for the purpose of...-89184A The applicant requests a permit authorizing interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of...

  4. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  5. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Kemp, Addison D; Durden, Lance A; Wright, Patricia C; Jernvall, Jukka

    2012-03-26

    Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2) due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3) individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the previously unseen parasite

  6. 78 FR 65352 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... requests renewal of their permit to export and re- export live Mexican or lobo wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) for breeding and reintroduction, as well as the export and re-export of biological samples for genetic... (Eulemur fulvus) Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) Lar gibbon...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stevens, NJ. Vol 3, No 1 (2008) - Articles Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three flying fox (Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus) roosts, three conservation challenges in southeastern Madagascar Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 1 (2008) - Articles Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 1 (2013) - Articles

  9. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Vol 3, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three flying fox (Pteropodidae: Pteropus rufus) roosts, three conservation challenges in southeastern Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Parasites gastro - intestinaux de Microcebus murinus de la forêt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenolepididae) were found and one species of Protozoa, belonging to the Coccidia order. These gastrointestinal parasites of M. murinus from Mandena have not been described as parasites of M. murinus yet. The cestode infection of this lemur deserves ...

  11. 78 FR 15737 - Incidental Take Permit Amendment and Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...] Incidental Take Permit Amendment and Supplemental Environmental Assessment for Wind Energy Development... of a revised habitat conservation plan (revised HCP) and accompanying documents for wind energy... of Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne lemur) incidental to the previously authorized wind energy...

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Lemur catta) troops have been intensively studied. Beginning ... Wildlife Health Center and Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, 95616. U.S.A. IV.

  13. Extinction and ecological retreat in a community of primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, B. E.; Godfrey, L. R.; Guilderson, T. P.; Zermeno, P.; Koch, P. L.; Dominy, N. J.

    2012-05-23

    The lemurs of Madagascar represent a prodigious adaptive radiation. At least 17 species ranging from 11 to 160 kg have become extinct during the past 2000 years. The effect of this loss on contemporary lemurs is unknown. The concept of competitive release favours the expansion of living species into vacant niches. Alternatively, factors that triggered the extinction of some species could have also reduced community-wide niche breadth. Here, we use radiocarbon and stable isotope data to examine temporal shifts in the niches of extant lemur species following the extinction of eight large-bodied species. We focus on southwestern Madagascar and report profound isotopic shifts, both from the time when now-extinct lemurs abounded and from the time immediately following their decline to the present. Unexpectedly, the past environments exploited by lemurs were drier than the protected (albeit often degraded) riparian habitats assumed to be ideal for lemurs today. Neither competitive release nor niche contraction can explain these observed trends. We develop an alternative hypothesis: ecological retreat, which suggests that factors surrounding extinction may force surviving species into marginal or previously unfilled niches.

  14. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquiroli, Lauriane S.S.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Rizk, Yasmin S.; Cunha, Marillin C.; Marques, Maria Carolina S.; Matos, Maria de Fátima C.; Kadri, Mônica C.T.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Arruda, Carla C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpene...

  15. Práticas discursivas na construção de uma gastronomia polifônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Benevides Dutra Murta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho contextualizar o desenvolvimento da gastronomia e as mudanças de significado espacial, observando as táticas e estratégias envolvidas nesse processo. As práticas cotidianas reconstroem continuamente os significados da culinária, e, no caso de Macacos, distrito mineiro, a 30 km de Belo Horizonte, observamos que o mosaico de ofertas gastronômicas reflete tais práticas e projeta certa identidade do distrito aos turistas. Macacos apareceu como um polo ou roteiro gastronômico regional a partir de finais do século XX, mas já se desenvolveu bastante nessa área e conta com restaurantes de culinária mineira e internacional. Nesse contexto, procuramos saber: como se constroem as estratégias e táticas gastronômicas em Macacos? Para tanto, foram feitas consultas documentais, consultas às cartas dos restaurantes e entrevistas com donos e funcionários. Ao final, encontramos que a polifonia era a estratégia em todas as atividades gastronômicas em Macacos. Todavia, percebemos uma diferenciação associada à origem dos donos dos restaurantes: os empreendedores autóctones tendem a trabalhar com a elaboração de comida típica mineira, ao passo que os forasteiros, em geral, fazem questão de se classificarem como inseridos em uma gastronomia internacional. Na coexistência do típico e do exótico, a polifonia e a pictoricidade são práticas evidenciadas.

  16. Neurônios espelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Pablo Lameira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os neurônios espelho foram descritos inicialmente em macaco Rhesus. Estes neurônios disparavam quando o macaco realizava ações específicas (como pegar uvas passa ou quando ele observava a mesma ação realizada por outro macaco ou por um pesquisador. Assim, estes neurônios possibilitam a compreensão da ação e/ou da intenção de outro animal pela ativação subliminar desta ação nos circuitos fronto-parietais. Estes neurônios estariam envolvidos com a origem da linguagem humana e a sua disfunção poderia causar autismo. Nesta revisão, descrevemos, em humanos e em primatas não-humanos, as áreas corticais com atividade tipo “neurônio espelho” e as áreas envolvidas com o planejamento e a execução explícita e implícita de ações. Existe uma grande sobreposição entre estas áreas, bem como com as áreas envolvidas com o reconhecimento da lateralidade de partes do corpo. Sugerimos então que os neurônios espelho também podem estar envolvidos com o reconhecimento da lateralidade de partes do corpo.

  17. Second-Generation Six-Limbed Experimental Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brett; Okon, Avi; Aghazarian, Hrand; Robinson, Matthew; Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The figure shows the LEMUR II - the second generation of the Limbed Excursion Mechanical Utility Robot (LEMUR), which was described in "Six-Legged Experimental Robot" (NPO-20897), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 12 (December 2001), page 58. The LEMUR II incorporates a number of improvements, including new features, that extend its capabilities beyond those of its predecessor, which is now denoted the LEMUR I. To recapitulate: the LEMUR I was a six-limbed robot for demonstrating robotic capabilities for assembly, maintenance, and inspection. The LEMUR I was designed to be capable of walking autonomously along a truss structure toward a mechanical assembly at a prescribed location and to perform other operations. The LEMUR I was equipped with stereoscopic video cameras and image-data-processing circuitry for navigation and mechanical operations. It was also equipped with a wireless modem, through which it could be commanded remotely. Upon arrival at a mechanical assembly, the LEMUR I would perform simple mechanical operations with one or both of its front limbs. It could also transmit images to a host computer. Each of the six limbs of the LEMUR I was operated independently. Each of the four rear limbs had three degrees of freedom (DOFs), while each of the front two limbs had four DOFs. The front two limbs were designed to hold, operate, and/or be integrated with tools. The LEMUR I included an onboard computer equipped with an assortment of digital control circuits, digital input/output circuits, analog-to-digital converters for input, and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters for output. Feedback from optical encoders in the limb actuators was utilized for closed-loop microcomputer control of the positions and velocities of the actuators. The LEMUR II incorporates the following improvements over the LEMUR I: a) The drive trains for the joints of the LEMUR II are more sophisticated, providing greater torque and accuracy. b) The six limbs are arranged symmetrically about

  18. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  19. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  20. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelli, Elena; Luppi, Andrea; Lavazza, Antonio; Lelli, Davide; Sozzi, Enrica; Martin, Ana M Moreno; Gelmetti, Daniela; Pascotto, Ernesto; Sandri, Camillo; Magnone, William; Cordioli, Paolo

    2010-03-18

    A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  1. Pesquisa de anticorpos reativos com antigenos virais da dengue e da febre amarela em sangue de simios de areas urbanas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Anselmo Nunes Felippe

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Com o objetivo de verificar a existência de anticorpos reativos aos antígenos virais da dengue e da febre amarela no sangue de macacos prego (Cebus apella) cativos no Brasil, procedeu-se a coleta de sangue de 227 animais, oriundos de 17 cidades, (concentradas nas regiões sul e sudeste) de 4 estados do Brasil, no período compreendido entre os anos de 2000 e 2001. Para tanto realizamos o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação e também padronizamos um ELISA indireto utilizando um conjugado ...

  2. Registro de Aedes albopictus em áreas epizoóticas de febre amarela das Regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil (Díptera:Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES, Almério de Castro; TORRES, Maria Amélia Nascimento; GUTIERREZ, Márcia Fonseca de Castro; LEMOS, Francisco Leopoldo; LIMA, Mauro Lúcio Nascimento; MARTINS, Jaqueline Frasson; COSTA, Zouraide Guerra Antunes

    2008-01-01

    Durante estudo biológico e ecológico sobre mosquitos levado a cabo em área com registro de epidemia de febre amarela silvestre e epizootia em macacos, foram encontrados adultos de Aedes Albopictus. A tendência da espécie para invadir ambiente extradomiciliar potencializa a chance de infecção natural, ao tempo em que evolui para formar um elo entre focos naturais de vírus e o ambiente urbano. Esta Nota Técnica representa um alerta aos gestores dos três poderes públicos sobre perspectivas de mu...

  3. Patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Rodrigo, Allen; Yoder, Anne D

    2015-01-01

    Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes). Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating) Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating) Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies.

  4. Community-based con- servation in Madagascar, the 'cure-all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the poorest countries worldwide, Madagascar suffers from severe environmental degradation and an ongoing ... lemur species are considered threatened with extinction, i.e., classified on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ... back from the brink of extinction”. A considerable number of presentations dealt in ...

  5. Understanding species - level primate diversity in Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consequent focus on autapomorphy (unique possession of morphological and molecular derived features) as 'the' criterion for species recognition has led ... of lemur subspecies from Madagascar faunal lists; yet subspecies are an expected result of the evolutionary forces that gave rise to the island's current pattern of ...

  6. Image collection: 164 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 164 Cynocephalus_volans_NL.png フィリピンヒヨケザル Philippine flying lemur Cynocephalus volans 110931 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱

  7. Synthesis of the silky sifaka's distribution (Propithecus candidus )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUNDANCE. Silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus) have long been recognized as one of the rarest and most unique lemurs (Mittermeier et al.,. 2010). Although not albinos, they are a leucistic species exhibiting more skin depigmentation with age than perhaps any other non- human primate. This may be caused by a ...

  8. A history of conservation politics in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-04-03

    Apr 3, 1984 ... Madagascar environmental challenges, the strategies that could be invoked to ... serves” and “national parks”, which formed the backbone of the protected ... The American anthropologist John Buettner-Janusch brought lemurs back to Yale. University to study in the 1960s and later founded the Duke Prim-.

  9. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism is a pillar of the new IUCN “Lemurs of Madagascar” conservation action plan (2013–2016), and can allow rural communities to (i) secure revenue for habitat protection; (ii) create ... But, obviously, an ecotourist site needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy Mahaloka site.

  10. Les lémuriens du site Ramsar de Torotorofotsy | Rakotondratsimba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT The Torotorofotsy wetlands Ramsar site is rich in natural resources and has great economic potential. Several threatened species, including amphibians (Mantella aurantiaca and M. crocea), birds (Anas melleri, Sarothrura watersi and Tyto soumagnei), carnivores (Cryptoprocta ferox) and lemurs distinguish the ...

  11. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. IA Rodriguez, E Rasoazanabary, LR Godfrey. Abstract. The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as ...

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    bodied species of nocturnal lemurs, L. petteri and M. griseoru- fus. Baseline data on the intestinal parasites of M. griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly has been documented by Rodriguez (2006); however data on ectoparasite infestations of this species is completely lacking from published literature. An opportunity arose to collect ...

  13. Assessment of Long-Term Retention of Environmental Education Lessons Given to Teachers in Rural Areas of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Michela; Campera, Marco; Nekaris, Anne-Isola K.; Donati, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the retention of knowledge is the first step of environmental education programs. The low education level in rural areas is one factor influencing habitat loss in Madagascar. We tested whether environmental education lessons given to teachers from a municipality, Iaboakoho, in a priority area for lemur conservation were retained after…

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aivelo, T. Vol 10, No 2 (2015) - Articles Comparison of parasitic infections and body condition in rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) at Ranomafana National Park, southeast Madagascar Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  15. The Tourism Sector in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton Christie, Iain

    2005-01-01

    Madagascar has an impressive array of biodiversity, natural beauty and cultural resources to support tourism. The world's fourth largest island, Madagascar is home to many species found nowhere else on the planet, among them 30 species of lemur - currently the main tourist attraction. Madagascar's nearly 5,000 km of coastline is coupled with a continental shelf equal to 20 percent of the i...

  16. Ida and Ardi: The Fossil Cover Girls of 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    By the autumn of 2009, contestants for the ultimate prize in the Greatest Show on Earth had narrowed down to two: from Germany, a flat, squirrel-sized lemur-looking creature in artificial resin and glass fibers; and from Ethiopia, a partial, small-brained hominin skeleton. Both had been locked away ...

  17. Patterns of gut bacterial colonization in three primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A McKenney

    Full Text Available Host fitness is impacted by trillions of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract that facilitate development and are inextricably tied to life history. During development, microbial colonization primes the gut metabolism and physiology, thereby setting the stage for adult nutrition and health. However, the ecological rules governing microbial succession are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between host lineage, captive diet, and life stage and gut microbiota characteristics in three primate species (infraorder, Lemuriformes. Fecal samples were collected from captive lemur mothers and their infants, from birth to weaning. Microbial DNA was extracted and the v4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced on the Illumina platform using protocols from the Earth Microbiome Project. Here, we show that colonization proceeds along different successional trajectories in developing infants from species with differing dietary regimes and ecological profiles: frugivorous (fruit-eating Varecia variegata, generalist Lemur catta, and folivorous (leaf-eating Propithecus coquereli. Our analyses reveal community membership and succession patterns consistent with previous studies of human infants, suggesting that lemurs may serve as a useful model of microbial ecology in the primate gut. Each lemur species exhibits distinct species-specific bacterial diversity signatures correlating to life stages and life history traits, implying that gut microbial community assembly primes developing infants at species-specific rates for their respective adult feeding strategies.

  18. Socio - ecological analysis of natural resource use in Betampona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is advantageous for environmental managers to see the social aspects of the socio-ecological system so that they can understand not only the effects but also the motivations of natural resource use. In Madagascar, lemurs and other mammalian wildlife are hotly contested resources because they are threatened and ...

  19. High diversity in functional properties of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in divergent primate species is more strongly associated with phylogeny than coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Ringholm, Aneta; Kelly, Joanne; Mundy, Nicholas I; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-09-01

    We have characterized the biochemical function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a critical regulator of melanin synthesis, from 9 phylogenetically diverse primate species with varying coat colors. There is substantial diversity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding affinity and basal levels of activity in the cloned MC1Rs. MSH binding was lost independently in lemur and New World monkey lineages, whereas high basal levels of MC1R activity occur in lemurs and some New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Highest levels of basal activity were found in the MC1R of ruffed lemurs, which have the E94K mutation that leads to constitutive activation in other species. In 3 species (2 lemurs and the howler monkey), we report the novel finding that binding and inhibition of MC1R by agouti signaling protein (ASIP) can occur when MSH binding has been lost, thus enabling continuing regulation of the melanin type via ASIP expression. Together, these findings can explain the previous paradox of a predominantly pheomelanic coat in the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The presence of a functional, MSH-responsive MC1R in orangutan demonstrates that the mechanism of red hair generation in this ape is different from the prevalent mechanism in European human populations. Overall, we have found unexpected diversity in MC1R function among primates and show that the evolution of the regulatory control of MC1R activity occurs by independent variation of 3 distinct mechanisms: basal MC1R activity, MSH binding and activation, and ASIP binding and inhibition. This diversity of function is broadly associated with primate phylogeny and does not have a simple relation to coat color phenotype within primate clades.

  20. Descrição morfológica de duas espécies de Sapajus encontradas na Paraíba: S. libidinosus e o recém-redescoberto e já criticamente ameaçado S. flavius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max B.M. Bacalhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Sapajus flavius e S. libidinosus são duas espécies de macacos-prego encontrados no Estado da Paraíba. S. flavius ou macaco-prego-galego foi recentemente redescoberto e está criticamente ameaçado de extinção, sendo encontrado em fragmentos remanescentes de mata Atlântica do litoral do RN, PB, PE e AL. S. libidinosus tem uma distribuição e população maior, coexistindo de S. flavius na PB, entretanto, ocupando o oeste da PB, na caatinga. Frente à lacuna no conhecimento sobre estas espécies foi realizada a descrição morfológica das mesmas, envolvendo biometria externa, dos órgãos do trato gastrointestinal, topografia visceral e a descrição anatômica. Apesar da literatura descrever S. flavius como o menor dos Sapajus, concluímos que não há diferenças morfológicas entre as espécies estudadas. Tais informações servem de subsídios para melhores manejos visando a conservação das espécies e ajudando na classificação taxonômica desse gênero recentemente modificado.

  1. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Elizabeth A; Underwood, H Brian

    2005-05-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V. variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  2. The Convergent Evolution of Blue Iris Pigmentation in Primates Took Distinct Molecular Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Wynn K; Zhang, Sidi; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Imai, Hiroo; Przeworski, Molly

    2013-01-01

    How many distinct molecular paths lead to the same phenotype? One approach to this question has been to examine the genetic basis of convergent traits, which likely evolved repeatedly under a shared selective pressure. We investigated the convergent phenotype of blue iris pigmentation, which has arisen independently in four primate lineages: humans, blue-eyed black lemurs, Japanese macaques, and spider monkeys. Characterizing the phenotype across these species, we found that the variation wit...

  3. Physiological flexibility and acclimation to food shortage in a heterothermic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, C I; Perret, M; Thery, M; Henry, P Y

    2011-01-01

    As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' with a food restriction experiment. The experimental design consisted of acute calorie restriction (2 weeks...

