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Sample records for lems30 mfsa ch1

  1. Regulation by SoxR of mfsA, Which Encodes a Major Facilitator Protein Involved in Paraquat Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsuk Srijaruskul

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MfsA (Smlt1083 is an efflux pump in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Deletion of mfsA renders the strain more susceptible to paraquat, but no alteration in the susceptibility levels of other oxidants is observed. The expression of mfsA is inducible upon challenge with redox cycling/superoxide-generating drug (paraquat, menadione and plumbagin treatments and is directly regulated by SoxR, which is a transcription regulator and sensor of superoxide-generating agents. Analysis of mfsA expression patterns in wild-type and a soxR mutant suggests that oxidized SoxR functions as a transcription activator of the gene. soxR (smlt1084 is located in a head-to-head fashion with mfsA, and these genes share the -10 motif of their promoter sequences. Purified SoxR specifically binds to the putative mfsA promoter motifs that contain a region that is highly homologous to the consensus SoxR binding site, and mutation of the SoxR binding site abolishes binding of purified SoxR protein. The SoxR box is located between the putative -35 and -10 promoter motifs of mfsA; and this position is typical for a promoter in which SoxR acts as a transcriptional activator. At the soxR promoter, the SoxR binding site covers the transcription start site of the soxR transcript; thus, binding of SoxR auto-represses its own transcription. Taken together, our results reveal for the first time that mfsA is a novel member of the SoxR regulon and that SoxR binds and directly regulates its expression.

  2. Isolation and characterization of promoter regions from Streptococcus gordonii CH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesema, A.J.M.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    We aimed to identify transcription signal sequences from Streptococcus gordonii strain CH1 by random chromosomal cloning. Five genomic fragments from a Sau3A digest, which constitutively activated transcription of a promoterless spectinomycin resistance gene in this strain, were isolated and

  3. Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp CH1 in biological carbon dioxide mitigation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, C.L.; Lee, C.M.; Chen, P.C. [Hungkuang University, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2011-05-15

    Before switching totally to alternative fuel stage, CO{sub 2} mitigation process has considered a transitional strategy for combustion of fossil fuels inevitably. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} mitigation options, such as oceanic or geologic injection, the biological photosynthetic process would present a far superior and sustainable solution under both environmental and social considerations. The utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. CH1 in carbon dioxide mitigation processes is analyzed in our research. It was found that an original developed photobioreactor with internal light source exhibits high light utilization. Anabaena sp. CH1 demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} tolerance even at 15% CO{sub 2} level. This enables flue gas from power plant to be directly introduced to Anabaena sp. CH1 culture. Double light intensity and increased 47% CO{sub 2} bubble retention time could enhance CO{sub 2} removal efficiencies by 79% and 67%, respectively. A maximum CO{sub 2} fixation rate of 1.01 g CO{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} was measured experimentally.

  4. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1CH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  5. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sartore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders’ statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2, that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  6. Moessbauer experiments, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maring, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic properties of iron base alloys have been investigated as a function of the concentrations of the sp-elements Al, Si, Ga, Ge, As, Sn, and Sb. An extensive description of the Moessbauer Effect Spectroscopy (MES) technique is given. The results of MES experiments at room temperature for FeX alloys (X stands for one of the sp-elements) and impurity concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 a/o are presented. Through temperature dependant measurements the hyperfine fields H ((m,n)T) at iron nuclei in different surroundings are obtained. The change of the Curie temperature of the various dilute iron-base alloys, with respect to pure iron, as a function of the impurity concentration is investigated. Average magnetic hyperfine fields and isomer shifts measured at 119 Sn nuclei in Fe 119 Sn are discussed

  7. Introduction, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, M.H. de

    1976-01-01

    A general outline is given from the relaxation mechanisms governing the energy transfer between molecules in a vibrational state. The optical-acoustic method is discussed in which molecules are excited in a vibrational state by a pulsed infrared beam, causing sound waves. The amplitude as well as the phase shifts of these sound waves with respect to the optical pulses give information about relaxation times and also about the mechanisms involved

  8. Histone HIST1H1C/H1.2 regulates autophagy in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Qing; Wan, Danyang; Sun, Yue; Wang, Lin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Chengyu; Petersen, Robert B; Li, Jianshuang; Xue, Weili; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2017-05-04

    Autophagy plays critical and complex roles in many human diseases, including diabetes and its complications. However, the role of autophagy in the development of diabetic retinopathy remains uncertain. Core histone modifications have been reported involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but little is known about the histone variants. Here, we observed increased autophagy and histone HIST1H1C/H1.2, an important variant of the linker histone H1, in the retinas of type 1 diabetic rodents. Overexpression of histone HIST1H1C upregulates SIRT1 and HDAC1 to maintain the deacetylation status of H4K16, leads to upregulation of ATG proteins, then promotes autophagy in cultured retinal cell line. Histone HIST1H1C overexpression also promotes inflammation and cell toxicity in vitro. Knockdown of histone HIST1H1C reduces both the basal and stresses (including high glucose)-induced autophagy, and inhibits high glucose induced inflammation and cell toxicity. Importantly, AAV-mediated histone HIST1H1C overexpression in the retinas leads to increased autophagy, inflammation, glial activation and neuron loss, similar to the pathological changes identified in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, knockdown of histone Hist1h1c by siRNA in the retinas of diabetic mice significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced autophagy, inflammation, glial activation and neuron loss. These results indicate that histone HIST1H1C may offer a novel therapeutic target for preventing diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Theory of the dissociation process, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, N.P.F.B. van

    1976-01-01

    The formalism of Moeller operators and channel Hamiltonians, originating from scattering theory, is used for the description of the dissociation process. The proper choice of the initial state wave function is discussed. A method is given which accounts for the symmetry requirements which appear in the case of a homonuclear molecule where identical particles are present

  10. Preparation and characterization of platinum(II) and (IV) complexes of 1,3-diaminepropane and 1,4-diaminebutane: circumvention of cisplatin resistance and DNA interstrand cross-link formation in CH1cisR ovarian tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Valdés, Amparo; Pérez, José Manuel; López-Solera, Isabel; Lannegrand, Raúl; Continente, José Manuel; Amo-Ochoa, Pilar; Camazón, María José; Solans, Xavier; Font-Bardía, Mercè; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen

    2002-04-25

    The reaction of Pt(dimethyl sulfoxide)(2)CBDCA (CBDCA = 1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylate) with 1,4-diaminebutane and 1,3-diaminepropane ligands yields, under certain conditions, new [Pt(diamine)(2)]CBDCA complexes (1a,b), where the CBDCA ligand has been removed from the coordination sphere of the platinum atom by the diamine ligand, instead of forming the expected [Pt(diamine)CBDCA] complexes (1'a,b). The structure of complexes 1a and 1'b was solved by X-ray diffraction. Complex 1a crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, in the noncentrosymmetric C222 space group, with unit cell parameters: a = 20.053(2) A; b = 8.655(2) A, c = 5.711(3) A; V = 991.2(6) A(3); delta (calcd) = 1.627 mg/m(3); and R = 0.050. The Pt atom displays an unexpected distorted tetrahedral coordination with a N-Pt-N inner bond angle equal to 81(2) degrees for N atoms of the same 1,3-propanediamine ligand and a N-Pt-N bond angle for different ligands equal to 135.4(9) degrees. Complex 1'b crystallizes in the monoclinic system, in the centrosymmetric P2(1)/c space group, with unit cell parameters: a = 6.007(2) A; b = 15.336(4) A, c = 13.232(5) A; beta = 101.90(3) degrees; V = 1192.8(7) A(3); delta (calcd) = 2.369 mg/m(3); and R = 0.067. Cytotoxicity data show that of all the synthesized compounds, only complexes 1'a and 1'b exhibit remarkable cytotoxic properties. Thus, in contrast with carboplatin (cis-diammine-1,1-cyclobutane dicarboxilatoplatinum(II)), compounds 1'a and 1'b, which also contain the CBDCA ligand, are able to circumvent cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) resistance in several tumor cells. Moreover, after 24 h of incubation of CH1cisR ovarian tumor cells with 10 microM of compounds 1'a and 1'b, the level of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) induced by compounds 1'a and 1'b is 3.3 and 3.8 times higher, respectively, than that of carboplatin and 3.5 and 4.0 times higher, respectively, than that of cisplatin. Interestingly, under the same conditions, the intracellular

  11. Treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, G.S.

    1976-01-01

    Low-level radioactive liquid wastes may be discharged into surface waters. However, discharge is rather severely restricted by internationally accepted regulations. Therefore, the liquid should be purified to an acceptable level before release into the environment. One of the techniques available for pretreatment of radioactive liquids is precipitation. Three methods have been worked out: the calcium chloride-sodium carbonate process, the barium sulphate and the calcium phosphate precipitation. The main attention was directed towards the removal of the potentially hazardous radiostrontium. Precipitation is not only suitable for the purification of radioactive waste waters but may also be used in case of an unguided contamination of the environment for the purification of surface waters before distribution as drinking water. In appendix I the chemical preparation of the calcium carbonate polymorphic forms calcite, aragonite and vaterite is described, because these play an important role in the first process. X-ray diffraction analysis of these compounds and the apparatus used are described in appendix II. Spectrophotometric analysis of phosphate and flame spectrophotometry for the analysis of calcium in presence of phosphate ions is described in appendix III. A literature survey is presented of the various precipitation methods which are already used in present day practice

  12. Basic notations and survey of the investigations, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsteren, W.F. van

    1976-01-01

    An introduction and historical survey to spherical quasiparticle calculation is given in relation to the low-seniority approximation of the nuclear shell model. Various methods for the solution of the so-called gap equations are indicated. The effect of particle number projection for the wave functions is discussed. A description of the generator coordinate method, as applied in quasiparticle calculations is given

  13. An Introduction to Chemistry for Merchant Marine Oriented Individuals (Ch-1 and Ch-1C). A Study Guide to Minicourse D-1, Elementary Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Dillon, Timothy

    This document contains lab activities, problem sets, and a tape script to be accompanied by a slide show. The minicourse covers the following topics of general chemistry: kinetic-molecular theory, the Bohr atom, acids, bases, and salts, the periodic table, bonding, chemical equations, the metric system, computation of density, mass, and volume,…

  14. CH+(1-0) and 13CH+(1-0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, J.; de Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, J. H.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Boulanger, F.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Giesen, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Perault, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Menten, K.; Geballe, T. R.; Schlemmer, S.; Shipman, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Philipp, S.; Cros, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Samoska, L. A.; Klein, K.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ and its isotopologue 13CH+ toward the remote massive star-forming regions W33A, W49N, and W51 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. Both lines are seen only in absorption against the

  15. Actual problems of ultrasonic control of welded anticorrosion coatings (ch. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Razygraev, N.P.; Runov, A.E.; Sobolev, Yu.A.; Kretov, E.F.; Tabakma, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Results of investigations into heat treatment effect on the size of discontinuities revealed under ultrasonic control (USC) of welded anticorrosion coatings are presented. Comparison of dimensions of equivalent area of allowable and non-allowable reflector-discantinuities (defectiveness standards) in the alloying zone of melted anticorrosion coatings and bimetal sheet, applied in NPP equipment, is given. It is shown that USC on the side of basic metal monifest almost by an order more defects than USC on the side of melting surface

  16. Report of the Dutch expedition to the 1970 March 7 solar eclipse, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtgast, J.; Namba, O.; Rutten, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The total solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 was observed from Miahuatlan, Mexico. Spectrograms of the extreme limb of the sun were obtained. They cover the wavelength range 4545-4579 A at a dispersion of 1.7 mm/A. This spectral region contains the intercombination line of Mg I at 4571 A and the resonance line of Ba II at 4554 A. A slit-spectrograph was used to ensure high spectral resolution in order to obtain line profiles. The position of the slit on the solar image was accurately monitored. In this paper, the instrumentation, the observational program and the eclipse spectrograms are described

  17. Energy distributions of atoms sputtered from alkali halides by 540 eV electrons, Ch.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overeijnder, H.; Szymonski, M.; Haring, A.; Vries, A.E. de

    1978-01-01

    The emission of halogen and alkali atoms, occurring under bombardment of alkali halides with electrons has been investigated. The electron energy was 540 eV and the temperature of the target was varied between room temperature and 400 0 C. The energy distribution of the emitted neutral particles was measured with a time of flight method. It was found that either diffusing interstitial halogen atoms or moving holes dominate the sputtering process above 200 0 C. Below 150 0 C alkali halides with lattice parameters s/d >= 0.33 show emission of non-thermal halogen atoms. s is the interionic space between two halogen ions in a direction and d is the diameter of a halogen atom. In general the energy distribution of the alkali and halogen atoms is thermal above 200 0 C, but not Maxwellian. (Auth.)

  18. Experimental parameters for quantitative surface analysis by medium energy ion scattering, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Kersten, H.H.; Colenbrander, B.G.; Jongh, A.P. de; Saris, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A new UHV chamber for surface and surface layer analysis by collision spectroscopy of backscattered ions at medium energies is described. Experimental parameters like energy, angular and depth resolution, crystal alignment and background pressure are discussed. Formulae based on the use of an electrostatic energy analyser show that the analysis can be quantitative. Effects of beam induced build-up of a hydro-carbon layer, sputter cleaning and creation of radiation damage have been investigated for Cu (110) and Ni (110). Detection sensitivity for Carbon, Oxygen and Sulfur on Cu and Ni has been found to be 0.2, 0.1 and 0.03 of a monolayer respectively

  19. Bound states of 27Al studied at selected 26Mg(p,γ)27Al resonances, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, J.W.; Holvast, A.J.C.D.; Baghus, A.; Endt, P.M.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the γ-ray decay and angular distributions at eight low-energy (Esub(P) 26 Mg (p,γ) 27 Al resonances lead to the spin and parity assignments Jsup(π) = 3/2 + , 1/2 - , 3/2 - , 5/2 + , 5/2, 3/2 - , 9/2 - and 7/2 for the bound states at Esub(x) = 3.96, 4.05, 5.15, 5.25, 5.44, 6.16, 6.99, 7.23 and 7.47 MeV, respectively. For other levels, spin and parity limitations are set. Also reported are precise excitation energies, branching and mixing ratios and lifetime limits. For the resonances, additional information is given on energies, strengths and widths. The reaction Q-value is Q = 8267.2 +- 0.7 keV. The level scheme of 27 Al, complemented with these new data, is compared with the results from recent shell-model calculations

  20. On the relation between E.M. mass differences and scaling in deep inelastic scattering, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The author concentrates on the problem of electromagnetic mass differences. The possible connection with the experimental phenomenon of Bjorken-scaling in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering is investigated. He starts from the formalism, implied by the ansatz by H. Fritsch and M. Gell-Mann for a light cone algebra of (bilocal) current operators, that is abstracted from free field theory. Later on the problem is reconsidered with the help of field theoretic techniques in the framework of a color gauge theory model for the strong interactions; this theory exhibits the property of 'asymptotic freedom' and thus offers the famous explanation for (approximate) Bjorken scaling

  1. Vasopressin levels in plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats, as measured by radioimmunoassay, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogterom, J.; Buijs, R.M.; Wimersma Greidanus, Tj.B. van.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) is reported. The production of antisera and labelled hormone is described. The antibodies are characterized with respect to their binding capacity, specificity and resulting sensitivity in the standard curves. An extraction procedure of AVP from body fluids appeared to be necessary and was performed with activated Vycor glass powder. Other adsorbents were tested as well. The results of the assay indicate that 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma can be detected. The calculations of the data are fully automized using a Fortran IV programme for a digital computer. With this assay, basal AVP levels were measured in the plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats. In these species, plasma levels were in the range of 0.0-3.0 pg/ml. In addition, plasma AVP levels in rats and dogs were measured after different periods of water deprivation. In rats, AVP increase reached its maximum after 48 hrs of water deprivation: 27.1 +- 3.4 pg/ml

  2. An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Chemistry for the Marine Engineer - An Audio-Tutorial Correspondence Course (CH-1C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document provides a study guide for a three-credit-hour fundamentals of chemistry course for marine engineer majors. The course is composed of 17 minicourses including: chemical reactions, atomic theory, solutions, corrosion, organic chemistry, water pollution, metric system, and remedial mathematics skills. Course grading, objectives,…

  3. Structure of a mouse immunoglobulin G that lacks the entire CH1 domain: Protein sequencing and small-angle X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takako; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Arata, Yoji; Sato, Mamoru; Katsube, Yukiteru; Takio, Koji

    1990-01-01

    The structure of a short-chain IgG2a antibody, which is a member of the family of mouse anti-dansyl switch variant antibodies with identical variable regions but different heavy-chain constant regions, is reported. Amino acid sequencing analyses have demonstrated that in the short-chain IgG2a antibody the entire C H 1 domain is deleted whereas the hinge region remains intact. Small-angle X-ray scattering data were collected for the short-chain IgG2a antibody and compared with those for the switch variant IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies with the normal heavy chain. It has been concluded that deletion of the C H 1 domain results in a large structural change and the short-chain IgG2a antibody possesses an elongated molecular shape with a much smaller hinge angle as compared with the normal IgG2a antibody that is a Y-shaped molecule

  4. The trapping of potassium atoms by a polycrystalline tungsten surface as a function of energy and angle of incidence. ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Overbosch, E.G.; Olander, D.R.; Los, J.

    1976-01-01

    The trapping probability of potassium atoms on a polycrystalline tungsten surface has been measured as a function of the angle of incidence and as a function of the energy of the incoming atoms. Below an energy of 1 eV the trapping was complete; above 20 eV only reflection occurred. The trapping probability increased with increasing angle of incidence. The measurements are compared with a simple model of the fraction of atoms initially trapped. The model, a one-dimensional cube model including a Boltzmann distribution of the velocities of oscillating surface atoms, partially explains the data. The trapping probability as a function of incoming energy is well described for normal incidence, justifying the inclusion of thermal motion of the surface atoms in the model. The angular dependence can be explained in a qualitative way, although there is a substantial discrepancy for large angles of incidence, showing the presence of surface structure. (Auth.)

  5. Proceedings of 6. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2006: Ecological problems of XXI century'. Pt. 1; Materialy 6-oj mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii 'Sakharovskie chteniya 2006 goda: Ehkologicheskie problemy XXI veka'. Ch. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E; Poznyak, S S [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-05-15

    The first part of proceedings of the sixth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2006: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov environmental university, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biomonitoring and bioindication, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  6. Úloha serotoninových -1A receptorů na učení a paměť – význam pro schizofrenii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš; Horáček, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, Suppl.3 (2007), s. 8-11 ISSN 1211-7579. [Konference Centra neuropsychiatrických studií - Neurologie v klinické aplikaci /7./. Zdoňov, 03.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd(CZ) NR9178; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : serotonine receptors * memory * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Proceedings of 5. international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century'. Pt. 1; Materialy 5-oj mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii 'Sakharovskie chteniya 2005 goda: Ehkologicheskie problemy XXI veka'. Ch. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus); Shevchuk, V E [Kamiteht pa prablemam nastupstvaw katastrofy na Charnobyl' skaj AEhS pry Savetse Ministraw Rehspubliki Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-05-15

    The first part of proceedings of the fifth international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2005: Ecological problems of XXI century', which was held in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University, contents materials on topics: socio-ecological problems, medical ecology, biological ecology. The proceedings are intended for specialists in field of ecology and related sciences, teachers, students and post-graduate students. (authors)

  8. Improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial Aspergillus terreus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-11

    Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.

  9. Výchova ke zdraví v učebnicích 1. stupně ZŠ: výsledky analýzy didaktického aparátu učebnic prvouky/přírodovědy/Health education in primary school textbooks – results of a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Hrozová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cílem empirické studie je prezentace výsledků obsahové analýzy didaktického aparátu učebnic a cvičebnic školního vzdělávacího předmětu prvouka/přírodověda určených pro žáky 1. stupně základních škol z hlediska jejich zaměření na výchovu ke zdraví. V první části studie prezentujeme teoretický základ našeho výzkumu, který spočíval ve vymezení analytických kategorií vyplývajících z holistického pojetí zdraví. V druhé části představujeme cíle a metody výzkumu, výzkumný vzorek sestávající z pěti současných ucelených učebnicových řad učebnic prvouky/ přírodovědy (38 učebnic/cvičebnic; 3136 zkoumaných jednotek, tedy otázek, námětů a úkolů zařazených do učebnic platných pro 1. stupeň základního vzdělávání. Třetí část je věnována výsledkům analýzy, která poukázala na významné rozdíly v prezentaci učiva v oblasti výchova ke zdraví. Z výsledků vyplývá nereflektování holistického pojetí zdraví v jeho plném rozsahu, majoritní zastoupení biologického kontextu zdraví ve zkoumaných učebnicích. Holistické pojetí zdraví nejvíce reflektují učebnice druhých ročníků. Dále poukazujeme na významné rozdíly ve strukturaci učiva v rámci jednotlivých učebnicových řad (absence tematiky zdraví ve většině zkoumaných učebnic 4. ročníků a nestabilitu v distribuci tematických celků zkoumaného vzorku učebnic. V závěru studie (čtvrtá a pátá část jsou diskutovány výsledky, možnosti a limity studie a představujeme eventuality navazujícího výzkumného šetření.