  4. The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate...

  5. Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Shape in Fossil and Recent Euprimates

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    C. Verity Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens, including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions.

  6. Optics detection and laser countermeasures on a combat vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Allard, Lars; Pettersson, Magnus; Börjesson, Per; Lindskog, Nils; Bodin, Johan; Widén, Anders; Persson, Hâkan; Fredriksson, Jan; Edström, Sten

    2016-10-01

    Magnifying optical assemblies used for weapon guidance or rifle scopes may possess a threat for a combat vehicle and its personnel. Detection and localisation of optical threats is consequently of interest in military applications. Typically a laser system is used in optics detection, or optical augmentation, to interrogate a scene of interest to localise retroreflected laser radiation. One interesting approach for implementing optics detection on a combat vehicle is to use a continuous scanning scheme. In addition, optics detection can be combined with laser countermeasures, or a laser dazzling function, to efficiently counter an optical threat. An optics detection laser sensor demonstrator has been implemented on a combat vehicle. The sensor consists of a stabilised gimbal and was integrated together with a LEMUR remote electro-optical sight. A narrow laser slit is continuously scanned around the horizon to detect and locate optical threats. Detected threats are presented for the operator within the LEMUR presentation system, and by cueing a countermeasure laser installed in the LEMUR sensor housing threats can be defeated. Results obtained during a field demonstration of the optics detection sensor and the countermeasure laser will be presented. In addition, results obtained using a dual-channel optics detection system designed for false alarm reduction are also discussed.

  7. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

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    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  8. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

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    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. El sistema de neuronas espejo y el procesamiento facial de las emociones: El caso del miedo

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    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descubrimiento en la corteza ventral premotora, área F5, del cerebro del macaco, las neuronas espejo se han convertido en el santo grial de la neurociencia sirviendo de base neurofisiológica para la empatía, imitación, entendimiento de las acciones e intenciones, lenguaje... Estudios recientes sugieren que el sistema de neuronas espejo contribuye también a procesar información emocional, pero niegan que la amígdala, región por excelencia responsable de procesar cierto tipo de emociones, sea parte de tal sistema. Parece ser que el sistema de neuronas espejo se reorganiza funcionalmente para compensar daños en la amígdala en algunos pacientes.

  10. ZIKA VÍRUS ASSOCIADO À MICROCEFALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tomal, Nayara Rubia

    2016-01-01

    O Zika vírus (ZIKV) é um emergente flavivírus transmitido por mosquitos do gênero Aedes. Incialmente foi isolado de um macaco Rhesus utilizado para monitoramento da febre amarela na floresta Zika, localizada na Uganda em 1947. Após a primeira infecção humana pelo ZIKV casos ocorreram no Sudeste Asiático, África subsaariana, Polinésia francesa, Nova Caledônia, Ilhas Cook e Ilha da Páscoa.  Atualmente, o Brasil é o lugar com maior número de infecções notificadas pelo vírus. Após o aumento de ca...

  11. Desempenho ecofisiológico e análise de compostos secundários de plantas de Piper aduncum sob efeito da radiação

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Fernanda Ventorim

    2014-01-01

    As plantas medicinais são importantes fontes de metabólitos secundários, sendo crescente o interesse em se otimizar e conhecer os sistemas de cultivo e suas respostas a diferentes condições ambientais. A espécie conhecida como pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L.) possui grande potencial para exploração econômica em função da comprovada utilidade do seu óleo essencial na agricultura e saúde humana. Contudo, a produção de compostos secundários varia em função de uma serie de fatores. A luz, tan...

  12. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+)/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Spolti,Pâmela; Moraes,Aury N. de; Tamanho,Renato B.; Gehrcke,Martielo I.; Souza Júnior,Júlio C.; Oleskovicz,Nilson

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol ...

  13. Padrões hematológicos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com quetamina

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    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 124 macacos-prego (Cebus apella da Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, anestesiados com quetamina (10 mg/kg, IM, com a finalidade de determinar os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: contagens globais de hemácias e leucócitos, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos (VCM, HCM e CHCM, expressos em média e desvio padrão. Estudou-se a influência do sexo e da idade sobre os referidos parâmetros.

  14. The vertical dispersión of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzi in a forest in southern Brazil suggests that human cases of malaria of simian origin might be expected

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    Leonidas M. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available By staining females of Anopheles cruzi with fluorescent coloured powders in a forest in the State of Santa Catarina, we showed that they move from canopy to ground and vice-versa to feed. This suggests that in areas where this mosquito is a vector of human and simian malarias sporadic infections of man with monkey plasmodia might be expected.Pintando fêmeas de Anopheles cruzi com pós fluorescentes coloridos, numa floresta de Santa Catarina, mostramos que elas movimentam-se da copa ao solo e vice-versa para se alimentar de sangue. Isso sugere que em áreas onde esse mosquito for tansmissor das malárias humana e simiana pode-se esperar que ocorram infecções humanas esporádicas por plasmódios de macacos.

  15. Memórias, histórias e representações sociais do bairro de Vila Isabel e de uma de suas favelas (RJ, Brasil Memories, stories and social representations of the district of Vila Isabel and one of its slums (RJ, Brazil

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    Fernanda Delvalhas Piccolo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir da etnografia realizada num Centro Comunitário do Morro dos Macacos, localizado no bairro de Vila Isabel, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil, o presente artigo discute a história e a memória do morro e do bairro, explorando alguns eventos realizados nesses locais, que ora reforçam a história e a memória oficiais, ora ressaltam outras versões e memórias existentes e, por vezes, divergentes. Esses eventos interessam como expressões simbólicas dos indivíduos e grupos, ao darem visibilidade às redes de relações, por reforçarem pertencimentos e criarem laços sociais. Importam por contribuírem para a criação de histórias e memórias - oficiais e não-oficiais - que atuam na construção de identidades e representações sociais que, por sua vez, orientam as práticas dos moradores dessas localidades.Based on an ethnography carried out in a community center in Morro dos Macacos, located in Bairro de Vila Isabel, a district in the Northern section of Rio de Janeiro city (Brazil, the present article is about the history and memories of that slum and neighborhood. It examines some events that reinforce its official history and memory or emphasize other stories and memories, different or alike. Those events are interesting symbolical expressions of individuals and groups, for they give visibility to social networks, since they reinforce a sense of belonging to a group and create social links. They are also important for contributing to create stories and memories - official and unofficial - that build social identities and representations that guide its inhabitants’ practices.

  16. PROTOZOÁRIOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM BUGIOS (Alouatta sp. MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO GASTROINTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN CAPTIVE HOWLER MONKEYS (Alouatta sp.

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    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em bugios (Alouatta sp. mantidos em cativeiro no município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de oito macacos das espécies Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba, pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Observaram-se oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. nas fezes de todos os animais pesquisados, sendo que em três deles havia infecção mista com cistos de Giardia spp. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas detectou-se a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. e raros oocistos de outro coccidio. Conclui-se que os macacos A. caraya e A. guariba, mantidos em cativeiro, são hospedeiros dos gêneros Giardia e Cryptosporidium.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alouatta sp., bugio, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp.

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in captive howler monkeys (Alouatta sp. in the city of Santa Maria, RS. Fecal samples from eight monkeys of the Alouatta caraya and Alouatta guariba species were analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation method. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were observed in the feces of all the studied animals, three of which having mixed infection with Giardia spp. cysts. Analyzing the water offered to the primates it was detected elevated presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and rare oocysts of other coccidium. In conclusion, A. caraya and A. guariba monkeys, kept in captivity, are hosts for Giardia and Cryptosporidium genus.

    KEY WORDS:  Alouatta sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., howler monkey.

  17. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-07-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ∼550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average F ST (0.247) and ΦST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward.

  18. Victims of infanticide and conspecific bite wounding in a female-dominant primate: a long-term study.

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    Marie J E Charpentier

    Full Text Available The aggression animals receive from conspecifics varies between individuals across their lifetime. As poignantly evidenced by infanticide, for example, aggression can have dramatic fitness consequences. Nevertheless, we understand little about the sources of variation in received aggression, particularly in females. Using a female-dominant species renowned for aggressivity in both sexes, we tested for potential social, demographic, and genetic patterns in the frequency with which animals were wounded by conspecifics. Our study included 243 captive, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta, followed from infancy to adulthood over a 35-year time span. We extracted injury, social, and life-history information from colony records and calculated neutral heterozygosity for a subset of animals, as an estimate of genetic diversity. Focusing on victims rather than aggressors, we used General Linear Models to explain bite-wound patterns at different life stages. In infancy, maternal age best predicted wounds received, as infants born to young mothers were the most frequent infanticide victims. In adulthood, sex best predicted wounds received, as males were three times more likely than females to be seriously injured. No relation emerged between wounds received and the other variables studied. Beyond the generally expected costs of adult male intrasexual aggression, we suggest possible additive costs associated with female-dominant societies - those suffered by young mothers engaged in aggressive disputes and those suffered by adult males aggressively targeted by both sexes. We propose that infanticide in lemurs may be a costly by-product of aggressively mediated, female social dominance. Accordingly, the benefits of female behavioral 'masculinization' accrued to females through priority of access to resources, may be partially offset by early costs in reproductive success. Understanding the factors that influence lifetime patterns of conspecific wounding is

  19. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

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    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  20. Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?

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    Leliveld Lisette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

  1. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

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    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  2. Impaired control of body cooling during heterothermia represents the major energetic constraint in an aging non-human primate exposed to cold.

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    Jeremy Terrien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12 degrees C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8 and aged animals (N = 7 acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12 degrees C and aged animals at 25 degrees C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing

  3. Testing Convergent Evolution in Auditory Processing Genes between Echolocating Mammals and the Aye-Aye, a Percussive-Foraging Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjos, Michael; Hohman, Baily; Lauterbur, M. Elise; Kistler, Logan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups—certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)—share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation. Here we investigated whether there are signals of convergence in auditory processing genes between aye-ayes and known mammalian echolocators. We developed a computational pipeline (Basic Exon Assembly Tool) that produces consensus sequences for regions of interest from shotgun genomic sequencing data for nonmodel organisms without requiring de novo genome assembly. We reconstructed complete coding region sequences for the seven convergent echolocating bat–dolphin genes for aye-ayes and another lemur. We compared sequences from these two lemurs in a phylogenetic framework with those of bat and dolphin echolocators and appropriate nonecholocating outgroups. Our analysis reaffirms the existence of amino acid convergence at these loci among echolocating bats and dolphins; some methods also detected signals of convergence between echolocating bats and both mice and elephants. However, we observed no significant signal of amino acid convergence between aye-ayes and echolocating bats and dolphins, suggesting that aye-aye tap-foraging auditory adaptations represent distinct evolutionary innovations. These results are also consistent with a developing consensus that convergent behavioral ecology does not reliably predict convergent molecular evolution. PMID:28810710

  4. Primates, computation, and the path to language. Reply to comments on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    The target article [6], henceforth TA, had as its main title Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology. This unpacks into three claims: Comparative Primatology: If one wishes to understand the behavior of any one primate species (whether monkey, ape or human - TA did not discuss, e.g., lemurs but that study could well be of interest), one will gain new insight by comparing behaviors across species, sharpening one's analysis of one class of behaviors by analyzing similarities and differences between two or more species.

  5. Hematologic iron analyte values as an indicator of hepatic hemosiderosis in Callitrichidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristine M; McAloose, Denise; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Raphael, Bonnie L; Calle, Paul P; Moore, Robert P; James, Stephanie B

    2008-07-01

    Hepatic hemosiderosis is one of the most common postmortem findings in captive callitrichid species. Noninvasive evaluation of hematologic iron analytes has been used to diagnose hepatic iron storage disease in humans, lemurs, and bats. This study evaluated the relationship between hematologic iron analyte values (iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and percent transferrin saturation) and hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichids at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park and Bronx Zoos. Results revealed that both ferritin and percent transferrin saturation levels had strong positive correlations with hepatic iron concentration (Phemosiderosis in callitrichids.

  6. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  7. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  8. Protozoários intestinais em primatas não-humanos apreendidos

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    Paulo Roberto de Carvalho Filho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar protozoários intestinais em amostras fecais de primatas neotropicais não-humanos, comercializados ilegalmente, apreendidos por autoridades governamentais, e enviados para um centro de triagem de animais silvestres no município de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sob a administração do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais. Fezes de micos-saguí (cruzamento entre Callithrix jacchus e C. penicillata e bugios marrons (Alouatta fusca foram coletados e submetidos à técnica de centrifugo-sedimentação de Ritchie. Esfregaços foram confeccionados com o sedimento e submetidos à coloração pelas técnicas da safranina-azul de metileno e Tricrômio modificada de Wheatley. Três (100% amostras fecais de bugios marrons e oito (88,9% de micos-saguí foram positivos para oocistos de Cryptosporidium. Formas de Blastocystis homonis-simile foram observadas em todas as amostras de bugios marrons e em 66,7% (6/9 de micos-saguí. Primatas neotropicais não-humanos como os micos-saguí originados do cruzamento de espécies de Callithrix e a espécie A. fusca podem abrigar formas similarmente identificadas como organismos com potencial zoonótico. O contato estrito entre macacos e humano pode representar riscos para ambos por transmissão mútua de patógenos. Não está esclarecida se as espécies de macacos estudadas no presente trabalho são também infectadas com estes parasitos em ambiente natural ou adquirem estes quando submetidos ao contato humano. Estresse é também um fator que merece atenção para os animais submetidos à captura, apreensão e transporte para o centro de triagem de animais silvestres.

  9. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  10. Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes. PMID:24236115

  11. Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar.

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    Salmona, Jordi; Heller, Rasmus; Quéméré, Erwan; Chikhi, Lounès

    2017-10-01

    The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans are yet unclear. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of human-driven deforestation. However, recent studies have shown that vegetation and fauna structure substantially fluctuated during the Holocene. Here, we study the Holocene history of habitat fragmentation in the north of Madagascar using a population genetics approach. To do so, we infer the demographic history of two northern Madagascar neighbouring, congeneric and critically endangered forest dwelling lemur species-Propithecus tattersalli and Propithecus perrieri-using population genetic analyses. Our results highlight the necessity to consider population structure and changes in connectivity in demographic history inferences. We show that both species underwent demographic fluctuations which most likely occurred after the mid-Holocene transition. While mid-Holocene climate change probably triggered major demographic changes in the two lemur species range and connectivity, human settlements that expanded over the last four millennia in northern Madagascar likely played a role in the loss and fragmentation of the forest cover. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hierarchical social networks shape gut microbial composition in wild Verreaux's sifaka.

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    Perofsky, Amanda C; Lewis, Rebecca J; Abondano, Laura A; Di Fiore, Anthony; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-12-06

    In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i.e. multilevel) social structure, individual demographic traits, diet, scent-marking, and habitat overlap on bacteria acquisition in a wild population of Verreaux's sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi ) consisting of seven social groups. We show that social group membership is clearly reflected in the microbiomes of individual sifaka, and that social groups with denser grooming networks have more homogeneous gut microbial compositions. Within social groups, adults, more gregarious individuals, and individuals that scent-mark frequently harbour the greatest microbial diversity. Thus, the community structure of wild lemurs governs symbiotic relationships by constraining transmission between hosts and partitioning environmental exposure to microorganisms. This social cultivation of mutualistic gut flora may be an evolutionary benefit of tight-knit group living. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The role of piloerection in primate thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, George; Jablonski, Nina G; Sussman, Robert W; Kelley, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The insulating properties of the primate integument are influenced by many factors, including piloerection, which raises the hair and insulates the body by creating motionless air near the skin's surface. The involuntary muscles that control piloerection, the musculi arrectores pilorum (MAP), are mostly absent except on the tail in most strepsirhines, and are entirely absent in tarsiers and some lorisids. The absence of piloerection and the reduced effectiveness of pilary insulation in preventing heat loss affected the evolution of behavior and metabolic thermoregulation in these animals. In lemurs, this situation contributed to the use of positional and social behaviors such as sunning and huddling that help maintain thermal homeostasis during day-night and seasonal temperature cycles. It also contributed in many lemurs and lorises to the evolution of a wide variety of activity patterns and energy-conserving metabolic patterns such as cathemerality, daily torpor, and hibernation. The absence of functional MAP in strepsirhines and tarsiers implies the absence of effective piloerection in early primates, and the reacquisition of whole-body MAP in ancestral anthropoids prior to the separation of platyrrhine and catarrhine lineages. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  15. Stress-effects in Microcebus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, M

    1982-01-01

    Histological investigations were made over a 10-year period on 164 lesser mouse lemurs that died spontaneously in captivity. The principal lesions found were chronic nephrosis with nephritis which affects 90% of the animals, myocardial necrosis, respiratory insufficiency induced by interstitial pneumonia, fatty changes in the liver, and splenic and gastric lesions. The following are associated with these pathologies: progressive hypothyroidism, stable hypercorticism, slight medulloadrenal hyperactivity, and sexual disorders such as testicular atrophy in males and estrous cycle disturbance or uterine tumor in females. All these data were treated by correspondence analysis; this showed that, except for some rare cases of death which can be attributed to massive parasitic infestation or generalized cancer, the whole captive population of lesser mouse lemurs is suffering from a syndrome that leads to renal insufficiency and death. Most of the observed pathologies are considered as being associated with aging in mammals. But captive Microcebus murinus died between 3 and 4 years of age, whereas their potential life survival is 13 years. Our hypothesis is that these pathologies arise due to an overload of cortico- and medulloadrenal secretions. The above-mentioned hormonal imbalance could be induced by stress factors occurring in captivity, the most important of which would be social stress.