  10. Carotid dual-energy CT angiography: Evaluation of low keV calculated monoenergetic datasets by means of a frequency-split approach for noise reduction at low keV levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Philipp; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Morelli, John N; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Calculated monoenergetic ultra-low keV datasets did not lead to improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) due to the dramatic increase in image noise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the objective image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic images (MEIs) calculated from carotid DECT angiography data with a new monoenergetic imaging algorithm using a frequency-split technique. 20 patients (12 male; mean age 53±17 years) were retrospectively analyzed. MEIs from 40 to 120 keV were reconstructed using the monoenergetic split frequency approach (MFSA). Additionally MEIs were reconstructed for 40 and 50 keV using a conventional monoenergetic (CM) software application. Signal intensity, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CNR were assessed in the basilar, common, internal carotid arteries. Ultra-low keV MEIs at 40 keV and 50 keV demonstrated highest vessel attenuation, significantly greater than those of the polyenergetic images (PEI) (all p-values 0.05). Thus MEIs with MFSA showed significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to MEIs with CM. Combining the lower spatial frequency stack for contrast at low keV levels with the high spatial frequency stack for noise at high keV levels (frequency-split technique) leads to improved image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic DECT datasets when compared to previous monoenergetic reconstruction techniques without the frequency-split technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Zeaxanthin Has Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity with Respect to All Other Xanthophylls in Arabidopsis Leaves and Functions Independent of Binding to PSII Antennae1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaux, Michel; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The ch1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacks chlorophyll (Chl) b. Leaves of this mutant are devoid of photosystem II (PSII) Chl-protein antenna complexes and have a very low capacity of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl fluorescence. Lhcb5 was the only PSII antenna protein that accumulated to a significant level in ch1 mutant leaves, but the apoprotein did not assemble in vivo with Chls to form a functional antenna. The abundance of Lhca proteins was also reduced to approximately 20% of the wild-type level. ch1 was crossed with various xanthophyll mutants to analyze the antioxidant activity of carotenoids unbound to PSII antenna. Suppression of zeaxanthin by crossing ch1 with npq1 resulted in oxidative stress in high light, while removing other xanthophylls or the PSII protein PsbS had no such effect. The tocopherol-deficient ch1 vte1 double mutant was as sensitive to high light as ch1 npq1, and the triple mutant ch1 npq1 vte1 exhibited an extreme sensitivity to photooxidative stress, indicating that zeaxanthin and tocopherols have cumulative effects. Conversely, constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin in the ch1 npq2 double mutant led to an increased phototolerance relative to ch1. Comparison of ch1 npq2 with another zeaxanthin-accumulating mutant (ch1 lut2) that lacks lutein suggests that protection of polyunsaturated lipids by zeaxanthin is enhanced when lutein is also present. During photooxidative stress, α-tocopherol noticeably decreased in ch1 npq1 and increased in ch1 npq2 relative to ch1, suggesting protection of vitamin E by high zeaxanthin levels. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activity of zeaxanthin, distinct from NPQ, can occur in the absence of PSII light-harvesting complexes. The capacity of zeaxanthin to protect thylakoid membrane lipids is comparable to that of vitamin E but noticeably higher than that of all other xanthophylls of Arabidopsis leaves. PMID:17932304

  12. Zeaxanthin has enhanced antioxidant capacity with respect to all other xanthophylls in Arabidopsis leaves and functions independent of binding to PSII antennae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaux, Michel; Dall'osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-12-01

    The ch1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacks chlorophyll (Chl) b. Leaves of this mutant are devoid of photosystem II (PSII) Chl-protein antenna complexes and have a very low capacity of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl fluorescence. Lhcb5 was the only PSII antenna protein that accumulated to a significant level in ch1 mutant leaves, but the apoprotein did not assemble in vivo with Chls to form a functional antenna. The abundance of Lhca proteins was also reduced to approximately 20% of the wild-type level. ch1 was crossed with various xanthophyll mutants to analyze the antioxidant activity of carotenoids unbound to PSII antenna. Suppression of zeaxanthin by crossing ch1 with npq1 resulted in oxidative stress in high light, while removing other xanthophylls or the PSII protein PsbS had no such effect. The tocopherol-deficient ch1 vte1 double mutant was as sensitive to high light as ch1 npq1, and the triple mutant ch1 npq1 vte1 exhibited an extreme sensitivity to photooxidative stress, indicating that zeaxanthin and tocopherols have cumulative effects. Conversely, constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin in the ch1 npq2 double mutant led to an increased phototolerance relative to ch1. Comparison of ch1 npq2 with another zeaxanthin-accumulating mutant (ch1 lut2) that lacks lutein suggests that protection of polyunsaturated lipids by zeaxanthin is enhanced when lutein is also present. During photooxidative stress, alpha-tocopherol noticeably decreased in ch1 npq1 and increased in ch1 npq2 relative to ch1, suggesting protection of vitamin E by high zeaxanthin levels. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activity of zeaxanthin, distinct from NPQ, can occur in the absence of PSII light-harvesting complexes. The capacity of zeaxanthin to protect thylakoid membrane lipids is comparable to that of vitamin E but noticeably higher than that of all other xanthophylls of Arabidopsis leaves.

  13. Rewiring a secondary metabolite pathway towards itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Abeer H; Li, An; Brickwedde, Anja; Wilms, Lars; Caspers, Martien; Overkamp, Karin; Punt, Peter J

    2016-07-28

    The industrially relevant filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely used in industry for its secretion capabilities of enzymes and organic acids. Biotechnologically produced organic acids promise to be an attractive alternative for the chemical industry to replace petrochemicals. Itaconic acid (IA) has been identified as one of the top twelve building block chemicals which have high potential to be produced by biotechnological means. The IA biosynthesis cluster (cadA, mttA and mfsA) has been elucidated in its natural producer Aspergillus terreus and transferred to A. niger to enable IA production. Here we report the rewiring of a secondary metabolite pathway towards further improved IA production through the overexpression of a putative cytosolic citrate synthase citB in a A. niger strain carrying the IA biosynthesis cluster. We have previously shown that expression of cadA from A. terreus results in itaconic acid production in A. niger AB1.13, albeit at low levels. This low-level production is boosted fivefold by the overexpression of mttA and mfsA in itaconic acid producing AB1.13 CAD background strains. Controlled batch cultivations with AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strains showed increased production of itaconic acid compared with AB1.13 CAD strain. Moreover, preliminary RNA-Seq analysis of an itaconic acid producing AB1.13 CAD strain has led to the identification of the putative cytosolic citrate synthase citB which was induced in an IA producing strain. We have overexpressed citB in a AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strain and by doing so hypothesize to have targeted itaconic acid production to the cytosolic compartment. By overexpressing citB in AB1.13 CAD + MFS + MTT strains in controlled batch cultivations we have achieved highly increased titers of up to 26.2 g/L IA with a productivity of 0.35 g/L/h while no CA was produced. Expression of the IA biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger AB1.13 strain enables IA production. Moreover, in the AB1.13 CAD

  14. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  15. Recent improvements in check valve monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, ORNL has carried out an evaluation of three check valve monitoring methods: acoustic emission, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA). This work has focused on determining the capabilities of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation) and undesirable operating modes. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two noval nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed (external ac- and dc-magnetic monitoring) that provide several improvements over the other methods. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data to illustrate the capabilities of these methods to detect simulated check valve degradation. 3 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Recent improvements in check valve monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, ORNL has carried out an evaluation of three check valve monitoring methods: acoustic emission, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA). This work has focussed on determining the capabilities of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation) and undesirable operating modes. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed (external ac- and dc-magnetic monitoring) that provide several improvements over the other methods. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data to illustrate the capabilities of these methods to detect simulated check valve degradation. 3 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-1378 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-1378 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 2e-14 32% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1202 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1202 ref|YP_001449434.1| putative acyltransferase [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10561.1| putative acyltransferase [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001449434.1 1.9 25% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1171 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1171 ref|YP_001449715.1| hypothetical protein SGO_0399 [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10159.1| membrane protein, putative [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001449715.1 0.031 32% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0237 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0237 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 8e-19 36% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0875 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0875 ref|YP_001449821.1| PTS system, IIBC component [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10750.1| PTS system, IIBC component [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001449821.1 0.80 27% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available obable SP0913 [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450777.1 0.013 25% ... ...CBRC-DYAK-08-0032 ref|YP_001450777.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, probable SP0913 [Streptococcus gord...onii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV09319.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, pr

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-03-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-03-0079 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 2e-07 24% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-07-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-07-0248 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 5e-10 32% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available obable SP0913 [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450777.1 0.35 26% ... ...CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 ref|YP_001450777.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, probable SP0913 [Streptococcus gord...onii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV09319.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, pr

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-03-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-03-0081 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 2e-13 26% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available obable SP0913 [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450777.1 0.003 24% ... ...CBRC-DYAK-08-0041 ref|YP_001450777.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, probable SP0913 [Streptococcus gord...onii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV09319.1| ABC transporter, permease protein, pr

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-0195 ref|YP_001450304.1| hypothetical protein SGO_1015 [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10853.1| membrane protein, putative [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450304.1 0.035 23% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0466 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0466 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 2e-16 51% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0216 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0216 ref|YP_001450045.1| biotin synthase [Streptococcus gordonii str. ...Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV09985.1| biotin synthase [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450045.1 0.94 32% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1334 ref|YP_001451206.1| transport protein [Streptococcus gordonii str.... Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10513.1| transport protein [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001451206.1 0.071 34% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0709 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0709 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 3e-13 31% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0027 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 0.001 26% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0180 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0180 ref|YP_001450257.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordon...ii str. Challis substr. CH1] gb|ABV10391.1| streptococcal hemagglutinin [Streptococcus gordonii str. Challis substr. CH1] YP_001450257.1 1e-134 32% ...

  15. Comparative study on growth and survival of larval and juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total fatty acid and total unsaturated fatty acid in the algae significantly increased (P < 0.001) for ch1, D1, N1 and T1 taking into consideration that the state of C22:6 significantly increased. The ch1 gave better growth and survival percentage followed by D1 for enrich Brachionus plicatilis and newly hatched Artemia.

  16. the feasibility of implementing the united nations guiding principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    MNCs). ... (2013) (Norton Global Ethics Series). WW Norton .... economies ch 1; Rhona K. Smith, Textbook on International Human Rights (6th Edn,. 2014). .... Monitoring and Enforcement in the Nigerian Oil Industry: The Case of Shell and.

  17. The contemporary emergence of health concerns related to mobile phones: a study of the origins and diffusion of mobile phone fears and anti-EMF campaigns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Adam

    2010-01-01

    .... We focus on the chronology of public and institutional responses to the issue in the UK and how this is reflected in the accounts and strategies of campaign groups."--Ch. 1 ... Introduction ... p. 4...

  18. Enhanced photoprotection by protein-bound vs free xanthophyll pools: a comparative analysis of chlorophyll b and xanthophyll biosynthesis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Havaux, Michel; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    When light absorbed by plants exceeds the capacity of photosynthesis, the xanthophyll violaxanthin is reversibly de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin in the so-called xanthophyll cycle. Zeaxanthin plays a key role in the protection of photosynthetic organisms against excess light, by promoting rapidly reversible (qE) and long-term (qI) quenching of excited chlorophylls, and preventing lipid oxidation. The photoprotective role of zeaxanthin, either free or bound to light-harvesting complexes (Lhcs), has been investigated by using mutants lacking Chl b (ch1) and/or specific xanthophyll species (npq, lut2). The ch1 mutation causes (1) the absence of Lhcb proteins; (2) strong reduction of the feedback de-excitation (qE); and (3) accumulation of xanthophylls as free pigments into thylakoids. Ch1 mutants showed extreme sensitivity to photo-oxidative stress in high light, due to higher singlet oxygen (¹O₂) release. The double mutant ch1npq1 was more sensitive to photo-oxidation than ch1, showing that zeaxanthin does protect lipids even when free in the membrane. Nevertheless, lack of zeaxanthin had a much stronger impact on the level of lipid peroxidation in Lhcs-containing plants (WT vs npq1) with respect to Lhc-less plants (ch1 vs ch1npq1), implying that its protective effect is enhanced by interaction with antenna proteins. It is proposed that the antioxidant capacity of zeaxanthin is empowered in the presence of PSII-LHCs-Zea complexes, while its effect on enhancement of qE only provides a minor contribution. Comparison of the sensitivity of WT vs npq1 plants to exogenous ¹O₂ suggests that besides the scavenging of ¹O₂, at least one additional mechanism is involved in chloroplast photoprotection.

  19. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-17

    Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over

  20. Effect of irradiation and growth regulators on degradation processes in detached soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalainathan, K.; Pathmanabhan, G.; Manian, K.; Veerannah, L.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in soluble protein profile and chlorophyll (Ch1) content in detached soybean leaves incubated in darkness or light were delayed by application of benzyladenine or indole-3-acetic acid and enhanced by abscisic acid. The degradation in light differed significantly from the degradation in darkness. Chl and proteins were lost at a higher rate in darkness than in light. (author)

  1. Genes encoding chimeras of Neurospora crassa erg-3 and human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (FGSC), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas. City, KS 66103, USA. .... pCH1-Hph digested with the same enzymes to produce ..... Wheat coding sequences are characterized by a high GC content and by a related strong bias of codon ...

  2. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement..., but are not limited to: (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 7351 - 7400 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 65 (2011), Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of VP6 gene of giant panda rotavirus strain CH-1, Abstract PDF. Y Lie, S Chen, CD Wang, Z Zhang, CD Wang, W Guo, X Wang, L Guo, Q Yan. Vol 11, No 23 (2012), Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of heat ...

  4. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  5. Opposite effects of the p52shc/p46shc and p66shc splicing isoforms on the EGF receptor-MAP kinase-fos signalling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliaccio, E; Mele, S; Salcini, A E

    1997-01-01

    Shc proteins are targets of activated tyrosine kinases and are implicated in the transmission of activation signals to Ras. The p46shc and p52shc isoforms share a C-terminal SH2 domain, a proline- and glycine-rich region (collagen homologous region 1; CH1) and a N-terminal PTB domain. We have...

  6. Phylogenetic study on Microcotyle sp. (Monogenea) from common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... other parasites and secondary bacterial infections (Cruz e Silva et al., 1997; ... Parasites (2-6 mm in length) attaching to the gills of fish were observed in ... AF026103. Diclidophoridae. Chalguacotyle mugiloides isolate Ch1a. Pinguipes chilensis. Chile. 744/904 (82%). KJ397726. Choricotyle australiensis.

  7. Listen to us! Regional and local public affairs in the Dutch and European political arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Edward Leopold

    2017-01-01

    The research in this dissertation is focused on the question what processes decentralized governments (i.e., municipalities and provinces) have to overcome in order to intervene in the Dutch and European political arena and to acquire attention for their interests. In the introduction (ch. 1) PA is

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct sequencing of CREBBP performed in 13 RSTS patients identified the three zinc fingers (CH1, CH2, CH3) and HAT domain as mutational hotspots in which ten novel pathogenic mutations were localized. Functional analysis revealed that three of these mutations affecting amino acids Glu1459, Leu1668 and Glu1724 ...

  9. Shortfall of US Citizen Science and Engineering Specialists in Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-23

    lower until equilibrium is restored. *e.g.,see Ch 1 & 4, Labor Economics , Cahuc & Zylberberg, MIT Press, 2004 Neoclassical Indicators: Increased...and balls concept Cobb-Douglas – hires as a function of job seekers and vacancies. *e.g.,see Ch 9, Labor Economics , Cahuc & Zylberberg, MIT Press

  10. Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language centre serving two Swiss universities. Sabina Schaffner. The UZH and ETH Zurich Language Center, Switzerland. E-mail: sabina.schaffner@sprachen.uzh.ch. 1. Introduction. In this contribution, I would like to share some of the professional challenges that I ...

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    R ay ch au d hu riequ ation s are,at a very b asic level, largely geom etric/m athem atical ...... E Poisson, Relativist's toolkit: The mathematics of black hole mechanics,. Cambridge University Press, Ch. 1 and 2, 2004. [2]. A Dasgupta, H Nandan ...

  12. The VA and VCD spectra of various isotopomers of L-alanine in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Bohr, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the Becke 3LYP level has been used to calculate the vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of various deuterated species Of L-alanine. The effect of replacing the methine hydrogen, CH1, the methyl group, CH3, and both...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Light-Harvesting Antennae and State Transition in chlorina and cpSRP Mutants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    State transitions in photosynthesis provide for the dynamic allocation of a mobile fraction of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to photosystem II (PSII) in state I and to photosystem I (PSI) in state II. In the state I-to-state II transition, LHCII is phosphorylated by STN7 and associates with PSI to favor absorption cross-section of PSI. Here, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in chlorophyll (Chl) b biosynthesis or in the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) machinery to study the flexible formation of PS-LHC supercomplexes. Intriguingly, we found that impaired Chl b biosynthesis in chlorina1-2 (ch1-2) led to preferentially stabilized LHCI rather than LHCII, while the contents of both LHCI and LHCII were equally depressed in the cpSRP43-deficient mutant (chaos). In view of recent findings on the modified state transitions in LHCI-deficient mutants (Benson et al., 2015), the ch1-2 and chaos mutants were used to assess the influence of varying LHCI/LHCII antenna size on state transitions. Under state II conditions, LHCII-PSI supercomplexes were not formed in both ch1-2 and chaos plants. LHCII phosphorylation was drastically reduced in ch1-2, and the inactivation of STN7 correlates with the lack of state transitions. In contrast, phosphorylated LHCII in chaos was observed to be exclusively associated with PSII complexes, indicating a lack of mobile LHCII in chaos. Thus, the comparative analysis of ch1-2 and chaos mutants provides new evidence for the flexible organization of LHCs and enhances our understanding of the reversible allocation of LHCII to the two photosystems. PMID:27663408

  14. Comparative Analysis of Light-Harvesting Antennae and State Transition in chlorina and cpSRP Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    State transitions in photosynthesis provide for the dynamic allocation of a mobile fraction of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to photosystem II (PSII) in state I and to photosystem I (PSI) in state II. In the state I-to-state II transition, LHCII is phosphorylated by STN7 and associates with PSI to favor absorption cross-section of PSI. Here, we used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with defects in chlorophyll (Chl) b biosynthesis or in the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) machinery to study the flexible formation of PS-LHC supercomplexes. Intriguingly, we found that impaired Chl b biosynthesis in chlorina1-2 (ch1-2) led to preferentially stabilized LHCI rather than LHCII, while the contents of both LHCI and LHCII were equally depressed in the cpSRP43-deficient mutant (chaos). In view of recent findings on the modified state transitions in LHCI-deficient mutants (Benson et al., 2015), the ch1-2 and chaos mutants were used to assess the influence of varying LHCI/LHCII antenna size on state transitions. Under state II conditions, LHCII-PSI supercomplexes were not formed in both ch1-2 and chaos plants. LHCII phosphorylation was drastically reduced in ch1-2, and the inactivation of STN7 correlates with the lack of state transitions. In contrast, phosphorylated LHCII in chaos was observed to be exclusively associated with PSII complexes, indicating a lack of mobile LHCII in chaos Thus, the comparative analysis of ch1-2 and chaos mutants provides new evidence for the flexible organization of LHCs and enhances our understanding of the reversible allocation of LHCII to the two photosystems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Investigating microenvironmental regulation of human chordoma cell behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Patel

    Full Text Available The tumour microenvironment is complex and composed of many different constituents, including matricellular proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, and is characterized by gradients in oxygen levels. In various cancers, hypoxia and CCN2 promote stem and progenitor cell properties, and regulate the proliferation, migration and phenotype of cancer cells. Our study was aimed at investigating the effects of hypoxia and CCN2 on chordoma cells, using the human U-CH1 cell line. We demonstrate that under basal conditions, U-CH1 cells express multiple CCN family members including CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5. Culture of U-CH1 cells in either hypoxia or in the presence of recombinant CCN2 peptide promoted progenitor cell-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia induced the most robust increase in progenitor-like characteristics in U-CH1 cells, including increased expression of the notochord-associated markers T, CD24, FOXA1, ACAN and CA12, increased cell growth and tumour-sphere formation, and a decrease in the percentage of vacuolated cells present in the heterogeneous population. Interestingly, the effects of recombinant CCN2 peptide on U-CH1 cells were more pronounced under normoxia than hypoxia, promoting increased expression of CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5, the notochord-associated markers SOX5, SOX6, T, CD24, and FOXA1 as well as increased tumour-sphere formation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of multiple factors within the tumour microenvironment and how hypoxia and CCN2 may regulate human chordoma cell behaviour.

  16. Effects of the substitution of amino acid residues, through chemical synthesis, on the conformation and activity of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Adão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides make up an assorted group of molecules which contain from 12 to 50 amino acid residues and which may be produced by microorganisms, plants and animals. From the discovery that these biomolecules are lethal to bacteria, inhibiting the pathogenic organism’s growth, and are also related to innate and adapted defense mechanisms, the investigation of such molecules came to be an emergent research field, in which more than 1800 antimicrobial peptides have so far been discovered throughout the last three decades. These molecules are potential representatives of a new generation of antibiotic agents and the main motivation for such use is their activity against a wide variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. An important class of comprising some of these peptides may be found in anurans, from which it has been isolated, a considerable number of antimicrobial peptides with diverse sequences and structures, including linear and dimeric ones. In this work monomeric chains (CH1 e CH2 of the heterodimeric antimicrobial peptide distinctin (isolated in 1999 from Phyllomedusa distincta anurans, as well as its mutated monomers (CH1-S and CH2-S and the heterodimer itself were synthesized. The distinctin is the peptide with two chains of different sequences (Table 1 bound each other by disulfide bond from the cystein residues constituting the heterodimer. To investigate the effects on the biological activity by amino acids substitution at normal distinctin CH1 and CH2 chains, both were synthesized as well as their similar chains (CH1-S and CH2-S in which the cystein (Fig.1 a residues of each chain were changed by serin residues (Fig. 1 b. The new chains were named mutants. The synthesis was carried out in solid phase, using Fmoc strategy. The heterodimer distinctin was obtained from CH1 and CH2 chains coupling through cystein residues air oxidation. The results from HPLC

  17. Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Zi, Xuejuan; Cai, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH 3 -N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P fermentation and ruminal degradation than SN+CE treatment. The results confirmed that LAB or LAB plus cellulase treatment could improve the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of stylo silage. Moreover, the combined treatment with LAB and cellulase may have beneficial synergistic effects on ruminal degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Impaired behavioural pain responses in hph-1 mice with inherited deficiency in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 in models of inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, A.; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Heegaard, A.-M.

    2013-01-01

    following intraplantar injection of CFA, formalin and capsaicin; whereas decreased basal level of GTP-CH1 activity had no influence in naïve hph-1 mice on acute mechanical and heat pain thresholds. Moreover, the hph-1 mice showed no signs of motor impairment or dystonia-like symptoms......Background: GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), encoded by the GCH1 gene, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain in rats. In humans, homozygous carriers of a " pain-protective" (PP) haplotype...... of the GCH1 gene have been identified exhibiting lower pain sensitivity, but only following pain sensitisation. Ex vivo, the PP GCH1 haplotype is associated with decreased induction of GCH1 after stimulation, whereas the baseline BH4 production is not affected. Contrary, loss of function mutations in the GCH...

  19. Determination of plasma parameters from soft X-ray images for coronal holes /open magnetic field configurations/ and coronal large-scale structures /extended closed-field configurations/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, C. W.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with high-quality solar soft X-ray images the 'quiet' features of the inner corona have been separated into two sharply different components, including the strongly reduced emission areas or coronal holes (CH) and the extended regions of looplike emission features or large-scale structures (LSS). Particular central meridian passage observations of the prominent CH1 on August 21, 1973, are selected for a quantitative study. Histogram photographic density distributions for full-disk images at other central meridian passages of CH 1 are also presented, and the techniques of converting low photographic density data to deposited energy are discussed, with particular emphasis on the problems associated with the CH data.

  20. Rapidity correlations in inclusive two-particle production at storage ring energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dibon, Heinz; Gottfried, Christian; Nefkens, B M K; Neuhofer, G; Niebergall, F; Regler, Meinhard; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schubert, K R; Schumacher, P E; Winter, Klaus

    1973-01-01

    Inclusive two-particle production in the reaction pp to gamma +ch+ (anything) has been measured at the CERN ISR for four energies ( square root s=23, 30.5, 45, and 53 GeV) at two production angles of the charged particles (ch) and at eight production angles of the gamma -rays. The rapidity correlation of the two particles is weak and of short range. The peak correlation is sigma /sub inel/(d/sup 2/ sigma /sub gamma ch//d sigma /sub gamma /d sigma /sub ch/)-1=0.62+or-0.08, the correlation range (y/sub gamma /-y/sub ch/)=1.17+or-0.05, independently of s. The phi correlation extends over a wide gap in rapidity; its strength is increasing with increasing transverse momentum. (7 refs).

  1. Identification of interstellar X-ogen as HCO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, W.P.; Diercksen, G.H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations, including single determinant self-consistent-field (SCF) and configuration interaction (CI), have been performed to determine the energy hypersurface in the minimum region for the HCO + ion as well as for the isoelectronic molecule HCN as a system of comparison. The CI treatment yielded d (CO) =1.103 A, d (CH) =1.091 A, B/sube/=45.05 GHz for HCO + , and d (CN) =1.150 A, d (CH) =1.064 A, B/sube/=44.74 GHz for HCN. The vibrational corrections α/subi/ to the B/sube/-values have been evaluated from the calculated forces constants, and the lowest rotational transition frequencies obtained have been found to be too high by about 0.5 percent. The accuracy has been improved by introducing an empirical correction leading to B 0 -values with an average error of less than 0.1 percent

  2. A novel monoclonal antibody effective against lethal challenge with swine-lineage and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HA protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1viruses (14 H1N1pdm) is antigenically closely related to the HA of classical North American swine H1N1 influenza viruses (cH1N1). Since 1998, through reassortment and incorporation of HA genes from human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, swine influenza strains...

  3. New Polymeric Materials Expected to Have Superior Properties for Space-Based Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Polymethacrylic esters Polvacrylic esters GB3 +CH 2-CH1 +CH 2-C4 COOR COOR Pa lyacrylamide Polymethacrylamide +CH -CH+ CH CONH 2 JCH 2-C4 Polyvinyl chloride...fl.. tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or with pyromellitic dianhydride. These polymers have shown excellent thermal and radiolytic stability...than the crosslinked phthalocyanines. They can be dissolved in sulfuric acid and sublimed into thin films. 2 2 ,2 3 No mechanical properties have been

  4. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-13

    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by PCR with pan-Babesia primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene, primers specific for B. capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1, and by sequencing. Babesia species, including B. divergens, B. capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1, Babesia sp. CH1 and B. motasi, were detected in 10.7% of all samples. Five individuals were co-infected with two Babesia species. Infection with specific Babesia varied widely between host species. Cervidae were significantly more infected with Babesia spp. than Caprinae. Babesia capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1 were mostly found in roe deer (prevalences 17.1% and 7.7%, respectively) and B. divergens and Babesia sp. CH1 only in red deer. Factors significantly associated with infection were low altitude and young age. Identification of Babesia sp. CH1 in red deer, co-infection with multiple Babesia species and infection of wild Caprinae with B. motasi and Babesia sp. EU1 are novel findings. We propose wild Caprinae as spillover or accidental hosts for Babesia species but wild Cervidae as mammalian reservoir hosts for B. capreoli, possibly Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia sp. CH1, whereas their role regarding B. divergens is more elusive.

  5. Carbon-hydrogen-related complexes in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.; Gwozdz, K.; Weber, J.

    2018-04-01

    Several deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) peaks (E42, E65, E75, E90, E262, and H180) are observed in n- and p-type Czochralski-grown Si samples subjected to hydrogenation by a dc H plasma treatment. The concentration of the defects is found to be proportional to the carbon and hydrogen content in our samples. The analysis of the depth profiles performed in Si samples hydrogenated by wet chemically etching shows that all these defects contain a single H atom. E65 and E75 appear only in samples with a high oxygen content which shows that oxygen is a constituent of these defects. The analysis of the enhancement of the emission rate of the defects with electric field shows that E65, E75, E90, and E262 are single acceptors whereas E42 is a double acceptor. The presence of a barrier for hole capture (about 53 meV) can explain the absence of the enhancement of the emission rate of H180, which can be attributed to a single acceptor state. From a comparison with theory, we assign E90 to CH1BC, E42 (E262) to CH1AB, and H180 to CH1Td. The similarity of the electrical properties of E65 and E75 to those of E90 suggest that E65 and E75 may originate from the CH1BC defect with an oxygen atom in its nearest neighborhood. Our results on the CH-related complexes give a conclusive explanation of some previously reported controversial experimental data.

  6. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  7. A raft-associated species of phosphatidylethanolamine interacts with cholesterol comparably to sphingomyelin. A Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grzybek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific interactions between sphingomyelin (SM and cholesterol (Ch are commonly believed to play a key role in the formation of rafts in the biological membranes. A weakness of this model is the implication that these microdomains are confined to the outer bilayer leaflet. The cytoplasmic leaflet, which contains the bulk of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidylinositol (PI, is thought also to harbour half of the membrane cholesterol. Moreover, SLPE (1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine has recently been shown to be enriched in isolated detergent-resistant membranes (DRM, and this enrichment was independent of the method of isolation of DRM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present quantitative evidence coming from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer experiments that SLPE forms complex with Ch similar to that between SM and Ch. The energies of these interactions as calculated form the monolayer studies are highly negative. FRAP analysis showed that NBD-Ch recovery was similar in liposomes composed of DOPC/Ch SM or SLPE but not DPPE, providing further evidence that SLPE may form an l(o phase in the presence of high Ch concentration. Experiments on the solubility of DOPC liposomes containing DPPE/Ch (1ratio1, SM/Ch (1ratio1 or SLPE/Ch (1ratio1 showed the presence of Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF in the case of SM/Ch or SLPE/Ch but not in DPPE/Ch containing liposomes. Quantitative determination of particular lipid species in the TIFF fraction confirms the conclusion that SLPE (or similar PE species could be an important constituent of the inner leaflet raft. CONCLUSION: Such interactions suggest a possible existence of inner-leaflet nanoscale assemblies composed of cholesterol complexes with SLPE or similar unsaturated PE species.

  8. Microbial and genetic ecology of tropical Vertisols under intensive chemical farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Aparna, K; Dua, Ankita; Sangwan, Naseer; Trimurtulu, N; Rao, D L N; Lal, Rup

    2015-01-01

    There are continued concerns on unscientific usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, particularly in many developing countries leading to adverse consequences for soil biological quality and agricultural sustainability. In farmers' fields in tropical Vertisols of peninsular India, "high" fertilizer and pesticide usage at about 2.3 times the recommended rates in black gram (Vigna mungo) did not have a deleterious effect on the abundance of culturable microorganisms, associative nitrogen fixers, nitrifiers, and 16S rRNA gene diversity compared to normal rates. However, "very high" application at about five times the fertilizers and 1.5 times pesticides in chilies (Capsicum annuum) adversely affected the populations of fungi, actinomycetes, and ammonifiers, along with a drastic change in the eubacterial community profile and diversity over normal rates. Actinobacteria were dominant in black gram normal (BG1) (47%), black gram high (BG2) (36%), and chili normal (CH1) (30%) and were least in chili very high (CH2) (14%). Geodermatophilus formed 20% of Actinobacteria in BG1 but disappeared in BG2, CH1, and CH2. Asticcacaulis dominated at "very high" input site (CH2). Diversity of nitrogen fixers was completely altered; Dechloromonas and Anaeromyxobacter were absent in BG1 but proliferated well in BG2. There was reduction in rhizobial nifH sequences in BG2 by 46%. Phylogenetic differences characterized by UniFrac and principal coordinate analysis showed that BG2 and CH2 clustered together depicting a common pattern of genetic shift, while BG1 and CH1 fell at different axis. Overall, there were adverse consequences of "very high" fertilizer and pesticide usage on soil microbial diversity and function in tropical Vertisols.

  9. Deciphering the Theobroma cacao self-incompatibility system: from genomics to diagnostic markers for self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaud, Claire; Fouet, Olivier; Legavre, Thierry; Lopes, Uilson; Sounigo, Olivier; Eyango, Marie Claire; Mermaz, Benoit; Da Silva, Marcos Ramos; Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Argout, Xavier; Gyapay, Gabor; Ebaiarrey, Herman Ebai; Colonges, Kelly; Sanier, Christine; Rivallan, Ronan; Mastin, Géraldine; Cryer, Nicholas; Boccara, Michel; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Efombagn Mousseni, Ives Bruno; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Clément, Didier

    2017-10-13

    Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus. Using fine-mapping and genome-wide association studies, we focused analyses on restricted regions and identified candidate genes. Some of them showed a differential expression between incompatible and compatible reactions. Immunolocalization experiments provided evidence of CH1 candidate genes expressed in ovule and style tissues. Highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) diagnostic markers were designed in the CH4 region that had been identified by fine-mapping. They are characterized by a strong linkage disequilibrium with incompatibility alleles, thus allowing the development of efficient diagnostic markers predicting self-compatibility and fruit setting according to the presence of specific alleles or genotypes. SSR alleles specific to self-compatible Amelonado and Criollo varieties were also identified, thus allowing screening for self-compatible plants in cocoa populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Cheetah interspecific SCNT followed by embryo aggregation improves in vitro development but not pluripotent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, L N; Hiriart, M I; Buemo, C; Jarazo, J; Sestelo, A; Veraguas, D; Rodriguez-Alvarez, L; Salamone, D F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of domestic cat (Dc, Felis silvestris) oocytes to reprogram the nucleus of cheetah (Ch, Acinonyx jubatus) cells by interspecies SCNT (iSCNT), by using embryo aggregation. Dc oocytes were in vitro matured and subjected to zona pellucida free (ZP-free) SCNT or iSCNT, depending on whether the nucleus donor cell was of Dc or Ch respectively. ZP-free reconstructed embryos were then cultured in microwells individually (Dc1X and Ch1X groups) or in couples (Dc2X and Ch2X groups). Embryo aggregation improved in vitro development obtaining 27.4, 47.7, 16.7 and 28.3% of blastocyst rates in the Dc1X, Dc2X, Ch1X and Ch2X groups, respectively (P<0.05). Moreover, aggregation improved the morphological quality of blastocysts from the Dc2X over the Dc1X group. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ch1X and Ch2X blastocysts had significantly lower relative expression of OCT4, CDX2 and NANOG than the Dc1X, Dc2X and IVF control groups. The OCT4, NANOG, SOX2 and CDX2 genes were overexpressed in Dc1X blastocysts, but the relative expression of these four genes decreased in the Dc2X, reaching similar relative levels to those of Dc IVF blastocysts. In conclusion, Ch blastocysts were produced using Dc oocytes, but with lower relative expression of pluripotent and trophoblastic genes, indicating that nuclear reprogramming could be still incomplete. Despite this, embryo aggregation improved the development of Ch and Dc embryos, and normalized Dc gene expression, which suggests that this strategy could improve full-term developmental efficiency of cat and feline iSCNT embryos. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Comparing domain interactions within antibody Fabs with kappa and lambda light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toughiri, Raheleh; Wu, Xiufeng; Ruiz, Diana; Huang, Flora; Crissman, John W; Dickey, Mark; Froning, Karen; Conner, Elaine M; Cujec, Thomas P; Demarest, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    IgG antibodies are multi-domain proteins with complex inter-domain interactions. Human IgG heavy chains (HCs) associate with light chains (LCs) of the κ or λ isotype to form mature antibodies capable of binding antigen. The HC/LC interaction involves 4 domains: VH and CH1 from the HC and VL and CL from the LC. Human Fabs with κ LCs have been well characterized for their unfolding behaviors and demonstrate a significant level of cooperativity and stabilization when all 4 domains are intact. Very little is known regarding the thermodynamic properties of human Fabs with λ LCs. Here, we dissect the domain contributions to Fab stability for both κ and λ LC-containing Fabs. We find the cooperativity of unfolding between the constant domains, CH1/Cλ, and variable domains, VH/Vλ, within λ LC-containing Fabs is significantly weaker than that of κ LC-containing Fabs. The data suggests there may not be an evolutionary necessity for strong variable/constant domain cooperativity within λ LC-containing Fabs. After investigating the biophysical properties of Fabs with mismatched variable and constant domain subunits (e.g., VH/Vκ paired with CH1/Cλ or T cell receptor Cα/Cβ), the major role of the constant domains for both κ- and λ-containing Fabs may be to reduce the hydrophobic exposure at the VH/VL interface. Even though Fabs with these non-native pairings were thermodynamically less stable, they secreted well from mammalian cells as well behaved monodisperse proteins, which was in contrast to what was observed with the VH/Vκ and VH/Vλ scFvs that secreted as a mixture of monomer and aggregates.

  12. Ubiquitination regulates MHC class II-peptide complex retention and degradation in dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walseng, Even; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Bosch, Berta; Weih, Karis A.; Matsuki, Yohei; Bakke, Oddmund; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression and turnover of MHC class II-peptide complexes (pMHC-II) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for their ability to activate CD4 T cells efficiently. The half-life of surface pMHC-II is significantly greater in activated (mature) DCs than in resting (immature) DCs, but the molecular mechanism leading to this difference remains unknown. We now show that ubiquitination of pMHC-II by the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 1 (March-I) regulates surface e...

  13. Variable Geometry and Multicycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Methane Ethyl Methyl Ammonia Hydrogen JP Fuel Methane Alcohol Alcohol Nominal composition CH 1 94 CH4 C2 H5 O01 CH 3 O NH3 112 Molecular weight -120...collage et en crololire A une 4l6vation des Amission. d oxydes La !;N2CMA a d~fini dons dos 4tudem A long term* une chazibro A "A6coulement a~rodynaaique...dana le conduit de m~lange ; ean ordonnný’e sont port~s lea indices d𔄀miasion d~ oxyde d’azote mesur~s en int~grant lea valeurs de concen- trations

  14. Das Ende der Nacht [The End of the Night (2nd enlarged ed.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Thomas; Hölker, Franz; Uhlmann, Thomas; Freyhoff, Anja

    2013-09-01

    We provide provide an overview of the history of lighting and of the problems arising from artificial lighting. The book covers the following topics: A brief history of light (ch. 1); night and light in cultural history (ch. 2); light pollution in central Europe (ch. 3); Moths and artificial lights (ch. 4); Artificial lighting and birds (ch. 5); Ocean turtles as victims of beach lighting (ch. 6); Moon light as a zeitgeber for the marine fauna (ch. 7); the influence of artificial light at night on freshwater ecology (ch. 8); artificial light and human health (ch. 9); the loss of the night in a 24 hours society (ch. 10).

  15. Improved stability of highly fluorinated phospholipid-based vesicles in the presence of bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadras, C; Santaella, C; Vierling, P

    1999-01-04

    The stability of fluorinated phospholipid-based vesicles in terms of detergent-induced release of encapsulated carboxyfluorescein has been evaluated. The fluorinated liposomes are substantially more resistant towards the lytic action of sodium taurocholate than conventional DSPC or even DSPC/CH 1/1 liposomes. Concerning structure/permeability relationships, the larger the fluorination degree of the membrane, the higher the resistance of the fluorinated liposomes to their destruction by the detergent. These results show that fluorinated liposomes have a promising potential as drug carrier and delivery systems for oral administration.

  16. Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; López-Olmedo, Nancy; García-Guerra, Armando; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Villalpando, Salvador; Carriquiry, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy. The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES). ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y. In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES). The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies. © 2016 American Society

  17. A User’s Guide to the MOFO Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    8592 8591 8589 8588 8586 8585 8583 8582 8580 6 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...radians to degrees ( ISO /it degrees/radian) Common Block ICONTRLI CH1DOT—present commanded heading rate after time filtering CHIDOTO—previous commanded

  18. The Chimborazo sector collapse and debris avalanche : deposit characteristics as evidence of emplacement mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, B.; Vries de, B. V.; Barba, D.; Leyrit, H.; Robin, Claude; Alcaraz, S.; Samaniego, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Chimborazo is a Late Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc. It experienced a large sector collapse and debris avalanche (DA) of the initial edifice (CH-1). This left a 4 km wide scar, removing 8.0 +/- 0.5 km(3) of the edifice. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) is abundantly exposed throughout the Riobamba Basin to the Rio Chambo, more than 35 km southeast of the volcano. The DAD averages a thickness of 40 m, covers about 280 km...