  16. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

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    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-08-07

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species' habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

  18. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

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    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  19. Ensaio laboratorial e clínico com Hycanthone, nôvo agente esquistossomicida

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    Naftale Katz

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do Miracil D, um derivado hidroximetílico (Hycanthone pode ser obtido através da atividade biológica do Aspergillus sclerotiorum. Êste derivado mostrou-se muito ativo quando administrado a camundongos, hamsters e macacos Cebus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Ensaios clínicos com o Hycanthone foram feitos em 52 pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni ativa. A droga foi administrada, nas doses de 2 e 3 mg/kg/ dia, junto com um anti-ácido, duas vêzes ao dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Com exceção de 2 casos, todos os pacientes completaram o tratamento. Náusea e/ou vômito, anorexia, tonturas e cefaléia foram os efeitos colaterais mais comuns. Atividade terapêutica foi avaliada através de repetidos exames de fezes (4 a 6 e uma biópsia retal realizada a partir do 4.° mês após o tratamento. As percentagens de cura foram de 83,3 e 80,0% com o esquema de 2 e 3 mg/kg, respectivamente. Os dados laboratoriais e clínicos sôbre a atividade esquistossomicida do Hycanthone até agora obtidos mostram a necessidade de novos ensaios com êste promissor medicamento.

  20. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

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    Lauriane S.S. Bosquiroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. The main compounds were spathulenol (23.8% and caryophyllene oxide (13.1%. P. angustifolium essential oil was highly active [the half maximum inhibitory concentration = 1.43 μg/ml] against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old World. Activity was obtained 24 h after addition of the oil (6.25–50 μg/ml, with a reduction of 100% in the infection index at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml. P. angustifolium essential oil showed low cytotoxicity for mammalian fibroblasts and macrophages (the half maximum inhibitory concentration values of 31.67 and 48.22 μg/ml, respectively, and it was 33 and 22 times more toxic to amastigotes than to mammalian cells, as indicated by selectivity indexes. The results demonstrated that P. angustifolium essential oil is a promising alternative for the study of potential drugs for visceral leishmaniasis.

  1. "Paracoccidioidomicose-infecção" em Primatas brasileiros, mantidos em cativeiro

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    Elizabeth Oliveira da Costa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da epidemiologia desta micose, pesquisando a ocorrência de paracoccidioidomicose-infecção em animais da Ordem Primata, uma vez que são filogeneticamente os mais próximos ao homem, único hospedeiro naturalmente susceptível a esta micose sistêmica, no atual estágio de conhecimento. Foram realizados testes de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio com paracoccidioidina em 33 exemplares de Cebus apella (macaco prego, obtendo-se 33,33% de positividade. Foram também executadas biópsias de reações intradêrmicas para exame histológico, testes sorológicos, de fixação de complemento e precipitação em meio líquido no soro destes animais. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar a ocorrência de paracoccidioidomicose-infecção em primatas não humanos, sugerindo a possível participação destes animais na epidemiologia da paracoccidioidomicose.

  2. Ocorrência de protozoários gastrintestinais em primatas mantidos em cativeiro na região sul do Brasil Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in primates kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em macacos mantidos em cativeiro na região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de 18 primatas de quatro espécies, Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata pelo método de centrífugo flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Nos animais avaliados, foram verificados infecções simples e mistas pelos protozoários dos gêneros Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora e Balantidium. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas foi detectada a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp.This research aimed at evaluating the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in monkeys kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples from 18 primates of the species Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata were analyzed by the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation method. Simple and mixed infections by protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora and Balantidium were observed. The water offered to the primates had elevated presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp.

  3. Individualidade, conhecimento e linguagem na concepção dialética de desenvolvimento em Vigotski

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    Newton Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são exploradas as relações, na psicologia vigotskiana, entre o indivíduo em desenvolvimento e as formas mais ricas de individualidade, de conhecimento e de linguagem. A proposição metodológica que Karl Marx apresenta em sua clássica análise do método da economia política, segundo a qual, a anatomia humana é uma chave para a anatomia do macaco, ou seja, a forma mais desenvolvida é uma referência para a compreensão da menos desenvolvida, é vista por Vigotski como força motora do desenvolvimento psíquico humano. Esse psicólogo defende que a relação com o adulto é necessária ao desenvolvimento da criança. Igualmente ele postula que a individualidade se desenvolve do “em si” ao “para si” e que os sistemas de instrumentos psicológicos mais ricos são indispensáveis ao alcance de níveis mais elevados de desenvolvimento psíquico.

  4. Alterações nucleares das cellulas do figado nas infecções de Macacus Rhesus e M. Cynomolgus pelo virus da febre amarella

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available No figado de um Macacus rhesus inoculado por BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÃO com sangue deum caso benigno de febre amarella e no qual elle descreveu symptomas e lesões typicas semelhantes ás obidas por STOKES, BAUER e HUDSON pela inoculação com o virus africano no mesmo animal, encontrámos alterações nucleares da mesma natureza das assignaladas, no herpes zoster, herpes symptomatico, varicella e virus III do coelho e descriptas ora sob o nome de "inclusões acidophilas intranucleares" (LIPSCHÜTZ, GOODPASTURE, ora sob o de "degeneração oxychromatica" (LAUDA e LUGER. Alterações nucleares semelhantes da cellula hepatica encontrámos, posteriormente em 13 M. rhesus e 2 M. cynomolgus inoculados com e virus brasileiro da febre amarella o qual fôra isolado independentemente por BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÂO e depois por A. MARQUES DA CUNHA e J. MUNIZ de dois casos benignos de febre amarella, tendo sido um dos macacos injectado directamente com o sangue do doente; dois macacos foram inoculados com Aedes aegypti infectados em homem e em macaco; os animais foram anímaes empregados em passagens em serie do virus pelo macaco, e talvez esse facto explique até certo ponto, as notaveis differenças por vezes encontradas nas alterações histopathologicas do figado, visto como, em condições naturaes, o virus nunca passa directamente de homem para homem. A intensidade com que se apresenta a degeneração oxychromatica de modo algum está na dependencia das alterações do conteúdo gorduroso, necrose e necrobiose encontradas; em um caso, ella era a unica alteração presente no figado, sendo então particularmente intensa. As inclusões acidophilas intranucleares (degeneração oxychromatica não foram encontradas em diversos M. rhesus não inoculados e mortos por causas obscuras; no entanto, em taes figados eram presentes infiltração e degeneração gordurosas associadas a alterações de necrose e necrobiose. Alguns estadios (figuras intranucleares "em borboleta

  5. OFICINA DE ORIGAMI: ATIVIDADE DESENVOLVIDA NO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL A PARTIR DO TEMA OLIMPÍADAS

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    Joyce dos Santos Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizar diferentes metodologias e ferramentas em sala de aula exige do professor conhecimento e interesse por propiciarem um estímulo no processo de ensino-aprendizagem dos alunos. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma oficina de origami para uma turma do 6º Ano do Ensino Fundamental da E.E.E.F.M. ”Professor Pedro Simão” no município de Alegre-ES. O objetivo da mesma foi confeccionar/representar alguns animais e plantas da fauna e flora brasileira para compor uma maquete para o projeto da escola com o tema das olimpíadas. A oficina foi realizada em três aulas com a confecção dos modelos de uma borboleta, um macaco e da flor vinca Catharanthus roseus, abordando a sustentabilidade e a preservação ambiental, ambos os temas relacionados às olimpíadas. A participação e o empenho dos alunos foram surpreendentes, evidenciando que atividades diferenciadas podem aproximar o aluno de qualquer tema que o professor queira abordar, quando trabalhado de forma contextualizada, propiciando uma interação entre alunos e professores.

  6. Anatomical Correlates to Nectar Feeding among the Strepsirrhines of Madagascar: Implications for Interpreting the Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N.; Perry, Jonathan M. G.

    2011-01-01

    One possible ecological scenario for the origin of primates is the archaic pollination and coevolution hypothesis. Its proponents contend that the consumption of nectar by some early primates and the resulting cross-pollination is an example of coevolution that drove adaptive radiations in some primates. This hypothesis is perhaps ecologically sound, but it lacks the morphology-behavior links that would allow us to test it using the fossil record. Here we attempt to identify cranial adaptations to nectar feeding among the strepsirrhines of Madagascar in order to provide such links. Many Malagasy strepsirrhines are considered effective cross-pollinators of the flowers they feed from, and nectar consumption represents as much as 75% of total feeding time. Previous studies identified skeletal correlates to nectar feeding in the crania of nonprimate mammals; from these, nine cranial measurements were chosen to be the focus of the present study. Results indicate that Cheirogaleus, Varecia, and Eulemur mirror other nectar-feeding mammals in having elongated crania and/or muzzles. These strepsirrhines might be effective cross-pollinators, lending support to the coevolution hypothesis. PMID:22567292

  7. Anatomical Correlates to Nectar Feeding among the Strepsirrhines of Madagascar: Implications for Interpreting the Fossil Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena N. Muchlinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One possible ecological scenario for the origin of primates is the archaic pollination and coevolution hypothesis. Its proponents contend that the consumption of nectar by some early primates and the resulting cross-pollination is an example of coevolution that drove adaptive radiations in some primates. This hypothesis is perhaps ecologically sound, but it lacks the morphology-behavior links that would allow us to test it using the fossil record. Here we attempt to identify cranial adaptations to nectar feeding among the strepsirrhines of Madagascar in order to provide such links. Many Malagasy strepsirrhines are considered effective cross-pollinators of the flowers they feed from, and nectar consumption represents as much as 75% of total feeding time. Previous studies identified skeletal correlates to nectar feeding in the crania of nonprimate mammals; from these, nine cranial measurements were chosen to be the focus of the present study. Results indicate that Cheirogaleus, Varecia, and Eulemur mirror other nectar-feeding mammals in having elongated crania and/or muzzles. These strepsirrhines might be effective cross-pollinators, lending support to the coevolution hypothesis.

  8. Life history of the most complete fossil primate skeleton: exploring growth models for Darwinius

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Torres, Sergi; Schillaci, Michael A.; Silcox, Mary T.

    2015-01-01

    Darwinius is an adapoid primate from the Eocene of Germany, and its only known specimen represents the most complete fossil primate ever found. Its describers hypothesized a close relationship to Anthropoidea, and using a Saimiri model estimated its age at death. This study reconstructs the ancestral permanent dental eruption sequences for basal Euprimates, Haplorhini, Anthropoidea, and stem and crown Strepsirrhini. The results show that the ancestral sequences for the basal euprimate, haplorhine and stem strepsirrhine are identical, and similar to that of Darwinius. However, Darwinius differs from anthropoids by exhibiting early development of the lower third molars relative to the lower third and fourth premolars. The eruption of the lower second premolar marks the point of interruption of the sequence in Darwinius. The anthropoid Saimiri as a model is therefore problematic because it exhibits a delayed eruption of P2. Here, an alternative strepsirrhine model based on Eulemur and Varecia is presented. Our proposed model shows an older age at death than previously suggested (1.05–1.14 years), while the range for adult weight is entirely below the range proposed previously. This alternative model is more consistent with hypotheses supporting a stronger relationship between adapoids and strepsirrhines. PMID:26473056

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

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    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  10. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

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    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  11. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...... into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion...

  12. Dossier Madagascar - Introduction générale Special section on Madagascar - General introduction.

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    Dominique Gommery

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce dossier spécial est consacré à Madagascar, le royaume naturel des lémuriens. Douze articles de disciplines diverses ont été regroupés dans le but de présenter une vue générale sur ce qui se fait en primatologie par ou impliquant des francophones. La majorité des travaux présentés concerne la conservation et la protection des lémuriens actuels dont beaucoup sont en danger. Les activités en conservation sont diverses mais les projets relatifs impliquent de plus en plus les relations avec les communautés locales et leur développement. Le soutien et l'engagement de celles-ci est une clé de réussite. Ces projets ne pourraient voir le jour s’il n'y avait pas d'études scientifiques en amont par exemple sur la biologie, le comportement et l'écologie de chaque population ou groupe taxonomique. Pour pouvoir protéger les lémuriens avec l'aide des populations locales, il faut aussi comprendre les traditions et les perceptions des habitants vis-à-vis de ces primates. La diversité des lémuriens était encore plus importante dans un passé assez proche et constitue une partie du patrimoine naturel malgache. Il est important de comprendre le passé pour comprendre l'actuel, et inversement. L'évolution de ces primates reste assez complexe et les recherches récentes permettent de corriger notre vision de celle-ci.This special issue is devoted to Madagascar, the natural kingdom of the lemurs. Twelve articles of various disciplines were gathered to present a general overview on what is done in primatology by or implying French-speaking people. The greatest part of this special issue relates to the conservation and the protection of the extant lemurs of which lot are in danger. The activities in conservation are varied but the projects are more and more in relationship with the local communities and implicated in their development. The support and the commitment of these populations are a key of success. These projects could not come

  13. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Meredith L; Lute, Michelle L; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah H; Rajaonson, Andry

    2016-01-01

    Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88) with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall) may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high). Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  14. Raptors and primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Berger, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Most scholars agree that avoiding predators is a central concern of lemurs, monkeys, and apes. However, given uncertainties about the frequency with which primates actually become prey, the selective importance of predation in primate evolution continues to be debated. Some argue that primates are often killed by predators, while others maintain that such events are relatively rare. Some authors have contended that predation's influence on primate sociality has been trivial; others counter that predation need not occur often to be a powerful selective force. Given the challenges of documenting events that can be ephemeral and irregular, we are unlikely ever to amass the volume of systematic, comparative data we have on such topics as feeding, social dynamics, or locomotor behavior. Nevertheless, a steady accumulation of field observations, insight gained from natural experiments, and novel taphonomic analyses have enhanced understanding of how primates interact with several predators, especially raptors, the subject of this review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  16. Dietary choices by four captive slender lorises (Loris tardigradus) when presented with various insect life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Glander, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    The slender loris (Loris tardigradus) is a rare, nocturnal prosimian found only in the tropical rainforest of southern India and Sri Lanka. Little is known about their diet, though it is assumed that insects comprise a majority of their wild diet. Based on this assumption, captive lorises are offered a variety of insects or insect life stages; the species of insect or the life stage is often determined by what is easiest to buy or rear. Captive lorises at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC) were offered the opportunity to choose which life stage of mealworms (Tenebrio molito), superworms (Zophobus morio), or waxworms (Galleria mellonella) they preferred. The DLC captive lorises did not select the largest life stages of any insect offered. They preferred the larvae stage to the adult stage in all three insect species, and males and females had different insect species and life stage preferences. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Genetic variation and selection of MHC class I loci differ in two congeneric frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M; Tracy, Karen E; Lips, Karen R; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2018-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins in the acquired immune response pathway that often show distinctive selection-driven patterns in wild vertebrate populations. We examined genetic variation and signatures of selection in the MHC class I alpha 1 (A1)- and alpha 2 (A2)-domain encoding exons of two frog congeners [Agalychnis callidryas (n = 20) and A. lemur (n = 20)] from a single locality in Panama. We also investigated how historical demographic processes may have impacted MHC genetic diversity by analyzing a neutral mitochondrial marker. We found that both MHC domains were highly variable in both species, with both species likely expressing three loci. Our analyses revealed different signatures of selection between the two species, most notably that the A. callidryas A2 domain had experienced positive selection while the A2 domain of A. lemur had not. Diversifying selection acted on the same number of A1 and A2 allelic lineages, but on a higher percentage of A1 sites compared to A2 sites. Neutrality tests of mitochondrial haplotypes predominately indicated that the two species were at genetic equilibrium when the samples were collected. In addition, two historical tests of demography indicated both species have had relatively stable population sizes over the past 100,000 years; thus large population size changes are unlikely to have greatly influenced MHC diversity in either species during this time period. In conclusion, our results suggest that the impact of selection on MHC diversity varied between these two closely related species, likely due to a combination of distinct ecological conditions and past pathogenic pressures.