  19. Charged Slurry Droplet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-20

    short i; struct mice f short deltax, deltay; char sec[3]; char sixtyths, -66- buttons, stype; Imouse; while (read(tfd,&ch,l) 1) if (ch ==E SC) ( if...read~tfd,&ch,1) ==1) && (ch IT) if ((read(tfd,&ch,l) == 1) && (ch y== ’Y for (i =0; i < sizeof(struct mice ); i++) if (read(tfd,((ohar *) &mouse) + i,1...Spectrometer. J. of Physics E. Scientific Instruments 1972, Vol 5. 40. R.F.Lever, Computation of Ion Trajectories in the Monopole Mass Spectrometer

  20. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    the Independent Party (Partido Independiente -PI) to support his own candidacy, waged a campaign against the government’s financial irresponsi- bility...range Photo by James D. Rudolph ley, chiefly by small farmers, began only in the 1920s. The open- ing of the Inter-American Highway in the post -World...the country (see The Calder6n Era, ch. 1). In the post -World War 11 era, anticlericalism was no longer a major issue, in prt because many of the

  1. Overcoming the Constraints of Anti-HIV/CD89 Bispecific Antibodies That Limit Viral Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative strategies are necessary to maximize the clinical application of HIV neutralizing antibodies. To this end, bispecific constructs of human antibody F240, reactive with well-conserved gp41 epitope and antibody 14A8, reactive with the IgA receptor (CD89 on effector cells, were constructed. A F240 × 14A8 bispecific single chain variable region (scFv molecule was constructed by linking two scFvs using a conventional GGGGS linker. Despite immunoreactivity with HIV gp41 and neutrophils, this bispecific scFv failed to inhibit HIV infection. This is in sharp contrast to viral inhibition using a chemical conjugate of the Fab of these two antibodies. Therefore, we constructed two novel Fab-like bispecific antibody molecules centered on fusion of the IgG1 CH1 domain or CH1-hinge domain to the C-terminus of F240scFv and fusion of the kappa chain CL domain to the C-terminus of 14A8scFv. Both Bi-Fab antibodies showed significant ADCVI activity for multiple clade B and clade C isolates by arming the neutrophils to inhibit HIV infection. The approach presented in this study is unique for HIV immunotherapy in that the impetus of neutralization is to arm and mobilize PMN to destroy HIV and HIV infected cells.

  2. A novel IgA-like immunoglobulin in the reptile Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Francisco Gambón; Espinel, Christian Sánchez; Beneitez, Julio Valdueza

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of antibody genes over evolution coincided with the origin of the vertebrates. Reptiles are of great interest in evolution since they are the link between the amphibians, birds, and mammals. This work describes the presence of a gene in the reptile leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) where phylogenetic studies suggest that it is the gene orthologue of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin X (IgX) in Xenopus. Messenger RNA samples taken from different tissues showed expression of this antibody in intestinal tissue. Data on the structure deduced from the sequence of nucleotides showed an antibody with four domains in the constant region. There is a sequence of 20 amino acids in the C terminus similar to the secretory tail of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA. A detailed analysis of the sequence of amino acids displayed a paradox, i.e., domains CH1 and CH2 showed a clear homology with domains CH1 and CH2 of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) while domains CH3 and CH4 were homologous with domains CH3 and CH4 of IgM. This homology pattern is also seen in Xenopus IgX and bird IgA. The most logical explanation for this phenomenon is that a recombination between the IgM and IgY gave rise to the IgA.

  3. Variations of CITED2 are associated with congenital heart disease (CHD in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available CITED2 was identified as a cardiac transcription factor which is essential to the heart development. Cited2-deficient mice showed cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis and neural crest defects. To explore the potential impact of mutations in CITED2 on congenital heart disease (CHD in humans, we screened the coding region of CITED2 in a total of 700 Chinese people with congenital heart disease and 250 healthy individuals as controls. We found five potential disease-causing mutations, p.P140S, p.S183L, p.S196G, p.Ser161delAGC and p. Ser192_Gly193delAGCGGC. Two mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that the last four mutations significantly affected the interaction between p300CH1 and CITED2 or HIF1A. Further studies showed that four CITED2 mutations recovered the promoter activity of VEGF by decreasing its competitiveness with HIF1A for binding to p300CH1 and three mutations decreased the consociation of TFAP2C and CITED2 in the transactivation of PITX2C. Both VEGF and PITX2C play very important roles in cardiac development. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CITED2 has a potential causative impact on congenital heart disease.

  4. Radioresistance of chordoma cells is associated with the ATM/ATR pathway, in which RAD51 serves as an important downstream effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Lei; Li, Yawei; Li, Pengzhi; Lv, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    Surgery followed by radiotherapy is the standard treatment for chordomas, which are a rare but low-grade type of bone cancer arising from remnants of the embryonic notochord. However, disease recurrence following radiotherapy is common, most likely due to endogenous DNA repair mechanisms that promote cell survival upon radiation strikes. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM/ATR)-mediated pathway has a critical role in DNA repair mechanisms; however, it has rarely been investigated in chordomas. In the present study, the expression of signal molecules related to the ATM/ATR pathway in chordoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were initially examined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Chordoma U-CH1 and U-CH2 cells were subsequently used to investigate cell responses to ionizing radiation and the potential protective actions mediated by the ATM/ATR pathway. Phosphorylated (p)-ATM, p-ATR, γ-H2A histone family, member X (H2AX) and RAD51 were significantly upregulated in chordoma tissues relative to adjacent normal tissues (PATM, γ-H2AX and RAD51 expression in U-CH1 cells (PATM, p-ATR and RAD51 levels in U-CH2 cells (PATM/ATR pathway, in which RAD51 serves as an important downstream effector. Thus, RAD51 presents a promising therapeutic target for improving the outcome of radiotherapy treatment in chordomas.

  5. Carbon-hydrogen defects with a neighboring oxygen atom in n-type Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, K.; Stübner, R.; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the electrical activation of neutral carbon-oxygen complexes in Si by wet-chemical etching at room temperature. Two deep levels, E65 and E75, are observed by deep level transient spectroscopy in n-type Czochralski Si. The activation enthalpies of E65 and E75 are obtained as EC-0.11 eV (E65) and EC-0.13 eV (E75). The electric field dependence of their emission rates relates both levels to single acceptor states. From the analysis of the depth profiles, we conclude that the levels belong to two different defects, which contain only one hydrogen atom. A configuration is proposed, where the CH1BC defect, with hydrogen in the bond-centered position between neighboring C and Si atoms, is disturbed by interstitial oxygen in the second nearest neighbor position to substitutional carbon. The significant reduction of the CH1BC concentration in samples with high oxygen concentrations limits the use of this defect for the determination of low concentrations of substitutional carbon in Si samples.

  6. Extensive diversification of IgD-, IgY-, and truncated IgY(δFc)-encoding genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Cheng, Gang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Ren, Liming; Meng, Qingyong; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Ying; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-15

    IgY(ΔFc), containing only CH1 and CH2 domains, is expressed in the serum of some birds and reptiles, such as ducks and turtles. The duck IgY(ΔFc) is produced by the same υ gene that expresses the intact IgY form (CH1-4) using different transcriptional termination sites. In this study, we show that intact IgY and IgY(ΔFc) are encoded by distinct genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). At least eight IgY and five IgY(ΔFc) transcripts were found in a single turtle. Together with Southern blotting, our data suggest that multiple genes encoding both IgY forms are present in the turtle genome. Both of the IgY forms were detected in the serum using rabbit polyclonal Abs. In addition, we show that multiple copies of the turtle δ gene are present in the genome and that alternative splicing is extensively involved in the generation of both the secretory and membrane-bound forms of the IgD H chain transcripts. Although a single μ gene was identified, the α gene was not identified in this species.

  7. Homolactic fermentation from glucose and cellobiose using Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Alfredo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroung Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (generally regarded as safe by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. Results In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield, and with a specific rate of L-lactate production similar to that one obtained fermenting glucose. Under fermentative conditions in a complex media supplemented with glucose, B. subtilis produces L-lactate and a low amount of 2,3-butanediol. To increase the L-lactate production of this organism, we generated the B subtilis CH1 alsS- strain that lacks the ability to synthesize 2,3-butanediol. Inactivation of this pathway, that competed for pyruvate availability, let a 15% increase in L-lactate yield from glucose compared with the parental strain. CH1 alsS- fermented 5 and 10% of glucose to completion in mineral medium supplemented with yeast extract in four and nine days, respectively. CH1 alsS- produced 105 g/L of L-lactate in this last medium supplemented with 10% of glucose. The L-lactate yield was up to 95% using mineral media, and the optical purity of L-lactate was of 99.5% since B. subtilis has only one gene (lctE that

  8. Impaired behavioural pain responses in hph-1 mice with inherited deficiency in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 in models of inflammatory pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), encoded by the GCH1 gene, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain in rats. In humans, homozygous carriers of a “pain-protective” (PP) haplotype of the GCH1 gene have been identified exhibiting lower pain sensitivity, but only following pain sensitisation. Ex vivo, the PP GCH1 haplotype is associated with decreased induction of GCH1 after stimulation, whereas the baseline BH4 production is not affected. Contrary, loss of function mutations in the GCH1 gene results in decreased basal GCH1 expression, and is associated with DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD). So far it is unknown if such mutations affect acute and inflammatory pain. Results In the current study, we examined the involvement of the GCH1 gene in pain models using the hyperphenylalaninemia 1 (hph-1) mouse, a genetic model for DRD, with only 10% basal GTP-CH1 activity compared to wild type mice. The study included assays for determination of acute nociception as well as models for pain after sensitisation. Pain behavioural analysis of the hph-1 mice showed reduced pain-like responses following intraplantar injection of CFA, formalin and capsaicin; whereas decreased basal level of GTP-CH1 activity had no influence in naïve hph-1 mice on acute mechanical and heat pain thresholds. Moreover, the hph-1 mice showed no signs of motor impairment or dystonia-like symptoms. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate novel evidence that genetic mutations in the GCH1 gene modulate pain-like hypersensitivity. Together, the present data suggest that BH4 is not important for basal heat and mechanical pain, but they support the hypothesis that BH4 plays a role in inflammation-induced hypersensitivity. Our studies suggest that the BH4 pathway could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain conditions. Moreover, the hph-1 mice provide a valid model to

  9. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of Light Intensity on Development and Chlorophyll Content in the Arabidopsis Mutant Plants with Defects in Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Garnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental stages and adaptability to different light intensity (150 µmol*m-2*s-1 and 100 µmol*m-2*s-1 in Arabidopsis mutant lines with defects of photosynthetic apparatus were analyzed. Plant development in the mutant lines depended on the light intensity to varying degrees. Lines ch1-1 (lack of the chlorophyllide a oxygenase and rtn16 (decreased chlorophyll a and b amounts were the most susceptible to the light decrease. No one of the investigated lines demonstrated chlorophyll a/b rate alteration under the different light conditions. The depleted chlorophyll content has had the major effect on the mutant plants development under the different light conditions. The different chlorophyll a/b rate correlated with the different adaptability of mutant plants to low light.

  11. Construction and expression of a functional monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for GMP-140 chimeric fab fragment in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaomin; Xia Lijun; Wan Haiying; Liu Yue; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1996-04-01

    The variable region cDNAs of a monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of activated human platelets were spliced with the constant region cDNA of the heavy chain CH1 and light chain k of human Ig G by means of the gene recombination techniques. The above recombinant gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression vector of phage plasmid pHEN1 SZ-51 Fab/Hu was constructed. The pHEN1-51 Fab/Hu was introduced into non-suppressor E. coli HB2151. The amount of expression of SZ-51 chimeric Fab/Hu measured by quantitative ELISA was about 500 μg/L. Western blot demonstrated that the SZ-51 chimeric Fab fragment could specifically bind to GMP-140. (2 figs.)

  12. An improved selective sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Iida, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1986-01-01

    The coincidence methods which are currently used for the accurate activity standardisation of radio-nuclides, require dead time and resolving time corrections which tend to become increasingly uncertain as countrates exceed about 10 K. To reduce the dependence on such corrections, Muller, in 1981, proposed the selective sampling method using a fast multichannel analyser (50 ns ch -1 ) for measuring the countrates. It is, in many ways, more convenient and possibly potentially more reliable to replace the MCA with scalers and a circuit is described employing five scalers; two of them serving to measure the background correction. Results of comparisons using our new method and the coincidence method for measuring the activity of 60 Co sources yielded agree-ment within statistical uncertainties. (author)

  13. Learning disabilities in neuromuscular disorders: a springboard for adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrea, Guja; Battini, Roberta; Lenzi, Sara; Frosini, Silvia; Bonetti, Silvia; Moretti, Elena; Perazza, Silvia; Santorelli, Filippo M; Pecini, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Although the presence of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or myotonic dystrophy DM1 is well established in view of brain-specific expression of affected muscle proteins, in other neuromuscular disorders, such as congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, cognitive profiles are poorly defined. Also, there are limited characterization of the cognitive profile of children with congenital muscular dystrophies, notwithstanding the presence of cerebral abnormality in some forms, and in spinal muscular atrophies, with the exception of distal spinal muscular atrophy (such as the DYN1CH1- associated form). Starting from the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which may be considered a kind of paradigm for the co-occurrence of learning disabilities in the contest of a progressive muscular involvement, the findings of neuropsychological (or cognitive) dysfunctions in several forms of neuromuscular diseases will be examined and reviewed.

  14. Laser-induced charge transfer in the CH6+ quasimolecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-01-01

    The charge transfer cross section is calculated for C 6+ +CH(1s) collisions, through photon assisted 5gsigma--6hsigma, 5gsigma--4fsigma, 5gsigma--4fπ, and 5gsigma--4dsigma transitions. The theory developed by Copeland and Tang, and ourselves, is employed, and the validity of the approximations used is tested. The four processes considered have widely different characteristics with regards to the laser wavelength needed, the collision dynamics and the applicability of back-of-the-envelope estimates based on the Landau--Zener approximation. We point out the relevance of those processes to the impurity diagnostics of magnetically confined fusion plasmas and to the development of short wavelength lasers

  15. 1H NMR studies of human lysozyme: Spectral assignment and comparison with hen lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfield, C.; Dobson, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Complete main-chain (NH and αCH) 1 H NMR assignments are reported for the 130 residues of human lysozyme, along with extensive assignments for side-chain protons. Analysis of 2-D NOESY experiments shows that the regions of secondary structure for human lysozyme in solution are essentially identical with those found previously in a similar study of hen lysozyme and are in close accord with the structure of the protein reported previously from x-ray diffraction studies in the crystalline state. Comparison of the chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling constants, and hydrogen exchange behavior are also consistent with closely similar structures for the two proteins in solution. In a number of cases specific differences in the NMR parameters between hen and human lysozymes can be correlated with specific differences observed in the crystal structures

  16. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  17. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  18. The AtCAO gene, encoding chlorophyll a oxygenase, is required for chlorophyll b synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espineda, Cromwell E.; Linford, Alicia S.; Devine, Domenica; Brusslan, Judy A.

    1999-01-01

    Chlorophyll b is synthesized from chlorophyll a and is found in the light-harvesting complexes of prochlorophytes, green algae, and both nonvascular and vascular plants. We have used conserved motifs from the chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to isolate a homologue from Arabidopsis thaliana. This gene, AtCAO, is mutated in both leaky and null chlorina1 alleles, and DNA sequence changes cosegregate with the mutant phenotype. AtCAO mRNA levels are higher in three different mutants that have reduced levels of chlorophyll b, suggesting that plants that do not have sufficient chlorophyll b up-regulate AtCAO gene expression. Additionally, AtCAO mRNA levels decrease in plants that are grown under dim-light conditions. We have also found that the six major Lhcb proteins do not accumulate in the null ch1-3 allele. PMID:10468639

  19. Absolute differential cross sections for π±p elastic scattering at 30 ≤ Tπ ≤ 67 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, J.T.; Ristinen, R.A.; Kraushaar, J.J.

    1989-11-01

    Absolute π±p differential cross sections have been measured at incident pion energies of 30.0, 45.0, and 66.8 MeV, using active targets of scintillator plastic (CH 1.1 ) to detect recoil protons in coincidence with scattered pions. Statistical uncertainties are typically ±3%; systematic uncertainties are ±2%. The results are consistent with two earlier measurements by this group employing different experimental techniques at 67 MeV and higher incident pion energies. The π - p cross sections are in good agreement with currently accepted phase-shift analyses, but the corresponding π + p predictions are typically 15% higher at large angles than the π + p data reported here

  20. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  1. Selection of sites for nuclear power plants in The Netherlands. Pt. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this report the headlines are presented of the participation of the Dutch people in the policy resolution with regard to the selection of sites of nuclear power plants. In Ch. 1 it is indicated how this participation is organized and the quantitative results are given. In the other chapters the results of the people's participation are treated qualitatively with restriction to the headlines. In Ch. 3 the remarks about the procedure and its precedents are reported. Ch. 4 reflects the public opinion with regard to the (nuclear) energy problem. In Ch. 5 finally the problems concerning the sites of nuclear power plants are treated. The criteria are discussed used by the participants in the judgement of the locations on their aptitude, in general as well as by possible site. (Auth.)

  2. Laser-induced charge transfer in the CH/sup 6 +/ quasimolecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-05-15

    The charge transfer cross section is calculated for C/sup 6 +/+CH(1s) collisions, through photon assisted 5gsigma--6hsigma, 5gsigma--4fsigma, 5gsigma--4f..pi.., and 5gsigma--4dsigma transitions. The theory developed by Copeland and Tang, and ourselves, is employed, and the validity of the approximations used is tested. The four processes considered have widely different characteristics with regards to the laser wavelength needed, the collision dynamics and the applicability of back-of-the-envelope estimates based on the Landau--Zener approximation. We point out the relevance of those processes to the impurity diagnostics of magnetically confined fusion plasmas and to the development of short wavelength lasers.

  3. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  4. Eigensolutions, Shannon entropy and information energy for modified Tietz-Hua potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, C. A.; Onyeaju, M. C.; Ituen, E. E.; Ikot, A. N.; Ebomwonyi, O.; Okoro, J. O.; Dopamu, K. O.

    2018-04-01

    The Tietz-Hua potential is modified by the inclusion of De ( {{Ch - 1}/{1 - C_{h e^{{ - bh ( {r - re } )}} }}} )be^{{ - bh ( {r - re } )}} term to the Tietz-Hua potential model since a potential of such type is very good in the description and vibrational energy levels for diatomic molecules. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions are explicitly obtained using the methodology of parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov. By putting the potential parameter b = 0, in the modified Tietz-Hua potential quickly reduces to the Tietz-Hua potential. To show more applications of our work, we have computed the Shannon entropy and Information energy under the modified Tietz-Hua potential. However, the computation of the Shannon entropy and Information energy is an extension of the work of Falaye et al., who computed only the Fisher information under Tietz-Hua potential.

  5. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  6. Effects of UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 advanced oxidation on unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina: implications for removal of invasive species from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Du, Jiaxuan; Chen, Chuan; Jin, Darui

    2011-01-01

    The UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was investigated for ballast water treatment using Dunaliella salina as an indicator. Inactivation curves were obtained, and the toxicity of effluent was determined. Compared with individual unit processes using ozone or UV/Ag-TiO2, the inactivation efficiency of D. salina by the combined UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was enhanced. The presence of ozone caused an immediate decrease in chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration. Inactivation efficiency and ch1-a removal efficiency were positively correlated with ozone dose and ultraviolet intensity. The initial total residual oxidant (TRO) concentration of effluent increased with increasing ozone dose, and persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity. The results suggest that UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 has potential for ballast water treatment.

  7. Pusher curving technique for preventing tilt of femoral Geunther Tulip inferior vena cava filter: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Liang; Shen Jing; Huang Desheng; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the adjustment of the pusher of GTF was useful to decrease the degree of tilting of the femoral Geunther Tulip filter (GTF) in an in vitro caval model. Methods: The caval model was constructed by placement of a 25 mm × 100 mm and two 10 mm × 200 mm Dacron graft inside a transparent bifurcate glass tube. The study consisted of two groups: left straight group (GLS) (n = 100) and left curved group (G LC ) (n=100). In the G LC , a 10° to 20° angle was curved on the introducer. The distance (D CH ) between the caval right wall and the hook was measured. The degree of tilting (DT) was classified into 5 grades and recorded. Before and after the GTF being released, the angle (A CM1,2 ) between the axis of IVC and the metal mount, the distance (D CM1 ) between the caval right wall and the metal mount, the angle (ACF) between the axis of IVC and the axis of the filter and the diameter of IVC (D IVC ) were measured. The data were analyzed with Chi-Square test, t test, rank sum. test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The degree of GTF tilting in each group revealed a divergent tendency. In group LC , the apex of the filter tended to be grade Ⅲ compared in group LS (χ 2 value 37.491, P LS and G LC were considered as statistical significance (16.60° vs. 3.05°, 20.60° vs. 3.50°, -3.90° vs. -0.40°, 2.98 mm vs. 10.40 mm, -10.95° vs. -0.485°, 13.17 mm vs. 10.06 mm, -1.70° vs. 0.70°, t or Z values -12.187, -12.188, -8.545, -51.834, -11.395, 9.562, -3.596, P CM1 and A CF , A CM1 - A CM2 and D CH1 - D CH2 in each group, respectively (r values 0.978, 0.344, 0.879, 0.627, P CH1 and A CF in each group, A CP and A CF in group LC (r values -0.974, -0.322, -0.702, P CM1 and A CF , A CM1 - A CM2 and D CH1 - D CH2 in each group, respectively (r values 0.978, 0.344, 0.879, 0.627, P CH1 and A CF in each group, A CP and A CF in group LC (r values -0.974, -0.322, -0.702, P<0.01). Conclusion: The technique of adjusting the orientation of filter

  8. A novel engineered interchain disulfide bond in the constant region enhances the thermostability of adalimumab Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Ohkuri, Takatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We constructed a system for expressing the Fab of the therapeutic human monoclonal antibody adalimumab at a yield of 20 mg/L in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. To examine the contribution of interchain disulfide bonds to conformational stability, we prepared adalimumab Fab from which the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region at both the CH 1 and CL domains was deleted by substitution of Cys with Ala (Fab ΔSS ). DSC measurements showed that the Tm values of Fab ΔSS were approximately 5 °C lower than those of wild-type Fab, suggesting that the interchain disulfide bond contributes to conformational thermostability. Using computer simulations, we designed a novel interchain disulfide bond outside the C-terminal region to increase the stability of Fab ΔSS . The resulting Fab (mutSS Fab ΔSS ) had the mutations H:V177C and L:Q160C in Fab ΔSS , confirming the formation of the disulfide bond between CH 1 and CL. The thermostability of mutSS Fab ΔSS was approximately 5 °C higher than that of Fab ΔSS . Therefore, the introduction of the designed interchain disulfide bond enhanced the thermostability of Fab ΔSS and mitigated the destabilization caused by partial reduction of the interchain disulfide bond at the C-terminal region, which occurs in site-specific modification such as PEGylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel micro/nano 1 × 4 mechanical optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wu-Lang; Fan, Kuang-Chao; Chiang, Li-Hung; Yang, Yao-Joe; Kuo, Wen-Cheng; Chung, Tien-Tung

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a novel 1 × 4 mechanical optical switch, whose components are fabricated by precision machining and MEMS technologies. The switch uses two relays as the two actuators whose switching direction is perpendicular to each other by an orthogonal arrangement. We adopt a direct fiber-to-fiber principle that aligns the input fiber directly to four output fibers. This configuration eliminates the use of traditional parts such as collimators, turning mirrors or prisms. In addition, due to the use of a fiber holder, the fiber position errors could be reduced to less than 0.27 µm using the two-stage geometry error reduction principle. We have successfully developed a simple and low-cost switch, which performs like most of the 1 × 4 mechanical optical switches that dominate the optics communications market. The advantages of our switch are a small size (20 × 20 × 25 mm3), low cost, high reliability, and the latching function does not need external force for maintaining the state. The experimental results showed that the insertion losses of the four channels are ch1: 0.68 dB, ch2: 1.49 dB, ch3: 0.71 dB and ch4: 0.97 dB. The switching time is 5 ms, the crosstalk <=80 dB. The reliability tests of the insertion loss after 10 000 cycles in four channels yield ch1: 1.67 dB, ch2: 1.63 dB, ch3: 0.75 dB and ch4: 0.98 dB. The size and the cost of our 1 × 4 mechanical optical switch are only about 1/5-1/10 and 1/10 of the series-connect-type and prism-type switches, respectively.

  10. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  11. An experimental analysis on property and structure variations of agricultural wastes undergoing torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Tsai, Chi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coffee residue, sawdust and rice husk undergoing torrefaction are investigated. ► A high-volatile bituminous coal and a low-volatile one are also regarded for comparison. ► Coffee residue is the most active biomass to torrefaction. ► Torrefied wastes approach the high-volatile coal as increasing temperature and duration. ► Torrefaction is conducive to the applications of biomass in industrial furnaces. -- Abstract: Three agricultural wastes, consisting of coffee residue, sawdust and rice husk, undergoing torrefaction are investigated to evaluate the potential of biomass as solid fuel. Two different torrefaction temperatures (240 and 270 °C) and durations (0.5 and 1 h) are considered in the study, and the properties and structures of the raw and torrefied wastes are extensively investigated by means of proximate, elemental, fiber, calorific, thermogravimetric, SEM and FTIR analyses. A high-volatile bituminous coal and a low-volatile one are also regarded for comparison. By virtue of more hemicellulose contained in the coffee residue, it is the most active biomass to torrefaction and its higher heating value (HHV) is improved up to 38%. The empirical atomic formula of the raw wastes is expressed by CH 1.54–1.76 O 0.65–0.89 and it changes to CH 1.02–1.57 O 0.26–0.64 after undergoing torrefaction. The torrefied biomasses approach high-volatile coal when the torrefaction temperature and duration increase. From fuel point of view, the improved properties and changed molecular structure are conducive to the applications of biomass in industrial furnaces such as boilers and blast furnaces.

  12. Engineering an improved IgG4 molecule with reduced disulfide bond heterogeneity and increased Fab domain thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Shirley J; Smales, C Mark; Henry, Alistair J; Stephens, Paul E; West, Shauna; Humphreys, David P

    2012-07-13

    The integrity of antibody structure, stability, and biophysical characterization are becoming increasingly important as antibodies receive increasing scrutiny from regulatory authorities. We altered the disulfide bond arrangement of an IgG4 molecule by mutation of the Cys at the N terminus of the heavy chain constant domain 1 (C(H)1) (Kabat position 127) to a Ser and introduction of a Cys at a variety of positions (positions 227-230) at the C terminus of C(H)1. An inter-LC-C(H)1 disulfide bond is thus formed, which mimics the disulfide bond arrangement found in an IgG1 molecule. The antibody species present in the supernatant following transient expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells were analyzed by immunoblot to investigate product homogeneity, and purified product was analyzed by a thermofluor assay to determine thermal stability. We show that the light chain can form an inter-LC-C(H)1 disulfide bond with a Cys when present at several positions on the upper hinge (positions 227-230) and that such engineered disulfide bonds can consequently increase the Fab domain thermal stability between 3 and 6.8 °C. The IgG4 disulfide mutants displaying the greatest increase in Fab thermal stability were also the most homogeneous in terms of disulfide bond arrangement and antibody species present. Importantly, mutations did not affect the affinity for antigen of the resultant molecules. In combination with the previously described S241P mutation, we present an IgG4 molecule with increased Fab thermal stability and reduced product heterogeneity that potentially offers advantages for the production of IgG4 molecules.

  13. Effects of short term changes in the blood glucose level on the autofluorescence lifetime of the human retina in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Matthias; Nagel, Edgar; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schramm, Stefan; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) provides in vivo metabolic mapping of the ocular fundus. Changes in FLIO have been found in e.g. diabetes patients. The influence of short term metabolic changes caused by blood glucose level changes on is unknown. Aim of this work is the detection of short-term changes in fundus autofluorescence lifetime during an oral glucose tolerance test. Methods: FLIO was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (29+/-4 years, fasting for 12h) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (30° fundus, 34μm resolution, excitation with 473nm diode laser with 70 ps pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate, detection in two spectral channels 500-560nm (ch1) and 560-720nm (ch2) using the timecorrelated single photon counting method). The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by an Accu-Chek® Aviva self-monitoring device. Before and after a glucose drink (300ml solution, containing 75g of glucose (Accu-Chek® Dextrose O.G.T.), BGL and FLIO were measured every 15min. The FLIMX software package was applied to compute the average fluorescence lifetime τ on the inner ring of the ETDRS grid using a modified 3-exponential approach. Results: The results are given as mean +/- standard deviation over all volunteers in ch1. Baseline measurement: BGL: 5.3+/-0.4 mmol/l, τ1: 49+/-6ps. A significant reduction (α=5% Wilcoxon rank-sum test) in τ1 is detected after 15min (BGL: 8.4+/-1.1 mmol/l, τ1: 44+/-5ps) and after 90min (BGL: 6.3+/-1.4 mmol/l, τ1: 41+/-5ps). Results of ch2 show smaller reductions in the fluorescence lifetimes over time.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 1 of -42-foot project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Steinhauer, W.; Hyland, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected sediment cores from 20 stations in Oakland Harbor, evaluated the cores geologically, analyzed sediment for selected contaminants, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates (Macoma nasuta, Nephtys caecoides, Ampelisca abdita, and Rhepoxynius abronius), and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in tissues of M. nasuta. Toxicological test results indicate that none of the sediment from the channel-area stations (CH-1 - CH-7), the Merritt Sand samples (MS-1 and MS-2), or the reference sediment sites (PR-C and PR-F) resulted in significant sediment toxicity to the four species tested. Sediment treatments showing no significant sediment toxicity as well as no significant bioaccumulation included CH-5, MS-1, MS-2, PR-coarse, and PR-fine. Stations that showed little or no significant sediment toxicity, but significant bioaccumulation included SS-2-L (PAHs); TS-1-L (Cu, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, and DDE); TS-1-U (tributyltin); TS-5-U (PAHs, PCBs, DDE, and tributyltin); SS-1-U (PB, PAHs, and PCBs); SS-5-L (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); CH-6 and CH-7 (PAHs, PCBs, and DDE); Ch-4 and CH-1 (Cr); and CH-3 (DDE). 28 refs., 31 figs., 75 tabs

  15. Resolving tumor heterogeneity: genes involved in chordoma cell development identified by low-template analysis of morphologically distinct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin El-Heliebi

    Full Text Available The classical sacrococcygeal chordoma tumor presents with a typical morphology of lobulated myxoid tumor tissue with cords, strands and nests of tumor cells. The population of cells consists of small non-vacuolated cells, intermediate cells with a wide range of vacuolization and large heavily vacuolated (physaliferous cells. To date analysis was only performed on bulk tumor mass because of its rare incidence, lack of suited model systems and technical limitations thereby neglecting its heterogeneous composition. We intended to clarify whether the observed cell types are derived from genetically distinct clones or represent different phenotypes. Furthermore, we aimed at elucidating the differences between small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells on the genomic and transcriptomic level. Phenotype-specific analyses of small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells in two independent chordoma cell lines yielded four candidate genes involved in chordoma cell development. UCHL3, coding for an ubiquitin hydrolase, was found to be over-expressed in the large physaliferous cell phenotype of MUG-Chor1 (18.7-fold and U-CH1 (3.7-fold cells. The mannosyltransferase ALG11 (695-fold and the phosphatase subunit PPP2CB (18.6-fold were found to be up-regulated in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells showing a similar trend in U-CH1 cells. TMEM144, an orphan 10-transmembrane family receptor, yielded contradictory data as cDNA microarray analysis showed up- but RT-qPCR data down-regulation in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells. Isolation of few but morphologically identical cells allowed us to overcome the limitations of bulk analysis in chordoma research. We identified the different chordoma cell phenotypes to be part of a developmental process and discovered new genes linked to chordoma cell development representing potential targets for further research in chordoma tumor biology.

  16. Mandibular Denture Base Deformation with Locator and Ball Attachments of Implant-Retained Overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Errabti, Hatem Mokhtar; Mustafa, Aisha Zakaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare mandibular denture base deformation between ball and Locator attachments of implant-retained overdentures. An experimental acrylic model covered with resilient silicone mucosal simulation was constructed. Two laboratory implants were placed in the canine areas of the model. Two duplicate experimental overdentures were constructed and connected to the implants with either ball (GI) or Locator (GII) attachments. To measure overdenture strain around the attachments, 3 strain gauges were attached to the lingual polished surface of the overdentures opposite to the right implant (loading side) 2 mm above the attachment level (Ch1), at the attachment level (Ch2), and 2 mm below the attachment level (Ch3). Another 3 gauges were bonded opposite to the left implant (non-loading side) in the same manner (Ch6, Ch7, and Ch8). To measure strain at the midline of the overdentures, two strain gauges were attached in the midline at 5 mm intervals (Ch4 and Ch5). A universal testing device was used to deliver vertical static load of 50 N unilaterally and bilaterally to the first molar area to measure strain using a multi-channel digital strain meter. During bilateral load application, GII recorded higher compressive strains than GI at the majority of channels. During unilateral load application, GI recorded higher tensile strains at Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3, and GII recorded higher strains than GI at Ch6, Ch7, and Ch8. During bilateral loading the highest strain was concentrated at Ch5 for both groups. During unilateral loading, the highest strain was concentrated at Ch2 for GI, and at Ch5 for GII. Ball attachments for implant-retained overdentures were associated with significant mandibular denture base deformation over the implants compared to Locator attachments. Therefore, denture base reinforcement may be recommended with ball attachmentz to increase fracture resistance of the base. © 2015 by the American College of

  17. A Spitzer Search for Activity in Dormant Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard

    2018-05-01

    Dormant comets are inactive cometary nuclei hiding in the asteroid populations. Due to their cometary origin, it is possible that volatiles are still retained in their interiors. This hypothesis is supported by the case of near-Earth asteroid Don Quixote, which had been known as an asteroid for 30 yr before activity was discovered in this team's prior Spitzer observations. Interestingly, Don Quixote showed outgassing of CO or CO2, but no dust activity. This significant observation was repeated in 2017 with the same result, suggesting that Don Quixote is continuously outgassing - and still an active comet. Don Quixote's case suggests that other dormant comets might be outgassing with low dust production rates, concealing their activity to optical surveys. The implication of this scenario is that the volatile inventory of the asteroid populations might be significantly larger than currently assumed. We propose 48.8 hr of deep IRAC observations of eight dormant comets in search of faint activity in them. For each target, we will (1) measure (or provide upper limits on) gas and dust production rates from our IRAC CH1 and CH2 observations, (2) derive the diameters and albedos of five of our targets using asteroid thermal modeling, (3) measure the near-infrared spectral slope between CH1 and CH2 for three of our targets, and (4) obtain lightcurve observations of the nuclei of all of our targets. Our observations, which are combined with ground-based observations as part of a NASA-funded program, will provide important constraints on the volatile content of the asteroid population, as well as the origin, evolution, and physical properties of cometary nuclei.

  18. Mechanism for the tilting of Geunther Tulip inferior vena cava filter inserted via femoral vein: an experimental study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Liang; Shen Jing; Huang Desheng; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the mechanism causing the tilting of Geunther Tulip inferior Vena Cava filter (GTF) which is inserted via femoral vein access by means of the experiment in vitro. Methods: The caval model was established by placing one 25 mm × 10 cm Dacron graft and two 10 mm × 20 cm Dacron grafts into a transparent bifurcate glass tube. The study consisted of two groups: right straight group (G RS ) (n=100) and left straight group (G LS ) (n=100). The distance (D CH ) between the caval right wall and the hook was measured. The degree of tilting (DT) was classified into 5 grades and the data were recorded. Before and after the GTF was released, the angle (A CM1,2 ) between the axis of IVC and the metal mount, the distance (D CM1,2 ) between the caval right wall and the metal mount, the angle (A CF ) between the axis of IVC and the axis of the filter and the diameter of IVC (D IVC ) were measured separately. Results: The degree of GTF tilting in each group revealed a divergent tendency. In Group RS, the apex of the filter tended to be grade Ⅲ compared that in Group LS (59% vs 36%, P=0.003). The differences in most variables between G RS and G LS were considered as statistical significance. Significant positive correlation existed between A CM1 and A CF , A CM1 -A CM2 and D CH1 -D CH2 in each group, respectively, while significant negative association was also existed between D CH1 and A CF in each group. Conclusion: The tilting angle of GTF filter axis before it is released is a major cause of the occurrence of femoral GTF filter tilting. (authors)

  19. Qualidade e composição química da carne de bovinos de corte inteiros ou castrados de diferentes grupos genéticos Charolês x Nelore Quality and composition of meat from entire or castrated beef cattle from different Charolais x Nellore genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 70 bovinos machos de três sistemas de acasalamento, puros Charolês (Ch e Nelore (Ne, mestiços G1: 1/2 Ch + 1/2 Ne (1/2 Ch e 1/2 Ne + 1/2 Ch (1/2 Ne e mestiços G2: 3/4 Ch + 1/4 Ne (3/4 Ch e 3/4 Ne + 1/4 Ch (3/4 Ne. O número de animais por grupo genético foi, respectivamente, 15, 12, 8, 12, 14 e 9. Trinta e cinco animais foram castrados (C aos sete meses e 35 foram mantidos inteiros (I. Os animais foram confinados dos 20 aos 24 meses, quando foram abatidos. Para avaliação da carne, foi utilizado o músculo longissimus dorsi. Não houve interação significativa entre grupo genético e estado sexual para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Os machos I apresentaram carne mais escura (3,05 contra 3,78 pontos com menor marmoreio (4,26 contra 5,75 pontos e menos extrato etéreo (1,73 contra 2,88%. Entretanto, a área de longissimus dorsi foi maior (66,03 contra 60,50 cm² e a carne com melhor palatabilidade, suculência e mais macia. Na comparação entre grupos genéticos, os Ch apresentaram maior longissimus dorsi. Na primeira geração de cruzamento (G1, animais 1/2 Ch apresentaram maior marmoreio e teor de extrato etéreo e menor quebra à cocção que os 1/2 Ne. Entre os animais G2, os animais 3/4 Ne mostraram maior quebra ao descongelamento e teor de extrato etéreo na carne. Na G1, o nível de heterose chegou a 18,54% para área de longissimus dorsi, 28,10% para teor de extrato etéreo e 64,01% para marmoreio da carne. Na G2, a heterose foi de -17,37% para a textura da carne e 10,40% para área de longissimus dorsi.Seventy beef males of three breeding systems (BS, straightbreds Charolais (Ch and Nellore (Ne, G1 crossbreds: 1/2 Ch + 1/2 Ne (1/2 Ch and 1/2 Ne + 1/2 Ch (1/2 Ne and G2 crossbreds: 3/4 Ch + 1/4 Ne (3/4 Ch and 3/4 Ne + 1/4 Ch (3/4 Ne were used. The number of animals by genetic group was, respectively, 15, 12, 8, 12, 14 and 9. Thirty-five males were castrated (C at seven months and 35 were kept intact (I. The animals

  20. Monitoring macular pigment changes in macular holes using fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Lydia; Peters, Sven; Schmidt, Johanna; Schweitzer, Dietrich; Klemm, Matthias; Ramm, Lisa; Augsten, Regine; Hammer, Martin