  18. Limited replication of yellow fever 17DD and 17D-Dengue recombinant viruses in rhesus monkeys

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    Gisela F. Trindade

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available For the development of safe live attenuated flavivirus vaccines one of the main properties to be established is viral replication. We have used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus titration by plaque assay to determine the replication of yellow fever 17DD virus (YFV 17DD and recombinant yellow fever 17D viruses expressing envelope proteins of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 (17D-DENV-2 and 17D-DENV-4. Serum samples from rhesus monkeys inoculated with YFV 17DD and 17D-DENV chimeras by intracerebral or subcutaneous route were used to determine and compare the viremia induced by these viruses. Viral load quantification in samples from monkeys inoculated by either route with YFV 17DD virus suggested a restricted capability of the virus to replicate reaching not more than 2.0 log10 PFU mL-1 or 3.29 log10 copies mL-1. Recombinant 17D-dengue viruses were shown by plaquing and real-time PCR to be as attenuated as YF 17DD virus with the highest mean peak titer of 1.97 log10 PFU mL-1 or 3.53 log10 copies mL-1. These data serve as a comparative basis for the characterization of other 17D-based live attenuated candidate vaccines against other diseases.Uma das principais propriedades a serem estabelecidas para o desenvolvimento de vacinas seguras e atenuadas de flavivirus,é a taxa de replicação viral. Neste trabalho, aplicamos a metodologia de amplificação pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real e titulação viral por plaqueamento para determinação da replicação do vírus 17DD (FA 17DD e recombinantes, expressando proteínas do envelope de dengue sorotipos 2 e 4 (17D-DENV-2 e 17D-DENV-4. As amostras de soros de macacos inoculados por via intracerebral ou subcutânea com FA 17DD ou 17D-DENV foram usadas para determinar e comparar a viremia induzida por estes vírus. A quantificação da carga viral em amostras de macacos inoculados por ambas as vias com FA 17DD sugere restrita capacidade de replicação com

  19. Syntenic homology of human unique DNA sequences within chromossome regions 5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 in the great apes

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    Rhea U. Vallente-Samonte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologies between chromosome banding patterns and DNA sequences in the great apes and humans suggest an apparent common origin for these two lineages. The availability of DNA probes for specific regions of human chromosomes (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 and 19q13.1 led us to cross-hybridize these to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, GGO and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY chromosomes in a search for equivalent regions in the great apes. Positive hybridization signals to the chromosome 5q31-specific DNA probe were observed at HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 and PPY 4q31, while fluorescent signals using the chromosome 10q22-specific DNA probe were noted at HSA 10q22, PTR 8q22, GGO 8q22 and PPY 7q22. The chromosome arms showing hybridization signals to the Quint-EssentialTM 13-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 13q32-33, PTR 14q32-33, GGO 14q32-33 and PPY 14q32-33, while those presenting hybridization signals to the chromosome 19q13.1-specific DNA probe were identified as HSA 19q13.1, PTR 20q13, GGO 20q13 and PPY 20q13. All four probes presumably hybridized to homologous chromosomal locations in the apes, which suggests a homology of certain unique DNA sequences among hominoid species.Homologias entre os padrões de bandamento de cromossomos e seqüências de DNA em grandes macacos e humanos sugerem uma aparente origem comum para estas duas linhagens. A disponibilidade de sondas de DNA para regiões específicas de cromossomos humanos (5q31, 10q22, 13q32-33 e 19q13.1 nos levou a realizar hibridação cruzada com cromossomos de chimpanzé (Pan troglodytes, PTR, gorila (Gorilla gorilla, GGO e orangotango (Pongo pygmaeus, PPY em um pesquisa de regiões equivalentes em grandes macacos. Sinais positivos de hibridação para a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 5q31 foram observados em HSA 5q31, PTR 4q31, GGO 4q31 e PPY 4q31, enquanto que sinais fluorescentes usando a sonda de DNA específica para o cromossomo 10q22 foram

  20. Circulation of antibodies against yellow fever virus in a simian population in the area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, São Paulo, Brazil Circulação de anticorpos contra o vírus amarílico em população simiana da região da usina hidrelétrica de Porto Primavera, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Antonia Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (YF is an acute viral infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes which occurs in two distinct epidemiological cycles: sylvatic and urban. In the sylvatic cycle, the virus is maintained by monkey's infection and transovarian transmission in vectors. Surveillance of non-human primates is required for the detection of viral circulation during epizootics, and for the identification of unaffected or transition areas. An ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for estimation of the prevalence of IgG antibodies against yellow fever virus in monkey sera (Alouatta caraya from the reservoir area of Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Plant, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 570 monkey sera samples were tested and none was reactive to antibodies against yellow fever virus. The results corroborate the epidemiology of yellow fever in the area. Even though it is considered a transition area, there were no reports to date of epizootics or yellow fever outbreaks in humans. Also, entomological investigations did not detect the presence of vectors of this arbovirus infection. ELISA proved to be fast, sensitive, an adequate assay, and an instrument for active search in the epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever allowing the implementation of prevention actions, even before the occurrence of epizootics.A febre amarela (FA é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral transmitida por mosquitos. No ciclo silvestre, o vírus é mantido por meio da infecção de macacos e da transmissão transovariana nos vetores. A vigilância sobre populações de primatas não humanos torna-se necessária para detectar a circulação viral, quando ainda está restrito a epizootias, e para determinar sua presença em regiões indenes ou de transição para a doença. Padronizou-se a técnica ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay para determinar a prevalência de anticorpos da classe IgG contra o vírus da FA em soros de bugios (Alouatta

  1. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  2. Modelo Bio-inspirado para el Reconocimiento de Gestos Usando Primitivas de Movimiento en Visión

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    Sandra E. Nope

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda el problema del reconocimiento de gestos usando la información de movimiento con el fin de obtener un modelo bio-inspirado para, en un futuro, utilizarlo en la programación de robots mediante el paradigma del aprendizaje por imitación. En este trabajo se extraen las primitivas de movimiento a partir de imágenes consecutivas, capturadas por una cámara web estándar. Para la programación por imitación de robots se identificó, como primera fase, el reconocimiento de gestos, en el cual es necesario resolver tres aspectos principales: La representación instantánea del movimiento, la integración temporal de dicha información y, la estrategia de clasificación. Estos tres aspectos serán tratados a lo largo de este trabajo y, en contraste con otros, la extracción del movimiento y su codificación está inspirada en el procesamiento del movimiento realizado en el cerebro de macacos. El modelo obtenido fue aplicado al reconocimiento de cuatro tipos de gestos realizados con la mano por diferentes personas. El porcentaje de aciertos varió entre 91.42% y 97.14%, utilizando diferentes estrategias estándar de clasificación. Palabras clave: Reconocimiento de gestos, modelo bio-inspirado, primitivas de movimiento, codificación del movimiento, integración temporal, visión artificial

  3. Genetic diversity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from patients with different clinical conditions Diversidade genética de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de pacientes com diferentes condições clínicas

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    Mario J. Avila-Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 23 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from 15 periodontal patients, eight from seven healthy subjects, nine from nine AIDS patients and two from two Cebus apella monkeys were analyzed. EcoRI restricted the bacterial DNA and 28 ribotypes grouped from A to J groups were obtained. Isolates formed 24 ribotypes which were contained into A, B, C, D, E and F groups, and three reference strains and two clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and E. coli CDC formed four different ribotypes into the G, H, I and J groups. Moreover, from nine F. nucleatum from AIDS patients, six were ribotyped as group C and three as group D. By using ribotyping we distinguished F. nucleatum recovered from different sources. It is possible that isolates from AIDS patients may contain some phenotypic or genotypic factor did not observed in this study.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética de 23 amostras de Fusobacterium nucleatum isoladas da cavidade bucal de 15 pacientes com doença periodontal, de oito cepas isoladas de sete indivíduos sadios, de nove isoladas de nove pacientes com AIDS e de duas isoladas de dois macacos Cebus apella. Pela ação da enzima EcoRI sobre o DNA bacteriano foram reconhecidos 28 ribotipos agrupados de A a J. Os isolados testados formaram 24 ribotipos os quais foram contidos nos grupos A, B, C, D, E e F, e as três cepas de referência e dois isolados clínicos de A. actinomycetemcomitans e E. coli CDC formaram quatro diferentes ribotipos contidos nos grupos G, H, I e J. Em adição, as nove cepas de F. nucleatum isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, seis pertenciam ao grupo C e três ao grupo D. Usando-se a ribotipagem foi possível distinguir F. nucleatum isolados de diferentes origens.

  4. Study of some parameters affecting the in vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum within saimiri sciureus red blood cells

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    T. Fandeur

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro growth and multiplication of the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum within Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey red blood cells have been studied. Various parameters, such as the origin of the red blood cells and serum supplement, nature of the buffer, influence of the final pH of the medium, role of proteose peptone and glucose addition, were investigated. The selection of the best culture conditions led to the obtention of a reproducible in vitro growth of two parasite cycles in Saimiri erythrocytes, which is an useful achievement for in vitro studies. Our failure to establish a continuous culture line for longer than 19 days, could be explained by a dramatic increasing of osmotic fragility of the Saimiri red blood cells related to their small size.O crescimento e a multiplicação dos estágios eritrocíticos do Plasmodium falciparum in vitro foi estudado em cultivos com hemácias do Saimiri sciureus (macaco de cheiro. Foram investigados vários parâmetros tais como, origem das hemácias e suplementação de soro, tipo de tampão, influência do pH final do meio, papel da proteose-peptona e da glicose adicionados. A seleção das condições ideais de cultivo permitiram, de maneira reprodutível, a obtenção de crescimento do parasita durante dois ciclos nas hemácias do Saimiri. Nosso fracasso em estabelecer uma linhagem contínua de cultivo por mais de 19 dias poderia ser explicado pelo aumento dramático da fragilidade osmótica das hemácias do Saimiri relacionado com seu pequeno tamanho.

  5. Contrasted crustal sources as defined by whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of neoproterozoic early post-collisional granitic magmatism within the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, Camboriú, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; Stoll Nardi, Lauro Valentim; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The early phase of post-collisional granitic magmatism in the Camboriú region, south Brazil, is represented by the porphyritic biotite ± hornblende Rio Pequeno Granite (RPG; 630-620 Ma) and the younger (˜610 Ma), equigranular, biotite ± muscovite Serra dos Macacos Granite (SMG). The two granite types share some geochemical characteristics, but the more felsic SMG constitutes a distinctive group not related to RPG by simple fractionation processes, as indicated by its lower FeOt, TiO2, K2O/Na2O and higher Zr Al2O3, Na2O, Ba and Sr when compared to RPG of similar SiO2 range. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes require different sources. The SMG derives from old crustal sources, possibly related to the Paleoproterozoic protoliths of the Camboriú Complex, as indicated by strongly negative ɛNdt (-23 to -24) and unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 16.0-16.3; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.3-15.4) and confirmed by previous LA-MC-ICPMS data showing dominant zircon inheritance of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age. In contrast, the RPG shows less negative ɛNdt (-12 to -15) and a distinctive zircon inheritance pattern with no traces of post-1.6 Ga sources. This is indicative of younger sources whose significance in the regional context is still unclear; some contribution of mantle-derived magmas is indicated by coeval mafic dykes and may account for some of the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the least differentiated varieties of the RPG. The transcurrent tectonics seems to have played an essential role in the generation of mantle-derived magmas despite their emplacement within a low-strain zone. It may have facilitated their interaction with crustal melts which seem to be to a large extent the products of reworking of Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Camboriú Complex.

  6. Humoral immune response in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella after vaccination with inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine: comparison of two schedules of immunization

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    Estevão de Camargo Passos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram vacinados contra a raiva, dois grupos de macacos-pregos adultos, com a vacina inativada preparada em cérebros de camundongos lactentes, administrada pela via intramuscular, na Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Os animais em momento algum haviam sido imunizados contra a raiva. O grupo I consistia de nove animais, que receberam três doses de 1,0 mL nos dias 0, 30 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias, e o grupo II continha 10 animais que receberam duas doses de 1,0 mL no dia 0 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas aos 0, 30º, 60º, 90º, 150º, 210º, 240º, 300º e 365º dias, e os anticorpos neutralizantes titulados pela técnica simplificada da inibição de focos fluorescentes. A vacina induziu uma resposta imune de curta duração com títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes acima de 0.5 UI/mL em ambos os grupos; entretanto a resposta imune persistiu por apenas 54,9 + 57,0 e 36,1 + 60,2 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após a primo vacinação, e, por apenas 62,6 + 74,0 e 86,4 + 61,5 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após o reforço. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos estudados (p >; 0,05.

  7. Fronteiras na investigação da esquizofrenia

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    Marcelo Blaya

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available O conceito bleuleriano de esquizofrenia continua a ser o mais acatado pelos investigadores. Apesar da existência de correntes nitidamente biológicas ou psicológicas nota-se, nos trabalhos de pesquisa, uma tendência marcadamente psicobiológica. No presente trabalho são discutidos os resultados obtidos por três grupos de investigadores, um operando com variáveis biológicas, e os outros dois, com variáveis de relação interpessoal, especialmente infrafamiliares. O primeiro grupo é liderado por Heath que tem chamado a atenção para a atividade bioelétrica anormal de certas estruturas subcorticais (região septal e hipocampo em relação às variações posturais e de conduta, tanto em macacos como em sêres humanos. O isolamento de uma proteína específica no sôro de pacientes esquizofrênicos, capaz de produzir sintomas em voluntários injetados com esse material, parece mostrar que existe uma falha metabólica, possivelmente enzimática, nesses pacientes. Os outros dois grupos, liderados por Bowen e Lidz, estudam características das funções e interrelações em famílias com pacientes esquizofrênicos. As conclusões de ambos os grupos apoia o conceito de famílias esquizofrênicas contra o ponto de vista clássico de pacientes esquizofrênicos.

  8. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

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    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  9. Morfologia dos músculos do ombro do Sapajus apella (Primates: Cebidae

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    Mariana Oliveira Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p129 O estudo de primatas não humanos tem sido de grande interesse, devido às semelhanças com a espécie humana. Várias espécies animais, principalmente de primatas, têm sido usadas em pesquisas médicas e biológicas. O Sapajus apella é uma espécie de ocorrência comum e abundante na Região Sudeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os músculos estabilizadores do ombro do macaco-prego e compará-los com os do ser humano, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para interpretações anátomo-funcionais que auxiliarão em futuros trabalhos de anatomia comparada. Foram utilizados quatro exemplares de S. apella provenientes do Laboratório de Anatomia Humana da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Os espécimes foram preparados por meio de dissecação dos músculos estabilizadores do ombro e preservados em solução de formaldeído. Observou-se que os músculos do ombro no S. apella apresentam enorme semelhança morfológica, em relação à origem e inserção, com aqueles que se encontram nos seres humanos, bem como em outros primatas.

  10. Estudo da patogenicidade para camundongos recém-nascidos de amostras de echovirus tipo 9 isoladas de casos de meningite durante um surto epidêmico no Rio de Janeiro Pathogenicity for newborn mice of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do echovirus tipo 9 para camundongos recém-nascidos foi estudada, utilizando-se 12 amostras isoladas em cultura de células primárias de rim de macaco, a partir do liquor de crianças com meningite. Os animais inoculados com o fluido da primeira passagem em células desenvolveram paralisia flácida, após um período de 5 dias, com a morte ate o 8º dia. Os especimens originais de liquor não continham suficiente vírus para provocar sinais clínicos nos animais inoculados no período de 21 dias de observação. Ao exame histopatológico os animais doentes apresentaram miopatia necrotizante da musculatura paravertebral, língua e diafragma. Animais inoculados que não desenvolveram paralisia durante o período de observação apresentaram miosite discreta, sem que tenha sido encontrada necrose das fibras musculares.The pathogenicity for baby-mice of 12 strains of echovirus type 9, isolated in primary monkey kidney cells, from liquor specimens of children with meningitis, have been studied. The animals inoculated with the first passage in tissue culture show after a period of 5 days, a flaccid paralysis and died by the 8th day after inoculation. The original liquor specimens did not contain enough virus to cause clinical signs in the inoculated animals, during the 21 days of observation. Histopathologicals studies in the sick animals, show a necrosis of the paravertebral muscles, tongue and diafragm. Inoculated animals wich did not develop paralysis during the observation period, show light miositis without necrosis of the muscle tissue.

  11. Primatology in southern Brazil: a transdisciplinary approach to the conservation of the brown-howler-monkey Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates, Atelidae

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    Leandro Jerusalinsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human interventions in natural environments are the main cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. The situation is not different in southern Brazil, home of five primate species. Although some earlier studies exist, studies on the primates of this region began to be consistently carried out in the 1980s and have continued since then. In addition to important initiatives to study and protect the highly endangered Leontopithecus caissara Lorrini & Persson, 1990 and Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806, other species, including locally threatened ones, have been the focus of research, management, and protection initiatives. Since 1993, the urban monkeys program (PMU, Programa Macacos Urbanos has surveyed the distribution and assessed threats to populations of Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 in Porto Alegre and vicinity. PMU has developed conservation strategies on four fronts: (1 scientific research on biology and ecology, providing basic knowledge to support all other activities of the group; (2 conservation education, which emphasizes educational presentations and long-term projects in schools near howler populations, based on the flagship species approach; (3 management, analyzing conflicts involving howlers and human communities, focusing on mitigating these problems and on appropriate relocation of injured or at-risk individuals; and finally, (4 Public Policies aimed at reducing and/or preventing the impact of urban expansion, contributing to create protected areas and to strengthen environmental laws. These different approaches have contributed to protect howler monkey populations over the short term, indicating that working collectively and acting on diversified and interrelated fronts are essential to achieve conservation goals. The synergistic results of these approaches and their relationship to the prospects for primatology in southern Brazil are presented in this review.

  12. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os zoológicos modernos são instituições destinadas à manutenção da fauna selvagem com o objetivo de promover a conservação, pesquisa científica, lazer, recreação e educação ambiental. A ampla variedade de espécies selvagens, vivendo em condições diferentes do seu habitat natural, representa um ambiente propício à disseminação de doenças, muitas delas zoonóticas. Devido à escassez de dados e à relevância dos mamíferos selvagens neste contexto epidemiológico, tanto na toxoplasmose, quanto na leptospirose, foi efetuado o inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 32 animais, adultos, de ambos os sexos incluindo: 14 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus, quatro macacos-prego-do-peito-amarelo (Cebus xanthosternus, três onças-suçuaranas (Puma concolor, uma onça-pintada (Pantheraonca, uma raposa (Cerdocyon thous, seis guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, dois quatis (Nasua nasua e um papa-mel (Eira barbara. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi utilizado o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT ³"1:25 e para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. foi utilizado o teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (ponto de corte ³1:100 com uma coleção de antígenos vivos que incluiu 24 variantes sorológicas de leptospiras patogênicas e duas leptospiras saprófitas. Dentre os 32 mamíferos, 17 (53,1% apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii e quatro (12,5% foram positivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. De acordo com o sexo, 60% (9/15 dos machos e 47,1% (8/17 das fêmeas foram soropositivos para T. gondii e 26,7% (4/15 dos machos apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. Dos mamíferos que apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 47% (8/17 nasceram no zoológico, 41,2% (7/17 foram oriundos de outras instituições e dois (11,8% foram provenientes da natureza. Em rela

  13. Reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008 Reemergência de febre amarela: detecção de transmissão no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.INTRODUÇÃO: A partir do isolamento do vírus febre amarela (VFA, de macacos, da região de São José do Rio Preto e de dois casos humanos autóctones fatais, da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, foram realizadas duas expedições para pesquisa entomológica e avaliação ecoepidemiológica. M

  14. Curious creatures: a multi-taxa investigation of responses to novelty in a zoo environment

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    Belinda A. Hall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The personality trait of curiosity has been shown to increase welfare in humans. If this positive welfare effect is also true for non-humans, animals with high levels of curiosity may be able to cope better with stressful situations than their conspecifics. Before discoveries can be made regarding the effect of curiosity on an animal’s ability to cope in their environment, a way of measuring curiosity across species in different environments must be created to standardise testing. To determine the suitability of novel objects in testing curiosity, species from different evolutionary backgrounds with sufficient sample sizes were chosen. Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia n = 12, little penguins (Eudyptula minor n = 10, ringtail lemurs (Lemur catta n = 8, red tailed black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksia n = 7, Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans n = 5 and red kangaroos (Macropus rufus n = 5 were presented with a stationary object, a moving object and a mirror. Having objects with different characteristics increased the likelihood individuals would find at least one motivating. Conspecifics were all assessed simultaneously for time to first orientate towards object (s, latency to make contact (s, frequency of interactions, and total duration of interaction (s. Differences in curiosity were recorded in four of the six species; the Barbary sheep and red tailed black cockatoos did not interact with the novel objects suggesting either a low level of curiosity or that the objects were not motivating for these animals. Variation in curiosity was seen between and within species in terms of which objects they interacted with and how long they spent with the objects. This was determined by the speed in which they interacted, and the duration of interest. By using the measure of curiosity towards novel objects with varying characteristics across a range of zoo species, we can see evidence of evolutionary, husbandry and individual

  15. The dynamics of transmission and the dynamics of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien

    2017-05-01

    A toy example depicted here highlighting the results of a study in this issue of the Journal of Animal Ecology that investigates the impact of network dynamics on potential disease outbreaks. Infections (stars) that spread by contact only (left) reduce the predicted outbreak size compared to situations where individuals can become infected by moving through areas that previously contained infected individuals (right). This is potentially important in species where individuals, or in this case groups, have overlapping ranges (as depicted on the top right). Incorporating network dynamics that maintain information about the ordering of contacts (central blocks; including the ordering of spatial overlap as noted by the arrows that highlight the blue group arriving after the red group in top-right of the figure) is important for capturing how a disease might not have the opportunity to spread to all individuals. By contrast, a static or 'average' network (lower blocks) does not capture any of these dynamics. Interestingly, although static networks generally predict larger outbreak sizes, the authors find that in cases when transmission probability is low, this prediction can switch as a result of changes in the estimated intensity of contacts among individuals. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]. Springer, A., Kappeler, P.M. & Nunn, C.L. (2017) Dynamic vs. static social networks in models of parasite transmission: Predicting Cryptosporidium spread in wild lemurs. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 419-433. The spread of disease or information through networks can be affected by several factors. Whether and how these factors are accounted for can fundamentally change the predicted impact of a spreading epidemic. Springer, Kappeler & Nunn () investigate the role of different modes of transmission and network dynamics on the predicted size of a disease outbreak across several groups of Verreaux's sifakas, a group-living species of lemur. While some factors

  16. Curious creatures: a multi-taxa investigation of responses to novelty in a zoo environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Vicky; Burns, Alicia; McGill, David M.; Doyle, Rebecca E.

    2018-01-01

    The personality trait of curiosity has been shown to increase welfare in humans. If this positive welfare effect is also true for non-humans, animals with high levels of curiosity may be able to cope better with stressful situations than their conspecifics. Before discoveries can be made regarding the effect of curiosity on an animal’s ability to cope in their environment, a way of measuring curiosity across species in different environments must be created to standardise testing. To determine the suitability of novel objects in testing curiosity, species from different evolutionary backgrounds with sufficient sample sizes were chosen. Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) n = 12, little penguins (Eudyptula minor) n = 10, ringtail lemurs (Lemur catta) n = 8, red tailed black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksia) n = 7, Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans) n = 5 and red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) n = 5 were presented with a stationary object, a moving object and a mirror. Having objects with different characteristics increased the likelihood individuals would find at least one motivating. Conspecifics were all assessed simultaneously for time to first orientate towards object (s), latency to make contact (s), frequency of interactions, and total duration of interaction (s). Differences in curiosity were recorded in four of the six species; the Barbary sheep and red tailed black cockatoos did not interact with the novel objects suggesting either a low level of curiosity or that the objects were not motivating for these animals. Variation in curiosity was seen between and within species in terms of which objects they interacted with and how long they spent with the objects. This was determined by the speed in which they interacted, and the duration of interest. By using the measure of curiosity towards novel objects with varying characteristics across a range of zoo species, we can see evidence of evolutionary, husbandry and individual influences on

  17. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  18. Curious creatures: a multi-taxa investigation of responses to novelty in a zoo environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Belinda A; Melfi, Vicky; Burns, Alicia; McGill, David M; Doyle, Rebecca E

    2018-01-01

    The personality trait of curiosity has been shown to increase welfare in humans. If this positive welfare effect is also true for non-humans, animals with high levels of curiosity may be able to cope better with stressful situations than their conspecifics. Before discoveries can be made regarding the effect of curiosity on an animal's ability to cope in their environment, a way of measuring curiosity across species in different environments must be created to standardise testing. To determine the suitability of novel objects in testing curiosity, species from different evolutionary backgrounds with sufficient sample sizes were chosen. Barbary sheep ( Ammotragus lervia) n  = 12, little penguins ( Eudyptula minor) n  = 10, ringtail lemurs ( Lemur catta) n  = 8 , red tailed black cockatoos ( Calyptorhynchus banksia) n  = 7, Indian star tortoises ( Geochelone elegans) n  = 5 and red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) n  = 5 were presented with a stationary object, a moving object and a mirror. Having objects with different characteristics increased the likelihood individuals would find at least one motivating. Conspecifics were all assessed simultaneously for time to first orientate towards object (s), latency to make contact (s), frequency of interactions, and total duration of interaction (s). Differences in curiosity were recorded in four of the six species; the Barbary sheep and red tailed black cockatoos did not interact with the novel objects suggesting either a low level of curiosity or that the objects were not motivating for these animals. Variation in curiosity was seen between and within species in terms of which objects they interacted with and how long they spent with the objects. This was determined by the speed in which they interacted, and the duration of interest. By using the measure of curiosity towards novel objects with varying characteristics across a range of zoo species, we can see evidence of evolutionary, husbandry and individual

  19. Highly Variable Streptococcus oralis Strains Are Common among Viridans Streptococci Isolated from Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denapaite, Dalia; Rieger, Martin; Köndgen, Sophie; Brückner, Reinhold; Ochigava, Irma; Kappeler, Peter; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Leendertz, Fabian; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. Isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. Streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. Genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster of human S. oralis strains. This suggests that S. oralis is part of the commensal flora in higher primates and evolved prior to humans. Many genes described as virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae were present also in other viridans streptococcal genomes. Unlike in S. pneumoniae, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) gene clusters were common among viridans streptococci, and many S. oralis strains were type PI-2 (pilus islet 2) variants. S. oralis displayed a remarkable diversity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (penicillin-binding proteins and MurMN) and choline-containing teichoic acid. The small noncoding cia-dependent small RNAs (csRNAs) controlled by the response regulator CiaR might contribute to the genomic diversity, since we observed novel genomic islands between duplicated csRNAs, variably present in some isolates. All S. oralis genomes contained a β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase gene absent in S. pneumoniae, which in contrast frequently harbors the neuraminidases NanB/C, which are absent in S. oralis. The identification of S. oralis-specific genes will help us to understand their adaptation to diverse habitats. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare example of a human-pathogenic bacterium among viridans streptococci, which consist of commensal symbionts, such as the close relatives Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. We have shown that S. oralis can frequently

  20. Degeneração oxychromatica ("inclusões intranucleares" na febre amarella

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1931-05-01

    Full Text Available 1- No interior do nucleo de cellulas hepaticas de Macacus rhesus e M. cynomolgus (figs. 13-34 inoculado com o virus da febre amarella e de cellulas hepaticas de doentes de febre amarella (figs. 61-65 e 68-69 ocorre o processo regressivo referido na literatura sob o nome de «degeneração oxychromatica». Tal processo apresenta grande intensidade nos macacos, sendo, porém, assaz escasso no material humano colhido em autopsias. Esta alteração está intimamente associada ao effeito nocivo causado pelo proprio virus da febre amarella, sendo, neste sentido, a unica alteração verdadeiramente especifica na febre amarella. Não foram encontradas alterações do cytoplasma nem granulos intracellulares que tivessem relação com o virus da febre amarella. Assim sendo, a febre amarella pertencerá ao grupo de doenças de virus filtraveis produzindo alterações cellulares caracteristicas ou corpusculos especificos, exclusivamente limitados ao nucleo. Deve ser incluida, portanto no grupo karyo-oikon da classificação de Lipschütz, juntamente com herpes, varicella, virus III do coelho, «submaxillary disease», etc. Como acontece em geral, nas doenças de virus filtraveis, formando inclusões intracellulares, observa-se na febre amarella que a inclusão celular especifica predomina ou existe exclusivamente em determinada especie cellular. Até agora, no nosso material só conseguimos evidenciar a degeneração oxychromatica da febre amarella na cellula hepatica. Quando existe, porém, a sua abundancia é notavel, não raro attingido a quasi totalidade das cellulas hepaticas nos cortes histologicos examinados. Esse facto não poude ser observado nos casos humanos que examinamos,provavelmente em virtude de condições proprias do virus no homem e da phase da molestia na qual foi retirado o material para estudo. Nas cellulas da camada cortical das suprarenaes de M. rhesus infectados encontramos aspectos nucleares suggestivos de degenera

  1. Environment, arbovirus transmission and control of epidemics Ambiente, transmissão de arbovírus e controle de epidemias

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    Roger Cordellier

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the relationships between the biotopes (or phytogeographical zones, arbovirus vectors and vertebrate hosts (including man, and epidemiology, current knowledge on the transmission of Yellow Fever virus in West Africa is reported. A dynamic scheme has been devised to integrate the observed geographical distribution of cases and the timing of their occurrence. Two principal areas, endemicity and epidetnicity, were defined according to the presence or absence of sylvatic monkey-mosquito transmission. The intensity and potential of contacts between humans and vectors depends on the degree of man-made changes in the environment, often increasing the extension of ecotone areas where the mosquitoes are easily biting at the ground level. Prevention and/or control of arbovirus diseases require detailed eco-epidemiological studies to determine: (1 the effective role of each potential vector in each phytogeographical region; (2 the risk factors for the people living in or near areas with a sylvatic transmission cycle; (3 the priorities - vaccination and/or control - for preventing the expansion of natural foci.Para ilustrar as relações existentes entre os biótopos (ou zonas fitogeográficas, os vetores e hospedeiros vertebrados (incluindo o homem de arbovírus e a epidemiologia, o conhecimento atual sobre a transmissão do vírus de febre amarela na África Ocidental é apresentado e discutido. Um modelo dinâmico foi desenvolvido para integrar a distribuição geográfica dos casos observados e o momento de sua ocorrência. Duas áreas principais, endemicidade e epidemicidade, foram definidas de acordo com a presença ou ausência de transmissão silvática macaco-mosquito. A intensidade e o potencial dos contatos entre homem e vetores depende do grau das alterações ambientais produzidas pelas atividades humanas, geralmente aumentando a extensão das áreas de ecótono onde os mosquitos estão ativos ao nível do solo. A preven

  2. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence test for measles antibodies with haemagglutination inhibition and plaque neutralization tests Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta para o vírus do sarampo com as reações de inibição da hemaglutinação e neutralização por redução de placas

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    Vanda Akico Ueda Fick de Souza

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFA, Plaque Reduction Neutralization (PRN and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI tests for measles antibodies were carried out in 197 sera obtained from umbilical cord and vaccinated children. The IFA was also applied to blood samples collected with filter paper. IFA results demonstrated that the test is relatively simple to perform, with good reproducibility for different antigen lots. Good correlation was obtained between IFA, PRN and HI antibody titers. Better correlation was demonstrated with IFA and PRN than with HI and PRN tests. Sensitivity of IFA in detecting antibody was less effective than PRN, however more effective than HI using rhesus monkey red blood cells. PRN antibody titers over 100 were detected by IFA but not by HI (9.7% with negative results. IFA may be of considerable practical use and able to substitute HI in Seroepidemiological surveys and to evaluate vaccine efficacy. It also can be simplified by employing filter paper collected samples.As reações de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF, neutralização por redução de placas (RNP e inibição da hemaglutinação (RIH para detecção de anticorpos para o vírus do sarampo foram aplicadas a 197 soros provenientes de cordão umbilical e de crianças vacinadas contra o sarampo. Avaliou-se ainda a aplicação da RIF em amostras colhidas em papel de filtro. A RIF apresentou-se como uma prova de execução relativamente simples, de boa reprodutibilidade com diferentes partidas de antígeno. Observou-se boa correlação entre os títulos de anticorpos obtidos por RIF, RNP e RIH. Com a RNP, a RIF apresentou maior correlação que a RIH. A sensibilidade da RIF na detecção de anticorpos contra o sarampo foi menor que RNP, porém superior à da RIH com hemácias de macaco rhesus. Anticorpos com títulos superiores a 100 pela RNP foram sistematicamente detectados pela RIF, mas não por RIH (9,7% de resultados negativos. A RIF pode ser de grande utilidade

  3. Leptopirosis in animal of animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University / Leptospirose em animais do biotério central do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina

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    Ernst Eckehardt Muller

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has been described in laboratory animal house of several countries happening among mice. albino rats. guinea pigs, dogs, rabbits, monkeys and man. The laboratory animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University maintains and breeds several species of animals and stray dogs trapped in citíes of Paraná State. In this paper w e r e utilized for leptospirosis research, 325 wistar rats. 323 albino mice. 289 dogs, 135 rabbits. 119 guinea pigs, and 57 black rats trapped around of animal house. The microscopic agglutination test with 22 cultures of Leptospira interrogans showed positive results in 110 dogs and o n e guinea pig, having been found antibodies against serovars canicola (62, 7%, pyrogenes (51,8%, castellonis (30.9% and icterobaemorrhagiae (23,6%. The dark field microscopy examination of 574 urine samples (282 albino mice, 224 wistar rats, 29 black rats, 24 dogs, 13 rabbits and two guinea pigs showed positive resuíts in six dogs. The seven attempts of urine and kidneys isolation were negatives.A leptospirose tem sido descrita em biotérios de vários países, acometendo camundongos, ratos albinos, cobaios, cães, coelhos e macacos além do manipuladores. O Biotério Centrai do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina mantém e cria várias espécies de animais além de receber cães de rua, capturados em municípios do Estado do Paraná. Neste trabalho foram utilizados para a pesquisa de leptospirose, soros de 325 ratos wistar, 323 camundongos albinos. 289 cães de rua, 135 coelhos, 119 cobaios, além de 57 ratos pretos capturados nas proximidades do biotério. A prova de somaglutinação microscópica com 22 soroiipos de Lepiospira interrogans mostrou resultados positivos em 110 cães e um cobaio, sendo encontrado anticorpos principalmente contra os soroiipos canicola (62. 7%. pyrogenes (51.8%. castellonis (30,9% e icterohaemorrhagiae (23.6%. A pesquisa direta de leptospira em

  4. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

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    Saulo Luis da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, A-549 (human lung carcinoma, HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma, Vero (monkey kidney cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool were also tested to verify their possible influence in the oil cytotoxic activity. The results obtained permitted to confirm that the essential oil is cytotoxic against tumoral cells (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 and 113.6 µg/ml for A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectively, while it did not show cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cells (Vero and mice macrophages. Thus, the essential oil from Z. rhoifolium leaves seems to present a possible therapeuthic role due to its selective cytotoxic activity against tumoral cell lines.O Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. é uma planta popularmente utilizada como antimicrobianos, no tratamento da malária e de inflamações. O óleo volátil do Z. rhoifolium foi extraído e posteriormente foi avaliada a sua citotoxicidade contra células HeLa (carcinoma cervical humano, A-549 (carcinoma de pulmão humano, HT-29 (adenocarcinoma de cólon humano, Vero (rim de macaco e macrófagos de camundongos. Alguns terpenos constituintes do óleo volátil (beta-cariofileno, alfa -humuleno, alfa -pineno, mirceno e linalool também foram testados para verificar as possíveis influências sobre a citotoxicidade do óleo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que o óleo volátil é citotóxico contra células as tumorais (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 e 113.6 µg/ml para A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectivamente, mas não apresenta citotoxicidade contra as células não tumorais (Vero e macrófagos de camundongos. Desta forma o óleo volátil das folhas do Z. rhoifolium demonstra

  5. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  6. Valores de referência das provas de funções hepática, renal e de alguns eletrólitos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com cetamina Serum biochemical profile of healthy Cebus apella, anesthetized with ketamine

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    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 127 amostras de soro sangüíneo, obtidas de macacos-prego (Cebus apella, anestesiados com cetamina. Quantificaram-se as provas de função hepática (proteínas totais, albumina, glicose, bilirrubinas e atividade enzimática de ALT, AST e ALP, de função renal (uréia e creatinina, bem como alguns eletrólitos (sódio, potássio, cloro, cálcio e fósforo. Os valores médios obtidos foram analisados e comparados entre grupos, de acordo com o sexo e a faixa etária. Dentre as provas de função hepática, os valores de ALP e ALT dos animais jovens mostraram-se superiores aos dos adultos, enquanto os níveis de AST foram maiores nos machos jovens em relação aos machos adultos. Os níveis de albumina foram maiores nos machos adultose fêmeas jovens e a proteína total apresentou valores mais altos nas fêmeas adultas. Relativamente às provas de função renal, os níveis de creatinina mostraram-se maiores nos machos adultos, enquanto os níveis de uréia foram maiores nos machos jovens. Quanto aos eletrólitos, os níveis séricos de cloretos foram superiores nas fêmeas jovens enquanto o sódio mostrou-se mais elevado nos machos adultos do que nas fêmeas jovens.Blood serum samples obtained from 127 Capuchin monkeys, anesthetized with ketamine, were analysed. Hepatic function tests (total protein, albumin, glucose, bilirrubins and enzimatic activity of ALT, AST and ALP, renal function tests (urea and creatinine, and some electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were quantified. Differences related to sex and age were studied. Among the hepatic function tests, the values of ALP and ALT were higher in the young animals, while the levels of AST were higher in the young males when compared to adult males. The albumin parameters were more elevated in adult males and females than in young males and the total protein showed higher in adult females. In relation to the renal function tests, the

  7. Yellow fever in Brazil: thoughts and hypotheses on the emergence in previously free areas Fiebre amarilla en Brasil: reflexiones e hipótesis sobre la emergencia en áreas previamente libres Febre amarela no Brasil: reflexões e hipóteses sobre a emergência em áreas previamente livres

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2010-12-01

    circulação de pessoas ou macacos infectados em fase virêmica. Apenas um programa eficiente de vigilância pode prevenir ocorrências similares nesses estados brasileiros.