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the impact of macular pigment (MP) on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) lifetimes in vivo by characterizing full-thickness idiopathic macular holes (MH) and macular pseudo-holes (MPH). A total of 37 patients with MH and 52 with MPH were included. Using the fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO), based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, a 30° retinal field was investigated. FAF decays were detected in a short (498-560 nm; ch1) and long (560-720 nm; ch2) wavelength channel. τ m , the mean fluorescence lifetime, was calculated from a three-exponential approximation of the FAF decays. Macular coherence tomography scans were recorded, and macular pigment's optical density (MPOD) was measured (one-wavelength reflectometry). Two MH subgroups were analysed according to the presence or absence of an operculum above the MH. A total of 17 healthy fellow eyes were included. A longitudinal FAF decay examination was conducted in nine patients, which were followed up after surgery and showed a closed MH. In MH without opercula, significant τ m differences (p hole area (MHa) and surrounding areas (MHb) (ch1: MHa 238 ± 64 ps, MHb 181 ± 78 ps; ch2: MHa 275 ± 49 ps, MHb 223 ± 48 ps), as well as between MHa and healthy eyes or closed MH. Shorter τ m , adjacent to the hole, can be assigned to areas with equivalently higher MPOD. Opercula containing MP also show short τ m . In MPH, the intactness of the Hele fibre layer is associated with shortest τ m . Shortest τ m originates from MP-containing retinal layers, especially from the Henle fibre layer. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO) provides information on the MP distribution, the pathogenesis and topology of MH. Macular pigment (MP) fluorescence may provide a biomarker for monitoring pathological changes in retinal diseases. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Relação entre genótipos e temperamento de novilhos Charolês x Nelore em confinamento Relations among genotypes and temperament of Charolais x Nellore steers in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Dias Barbosa Silveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da interação entre genótipos e do temperamento de bovinos sobre os ganhos diretos e indiretos para a produção de carne. Utilizaram-se 79 machos castrados com 19 a 20 meses de idade, divididos em oito grupos genéticos resultantes de cruzamentos Charolês x Nelore: 0, 25, 31, 38, 63, 69, 75 ou 100% Charolês. Os animais foram mantidos em confinamento e alimentados com uma dieta contendo 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado. O temperamento foi avaliado utilizando-se quatro metodologias adotadas durante as pesagens: escore composto (EC; tempo de saída (TS; distância de fuga (DF; e escore de localização do redemoinho de pêlos faciais (RED. Maiores porcentagens de sangue Charolês estiveram relacionadas positivamente ao ganho de peso diário. Independentemente do grupo genético, os animais mais reativos ganharam menos peso. O temperamento é influenciado pelo grupo genético, uma vez que animais com maiores proporções de sangue Nelore são mais agitados e excitáveis.The influence of the relation among genotype and temperament of cattle on the direct and indirect gains for meat production. Seventy-nine steers with 19-20 mo old from eight genotype groups of Charolais x Nellore crossbred were evaluated: CH (100CH, ¾ CH1/4N (0.75CH, 11/16CH5/16N (0.69CH, 5/8CH3/8N (0.63CH, 3/8CH5/8N (0.38CH, 5/16CH11/16N (0.31CH, 1/4CH3/4N (0.25CH e N (0CH animals were kept in feedlot and were fed with diet containing 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (%DM. The temperament was evaluated using are four methods adopted during the cattle weights: composite behavior score (BC, flight time (FT; flight distance (FD, and facial whorl (W position score. Higher percentages of blood Charolais were positively related to daily weight gain. Regardless of the genetic group, the animals more reactive gained less daily weight gain. The temperament is influenced by genetic group, since animals with higher proportions of blood Nellore are more

  2. Índice cronotrópico-metabólico na doença de Chagas

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    Rocha Ana Luiza Lunardi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência cronotrópica constitui achado comum entre os pacientes chagásicos. Novas metodologias estão sendo empregadas na avaliação da resposta cronotrópica em vários grupos de pacientes. O índice cronotrópico-metabólico, um desses novos métodos, quantifica a relação entre o aumento da freqüência cardíaca e o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 max durante o teste ergométrico. A resposta normal é linear, com índice em torno de 1,0. Objetivamos avaliar a resposta cronotrópica e em indivíduos saudáveis e pacientes chagásicos com e sem disfunção ventricular esquerda, utilizando-se do índice cronotrópico-metabólico. Foram avaliados 171 pacientes com doença de Chagas sem doenças associadas e 24 controles submetidos a protocolo clínico e ao teste ergométrico máximo. Os chagásicos foram divididos em dois grupos: Ch1= pacientes com fração de ejeção (FE > 39% e Ch 2= FE<40%. A análise e o cálculo do índice cronotrópico-metabólico foram feitos pelo método de Wilkoff. Os pacientes chagásicos apresentaram maior idade e maior prevalência de bloqueio completo de ramo direito, assim como menor VO2 max ao teste ergométrico. Ambos os grupos de chagásicos apresentaram menor inclinação do índice cronotrópico-metabólico (Ch1: 0,91±0,10, Ch2: 0,89±0,08 do que os controles (1,0±0,12, p< 0,001. Pacientes com doença de Chagas com e sem disfunção ventricular esquerda podem apresentar resposta cronotrópica deprimida, manifesta por menor inclinação do índice cronotrópico-metabólico.

  3. Fab-dsFv: A bispecific antibody format with extended serum half-life through albumin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Emma; Adams, Ralph; Zaccheo, Oliver; Carrington, Bruce; Compson, Joanne E; Dugdale, Sarah; Airey, Michael; Malcolm, Sarah; Hailu, Hanna; Wild, Gavin; Turner, Alison; Heads, James; Sarkar, Kaushik; Ventom, Andrew; Marshall, Diane; Jairaj, Mark; Kopotsha, Tim; Christodoulou, Louis; Zamacona, Miren; Lawson, Alastair D; Heywood, Sam; Humphreys, David P

    2016-10-01

    An antibody format, termed Fab-dsFv, has been designed for clinical indications that require monovalent target binding in the absence of direct Fc receptor (FcR) binding while retaining substantial serum presence. The variable fragment (Fv) domain of a humanized albumin-binding antibody was fused to the C-termini of Fab constant domains, such that the VL and VH domains were individually connected to the Cκ and CH1 domains by peptide linkers, respectively. The anti-albumin Fv was selected for properties thought to be desirable to ensure a durable serum half-life mediated via FcRn. The Fv domain was further stabilized by an inter-domain disulfide bond. The bispecific format was shown to be thermodynamically and biophysically stable, and retained good affinity and efficacy to both antigens simultaneously. In in vivo studies, the serum half-life of Fab-dsFv, 2.6 d in mice and 7.9 d in cynomolgus monkeys, was equivalent to Fab'-PEG.

  4. 'Zipbody' leucine zipper-fused Fab in E. coli in vitro and in vivo expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Fukui, Kansuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hashimura, Dai; Miyake, Shiro; Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Kojima, Takaaki; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A small antibody fragment, fragment of antigen binding (Fab), is favorable for various immunological assays. However, production efficiency of active Fab in microorganisms depends considerably on the clones. In this study, leucine zipper-peptide pairs that dimerize in parallel (ACID-p1 (LZA)/BASE-p1 (LZB) or c-Jun/c-Fos) were fused to the C-terminus of heavy chain (Hc, VH-CH1) and light chain (Lc, VL-CL), respectively, to accelerate the association of Hc and Lc to form Fab in Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro expression systems. The leucine zipper-fused Fab named 'Zipbody' was constructed using anti-E. coli O157 monoclonal antibody obtained from mouse hybridoma and produced in both in vitro and in vivo expression systems in an active form, whereas Fab without the leucine zipper fusion was not. Similarly, Zipbody of rabbit monoclonal antibody produced in in vitro expression showed significant activity. The purified, mouse Zipbody produced in the E. coli strain Shuffle T7 Express had specificity toward the antigen; in bio-layer interferometry analysis, the KD value was measured to be 1.5-2.0 × 10(-8) M. These results indicate that leucine zipper fusion to Fab C-termini markedly enhances active Fab formation in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Generating and Purifying Fab Fragments from Human and Mouse IgG Using the Bacterial Enzymes IdeS, SpeB and Kgp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Jonathan; Andersson, Linda; Mejàre, Malin; Olsson, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Fab fragments are valuable research tools in various areas of science including applications in imaging, binding studies, removal of Fc-mediated effector functions, mass spectrometry, infection biology, and many others. The enzymatic tools for the generation of Fab fragments have been discovered through basic research within the field of molecular bacterial pathogenesis. Today, these enzymes are widely applied as research tools and in this chapter, we describe methodologies based on bacterial enzymes to generate Fab fragments from both human and mouse IgG. For all human IgG subclasses, the IdeS enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes has been applied to generate F(ab')2 fragments that subsequently can be reduced under mild conditions to generate a homogenous pool of Fab' fragments. The enzyme Kgp from Porphyromonas gingivalis has been applied to generate intact Fab fragments from human IgG1 and the Fab fragments can be purified using a CH1-specific affinity resin. The SpeB protease, also from S. pyogenes, is able to digest mouse IgGs and has been applied to digest antibodies and Fab fragments can be purified on light chain affinity resins. In this chapter, we describe methodologies that can be used to obtain Fab fragments from human and mouse IgG using bacterial proteases.

  6. Purification of polyclonal IgG specific for Camelid’s antibodies and their recombinant nanobodies

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    Haddad Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Camelid’ s heavy-chain antibody (HCAb consists of only two heavy chains and lacks the two light chains together with the CH1 domain usually found in conventional immunoglobulins. A recombinant single antigen-binding entity, named VHH (or Nanobody® was generated by reengineering the variable domains from HCAb. This study focuses on the detection of camelid´s immunoglobulins as well as their derivative nanobodies using a universal anti-camel antibody produced in rabbit (rIgG. Starting from a crude rabbit serum, a standard stock of rIgG (1 mg/ml was prepared after purification by affinity chromatography using protein-A column. As expected, rIgG was able to detect camel antibodies in ELISA and immunoblotting, and its reactivity was equal against all different camel IgG subclasses, which were purified from serum by differential affinity chromatography on protein-G and -A. Interestingly, rIgG also recognized nanobodies since they were originally part of camel HCAbs, providing an alternative method to detect the corpus of these recombinant proteins rather than targeting their artificial tags. These data suggest that the anti-camel rIgG described here could be efficiently applied at different stages of nanobody technology, including the quantitation of the issued nanobodies and their detection when bound to target antigens.

  7. Analyses of (0.5part>)-1dNch/dη distributions of PHOBOS and BRAHMS collaborations by means of a stochastic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyajima, M.; Ide, M.; Mizoguchi, T.; Suzuki, N.

    2002-01-01

    Recently interesting data on dN ch /dη in Au-Au collisions (η=-ln tan(θ/2)) with the centrality cuts have been reported by PHOBOS and BRAHMS Collaborations. Their data are usually divided by the number of participants (nucleons) in collisions. Instead of this way, using the total multiplicity N ch =∫(dN ch /dη)dη, we find that there are scaling phenomena among (N ch ) -1 dN ch /dη=dn/dη with different centrality cuts at √s NN = 130 GeV and 200 GeV, respectively. To explain these scaling behaviors of dn/dη, we consider the stochastic approach named Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with two sources. The Langevin equation is adopted for the present explanation. Among dn/dη at 130 GeV and 200 GeV, no significant difference has been found. Possible detection method of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) through dN ch /dη is presented. (author)

  8. Affine Transform to Reform Pixel Coordinates of EOG Signals for Controlling Robot Manipulators Using Gaze Motions

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    Muhammad Ilhamdi Rusydi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2 produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  9. Rotation Matrix to Operate a Robot Manipulator for 2D Analog Tracking Objects Using Electrooculography

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    Muhammad Ilhamdi Rusydi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Performing some special tasks using electrooculography (EOG in daily activities is being developed in various areas. In this paper, simple rotation matrixes were introduced to help the operator move a 2-DoF planar robot manipulator. The EOG sensor, NF 5201, has two output channels (Ch1 and Ch2, as well as one ground channel and one reference channel. The robot movement was the indicator that this system could follow gaze motion based on EOG. Operators gazed into five training target points each in the horizontal and vertical line as the preliminary experiments, which were based on directions, distances and the areas of gaze motions. This was done to get the relationships between EOG and gaze motion distance for four directions, which were up, down, right and left. The maximum angle for the horizontal was 46°, while it was 38° for the vertical. Rotation matrixes for the horizontal and vertical signals were combined, so as to diagonally track objects. To verify, the errors between actual and desired target positions were calculated using the Euclidian distance. This test section had 20 random target points. The result indicated that this system could track an object with average angle errors of 3.31° in the x-axis and 3.58° in the y-axis.

  10. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoest, J.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  11. The phylogenetic distribution and ecological role of carbon monoxide oxidation in the genus Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia is a physiologically and ecologically diverse genus that occurs commonly in assemblages of soil and rhizosphere bacteria. Although Burkholderia is known for its heterotrophic versatility, we demonstrate that 14 distinct environmental isolates oxidized carbon monoxide (CO) and possessed the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of form I CO dehydrogenase (coxL). DNA from a Burkholderia isolate obtained from a passalid beetle also contained coxL as do the genomic sequences of species H160 and Ch1-1. Isolates were able to consume CO at concentrations ranging from 100 ppm (vol/vol) to sub-ambient ( 2.5 mM), but mixotrophic consumption of CO and pyruvate occurred when initial pyruvate concentrations were lower (c. 400 lM). With the exception of an isolate most closely related to Burkholderia cepacia, all CO-oxidizing isolates examined were members of a nonpathogenic clade and were most closely related to Burkholderia species, B. caledonica, B. fungorum, B. oxiphila, B. mimosarum, B. nodosa, B. sacchari, B. bryophila, B. ferrariae, B. ginsengesoli, and B. unamae. However, none of these type strains oxidized CO or contained coxL based on results from PCR analyses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the presence of CO oxidation within members of the Burkholderia genus is variable but it is most commonly found among rhizosphere inhabitants that are not closely related to B. cepacia.

  12. Control of Virulence Gene Expression by the Master Regulator, CfaD, in the Prototypical Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain, H10407

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    Carla Hodson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries, as well as in travelers to these countries. To cause disease, ETEC needs to produce a series of virulence proteins including enterotoxins, colonization factors and secretion pathways, which enable this pathogen to colonize the human small intestine and deliver enterotoxins to epithelial cells. Previously, a number of studies have demonstrated that CfaD, an AraC-like transcriptional regulator, plays a key role in virulence gene expression by ETEC. In this study, we carried out a transcriptomic analysis of ETEC strain, H10407, grown under different conditions, and determined the complete set of genes that are regulated by CfaD. In this way, we identified a number of new target genes, including rnr-1, rnr-2, etpBAC, agn43, flu, traM and ETEC_3214, whose expression is strongly activated by CfaD. Using promoter-lacZ reporters, primer extension and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we characterized the CfaD-mediated activation of several selected target promoters. We also showed that the gut-associated environmental signal, sodium bicarbonate, stimulates CfaD-mediated upregulation of its virulence target operons. Finally, we screened a commercial small molecule library and identified a compound (CH-1 that specifically inhibited the regulatory function of CfaD, and by 2-D analoging, we identified a second inhibitor (CH-2 with greater potency.

  13. Coherence properties of holes subject to a fluctuating spin chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.M.; Hong, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The coherence properties of holes coupled to short-ranged chiral spin fluctuations with a characteristic chiral spin fluctuation time τ ch =ω ch -1 are investigated in two dimensions. At temperatures kT much-lt 4π 2 left-angle φ 2 right-angle -1 ℎω ch hole quasiparticles exist and propagate with a renormalized mass m * /m=1+left-angle φ 2 right-angle ℎ/16πma 0 2 ω ch . $langle phi sup 2 rangle--- is the amplitude of the local fictitious flux fluctuation and a 0 is a lattice cutoff. At temperatures kT much-gt 4π 2 left-angle φ 2 right-angle -1 ℎω ch an effective-mass approximation is invalid and we find that the hole diffuses according to a logarithmic diffusion law in the quasistatic chiral field. The unusual diffusion law is a consequence of the long-ranged nature of the gauge field. The result shows that the holes do not form a coherent quantum fluid in the quasistatic regime

  14. An extreme-halophile archaebacterium possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase characteristic of the Gram-positive eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; d'Amato, T. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1988-01-01

    The focal point of phenylalanine biosynthesis is a dehydratase reaction which in different organisms may be prephenate dehydratase, arogenate dehydratase, or cyclohexadienyl dehydratase. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and cyanobacterial divisions of the eubacterial kingdom exhibit different dehydratase patterns. A new extreme-halophile isolate, which grows on defined medium and is tentatively designated as Halobacterium vallismortis CH-1, possesses the interlock type of prephenate dehydratase present in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the conventional sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, the phenomenon of metabolic interlock was exemplified by the sensitivity of prephenate dehydratase to allosteric effects produced by extra-pathway (remote) effectors. Thus, L-tryptophan inhibited activity while L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine activated the enzyme. L-Isoleucine and L-phenylalanine were effective at micromolar levels; other effectors operated at mM levels. A regulatory mutant selected for resistance to growth inhibition caused by beta-2-thienylalanine possessed an altered prephenate dehydratase in which a phenomenon of disproportionately low activity at low enzyme concentration was abolished. Inhibition by L-tryptophan was also lost, and activation by allosteric activators was diminished. Not only was sensitivity to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine lost, but the mutant enzyme was now activated by this amino acid (a mutation type previously observed in Bacillus subtilis). It remains to be seen whether this type of prephenate dehydratase will prove to be characteristic of all archaebacteria or of some archaebacterial subgroup cluster.

  15. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Caused by Biallelic TNXB Variants in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wuyan; Perritt, Ashley F; Morissette, Rachel; Dreiling, Jennifer L; Bohn, Markus-Frederik; Mallappa, Ashwini; Xu, Zhi; Quezado, Martha; Merke, Deborah P

    2016-09-01

    Some variants that cause autosomal-recessive congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) also cause hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) due to the monoallelic presence of a chimera disrupting two flanking genes: CYP21A2, encoding 21-hydroxylase, necessary for cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and TNXB, encoding tenascin-X, an extracellular matrix protein. Two types of CAH tenascin-X (CAH-X) chimeras have been described with a total deletion of CYP21A2 and characteristic TNXB variants. CAH-X CH-1 has a TNXB exon 35 120-bp deletion resulting in haploinsufficiency, and CAH-X CH-2 has a TNXB exon 40 c.12174C>G (p.Cys4058Trp) variant resulting in a dominant-negative effect. We present here three patients with biallelic CAH-X and identify a novel dominant-negative chimera termed CAH-X CH-3. Compared with monoallelic CAH-X, biallelic CAH-X results in a more severe phenotype with skin features characteristic of classical EDS. We present evidence for disrupted tenascin-X function and computational data linking the type of TNXB variant to disease severity. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sgr B2 los molecular absorption line spectra (Corby+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra covering transitions of c-C3H2, c-H1 SO, CCS, H2CS, HCS+, OH, SiO, 29SiO, H2CO, H2(13C)O, l-C3H, and l-C3H+ with line-of-sight absorption observed in the 1-50 GHz data from the PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Data were observed between 2001 and 2014, with the majority of the data obtained in 2007 in GBT Key Science project ID GBT07A-051. Spectra have been baseline-subtracted using best fit polynomials as described in the paper, and normalized by the continuum, so that the y-axis represents (T/TC-1). Data are provided in the FITS format; each FITS file contains all lines of a single molecule that are observed to have foreground absorption. Please refer to Table 1 of the paper to obtain molecular transition rest frequencies, energies, GBT beam sizes, and transition quantum numbers. (2 data files).

  17. O5S, Calibration of Organic Scintillation Detector by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: O5S is designed to directly simulate the experimental techniques used to obtain the pulse height distribution for a parallel beam of mono-energetic neutrons incident on organic scintillator systems. Developed to accurately calibrate the nominally 2 in. by 2 in. liquid organic scintillator NE-213 (composition CH-1.2), the programme should be readily adaptable to many similar problems. 2 - Method of solution: O5S is a Monte Carlo programme patterned after the general-purpose Monte Carlo neutron transport programme system, O5R. The O5S Monte Carlo experiment follows the course of each neutron through the scintillator and obtains the energy-deposits of the ions produced by elastic scatterings and reactions. The light pulse produced by the neutron is obtained by summing up the contributions of the various ions with the use of appropriate light vs. ion-energy tables. Because of the specialized geometry and simpler cross section needs O5S is able to by-pass many features included in O5R. For instance, neutrons may be followed individually, their histories analyzed as they occur, and upon completion of the experiment, the results analyzed to obtain the pulse-height distribution during one pass on the computer. O5S does allow the absorption of neutrons, but does not allow splitting or Russian roulette (biased weighting schemes). SMOOTHIE is designed to smooth O5S histogram data using Gaussian functions with parameters specified by the user

  18. European apple canker: morphophysiological variability and pathogenicity in isolates of Neonectria ditissima in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas da Silva Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: European apple canker (EC is caused by Neonectria ditissima, a pathogen officially registered as a quarantine pest in 2012. Thirty-five isolates of N. ditissima of different geographical regions of southern Brazil from apple branches showing symptoms of EC were identified by the specific pair primers Ch1 and Ch2 and analyzed concerning the virulence on Gala apple cultivar and morphophysiological characteristics. The disease symptoms were characterized and the isolates compared based on average mycelium growth (AMG, mycelium growth index (MGI, colony color, conidia type, dimensions and growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA, malt agar (AM, and synthetic SNAY (SN culture media. Nineteen isolates showed the greatest AMG on PDA, forming three growth groups of 35.56 (GI, 52.71 (GII, and 62.67mm (GIII. Seven isolates showed MGI greater than 4.0mm diameter on PDA compared with that on AM and SN. The highest conidia production was on SN, and the predominant colony color in all media was white to beige with central pigmentation of brown and borders colored in shades of beige. There were significant differences among the average dimensions of micro- and macroconidia on PDA, AM, and SN. The pathogenicity was confirmed for all isolates despite of different morphophysiological characteristics. There was no correlation among isolates morphophysiological variability, virulence, and geographical origin.