  8. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

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    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  9. Distinct functional roles of primate grasping hands and feet during arboreal quadrupedal locomotion.

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    Patel, Biren A; Wallace, Ian J; Boyer, Doug M; Granatosky, Michael C; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2015-11-01

    It has long been thought that quadrupedal primates successfully occupy arboreal environments, in part, by relying on their grasping feet to control balance and propulsion, which frees their hands to test unstable branches and forage. If this interlimb decoupling of function is real, there should be discernible differences in forelimb versus hind limb musculoskeletal control, specifically in how manual and pedal digital flexor muscles are recruited to grasp during arboreal locomotion. New electromyography data from extrinsic flexor muscles in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) walking on a simulated arboreal substrate reveal that toe flexors are activated at relatively higher levels and for longer durations than finger flexors during stance phase. This demonstrates that the extremities of primates indeed have different functional roles during arboreal locomotion, with the feet emphasizing maintenance of secure grips. When this dichotomous muscle activity pattern between the forelimbs and hind limbs is coupled with other features of primate quadrupedal locomotion, including greater hind limb weight support and the use of diagonal-sequence footfall patterns, a complex suite of biomechanical characters emerges in primates that allow for the co-option of hands toward non-locomotor roles. Early selection for limb functional differentiation in primates probably aided the evolution of fine manipulation capabilities in the hands of bipedal humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex ratio at birth and age-reversed dominance among female Varecia.

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    White, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 283 offspring born at the Duke University Primate Center show that young female ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, produce significantly more daughters, whereas old mothers produce more sons than expected. Data are compared to 3 hypotheses for sex ratio bias: the Trivers-Willard hypothesis which predicts that dominant females produce more males, the local resource competition (LRC) hypothesis which predicts that subordinate females produce more males, and the local resource enhancement (LRE) extension of the LRC hypothesis that females produce the sex that provides later cooperative benefits. In the case of Varecia, this may include alloparenting or cooperative breeding. The results are more consistent with the LRC model. However, observations of 8 mother-daughter relationships show that female dominance rank in free-ranging Varecia groups is age reversed, with daughters aggressively outranking their mothers. Daughters born into the group were not beneficial as future supporters in within-group intermatriline competition as assumed by the LRE model, or as subordinate alloparents, cooperative breeders or aids in territorial defense. Both sex ratio and ranking observations are consistent, however, with the hypothesis that mothers produce daughters when they are young and able to invade elsewhere and sons as they age and are less able to do so. This is supported by a single observation of a mother dispersing which resulted in her daughter inheriting the natal territory. These data are supportive of the LRE model with female alliances and cooperative breeding among dispersed females. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Similarities in Leptospira Serogroup and Species Distribution in Animals and Humans in the Indian Ocean Island of Mayotte

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    Desvars, Amélie; Naze, Florence; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Cardinale, Eric; Picardeau, Mathieu; Michault, Alain; Bourhy, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of Leptospira strains recently described among patients on the island of Mayotte. By means of a microscopic agglutination test using local clinical isolates, we found that 11.2% of black rats were seropositive to Leptospira, whereas 10.2% of flying foxes, 2% of lemurs, 93.1% of domestic dogs, and 87.5% of stray dogs were seropositive. As observed in humans, Mini was the main serogroup circulating in animals, whereas serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was absent. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we also showed that 29.8% of rats carried leptospires in their kidneys. The sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences of Leptospira found in black rat kidneys identified four genomospecies (Leptospira borgpetersenii, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii group B), which established black rats as the major source of leptospirosis transmission to humans. The origins of such a genetic diversity in Leptospira strains are discussed. PMID:22764304

  12. Design of a Robotic Ankle Joint for a Microspine-Based Robot

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    Thatte, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Successful robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids necessitates a method of securely anchoring to the surface of these bodies without gravitational assistance. Microspine grip- per arrays that can grasp rock faces are a potential solution to this problem. A key component of a future microspine-based rover will be the ankle used to attach each microspine gripper to the robot. The ankle's purpose is twofold: 1) to allow the gripper to conform to the rock so a higher percentage of microspines attach to the surface, and 2) to neutralize torques that may dislodge the grippers from the wall. Parts were developed using computer aided design and manufactured using a variety of methods including selective laser sintering, CNC milling, and traditional manual machining techniques. Upon completion of the final prototype, the gripper and ankle system was tested to demonstrate robotic engagement and disengagement of the gripper and to determine load bearing ability. The immediate application of this project is to out t the Lemur IIb robot so it can climb and hang from rock walls.

  13. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

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    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

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    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  15. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND FREQUENCY CROCOBER PLUS AS ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER GIVING ON THE ONION CROPS (Allium ascalonicum L.

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    Jamilah Munir Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of liquid organic fertilizer (POC Crocober plus and frequency of application to the crop of onion (Allium ascalonicum L. had been conducted in Sub Kajai, District lemur, Solok regency for 3 months starting from May to July 2015. The goal was to get the POC concentration and Crocober plus frequency to increase growth and yield of onion. Experiments using a randomized block design in a factorial form that consists of 2 factors. Factor 1 was 5 degree of concentration POC was 0% (P0, 2.5% (P1, 5% (P3, 7.5% (P4 and 10% (P5 while Factor 2, was the frequency of POC consists of two levels ie ; The data obtained and analyzed variance. If the F count larger than F table 5% followed by a test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The experimental results indicated that application of 5% POC Crocober plus concentration given weekly was the exact interaction to improve the growth and yield of onion with the result reached 13.83 tons/ha.Doi: 10.22216/jit.2014.v8i2.340

  16. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  17. Berenty Reserve—A Gallery Forest in Decline in Dry Southern Madagascar—Towards Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Winchester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berenty Reserve, a fully protected gallery forest beside the Mandrare River is renowned for its lemurs, but the continuous canopy of the main forest is shrinking, fragmenting and degrading. The aim of this study, before any restoration can be considered, is to investigate why canopy-cover is declining and define the forest’s vegetation status and composition. Our study includes analysis of tamarind age (the dominant species and regeneration, forest extent, climate and soil. Measurement of trunk circumference and annual rings indicated a median age of 190 years, near the accepted maximum for tamarinds. There is no regeneration of tamarind seedlings under the canopy and an invasive vine, Cissus quadrangularis suffocates any regeneration on the forest margins. A vegetation survey, based on fifteen transects, broadly characterized three forest areas: continuous canopy near the river, transitional canopy with fewer tall trees, and degraded dryland; the survey also provided a list of the 18 most common tree species. Ring counts of flood-damaged roots combined with measurement to the riverbank show that erosion rates, up to 19.5 cm/year, are not an immediate threat to forest extent. The highly variable climate shows no trend and analysis of forest soil indicates compatibility with plant growth.

  18. Análisis comparativo de herramientas de recuperación y análisis de información de acceso libredesde una concepción docente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Plasencia-Salgueiro

    Full Text Available En el Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y Física de la República de Cuba se imparte el curso"Bases de datos y biblioteca digital" dentro de la Maestría de Cibernética Aplicada. Parte esencial del curso la constituye la creación de bases de datos documentales a partir de la recuperación de información en Internet. Para poder realizar los laboratorios requeridos para un mejor aprendizaje se requiere seleccionar las herramientas de recuperación de información más idóneas, tanto desde el punto de vista docente como desde las facilidades para su adquisición. Se definieron entonces las características para evaluar esas herramientas y la metodología para realizar la selección. Como resultado, de trece herramientas de recuperación y análisis de la información de software libre analizadas que pudieron ser descargadas se seleccionaron ocho herramientas, Lemur Toolkit con Indri, Sphinx, WebSphinx con Rapid Miner, Solr/Lucene/Hadoop/Mahout, Terrier, Dragon lo cual permitió garantizar la calidad del curso impartido y su concatenación con otros cursos de la misma maestría.

  19. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

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    Kessler Sharon E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1 Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2 High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3 Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged.

  20. A primitive endogenous lentivirus in a colugo: insights into the early evolution of lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviruses infect a wide range of mammal species. Much remains unknown about their deep history and host distribution. Here, we report the discovery of an endogenous lentivirus within the genome of the Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) (which we designate "Galeopterus variegatus endogenous lentivirus" [GvaELV]). We estimate the GvaELV genome invasion to have occurred more than 14 Ma, supporting an ancient origin of the lentivirus clade and an ancient lentiviral infection in colugo. Phylogenetic analyses show that GvaELV is a sister group of all previously known lentiviruses. The GvaELV genome appears to possess some primitive genomic features of a lentivirus, encoding not only a trans-activator of transcription (tat) gene but also two additional putative accessory genes that share no discernible similarity with other lentiviral accessory genes. The discovery of GvaELV provides novel insights into the prehistory and host distribution of lentivirus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Forest Transition in Madagascar’s Highlands: Initial Evidence and Implications

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    William J. McConnell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is renowned for the loss of the forested habitat of lemurs and other species endemic to the island. Less well known is that in the highlands, a region often described as an environmental “basket-case” of fire-degraded, eroded grasslands, woody cover has been increasing for decades. Using information derived from publically available high- and medium-resolution satellites, this study characterizes tree cover dynamics in the highlands of Madagascar over the past two decades. Our results reveal heterogeneous patterns of increased tree cover on smallholder farms and village lands, spurred by a mix of endogenous and exogenous forces. The new trees play important roles in rural livelihoods, providing renewable supplies of firewood, charcoal, timber and other products and services, as well as defensible claims to land tenure in the context of a decline in the use of hillside commons for grazing. This study documents this nascent forest transition through Land Change Science techniques, and provides a prologue to political ecological analysis by setting these changes in their social and environmental context and interrogating the costs and benefits of the shift in rural livelihood strategies.

  2. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

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    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  3. Were Malagasy Uncarina fruits dispersed by the extinct elephant bird?

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    N. Illing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesise that the spiny fruits of the endemic Madagascar
    genus Uncarina (Pedaliaceae are trample burrs that evolved to be
    dispersed on the feet of the extinct elephant bird (Aepyornis. Our
    evidence is: i the morphology of the fruit with its large grapple
    hooks is more likely to attach to a foot than to adhere to fur and
    ii the presentation of mature fruits on the ground rather than in the
    canopy. These differences to adhesive burrs make lemurs unlikely
    dispersers. We argue, given the absence of other large terrestrial
    mammals in Madagascar, that the most likely dispersers of
    Uncarina fruits were the extinct large birds. If correct, our hypothesis
    has implications for conservation of Uncarina, the biogeography
    of the elephant birds and dispersal biology. For
    example, we predict that the demography of Uncarina will be
    skewed towards adult plants, and that the dispersal mutualism
    could possibly be rescued by domestic animals.

  4. Hibernation in the pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus): multiday torpor in primates is not restricted to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thomas; Streicher, Ulrike; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Nadler, Tilo; Walzer, Chris

    2015-12-03

    Hibernation and short daily torpor are states of energy conservation with reduced metabolism and body temperature. Both hibernation, also called multiday torpor, and daily torpor are common among mammals and occur in at least 11 orders. Within the primates, there is a peculiar situation, because to date torpor has been almost exclusively reported for Malagasy lemurs. The single exception is the African lesser bushbaby, which is capable of daily torpor, but uses it only under extremely adverse conditions. For true hibernation, the geographical restriction was absolute. No primate outside of Madagascar was previously known to hibernate. Since hibernation is commonly viewed as an ancient, plesiomorphic trait, theoretically this could mean that hibernation as an overwintering strategy was lost in all other primates in mainland Africa, Asia, and the Americas. However, we hypothesized that a good candidate species for the use of hibernation, outside of Madagascar should be the pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), a small primate inhabiting tropical forests. Here, we show that pygmy slow lorises exposed to natural climatic conditions in northern Vietnam during winter indeed undergo torpor lasting up to 63 h, that is, hibernation. Thus, hibernation has been retained in at least one primate outside of Madagascar.

  5. Loss of Octarepeats in Two Processed Prion Pseudogenes in the Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Timothy T.; Hupkes, Marlinda; Kohlen, Wouter; van Rheede, Teun; de Jong, Wilfried W.

    2010-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the mammalian prion protein (PrP) contains an ‘octapeptide’ repeat which is involved in copper binding. This eight- or nine-residue peptide is repeated four to seven times, depending on the species, and polymorphisms in repeat number do occur. Alleles with three repeats are very rare in humans and goats, and deduced PrP sequences with two repeats have only been reported in two lemur species and in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. We here describe that the red squirrel two-repeat PrP sequence actually represents a retroposed pseudogene, and that an additional and older processed pseudogene with three repeats also occurs in this species as well as in ground squirrels. We argue that repeat numbers may tend to contract rather than expand in prion retropseudogenes, and that functional prion genes with two repeats may not be viable. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9390-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20878152

  6. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

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    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  7. Revision of the jawfish genus Lonchopisthus with description of a new Atlantic species (Teleostei: Opistognathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Synonymies, diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations, an identification key, and meristic frequency tables are provided for all species of Lonchopisthus. Most of the skeletal anatomy of L. higmani is also illustrated. A new jawfish, Lonchopisthus ancistrus n. sp., is described from the Gulf of Mexico and off Honduras based on 21 specimens 41–89 mm SL. The new species differs from other congeners by the following combination of characters: the posterior end of the maxilla strongly hooked; the membrane connecting the maxilla and premaxilla and the inner membrane covering the posterior part of the dentary pale; segmented dorsal-fin rays 11–13, with unbranched rays 2–5; longitudinal body-scale rows 33–39; and very long pelvic fins, 39.4–75.3% SL. Lonchopisthus lemur (and its synonym L. meadi) shares most characters with L. ancistrus, but differs in having shorter pelvic fins, 19.2–29.9% SL; fewer longitudinal body-scale rows, 26–33; and 5 infraorbitals (vs. 4). Both are relatively deep-water species, occurring from 100 m to at least 375 m (vs. 3–139 m in the other species). Lonchopisthus micrognathus is unique in having no branched caudal-fin rays at any size and the middle caudal-fin rays with free tips that may be used to maintain tactile contact with the substrate while hovering over its burrow. The western Atlantic Lonchopisthus higmani and eastern Pacific L. sinuscalifornicus are sister species that differ from the other Atlantic species in having the posterior end of the maxilla with a notch instead of a strong hook, the opercle with a large dark blotch, and one supraneural (vs. no supraneural).

  8. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  9. Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rose T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T

    2017-04-01

    The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. We surveyed 2.16 ha within five fragments (range 5-228 ha) surrounding human settlements to quantify the density of dead trees and traces of both human and aye-aye activity. Neither aye-aye nor human traces were distributed according to the availability of particular trees species, and aye-ayes and Malagasy apparently preferred several different species. Although overlap was recorded in tree species used, human use tended to be positively correlated with a species' desirability as firewood, while a negative relationship was seen for aye-ayes. Both consumers used trees of similar diameter at breast height, but those used by aye-ayes tended to be older, suggesting that human use might precede usefulness for aye-ayes. Finally, the density of dead trees and aye-aye traces were highest in smaller fragments, but human traces did not vary across fragment size. Although further study is needed to better quantify the aye-aye diet in this region, these data suggest that aye-ayes and local people compete for dead trees, and this competition could constitute a pressure on aye-aye populations.

  10. Taste responsiveness to two steviol glycosides in three species of nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklasson, Sandra; Sjöström, Desirée; Amundin, Mats; Roth, Daniel; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana , we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances. We found that not only neotropical black-handed spider monkeys, but also paleotropical black-and-white ruffed lemurs and Western chimpanzees are clearly able to perceive stevioside and rebaudioside A. Using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, we found that Ateles geoffroyi preferred concentrations as low as 0.05 mM stevioside and 0.01 mM rebaudioside A over tap water. Taste preference thresholds of Pan troglodytes were similar to those of the spider monkeys, with 0.05 mM for stevioside and 0.03 mM for rebaudioside A, whereas Varecia variegata was slightly less sensitive with a threshold value of 0.1 mM for both substances. Thus, all three primate species are, similar to human subjects, clearly more sensitive to both steviol glycosides compared to sucrose. Only the spider monkeys displayed concentration-response curves with both stevioside and rebaudioside A which can best be described as an inverted U-shaped function suggesting that Ateles geoffroyi , similar to human subjects, may perceive a bitter side taste at higher concentrations of these substances. Taken together, the results of the present study do not support the notion that a co-evolution between plant and primate species may account for between-species differences in taste perception of steviol glycosides.

  11. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites-axons and dendrites-that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. © 2014 Takano et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the euarchontoglires.

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    Vikas Kumar

    Full Text Available Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs. Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods.

  13. Stranger to familiar: wild strepsirhines manage xenophobia by playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2010-10-07

    The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances, which sifaka males cope with by two different tactics: grooming with ingroup males and playing with outgroup ones. The grooming peak, concurrently with the visit of outgroups, probably represents a social shield adopted by resident males to make their pre-existing affiliation more evident to the stranger "audience". Being mostly restricted to unfamiliar males, adult play in sifaka appears to have a role in managing new social situations more than in maintaining old relationships. In particular, our results indicate not only that play is the interface between strangers but also that it has a specific function in reducing xenophobia. In conclusion, play appears to be an ice-breaker mechanism in the critical process that

  14. Microbat paraphyly and the convergent evolution of a key innovation in Old World rhinolophoid microbats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Madsen, Ole; Van den Bussche, Ronald A; de Jong, Wilfried W; Stanhope, Michael J; Springer, Mark S

    2002-02-05

    Molecular phylogenies challenge the view that bats belong to the superordinal group Archonta, which also includes primates, tree shrews, and flying lemurs. Some molecular studies also challenge microbat monophyly and instead support an alliance between megabats and representative rhinolophoid microbats from the families Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats, Old World leaf-nosed bats) and Megadermatidae (false vampire bats). Another molecular study ostensibly contradicts these results and supports traditional microbat monophyly, inclusive of representative rhinolophoids from the family Nycteridae (slit-faced bats). Resolution of the microbat paraphyly/monophyly issue is essential for reconstructing the temporal sequence and deployment of morphological character state changes associated with flight and echolocation in bats. If microbats are paraphyletic, then laryngeal echolocation either evolved more than once in different microbats or was lost in megabats after evolving in the ancestor of all living bats. To examine these issues, we used a 7.1-kb nuclear data set for nine outgroups and twenty bats, including representatives of all rhinolophoid families. Phylogenetic analyses and statistical tests rejected both Archonta and microbat monophyly. Instead, bats are in the superorder Laurasiatheria and microbats are paraphyletic. Further, the superfamily Rhinolophoidea is polyphyletic. The rhinolophoid families Rhinolophidae and Megadermatidae belong to the suborder Yinpterochiroptera along with rhinopomatids and megabats. The rhinolophoid family Nycteridae belongs to the suborder Yangochiroptera along with vespertilionoids, noctilionoids, and emballonuroids. These results resolve the apparent conflict between previous molecular studies that sampled different rhinolophoid families. An important implication of rhinolophoid polyphyly is independent evolution of key anatomical innovations associated with the nasal-emission of echolocation pulses.

  15. Towards a unified scheme of cortical lamination for primary visual cortex of primates: insights from NeuN and VGLUT2 immunoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja eBalaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex (V1 is clearly distinguishable from other cortical areas by its distinctive pattern of neocortical lamination across mammalian species. In some mammals, primates in particular, the layers of V1 are further divided into a number of sublayers based on their anatomical and functional characteristics. While these sublayers are easily recognizable across a range of primates, the exact number of divisions in each layer and their relative position within the depth of V1 has been inconsistently reported, largely due to conflicting schemes of nomenclature for the V1 layers. This conflict centers on the definition of layer 4 in primate V1, and the subdivisions of layer 4 that can be consistently identified across primate species. Brodmann’s (1909 laminar scheme for V1 delineates three subdivisions of layer 4 in primates, based on cellular morphology and geniculate inputs in anthropoid monkeys. In contrast, Hässler’s (1967 laminar scheme delineates a single layer 4 and multiple subdivisions of layer 3, based on comparisons of V1 lamination across the primate lineage. In order to clarify laminar divisions in primate visual cortex, we performed NeuN and VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry in V1 of chimpanzees, Old World macaque monkeys, New World squirrel, owl, and marmoset monkeys, prosimian galagos and mouse lemurs, and nonprimate, but highly visual, tree shrews. By comparing the laminar divisions identified by each method across species, we find that Hässler’s (1967 laminar scheme for V1 provides a more consistent representation of neocortical layers across all primates, including humans, and facilitates comparisons of V1 lamination with nonprimate species. These findings, along with many others, support the consistent use of Hässler’s laminar scheme in V1 research.

  16. COMPARISON OF THREE SHORT-TERM IMMOBILIZATION REGIMES IN WILD VERREAUX'S SIFAKAS (PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI): KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE-ATROPINE, AND TILETAMINE-ZOLAZEPAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Razafimanantsoa, Léonard; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Although research on lemurid primates in Madagascar has been ongoing for several decades, reports on different drug regimes to immobilize wild lemurs are limited. This study compares the efficacy, reliability, and side effects of ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-atropine, and tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization in wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). In the course of a long-term study in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, eight animals each received a mixture of ketamine (5.32±1.71 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.56±0.19 mg/kg) (KX; 7 males, 1 female) and ketamine (6.58±1.36 mg/kg), xylazine (1.28±0.28 mg/kg), and atropine (0.013±0.003 mg/kg) (KXA; 5 males, 3 females), respectively, and 14 individuals received tiletamine-zolazepam (7.73±1.37 mg/kg) (TZ; 9 males, 5 females). Induction was smooth in all protocols, but showed considerable variation in duration when animals had received KXA. Immobilization as well as recovery lasted significantly longer with TZ than with KX (Pimmobilized with TZ. Heart rate measurement at 10 min after onset of complete immobilization yielded significantly higher values if the animals had been immobilized with TZ compared to KX (Pimmobilized animals, whereas immobilization with TZ resulted in an increase in heart rate. The results suggest that KX produces good, but short, immobilization in Verreaux's sifakas at approximately 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine and a smoother and shorter recovery phase than 5 to 10 mg/kg TZ, whereas adding atropine to KX did not provide any benefits.

  17. Djebelemur, a tiny pre-tooth-combed primate from the Eocene of Tunisia: a glimpse into the origin of crown strepsirhines.

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    Laurent Marivaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi. This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous, and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb, but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation ("pre-tooth-comb". CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid

  18. Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the southern Ethiopian Highlands.

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    Mekonnen, Addisu; Fashing, Peter J; Bekele, Afework; Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Rueness, Eli K; Nguyen, Nga; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range.

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    Erwan Quéméré

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the

  20. Generic delimitations, biogeography and evolution in the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), endemic to Madagascar and the smaller islands of the western Indian Ocean.

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    Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Plunkett, Gregory M; Edwards, Molly B; Buerki, Sven

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (including all the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean region). Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses supported (i) the monophyly of the tribe, (ii) the monophyly of Phylloctenium, Phyllarthron and Rhodocolea and (iii) the paraphyly of Colea due to the inclusion of species of Ophiocolea. The latter genus was also recovered paraphyletic due to the inclusion of two species of Colea (C. decora and C. labatii). The taxonomic implications of the mutual paraphyly of these two genera are discussed in light of morphological evidence, and it is concluded that the two genera should be merged, and the necessary new nomenclatural combinations are provided. The phylogenetic framework shows Phylloctenium, which is endemic to Madagascar and restricted to dry ecosystems, as basal and sister to the rest of the tribe, suggesting Madagascar to be the centre of origin of this clade. The remaining genera are diversified mostly in humid ecosystems, with evidence of multiple dispersals to the neighboring islands, including at least two to the Comoros, one to Mauritius and one to the Seychelles. Finally, we hypothesize that the ecological success of this tribe might have been triggered by a shift of fruit-dispersal mode from wind to lemur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Does Alzheimer's disease exist in all primates? Alzheimer pathology in non-human primates and its pathophysiological implications (II)].

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    Toledano, A; Álvarez, M I; López-Rodríguez, A B; Toledano-Díaz, A; Fernández-Verdecia, C I

    2014-01-01

    In the ageing process there are some species of non-human primates which can show some of the defining characteristics of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) of man, both in neuropathological changes and cognitive-behavioural symptoms. The study of these species is of prime importance to understand AD and develop therapies to combat this neurodegenerative disease. In this second part of the study, these AD features are discussed in the most important non-experimental AD models (Mouse Lemur -Microcebus murinus, Caribbean vervet -Chlorocebus aethiops, and the Rhesus and stump-tailed macaque -Macaca mulatta and M. arctoides) and experimental models (lesional, neurotoxic, pharmacological, immunological, etc.) non-human primates. In all these models cerebral amyloid neuropathology can occur in senility, although with different levels of incidence (100% in vervets;Alzheimer's) senility in these species are difficult to establish due to the lack of cognitive-behavioural studies in the many groups analysed, as well as the controversy in the results of these studies when they were carried out. However, in some macaques, a correlation between a high degree of functional brain impairment and a large number of neuropathological changes ("possible AD") has been found. In some non-human primates, such as the macaque, the existence of a possible continuum between "normal" ageing process, "normal" ageing with no deep neuropathological and cognitive-behavioural changes, and "pathological ageing" (or "Alzheimer type ageing"), may be considered. In other cases, such as the Caribbean vervet, neuropathological changes are constant and quite marked, but its impact on cognition and behaviour does not seem to be very important. This does assume the possible existence in the human senile physiological regression of a stable phase without dementia even if neuropathological changes appeared. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. What is dental ecology?

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    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution.

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    Darren W Logan

    Full Text Available Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1 diversity, to enable the signaling of multiple behaviors, 2 dynamic regulation, to indicate age and dominance, and 3 species-specificity. Recently, the major urinary proteins (Mups have been shown to function themselves as genetically-encoded pheromones to regulate species-specific behavior. Mups are multiple highly related proteins expressed in combinatorial patterns that differ between individuals, gender, and age; which are sufficient to fulfill the first two criteria. We have now characterized and fully annotated the mouse Mup gene content in detail. This has enabled us to further analyze the extent of Mup coding diversity and determine their potential to encode species-specific cues.Our results show that the mouse Mup gene cluster is composed of two subgroups: an older, more divergent class of genes and pseudogenes, and a second class with high sequence identity formed by recent sequential duplications of a single gene/pseudogene pair. Previous work suggests that truncated Mup pseudogenes may encode a family of functional hexapeptides with the potential for pheromone activity. Sequence comparison, however, reveals that they have limited coding potential. Similar analyses of nine other completed genomes find Mup gene expansions in divergent lineages, including those of rat, horse and grey mouse lemur, occurring independently from a single ancestral Mup present in other placental mammals. Our findings illustrate that increasing genomic complexity of the Mup gene family is not evolutionarily isolated, but is instead a recurring mechanism of generating coding diversity consistent with a species

  4. Panencefalite subaguda esclerosante: estudo comparativo entre as lesões humanas e as experimentais determinadas por agente encefalitogênico de origem humana

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    Alexandre Alencar

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudamos as alterações histopatológicas encontradas no sistema nervoso central de dois pacientes com "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante" comparando-as com as modificações estruturais determinadas no sistema nervoso central de sete macacos rhesus nos quais este material foi inoculado. Os animais apresentaram sinais de comprometimento neurológico, traduzido por caquexia e paralisia do trem posterior, após um longo período de incubação, em torno de 18 meses. Dois animais morreram antes de qualquer manifestação neurológica, de infecção pulmonar intercorrente acidental. Nas passagens sucessivas houve um encurtamento do periódo de incubação para cerca de 40 dias. As alterações histopatológicas encontradas, consistiram, nos casos humanos, em leptomeningite focal, focos de neuronofagia, granulomas corticais e nos núcleos basais, grande perda da população neuronal com ocasional estado esponjoso do córtice cerebral, infiltrados perivasculares, e gliose da substância branca, sem perda de mielina. No material experimental foram observadas estas mesmas modificações, se bem que de caráter muito menos intenso. Tanto no material humano como no experimental a mielina estava praticamente normal. Sugere-se que o quadro anátomo-clínico chamado "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante (SSPE possa ser determinado, não apenas pelo vírus do sarampo, mas também por outros vírus, especialmente os do grupo papova, já encontrado por outros autores, em casos de "panencefalite subaguda esclerosante".The authors describes the histopathological changes found in the central nervous system of two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. These lesions are compared to those found in the central nervous system of seven rhesus monkeis that had received inoculations of nervous tissue from the two patients. After an incubation period of approximately 18 months, the monkeys presented signs of damage to the nervous system

  5. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  6. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  7. Cardiomiopatía de Chagas.

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    Fernando Rosas A.

    2000-08-01

    insectos fueron enviados posteriormente al instituto. Allí el Dr. Cruz logró infectar un macaco mediante la picadura de tales ejemplares. Después de ocurrida la picadura, se encontraron en la sangre periférica del animal, un gran número de tripanosomas con morfolo-gía diversa. Posteriormente se hallaron flagelados con características similares en la sangre periférica de individuos infectados en residentes de la misma zona.,,

  8. Resenha: löwy, michael. Ecologia e Socialismo. São paulo: Cortez, 2005. 94p.

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    Flávio Roberto Chaddad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoje o mundo vive uma crise ambiental. Ela suscita buscas a fim de se encontrar respostas que tragam horizontes para se pensar o mundo. Nessa busca é que se situa a análise de Michael Löwy sobre o pensamento ecológico no marxismo. Verifica-se, no primeiro capítulo – Progresso destrutivo: Marx, Engels e a Ecologia –, que a ecologia não é tema central nessas obras. Podemos inferir que este fato é decorrente da própria época em que viviam os autores, quando a natureza era vista como um bem ilimitado. Porém, algumas passagens referentes à natureza e de como ela deva ser conduzida pelo ser humano podem ser notadas. Assim, nos manuscritos escritos em 1844, Marx faz referência a natureza como se fosse o corpo orgânico do homem; em um outro texto, sobre o papel do trabalho na transformação do macaco em homem, de 1876, há uma crítica pela forma predatória que o homem utiliza a natureza, considerando que as ações que praticamos contra a natureza se voltam contra nós; no livro III do O Capital, vemos esboçar uma verdadeira problemática ecológica. O que se encontra nesse texto é um tipo de teoria da ruptura do metabolismo entre as sociedades humanas e a natureza, como resultado do produtivismo capitalista; no livro I de O Capital há uma crítica à destruição das florestas e à perda da capacidade produtiva dos solos; na obra de Engels, A Dialética da Natureza, ele cita a desertificação em solo cubano provocado pelos grandes produtores de café; o problema da poluição do meio ambiente não está ausente, mas é abordado sob o ângulo da insalubridade dos bairros operários nas grandes cidades inglesas, nas páginas da A condição da classe operária inglesa de 1844. A partir dessas passagens, como podemos analisar a ecologia na obra de Marx? Podemos dizer que elas parecem considerar que a conservação da natureza está ligada à superação do produtivismo capitalista, como uma tarefa fundamental do socialismo, e isto

  9. Documenter le futur: fantasmes, projections et decalages spatiotemporels

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    Alice Forge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de documentation future recèle un paradoxe : le mot documenter renvoie à des traces relevées dans un passé factuel, tandis que le futur ne peut, par définition, être qu’incertain, que l’objet de fantasmes, de projections. L’analyse suivante questionne ce paradoxe à travers l’analyse d’un motif cinématographique : un homme et une femme face à une tranche de séquoia, représentation symbolique du temps. Ce motif apparait dans trois oeuvres majeures du cinéma : Vertigo, d’Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, et l’Armée des douze singes, de Terry Gilliam. La répétition de ce motif est mise en rapport avec l’ouvrage de Pierre Bayard, Le plagiat par anticipation, afin de l’envisager sous l’angle du paradoxe temporel, plutôt que sous le régime de la chronologie historique. Cette analyse prend pour point de départ une oeuvre intitulée Vozes Fantasmas, qui sur le principe de la documentation future propose d’écouter des murmures de spectateurs visitant une exposition qui n’a pas eu lieu. RESUMO O conceito de documentação do futuro evoca um paradoxo: o verbo documentar refere-se a traços ou rastros preservados de um passado factual, enquanto o futuro por definição é algo incerto, objeto de especulações, fantasias e projeções. Nossa reflexão questiona este paradoxo a partir da análise de uma cena cinematográfica: um homem e uma mulher em frente de um corte de sequoia, que é a representação simbólica do tempo. Esta cena aprece em três grandes obras do cinema: Vertigo (Um corpo que cai de Alfred Hitchcock, La Jetée de Chris Marker, e Os Doze Macacos de Terry Gilliam. A repetição desta cena é abordada em relação à obra de Pierre Bayard, Plágio por antecipação, a fim de considerá-la em termos de paradoxo temporal, e não como uma cronologia histórica. Esta análise tem como ponto de partida um trabalho artístico intitulado Vozes Fantasmas, que seguindo o princípio de