  19. Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate, BiodentineTM and calcium hydroxide on viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Borges Araújo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the capping materials mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium hydroxide (CH and BiodentineTM (BD on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in vitro. Material and Methods: SHED were cultured for 1 – 7 days in medium conditioned by incubation with MTA, BD or CH (1 mg/mL, and tested for viability (MTT assay and proliferation (SRB assay. Also, the migration of serum-starved SHED towards conditioned media was assayed in companion plates, with 8 μm-pore-sized membranes, for 24 h. Gene expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Regular culture medium with 10% FBS (without conditioning and culture medium supplemented with 20% FBS were used as controls. Results: MTA, CH and BD conditioned media maintained cell viability and allowed continuous SHED proliferation, with CH conditioned medium causing the highest positive effect on proliferation at the end of the treatment period (compared with BD and MTA (p<0.05. In contrast, we observed increased SHED migration towards BD and MTA conditioned media (compared with CH (p<0.05. A greater amount of DMP-1 gene was expressed in MTA group compared with the other groups from day 7 up to day 21. Conclusion: Our results show that the three capping materials are biocompatible, maintain viability and stimulate proliferation, migration and differentiation in a key dental stem cell population.

  20. Metallothionein-1 and nitric oxide expression are inversely correlated in a murine model of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elba Gonzalez-Mejia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO, has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf, infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME, non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001. In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels.

  1. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  2. Random magnetic anisotropy in thin films of amorphous Mn48B52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistenmacher, T.J.; Bryden, W.A.; Moorjani, K.

    1989-01-01

    While crystalline MnB is a ferromagnet (T c =573 K), rf diode-sputtered thin films of composition Mn 48 B 52 are amorphous as ascertained by x-ray scattering and exhibit a low-field, hysteretic, static magnetization peak characteristic of a spin glass. High-field (up to 44 kG) static magnetization data at temperatures ranging between 6 and 200 K are analyzed within the random anisotropy model of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)]. In this model, the field-dependent magnetization at a given temperature is expressed as M(H)=M(0)(1-CH -1/2 )+χ'H, where the lead term follows from the analysis of a ferromagnet with a wandering axis (FWA) and the second term accounts for contributions from induced moments. The T 3/2 dependence of the saturation magnetization of the FWA contribution, M(0), at low temperatures is suggestive of spin-wave excitations, while the temperature dependence of the fitting parameters C and χ' consistently identify several characteristic temperatures associated with the magnetic behavior of a-Mn 48 B 52 , including the low-field spin-glass transition temperature and Curie temperature and the curvature crossover temperature (established from a classical Arrott plot) that separates the FWA state and a pseudoparamagnetic limit

  3. Adsorbed Carbon Formation and Carbon Hydrogenation for CO_2 Methanation on the Ni(111) Surface: ASED-MO Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Sang Joon; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Bae; Park, Dong Ho; Huh, Do Sung

    2005-01-01

    Using the ASED-MO (Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization-Molecular Orbital) theory, we investigated carbon formation and carbon hydrogenation for CO_2 methanation on the Ni (111) surface. For carbon formation mechanism, we calculated the following activation energies, 1.27 eV for CO_2 dissociation, 2.97 eV for the CO, 1.93 eV for 2CO dissociation, respectively. For carbon methanation mechanism, we also calculated the following activation energies, 0.72 eV for methylidyne, 0.52 eV for methylene and 0.50 eV for methane, respectively. We found that the calculated activation energy of CO dissociation is higher than that of 2CO dissociation on the clean surface and base on these results that the CO dissociation step are the ratedetermining of the process. The C-H bond lengths of CH_4 the intermediate complex are 1.21 A, 1.31 A for the C···H_(_1_), and 2.82 A for the height, with angles of 105 .deg. for H_(_1_)CH and 98 .deg. for H_(_1_)CH_(_1_)

  4. Two- and three dimensional electrons and photons and their supersymmetric partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steringa, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis contains a study of supersymmetric gauge theories in two and tree spacetime dimensions. Supersymmetric gauge theories in less than four spacetime dimensions are useful for trying out field theoretical methods which ultimately will be applied to realistic models. In ch. 1 all the aspects of field theory that are necessary for later chapters are treated. In ch. 2 sypersymmetry in two- and three-dimensional space time is treated, and superfields and superspace techniques are introduced. With these a simple Abelian supersymmetric gauge theory in two spacetime dimensions is constructed, the Schwinger model. Ch. 3 deals with general properties and a perturbative analysis of the model. Ch. 4 contains a non-perturbative analysis by means of Dyson-Schwinger equations. A supersummetric extension of theSalam-Delbourgo Gauge Technique is presented and is applied with some seccess to the supersymmetric Schwinger model. In ch. 5 prperties of three-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories are investigated. (author). 55 refs.; 7 figs.; schemes

  5. In-vitro mutation breeding technology in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesticky, M.

    1988-08-01

    Gamma-irradiation and in-vitro culture, separately or combined, as a tool for inducing mutation in maize were evaluated. This type of research has been hampered in maize because (i) maize is a cross pollinating crop and highly heterozygous and (ii) embryogenesis and plant regeneration of plants from in-vitro culture have been difficult. In the present study, carefully designed and elaborated experiments were conducted using an inbred line CH1 31 which is capable of somatic embryogenesis for the subject of mutagenesis and another line Bu 8Ro 2 for the test cross partner. Results showed: 1) Both the regeneration of plants from in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation induced a similar spectrum of morphological variation. Although the variation with somaclones was more frequent that radiation induced mutations under the conditions used, combination of explant irradiation and in-vitro culture gave the highest frequencies of genetic variation. 2) Some of the mutations in quantitative characters can be recogned in heterozygous state. 3) Mutation can cause variation in combining ability (extent of heterosis). 4) Efficiency at embryogenesis differs with genotypes of maize. 3 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Rosellinia necatrix EN Rosa sp. Y SU EVALUACIÓN A SENSIBILIDAD DE FUNGICIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo García-Velasco

    2012-01-01

    evaluaron los fungicidas quintozeno, benomilo, fluazinam y tiofanato metílico, a dosis de 1 g·L-1, 0.6 g·L-1, 0.5 ml·L-1 y 0.6 g·L-1, respectivamente. El hongo asociado a la pudrición blanca de raíz presentó micelio con hinchamientos piriformes antes de la septa; como signos se encontraron cordones miceliales en raíz y cuello de la planta. El hongo fue identificado taxonómicamente como Rosellinia necatrix Prill. (Dematophora necatrix (Hart. Berl.; lo cual fue corroborado mediante análisis molecular. Las cepas T1GRJ, T2GRJ y T3GRJ, de Tenancingo, y las cepas VG1GRJ, VG2GRJ, VG3GRJ y VG4GRJ, de Villa Guerrero, fueron insensibles al fungicida quintozeno, mientras que con los fungicidas benomilo, fluazinam y tiofanato metílico no presentaron crecimiento micelial. La cepa T4GRJ de Tenancingo presentó sensibilidad a todos los fungicidas. La cepa CH1GRJ de Coatepec Harinas, fue insensible a quintozeno y presentó ligero crecimiento con fluazinam; mientras que con benomilo y tiofanato metílico el crecimiento fue nulo.

  7. Equation of state and shock compression of carbon-hydrogen and other ablator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Militzer, B.; Whitley, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic compression experiments in planetary interior studies and fusion sciences often implement carbon-hydrogen or other low-Z elements or compounds as ablators. Accurate quantum simulations of these materials enables theoretical investigation of the equation of state (EOS) over temperatures and pressures that are difficult to access experimentally, and can help guide the design of targets for future experiments. In this work, we use path integral Monte Carlo and density functional molecular dynamics to calculate the equation of state of a series of hydrocarbons and other low-Z materials (B, B4C, and BN). For the hydrocarbon with C:H=1:1, we predict the pressure-compression profile to agree remarkably with experiments at low pressures. At high pressures, we find the Hugoniot curve displays a single compression maximum of 4.7 that corresponds to K-shell ionization. This is slightly higher than that of glow-discharge polymers but both occur at the same pressure (0.47 Gbar). We study the linear mixing approximation for the EOS of hydrocarbons and demonstrate its validity at stellar core conditions. We examine the sensitivity of the fusion yield to the EOS of these candidate ablator materials in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of a direct-drive implosion. We also make detailed comparisons of the EOS and atomic and electronic structure of C and BN, which is useful for systematic improvement of existing EOS models. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of PR genes in some pome fruit species with the emphasis on transcriptional analysis and ROS response under Erwinia amylovora inoculation in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Maryam; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Nasiri, Jaber; Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Attempts were made to identify eight pathogenesis related (PR) genes (i.e., PR-1a, PR3-ch1, PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch3, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5, PR-5 and PR-8) from 27 genotypes of apple, quince and pear, which are induced in response to inoculation with the pathogen Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Totally, 32 PR genes of different families were obtained, excepting PR3-Ch2 (amplified only in apple) and PR3-Ch4 (amplified only in apple and pear), the others were successfully amplified in all the genotypes of apple, quince and pear. Evolutionary, the genes of each family exhibited significant homology with each other, as the corresponded phylogenetic neighbor-joining-based dendrograms were taken into consideration. Meanwhile, according to the expression assay, it was deduced that the pathogen activity can significantly affect the expression levels of some selected PR genes of PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5 and particularly Cat I in both resistant (MM-111) and semi-susceptible (MM-106) apple rootstocks. Lastly, it was concluded that the pathogen E. amylovora is able to stimulate ROS response, particularly using generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both aforementioned apple rootstock.

  9. [Observation of antiarrhythmic effects of Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li on experimental arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Y; Qiu, D; Xie, C; Chen, K

    1998-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Cinnamomum migao on experimental arrhythmia. Arrhythmic models of mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and rats were built using chloroform(Chl), adrenalin(Adr), strophanthin-K (Spt-K) and barium chloride (BaCl2). The affected animals were divided randomly into three groups: control group, Cinnamomum migao (CV-3) group and mexiletine (MXL) group, so as to observe and compare the antiarrhythmic effects. CV-3 could reduce the incidence of ventricular fibrillation caused by ch1 in mice and the ventricular tachycardia induced by Adr in rabbits, delay the onset time of this arrhythmia, increase the arrhythmic doses of Spt-K in guinea pigs, reduce the incidence of some arrhythmia caused by BaCl2 in rats and slow down their heart rate. CV-3 has obvious antiarrhythmic effects on experimental arrhythmia. The mechanism of these effects is probably related to the arrest of the intraflow of Na+, Ca2+ in the cardiac cells and the depression of their cardiac autoarrhythmicity and conductivity.

  10. Heavy flavour production and heavy flavour mixing at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijk, B. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some results of the proton-antiproton-collision experiment UA1 with the CERN Super Proton-Antiproton Synchrotron are presented and interpreted. Ch. 1 contians a general introduction to the physics motivations behind the proton-antiproton-collider project, a brief description of the CERN facilities and a summary of collider and UA1 physics achievements. Furthermore the concept of studying heavy flavours via their weak decays into muons is introduced. Ch. 2 gives a brief overview of the UA1 experimental set-up, while those parts of the detector that are relevant for the analysis, presented in this thesis, is discussed in some more detail. Ch. 3 contains a short introduction to, and motivation for the use of Monte Carlo techniques in event simulations, while Ch. 4 describes the framework of the recently developed 'EUROJET' event generator. In Ch. 5 a treatment is given of the theoretical background and concepts like 'quark-mixing' and 'CP-violation' are explained, also other useful definitions and formulae are introduced on which the later analysis of the same-sign to opposite-sign dimuon ratio is built. Data collection and event reconstruction is the subject of Ch. 6, while a detailed comparison between the theoretical models and experimentally obtained distributions is given in Ch. 7. Finally, in Ch. 8 some concluding remarks are made. 182 refs.; 81 figs.; 9 tabs

  11. The organometallic chemistry of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlander, R.

    1986-09-01

    Organometallic compounds of neptunium with carbocyclic ligands (C 5 H 5 - =cp, C 8 H 8 2- =cot) have been prepared and investigated. Starting from tetrakis(cyclopentadienyle)neptunium(IV) (cp 4 Np) and tris(cyclopentadienyle)neptunium(IV) chloride (cp 3 NpCl) a lot of other Np(IV)-compounds can be obtained by ligand-exchange reactions. These have the general formula cp 3 NpL with either inorganic ionic (L=Br - , I - , 1/2SO 4 2- , NCS - , AlCl 4 - ) or organic ligands (L=NC 4 H 4 - , N 2 C 3 H 3 - , C=CH - , 1/2C= 2- , CH 3 - , C 2 H 5 - , C 6 H 5 - ). Produced by reduction, tris(cyclopentadienyle)neptunium(III), cp 3 Np) gives similar structured 1:1-adduct complexes, cp 3 Np * B, with Lewis-bases like THF, diethylether, acetonitrile. Physico-chemical properties and changes in the molecular structure of the complexes have been studied using IR-, FTIR- and optical spectroscopy (in the NIR, VIS and UV region) as well as by magnetic and EPR measurements and Moessbauer spectrometry. The results are discussed as to their classification within the actinide complex chemistry and to the comparison with lanthanide complexes. (orig./RB) [de

  12. The absence of chlorophyll b affects lateral mobility of photosynthetic complexes and lipids in grana membranes of Arabidopsis and barley chlorina mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutereva, Elena V; Evkaikina, Anastasiia I; Ivanova, Alexandra N; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V

    2017-09-01

    The lateral mobility of integral components of thylakoid membranes, such as plastoquinone, xanthophylls, and pigment-protein complexes, is critical for the maintenance of efficient light harvesting, high rates of linear electron transport, and successful repair of damaged photosystem II (PSII). The packaging of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in the membrane depends on their size and stereometric parameters which in turn depend on the composition of the complexes. Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an important regulator of antenna size and composition. In this study, the lateral mobility (the mobile fraction size) of pigment-protein complexes and lipids in grana membranes was analyzed in chlorina mutants of Arabidopsis and barley lacking Chlb. In the Arabidopsis ch1-3 mutant, diffusion of membrane lipids decreased as compared to wild-type plants, but the diffusion of photosynthetic complexes was not affected. In the barley chlorina f2 3613 mutant, the diffusion of pigment-protein complexes significantly decreased, while the diffusion of lipids increased, as compared to wild-type plants. We propose that the size of the mobile fractions of pigment-protein complexes in grana membranes in vivo is higher than reported previously. The data are discussed in the context of the protein composition of antennae, characteristics of the plastoquinone pool, and production of reactive oxygen species in leaves of chlorina mutants.

  13. Affine transform to reform pixel coordinates of EOG signals for controlling robot manipulators using gaze motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydi, Muhammad Ilhamdi; Sasaki, Minoru; Ito, Satoshi

    2014-06-10

    Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG) signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2) produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  14. Fast ion distribution in the presence of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-10-01

    Experiments and simulations in multiple ICF related configurations have observed signs of bulk flow near stagnation. These configurations include both laser driven implosions such as at the NIF, as well as Z-Pinches. We investigate the possibilities for enhancement or depletion of fast ion tails in simplified flow models, with an eye towards applicability to ICF experiments. Small effects on the tail populations may substantially affect fusion output, as the fast ions in these tails have much larger fusion cross sections than thermal ions and make up the majority of fusion production for typical ICF temperatures. While in collisional plasma the bulk of the distribution function is driven toward Maxwellian in a few collision times, the high velocity tails can take much longer to form. Furthermore, the long mean free paths of the fast ions means they may sample differing regions of flow, while thermal particles only sample the local flow. This work was supported by DOE through Contracts DE-AC02-09CH1-1466 and 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836). Seth Davidovits would like to acknowledge support by the DOE-CSGF program under Grant DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  15. Longitudinal emission tomography of thyroid and heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giessen, J.W. van.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis three devices are discussed for longitudinal emission tomography, one of which has been developed for myocardial imaging and the other two for thyroid imaging. Longitudinal emission tomography is a technique which enables three-dimensional reconstruction of the radioactivity distribution within an organ from two-dimensional distributions on a detector surface. In Ch. 1 a general survey is given of the clinical environment in which the devices will be used. Ch. 2 discusses a well-known technique for myocardial imaging: seven-pinhole tomography. In Ch. 3 this technique is applied to imaging of the thyroid. Three different reconstruction methods have been applied to the data collected with the system (from phantoms as well as from patients) and the results have been evaluated. Ch. 4 discusses simulation studies which were carried out in order to investigate the potentialities of a time-coded aperture (TCA) system designed for thyroid tomography. In Ch. 5 a prototype is tested of the time coded aperture in a clinical environment. The last chapter presents a comparison between the (thyroid) 7P collimator and the TCA device. (Auth.)

  16. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy in type 2 diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Deutsch, Lydia; Klemm, Matthias; Jentsch, Susanne; Hammer, Martin; Peters, Sven; Haueisen, Jens; Müller, Ulrich A.; Dawczynski, Jens

    2015-06-01

    The time-resolved autofluorescence of the eye is used for the detection of metabolic alteration in diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy. One eye from 37 phakic and 11 pseudophakic patients with type 2 diabetes, and one eye from 25 phakic and 23 pseudophakic healthy subjects were included in the study. After a three-exponential fit of the decay of autofluorescence, histograms of lifetimes τi, amplitudes αi, and relative contributions Qi were statistically compared between corresponding groups in two spectral channels (490diabetic patients and age-matched controls (p450 ps, and the shift of τ3 from ˜3000 to 3700 ps in ch1 of diabetic patients when compared with healthy subjects indicate an increased production of free flavin adenine dinucleotide, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and, probably, a change from free to protein-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at the fundus. AGE also accumulated in the crystalline lens.

  17. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, A. J., E-mail: mackinnon2@llnl.gov; Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Döppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  18. Optical Lattice Bose-Einstein Condensates and the dd Fusion - Iwamura Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2003-03-01

    My conjecture: LENR dd fusion occurs in PdDx when a subset of the interstitial deuterons occupy tetrahedral sites in a PdDx crystallite. The tetrahedral deuterons(d's), which occupy shallow potential wells, behave as a superfluid, similar to ultracold Na atoms in shallow-well optical traps, as modeled by Jaksch et al.(D. Jaksch, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3108 (1998).) The tetrahedral d's form a deuteron (d) subsystem, which is neutralized by an electron subsystem containing an equal number of electrons. In the superfluid all the properties of each quasiparticle d are partitioned among N_s_i_te equivalent sites. The partitioning of the d point charge reduces the Coulomb self-repulsion within each quasiparticle pair, which causes wave function overlap at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing d-d fusion. Similarly, partitioning of the point charge of each single quasiparticle d reduces the Coulomb repulsion between it and an obstructing impurity atom, which causes wave function overlap between quasiparticle and atom at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing transmutation of the impurity atom. The Iwamura reaction(Y. Iwamura, et al, Japan J. of Appl. Physics, 41A, 4642 (2002).) is 4 ^2D^+_B_l_o_ch + 4 e^-_B_l_o_ch + ^1^3^3Cs arrow ^1^4^1Pr, with the reaction energy incoherently transferred to the lattice.

  19. The remnant of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus IgD gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K Lanning

    Full Text Available Although IgD first appeared, along with IgM, in the cartilaginous fishes and has been retained throughout subsequent vertebrate evolution, it has been lost in a diverse group of vertebrate species. We previously showed that, unlike vertebrates that express IgD, the rabbit lacks an IgD (Cδ gene within 13.5 kb downstream of the IgM gene. We report here that, by conducting BLAST searches of rabbit Ig heavy chain genomic DNA with known mammalian IgD exons, we identified the remnant of the rabbit Cδ gene approximately 21 kb downstream of the IgM gene. The remnant Cδ locus lacks the δCH1 and hinge exons, but contains truncated δCH2 and δCH3 exons, as well as largely intact, but non-functional, secretory and transmembrane exons. In addition, we report that the Cδ gene probably became non-functional in leporids at least prior to the divergence of rabbits and hares ~12 million years ago.