  10. Evidenciação de vírus patogênicos humanos em filés de peixe Detection of pathogenic virus in fish fillets

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    Ary Walter Schmid

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido método para a evidenciação de vírus em filés de peixe. Amostras de 50 gramas foram submetidas à agitação mecânica durante 5 min em 200 ml de água bidestilada esterilizada, em pH 7,3-7,5. As substâncias em suspensão foram removidas mediante uma filtração de clarificação. A suspensão clarificada foi em seguida submetida à ultrafiltração através de membrana de alginato de sódio, sendo esta posteriormente dissolvida em 2 ml de citrato de sódio a 3,8%. A suspensão obtida foi, a seguir, centrifugada a 10.000 rpm durante 20 min, a 4°C, adicionando-se ao sobrenadante penicilina, estreptomicina e anfotericina B. O isolamento de vírus foi feito em culturas primárias de células de rim de macaco rhesus, células HeLa e por inoculação em camundongos recém-nascidos. A identificação sorológica levou aos seguintes resultados: de 51 filés de peixe foram isoladas duas estirpes de poliovírus tipo 1, duas de poliovírus tipo 3 e uma de coxsackievírus B4, o que corresponde a uma percentagem de positividade de 9,8%*. A identificação intratípica das quatro estirpes de poliovírus isoladas revelou ser uma delas semelhante e as demais diferentes das estirpes vacinais.The purpose of this study was to develop a method for detection of virus in fish fillets. Samples (50g of fish fillets were minced and shaken for 5 min with 200 ml of doubled distilled water (pH 7.3-7.5. The mixture was clarified by filtration. This food extract was subjected to filtration through a sterile sodium alginate membrane, which was thereafter dissolved in 2 ml of a 3.8% sodium citrate solution, and centrifuged at 10000 rev/min for 20 min, at 4°C. Penicillin, streptomycin and amphotericin B were added to the supernatant fraction. Virus isolations were done in primary rhesus (Macaca mulatta monkey kidney cultures, HeLa cultures and newborn mice. Fifty one fish fillets were examined. The agents isolated were: 2 type 1 poliovirus, 2 type 3

  11. Rehabilitation practices in a burned Araucaria Forest patch: partial results Ações de recuperação em área degradada por fogo em Floresta Ombrófila Mista: resultados parciais

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    Nelson Carlos Rosot

    2010-06-01

    ária, inicialmente, efetuou-se o plantio por sementes, sendo  necessário fazer o replantio com mudas devido ao ataque de Cebus  apella nigritus (macaco-prego às plântulas recém germinadas. Para a imbuia, o plantio foi efetuado por meio de mudas, sendo constatados, inicialmente, alguns danos causados por formigas e lagartas. Na atual  fase de pesquisa estão sendo realizadas análises de sobrevivência e  adaptação das mudas plantadas, assim como a coleta e compilação  de dados em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Na seqüência,  pretende-se realizar a coleta de dados e análises referentes ao  aparecimento de regeneração natural de espécies com importância  comercial

  12. Febre amarela Yellow fever

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  13. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  14. Is evolutionary biology becoming too politically correct? A reflection on the scala naturae, phylogenetically basal clades, anatomically plesiomorphic taxa, and 'lower' animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta

    2015-05-01

    , or the strepsirrhines and lemurs within the Primates, for instance. This review will contribute to improving our understanding of these broad evolutionary issues and of the evolution of the vertebrate Bauplans, and hopefully will stimulate future phylogenetic, evolutionary and developmental studies of these clades. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Preliminary analysis of Psoroptes ovis transcriptome in different developmental stages

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    Man-Li He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoroptic mange is a chronic, refractory, contagious and infectious disease mainly caused by the mange mite Psoroptes ovis, which can infect horses, sheep, buffaloes, rabbits, other domestic animals, deer, wild camels, foxes, minks, lemurs, alpacas, elks and other wild animals. Features of the disease include intense pruritus and dermatitis, depilation and hyperkeratosis, which ultimately result in emaciation or death caused by secondary bacterial infections. The infestation is usually transmitted by close contact between animals. Psoroptic mange is widespread in the world. In this paper, the transcriptome of P. ovis is described following sequencing and analysis of transcripts from samples of larvae (i.e. the Pso_L group and nymphs and adults (i.e. the Pso_N_A group. The study describes differentially expressed genes (DEGs and genes encoding allergens, which help understanding the biology of P. ovis and lay foundations for the development of vaccine antigens and drug target screening. Methods The transcriptome of P. ovis was assembled and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The unigenes of P. ovis from each developmental stage and the unigenes differentially between developmental stages were compared with allergen protein sequences contained in the allergen database website to predict potential allergens. Results We identified 38,836 unigenes, whose mean length was 825 bp. On the basis of sequence similarity with seven databases, a total of 17,366 unigenes were annotated. A total of 1,316 DEGs were identified, including 496 upregulated and 820 downregulated in the Pso_L group compared with the Pso_N_A group. We predicted 205 allergens genes in the two developmental stages similar to genes from other mites and ticks, of these, 14 were among the upregulated DEGs and 26 among the downregulated DEGs. Conclusion This study provides a reference transcriptome of P. ovis in absence of a reference genome. The analysis of DEGs and

  16. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Patrick O; Gardner, Charlie J; Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to

  17. The energetics of a Malagasy rodent, Macrotarsomys ingens (Nesomyinae): a test of island and zoogeographical effects on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Kerileigh D; Lovegrove, Barry G; Rakotondravony, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    , and hence there was no strong driving force for change. Unlike small tenrecs and lemurs that radiated on Madagascar prior to the Oligocene, traits associated with an insular existence, such as daily torpor and hibernation, were not evident in M. ingens.

  18. A juvenile subfossil crocodylian from Anjohibe Cave, Northwestern Madagascar

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    Joshua C. Mathews

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s subfossil record preserves a diverse community of animals including elephant birds, pygmy hippopotamus, giant lemurs, turtles, crocodiles, bats, rodents, and carnivorans. These fossil accumulations give us a window into the island’s past from 80,000 years ago to a mere few hundred years ago, recording the extinction of some groups and the persistence of others. The crocodylian subfossil record is limited to two taxa, Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus, found at sites distributed throughout the island. V. robustus is extinct while C. niloticus is still found on the island today, but whether these two species overlapped temporally, or if Voay was driven to extinction by competing with Crocodylus remains unknown. While their size and presumed behavior was similar to each other, nearly nothing is known about the growth and development of Voay, as the overwhelming majority of fossil specimens represent mature adult individuals. Here we describe a nearly complete juvenile crocodylian specimen from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. The specimen is referred to Crocodylus based on the presence of caviconchal recesses on the medial wall of the maxillae, and to C. niloticus based on the presence of an oval shaped internal choana, lack of rostral ornamentation and a long narrow snout. However, as there are currently no described juvenile specimens of Voay robustus, it is important to recognize that some of the defining characteristics of that genus may have changed through ontogeny. Elements include a nearly complete skull and many postcranial elements (cervical, thoracic, sacral, and caudal vertebrae, pectoral elements, pelvic elements, forelimb and hindlimb elements, osteoderms. Crocodylus niloticus currently inhabits Madagascar but is locally extinct from this particular region; radiometric dating indicates an age of ∼460–310 years before present (BP. This specimen clearly represents a juvenile based on the extremely small

  19. Associação de cetamina S(+ e midazolam pelo método convencional de cálculo e pela extrapolação alométrica em bugios-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans: resposta clínica e cardiorrespiratória S(+ ketamine and midazolam association by the conventional method of calculation and allometric extrapolation in red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans: clinical and cardiopulmonary response

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    Joana Aurora Braun Chagas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o protocolo de contenção química com cetamina S(+ e midazolam em bugios-ruivos, comparando o cálculo de doses pelo método convencional e o método de extrapolação alométrica. Foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios (Alouatta guariba clamitans hígidos, com peso médio de 4,84±0,97kg, de ambos os sexos. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de seis horas, realizou-se contenção física manual e aferiram-se os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, temperatura retal (TR, pressão arterial sistólica não invasiva (PANI e valores de hemogasometria arterial. Posteriormente, os animais foram alocados em dois grupos: GC (Grupo Convencional, n=06, os quais receberam cetamina S(+ (5mg kg-1 e midazolam (0,5mg kg-1, pela via intramuscular, com doses calculadas pelo método convencional; e GA (Grupo Alometria, n=06, os quais receberam o mesmo protocolo, pela mesma via, utilizando-se as doses calculadas pelo método de extrapolação alométrica. Os parâmetros descritos foram mensurados novamente nos seguintes momentos: M5, M10, M20 e M30 (cinco, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos, respectivamente. Também foram avaliados: qualidade de miorrelaxamento, reflexo podal e caudal, pinçamento interdigital, tempo para indução de decúbito, tempo hábil de sedação, qualidade de sedação, e tempo e qualidade de recuperação. O GA apresentou menor tempo para indução ao decúbito, maior grau e tempo de sedação, bem como redução significativa da FC e PANI de M5 até M30, quando comparado ao GC. Conclui-se que o grupo no qual o cálculo de dose foi realizado por meio da alometria (GA apresentou melhor grau de relaxamento muscular e sedação, sem produzir depressão cardiorrespiratória significativa.The aim of this study was to evaluate a protocol of chemical restraint comparing the conventional method of

  20. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6, os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil® na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6, que receberam cetamina S(+, midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0 foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, temperatura retal (TR, tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2, presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI, resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT. Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos. No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de

  1. Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica, apesar de ainda sofrer uma intensa devastação, abriga 261 espécies de mamíferos, sendo 73 endêmicos. Mamíferos de grande porte estão entre os mais vulneráveis à caça, perda de habitat e tráfico de animais. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro existem somente duas Reservas Biológicas de Mata Atlântica de baixada, a Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas e a Reserva Biológica União. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da prática da caça ilegal sobre a fauna de mamíferos nestas duas Unidades de Conservação. O levantamento populacional foi realizado utilizando o método de transecção linear e 375 quilômetros foram percorridos durante o período de dezembro de 2003 a janeiro de 2005. Os dados de estimativa de densidade populacional foram analisados no programa DISTANCE 5.0. Através de encontros visuais foram confirmadas 12 espécies durante o levantamento, sendo estas regularmente caçadas na região. As espécies que apresentaram maior densidade nas duas Unidades de Conservação foram o macaco-prego (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, o bugio (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, tatu-galinha (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758 e o tatu (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies mais raras ou ausentes foram a anta (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, o veado (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 e o queixada (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. Evidências diretas e indiretas da ação da caça ilegal foram observadas nas duas áreas de estudo, indicando que a caça é uma prática comum nessas Reservas Biológicas. A sobrevivência a longo prazo dessas espécies é questionável, já que as populações remanescentes em fragmentos são pequenas e isoladas, o que as tornam muito susceptível à extinção mesmo sob uma baixa pressão de caça.The Atlantic Rain Forest even though suffering intense devastation, shelters 261 species of mammals, 73 endemic. Large mammals were among the most vulnerable to

  2. Contribuição ao estudo da Tripanosomiase Americana

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    Bichat de Almeida Rodrigues

    1942-01-01

    ano (época do estío. 6 Em plena mata, n’uma toca de tamanduá (T. tetradactylus foram encontradas larvas, ninfas e adultos de P. geniculatus. A casa situada mais próximo desse foco, foi a que apresentou maior infestação (22 exemplares e exclusiva para essa espécie. Em uma toca de macaco da noite (P. flavus, foi encontrada uma larva de Triatomídeo. Este foco também ficava próximo à casa acima referida. Em toca de P. flavus foi também achado um exemplar adulto de Panstrongylus refotuberculatus. 7 Amostras de S. cruzi isoladas de animais silvestres, mostraram fraco poder infectante. A amostra isolada do cão, embora infectando facilmente os animais de laboratório, pelos estudos biométricos feito por DIAS e FREITAS, afasta-se das amostras humanas típicas. 8 São discutidos os resultados acima referidos e, pelos hábitos dos transmissores, pela predominância de depositários silvestres do parasito, conclue-se pela natureza silvestre da Tripanosomiase Americana no local estudado. Se bem que não tenham sido verificadas infecções humanas, dado o encontro de um cão parasitado – infecção esta que se pode ter verificado pelo meio normal da transmissão da moléstia – admite-se a possibilidade do aparecimento de casos humanos nessa região. Ressalta-se a confirmação que tais resultados parecem trazer á hipótese de CARLOS CHAGAS, que pensava ser esta doença primitivamente silvestre, com posterior adaptação aos animais domésticos e ao homem.1 The epidemiology of Chagas’ disease was studied for the first time in a systematized work, in a district of the region of the Amazon estuary, whose ecological conditions differ from those encountered in other zones where similar researches have been made. 2 At the place chosen for the studies – Aurá – a locality about 10 kms from Belem (State of Pará, no human infection by S. cruzi has been found, either by blood examination or xenodiagnosis, both having been tried on all the inhabitants (117 people

  3. Gestion en métapopulation de Propithecus coronatus: une approche originale et multidisciplinaire pour la conservation d’une espèce en danger à Madagascar Metapopulation management of Propithecus coronatus : an original and multidisciplinary approach for the conservation of an endangered species in Madagascar

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    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le propithèque couronné, Propithecus coronatus, est l’un des lémuriens les plus menacés à Madagascar. Un projet de conservation a été créé par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP et The Aspinall Foundation en partenariat avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen de l’espèce après la découverte de plusieurs groupes de propithèques couronnés isolés au Centre de Madagascar. L’isolement total de ces groupes dans des fragments de forêt dégradée et soumis à de fortes pressions anthropiques a conduit à l’élaboration d’une stratégie de conservation originale et unique à Madagascar de ces groupes dont la conservation séparée n’a pas de sens. Il s’agit de mettre en place une gestion en métapopulation de ces groupes dont l’objectif est de les connecter à nouveau entre eux. C’est un projet multidisciplinaire qui concerne l’ensemble des populations de propithèques couronnés sauvages et captives et qui implique la recherche et la protection de nouveaux groupes, des études sur les populations isolées, mais également sur celle préservée du Nord-Ouest de Madagascar, sur les habitats, des suivis écologiques, des projets d’éducation environnementale, des projets de cogestion avec la population locale, et une collaboration inédite avec le Programme d’Elevage Européen. Ce projet pourra également servir de modèle pour la conservation d’autres espèces dans la même situation que les propithèques couronnés.The crowned sifaka, Propithecus coronatus, is one of the most endangered lemur species in Madagascar. A conservation project has been established in partnership between GERP (Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar, The Aspinall Foundation Madagascar and the European Endangered species Programme (EEP following the discovery of isolated crowned sifaka populations along the central highlands of Madagascar. The complete isolation of these

  4. Mielencefalite espontânea dos camundongos

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    Hermínio Linhares

    1944-02-01

    ástrica deu sempre resultados negativos. Camundongos muito jovens são mais suscetíveis do que os adultos. 9 — O vírus foi sempre isolado ate 90 dias pos-inoculação, do cérebro e da medula de camundongos com paralisia. Animais inoculados por via i.c., que permaneceram aparentemente normais, albergam o vírus no cérebro pelo menos durante 30 dias. 10 — Não foi possível isolar vírus do fígado, pulmão, bago, rim e sangue de camundongos infetados por via intracerebral. 11 — Camundongos que foram inoculados por via i.c. e não apresentaram sintomas de infecção, mostraram-se em geral imunes a uma posterior inoculação de vírus. Os soros de animais convalescentes apresentam anticorpos neutralizantes verificados por provas de proteção. 12 — A inoculação intracerebral do vírus em macaco, coelho, cobaia e rato, todos jovens, não produziu infecção. 13 — As lesões encontradas foram de poliomielencefalite aguda, com atrofia do corno anterior da medula. Ao nível da substancia cinzenta medular e cerebral encontram-se abundantes focos inflamatórios, com predominância de mononucleares, bem como em torno de numerosos vasos. Em certos pontos do cérebro, sobretudo no rinencéfalo, foram vistos focos extensos de encefalite hemorrágica. É evidente que em torno do foco e participando das infiltrações celulares, muitos elementos microgliais puderam ser reconhecidos. As meninges, especialmente a pia-máter, mostraram-se levemente alteradas e assim mesmo em focos esparsos.1 — Two strains of virus which produce myeloencephalitis were isolated from two white swiss mice, from breeding, spontaneously infected, among 7000 mice examined; another strain was obtained by trituration and filtration of the intestines of normal mice. 2 — There were made separately ten serial passages in young and adult mice by intracerebral route. By crossed immunological test it was verified that the three strains were identical, and so only one was continued. 3 — The infective

  5. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  6. Projet MAMIA (Manompana mikajy ny ala : étude, gestion et conservation des forêts de Manompana. Actions, bilan et perspectives MAMIA Project (Manompana mikajy ny ala: survey, management and conservation of Manompana forest. Actions, outcomes and futur prospects

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    Ségolène Beaucent

    2011-10-01

    conservation des milieux naturels et du développement des communautés locales.The MAMIA Project was initiated back in 2007, and is designed to study then optimize conservation of the rainforest of Manompana, a coastal district located in the Analanjirofo area (north-east Madagascar. Two thirds of Manompana district still show a unique and rich natural heritage forest formations, made of lowland evergreen humid forest, littoral forest and mangrove. While human activities progressively damage and fragment those natural habitats, fauna inventories carried out in the forest of Manompana (lemurs, birds and herpetofauna keep on showing high species diversity and rich natural area, much of those being still well preserved due to their remoteness. Manompana’s forest is also a key resource for local communities, which keep quite close relationships with their land. A survey relating to the various uses of forest resources confirms that, apart from hunting and poaching, majority of forest harvestings performed by inhabitants are compatible with sustainability of this natural forest. Dislike traditional forest harvestings, business oriented forest harvestings, focusing on high value wood species such as ebony and rosewood, are more likely the main reason of deforestation issue. In order to get the inhabitants more concerned and involved in sustainable control of their forest resources, a “community advisory council” was put in place then operated. In the meantime an environmental awareness display was performed to Manompana’s young people. Alternative economic activities such as sustainable agriculture, ecotourism and forest products marketing were initiated so that irrational use of forest resources may decrease. These alternative activities are targeted to facilitate sustainable use of forest resources, as well as serving biodiversity conservation and on site development.