  20. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  1. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  2. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  3. March1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Modulates Features of Allergic Asthma in an Ovalbumin-Induced Mouse Model of Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Kishta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (March1 is a member of the March family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. March1 downregulates cell surface expression of MHC II and CD86 by targeting them to lysosomal degradation. Given the key roles of MHC class II and CD86 in T cell activation and to get further insights into the development of allergic inflammation, we asked whether March1 deficiency exacerbates or attenuates features of allergic asthma in mice. Herein, we used an acute model of allergy to compare the asthmatic phenotype of March1-deficient and -sufficient mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA and later challenged by intranasal instillation of OVA in the lungs. We found that eosinophilic inflammation in airways and lung tissue was similar between WT and March1−/− allergic mice, whereas neutrophilic inflammation was significant only in March1−/− mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness as well as levels of IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-6, and IL-10 was lower in the lungs of asthmatic March1−/− mice compared to WT, whereas lung levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were not significantly different. Interestingly, in the serum, levels of total and ova-specific IgE were reduced in March1-deficient mice as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role of March1 E3 ubiquitin ligase in modulating allergic responses.

  4. SHIELD: The Star Formation Law in Extremely Low-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Yaron; McNichols, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; SHIELD Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs" (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational study of 12 low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered in Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey data products. Here we analyze the relationships between HI and star formation in these systems using multi-configuration, high spatial (~300 pc) and spectral (0.82 - 2.46 km s-1 ch-1) resolution HI observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Hα imaging from the WIYN 3.5m telescope, and archival GALEX far-ultraviolet imaging. We compare the locations and intensities of star formation with the properties of the neutral ISM. We quantify the degree of local co-spatiality between star forming regions and regions of high HI column densities using the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) relation. The values of the K-S index N vary considerably from system to system; because no single galaxy is representative of the sample, we instead focus on the narratives of the individual galaxies and their complex distribution of gaseous and stellar components. At the extremely faint end of the HI mass function, these systems are dominated by stochastic fluctuations in their interstellar media, which governs whether or not they show signs of recent star formation.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  5. Roles of outer capsid proteins as determinants of pathogenicity and host range restriction of avian rotaviruses in a suckling mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshio; Borgan, Mohammed Ali; Takayama, Mutsuyo; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Minamoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pigeon rotavirus, PO-13, but not turkey strains Ty-3 and Ty-1 and a chicken strain, Ch-1, induced diarrhea in heterologous suckling mice. In this study, it was suggested that these avirulent strains, but not PO-13, were inactivated immediately in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice when they were orally inoculated. To determine which viral proteins contribute to the differences between the pathogenicitiy and the inactivation of PO-13 and Ty-3 in suckling mice, six PO-13 x Ty-3 reassortant strains that had the genes of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, derived from the opposite strain were prepared and were orally inoculated to suckling mice. A single strain that had both PO-13 VP4 and VP7 with the genetic background of Ty-3 had an intermediate virulence for suckling mice. Three strains with Ty-3 VP7, regardless of the origin of VP4, rapidly disappeared from gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice. These results indicated that the difference between the pathogenicity of PO-13 and that of Ty-3 was mainly dependent on both their VP4 and VP7. In particular, VP7 was found to be related to the inactivation of Ty-3 in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice

  6. Characterization of the heterotrophic biomass and the endogenous residue of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Abdellah; Dold, Peter; Gadbois, Alain; Déléris, Stéphane; Houweling, Dwight; Comeau, Yves

    2012-03-01

    :5.3) and of sulphur (1:3.2) but a similar content of carbon (1:0.98). Based on these elemental analyses, chemical composition formulae for X(H) and X(E) were determined as CH(1.240)O(0.375)N(0.200)P(0.0172)S(0.0070) and CH(1.248)O(0.492)N(0.068)P(0.0032)S(0.0016), respectively. Data from EPS analyses also confirmed this difference in structure between X(E) and X(H) with an EPS content of 11-17% in X(E)versus 26-40% in X(H). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fenologia e produção de pessegueiros 'granada' com aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e boro Phenologyand production of 'granada' peaches with application of hydrogen cyanamyd and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações e épocas de aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada (CH + óleo mineral (OM e boro sobre a fenologia e produção de pessegueiros 'Granada'. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no município de Charqueadas, na Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Avaliaram-se a fenologia, a queda de gemas florais e intensidade de floração, a frutificação efetiva, o rendimento e a qualidade físico-química dos frutos. A aplicação de 0,4 % CH + 1,0 % OM no estádio de gema dormente estimulou o florescimento e a brotação, mas reduziu a produção das plantas. A pulverização com 0,2% de bórax (220 mg.L-1 de boro nas gemas e flores aumentou a produção das plantas. A aplicação simultânea de 0,25% CH + 0,8% OM, no estádio de início de inchamento das gemas, e de 0,2% de ácido bórico (340 mg.L-1 de boro, na plena floração, promoveu a maior produção de frutos. A aplicação isolada de 0,25 % CH + 0,8 % OM, no estádio de início de inchamento das gemas, reduziu o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS totais e, quando aplicados simultaneamente com o boro, na plena floração, reduziu a acidez titulável dos frutos.The 'Granada' peach presents, in most years, low fruit set in the main producing regions of southern Brazil. Among the factors that can act negatively about this peach variety production detaches the lack of hibernal cold for buds dormancy liberation, as well as the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies. So, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations and times of application of hydrogen Cyanamid (CH + mineral oil (OM and boron on the phenology and production of peach trees, cv. Granada. The experiment was carried in Charqueadas city, in the Central Depression region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It has been evaluated the phenology, the floral bud dropping and the intensity of blooming, the fruit setting and the physic-chemistry quality of the

  8. Fab-based bispecific antibody formats with robust biophysical properties and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiufeng; Sereno, Arlene J; Huang, Flora; Lewis, Steven M; Lieu, Ricky L; Weldon, Caroline; Torres, Carina; Fine, Cody; Batt, Micheal A; Fitchett, Jonathan R; Glasebrook, Andrew L; Kuhlman, Brian; Demarest, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    A myriad of innovative bispecific antibody (BsAb) platforms have been reported. Most require significant protein engineering to be viable from a development and manufacturing perspective. Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) and diabodies that consist only of antibody variable domains have been used as building blocks for making BsAbs for decades. The drawback with Fv-only moieties is that they lack the native-like interactions with CH1/CL domains that make antibody Fab regions stable and soluble. Here, we utilize a redesigned Fab interface to explore 2 novel Fab-based BsAbs platforms. The redesigned Fab interface designs limit heavy and light chain mixing when 2 Fabs are co-expressed simultaneously, thus allowing the use of 2 different Fabs within a BsAb construct without the requirement of one or more scFvs. We describe the stability and activity of a HER2×HER2 IgG-Fab BsAb, and compare its biophysical and activity properties with those of an IgG-scFv that utilizes the variable domains of the same parental antibodies. We also generated an EGFR × CD3 tandem Fab protein with a similar format to a tandem scFv (otherwise known as a bispecific T cell engager or BiTE). We show that the Fab-based BsAbs have superior biophysical properties compared to the scFv-based BsAbs. Additionally, the Fab-based BsAbs do not simply recapitulate the activity of their scFv counterparts, but are shown to possess unique biological activity.

  9. Nanobodies and Nanobody-Based Human Heavy Chain Antibodies As Antitumor Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bannas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized cancer therapy. However, delivery to tumor cells in vivo is hampered by the large size (150 kDa of conventional antibodies. The minimal target recognition module of a conventional antibody is composed of two non-covalently associated variable domains (VH and VL. The proper orientation of these domains is mediated by their hydrophobic interface and is stabilized by their linkage to disulfide-linked constant domains (CH1 and CL. VH and VL domains can be fused via a genetic linker into a single-chain variable fragment (scFv. scFv modules in turn can be fused to one another, e.g., to generate a bispecific T-cell engager, or they can be fused in various orientations to antibody hinge and Fc domains to generate bi- and multispecific antibodies. However, the inherent hydrophobic interaction of VH and VL domains limits the stability and solubility of engineered antibodies, often causing aggregation and/or mispairing of V-domains. Nanobodies (15 kDa and nanobody-based human heavy chain antibodies (75 kDa can overcome these limitations. Camelids naturally produce antibodies composed only of heavy chains in which the target recognition module is composed of a single variable domain (VHH or Nb. Advantageous features of nanobodies include their small size, high solubility, high stability, and excellent tissue penetration in vivo. Nanobodies can readily be linked genetically to Fc-domains, other nanobodies, peptide tags, or toxins and can be conjugated chemically at a specific site to drugs, radionuclides, photosensitizers, and nanoparticles. These properties make them particularly suited for specific and efficient targeting of tumors in vivo. Chimeric nanobody-heavy chain antibodies combine advantageous features of nanobodies and human Fc domains in about half the size of a conventional antibody. In this review, we discuss recent developments and perspectives for applications of nanobodies and nanobody

  10. Nanobodies and Nanobody-Based Human Heavy Chain Antibodies As Antitumor Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, Peter; Hambach, Julia; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized cancer therapy. However, delivery to tumor cells in vivo is hampered by the large size (150 kDa) of conventional antibodies. The minimal target recognition module of a conventional antibody is composed of two non-covalently associated variable domains (VH and VL). The proper orientation of these domains is mediated by their hydrophobic interface and is stabilized by their linkage to disulfide-linked constant domains (CH1 and CL). VH and VL domains can be fused via a genetic linker into a single-chain variable fragment (scFv). scFv modules in turn can be fused to one another, e.g., to generate a bispecific T-cell engager, or they can be fused in various orientations to antibody hinge and Fc domains to generate bi- and multispecific antibodies. However, the inherent hydrophobic interaction of VH and VL domains limits the stability and solubility of engineered antibodies, often causing aggregation and/or mispairing of V-domains. Nanobodies (15 kDa) and nanobody-based human heavy chain antibodies (75 kDa) can overcome these limitations. Camelids naturally produce antibodies composed only of heavy chains in which the target recognition module is composed of a single variable domain (VHH or Nb). Advantageous features of nanobodies include their small size, high solubility, high stability, and excellent tissue penetration in vivo . Nanobodies can readily be linked genetically to Fc-domains, other nanobodies, peptide tags, or toxins and can be conjugated chemically at a specific site to drugs, radionuclides, photosensitizers, and nanoparticles. These properties make them particularly suited for specific and efficient targeting of tumors in vivo . Chimeric nanobody-heavy chain antibodies combine advantageous features of nanobodies and human Fc domains in about half the size of a conventional antibody. In this review, we discuss recent developments and perspectives for applications of nanobodies and nanobody-based human heavy

  11. Remarkable effects of disorder on superconductivity of single atomic layers of lead on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that conventional superconductivity is very robust against non-magnetic disorder. Nevertheless for thin and ultrathin films the structural properties play a major role in determining the superconducting properties, through a subtle interplay between disorder and Coulomb interactions. Unexpectedly, in 2010 superconductivity was discovered in single atomic layers of lead and indium grown on silicon substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and confirmed later on by macroscopic transport measurements. Such well-controlled and tunable crystalline monolayers are ideal systems for studying the influence of various kinds of structural defects on the superconducting properties at the atomic and mesoscopic scale. In particular, Pb monolayers offer the opportunity of probing new effects of disorder because not only superconductivity is 2D but also the electronic wave functions are 2D. Our study of two Pb monolayers of different crystal structures by very-low temperature STM (300 mK) under magnetic field reveals unexpected results involving new spatial spectroscopic variations. Our results show that although the sheet resistance of the Pb monolayers is much below the resistance quantum, strong non-BCS corrections appear leading to peak heights fluctuations in the dI/dV tunneling spectra at a spatial scale much smaller than the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, strong local evidence of the signature of Rashba effect on the superconductivity of the Pb/Si(111) monolayer is revealed through filling of in gap states and local spatial variations of this filling. Finally the nature of vortices in a monolayer is found to be very sensitive to the properties of step edges areas. This work was supported by University Pierre et Marie Curie UPMC `Emergence' project, French ANR Project `ElectroVortex,' ANR-QuDec and Templeton Foundation (40381), ARO (W911NF-13-1-0431) and CNRS PICS funds. Partial funding by US-DOE Grant DE-AC02-07CH1.

  12. The golden proportion in facial soft-tissues of Vietnamese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Son; Saag, Mare; Le, Van Nho; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Nguyen, Bui Bao Tien; Jagomägi, Triin

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the current study was to evaluate proportions of frontal facial soft-tissues of Vietnamese females correspond to the golden proportion (GP). Sixty frontal facial photographs of Vietnamese female students aged 19 years were selected. The selected participants had symmetrical face, a Class I relationship occlusion, complete lip closure, and no history of trauma and orthodontic treatment. The photographic record was set-up with a white backdrop, fill light, a reflector, a camera Canon 650D and subjects were asked to sit in a standard position. Trichion (TR), Temporal soft tissue (TS), Lateral canthus (LC), Lateral nasal (LN), Chilion (CH), and Menton (ME) point were used for photometric measurements on CorelDRAW Graphic X3 software. The vertical facial proportions (mean, percentage compared with GP) were significantly higher than the GP including: LC-CH:CH-ME (1.661, 102%), LN-ME:LC-LN (1.729, 106%), TR-ME:LC-ME (1.739, 107%), TR-LN:LN-ME (1.759, 108%). Whereas TR-ME:LN-ME; CH-ME:LN-CH; LC-LN:LN-CH had ratios of 84% - 92% and were significantly smaller in comparison with GP. The horizontal facial proportions of CHR-L:LNR-L, LCR-L:CHR-L and TSR-L:LCR-L deviated from the GP with mean values of 1.221, 1.922 and 1.229, respectively. The new mean values of TR-ME:LC-ME (1.733), TR-LN:LN-ME (1.732), LC-ME:TR-LC (1.374), CH-ME:LN-CH (1.524), which were predictable changes in proportions, can be significantly converged to the GP if LC-CH:CH-ME is equal to the GP. Soft-tissue facial proportions of Vietnamese females did not correspond to the GP. Changing the lower third face may create harmony vertical facial proportions.

  13. Mechanical properties of self-curing concrete (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of concrete containing self-curing agents are investigated in this paper. In this study, two materials were selected as self-curing agents with different amounts, and the addition of silica fume was studied. The self-curing agents were, pre-soaked lightweight aggregate (Leca; 0.0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of volume of sand; or polyethylene-glycol (Ch.; 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement. To carry out this study the cement content of 300, 400, 500 kg/m3, water/cement ratio of 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 and 0.0%, 15% silica fume of weight of cement as an additive were used in concrete mixes. The mechanical properties were evaluated while the concrete specimens were subjected to air curing regime (in the laboratory environment with 25 °C, 65% R.H. during the experiment. The results show that, the use of self-curing agents in concrete effectively improved the mechanical properties. The concrete used polyethylene-glycol as self-curing agent, attained higher values of mechanical properties than concrete with saturated Leca. In all cases, either 2% Ch. or 15% Leca was the optimum ratio compared with the other ratios. Higher cement content and/or lower water/cement ratio lead(s to more efficient performance of self-curing agents in concrete. Incorporation of silica fume into self-curing concrete mixture enhanced all mechanical properties, not only due to its pozzolanic reaction, but also due to its ability to retain water inside concrete.

  14. Muons in UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, A.L. van.

    1991-01-01

    In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/Ψ and Γ samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Organic priority substances and microbial processes in river sediments subject to contrasting hydrological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Casella, Patrizia; Patrolecco, Luisa; Polesello, Stefano

    2014-06-15

    Flood and drought events of higher intensity and frequency are expected to increase in arid and semi-arid regions, in which temporary rivers represent both a water resource and an aquatic ecosystem to be preserved. In this study, we explored the variation of two classes of hazardous substances (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nonylphenols) and the functioning of the microbial community in river sediments subject to hydrological fluctuations (Candelaro river basin, Italy). Overall, the concentration of pollutants (∑PAHs range 8-275ngg(-1); ∑NPs range 299-4858ngg(-1)) suggests a moderate degree of contamination. The conditions in which the sediments were tested, flow (high/low) and no flow (wet/dry/arid), were associated to significant differences in the chemical and microbial properties. The total organic carbon contribution decreased together with the stream flow reduction, while the contribution of C-PAHs and C-NPs tended to increase. NPs were relatively more concentrated in sediments under high flow, while the more hydrophobic PAHs accumulated under low and no flow conditions. Passing from high to no flow conditions, a gradual reduction of microbial processes was observed, to reach the lowest specific bacterial carbon production rates (0.06fmolCh(-1)cell(-1)), extracellular enzyme activities, and the highest doubling time (40h) in arid sediments. In conclusion, different scenarios for the mobilization of pollutants and microbial processes can be identified under contrasting hydrological conditions: (i) the mobilization of pollutants under high flow and a relatively higher probability for biodegradation; (ii) the accumulation of pollutants during low flow and lower probability for biodegradation; (iii) the drastic reduction of pollutant concentrations under dry and arid conditions, probably independently from the microbial activity (abiotic processes). Our findings let us infer that a multiple approach has to be considered for an appropriate water

  16. Myocardial iodine concentration measurement using dual-energy computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevance, Virgile; Legou, Francois; Ridouani, Fourat [AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Creteil), Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); Damy, Thibaud [AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Creteil), Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service de Cardiologie, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil (UPEC), DHU (Departement Hospitalo-Universitaire), ATVB Ageing-Thorax-Vessels-Blood, IMRB Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomedicale, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil (UPEC), GRC Amyloid Research Institute and Reseau Amylose Mondor, Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Creteil (France); Tacher, Vania; Kobeiter, Hicham [AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Creteil), Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil (UPEC), DHU (Departement Hospitalo-Universitaire), ATVB Ageing-Thorax-Vessels-Blood, IMRB Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomedicale, Creteil (France); Luciani, Alain; Rahmouni, Alain [AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Creteil), Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil, (UPEC), DHU (Departement Hospitalo-Universitaire) VIC Virus-Immunity-Cancer, IMRB Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomedicale, Creteil (France); Deux, Jean-Francois [AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Creteil), Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil, (UPEC), DHU (Departement Hospitalo-Universitaire) ATVB Ageing-Thorax-Vessels-Blood, IMRB Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomedicale, Creteil (France); Universite Paris-Est-Creteil (UPEC), GRC Amyloid Research Institute and Reseau Amylose Mondor, Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Creteil (France)

    2018-02-15

    To measure myocardium iodine concentration (MIC) in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Twenty-two patients with CA, 13 with non-amyloid hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (CH) and 10 control patients were explored with pre-contrast, arterial and 5-minute DECT acquisition (Iomeprol; 1.5 mL/kg). Inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness, blood pool iodine concentration (BPIC), MIC (mg/mL), iodine ratio and extra-cellular volume (ECV) were calculated. IVS thickness was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in CA (17 ± 4 mm) and CH (15 ± 3 mm) patients than in control patients (10 ± 1 mm). CA patients exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) higher 5-minute MIC [2.6 (2.3-3.1) mg/mL], 5-minute iodine ratio (0.88 ± 0.12) and ECV (0.56 ± 0.07) than CH [1.7 (1.4-2.2) mg/mL, 0.57 ± 0.07 and 0.36 ± 0.05, respectively] and control patients [1.9 (1.7-2.4) mg/mL, 0.58 ± 0.07 and 0.35 ± 0.04, respectively]. CH and control patients exhibited similar values (p = 0.9). The area under the curve of 5-minute iodine ratio for the differential diagnosis of CA from CH patients was 0.99 (0.73-1.0; p = 0.001). With a threshold of 0.65, the sensitivity and specificity of 5-minute iodine ratio were 100% and 92%, respectively. Five-minute MIC and iodine ratio were increased in CA patients and exhibited best diagnosis performance to diagnose CA in comparison to other parameters. (orig.)

  17. Identification of a Novel Recombinant Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17 was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs NADC30, JXA1, CH-1a, and VR-2332, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SCcd17 strain was classified into the NADC30-like sub-genotype, in which all the strains contained the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 when compared to VR-2332-like viruses. Notably, extensive amino acid substitutions were observed in nsp2 and a unique single amino acid deletion at position 33 of the GP5 is being described for the first time. Strikingly, recombination analysis revealed that SCcd17 was the result of recombination between the NADC30-like, JXA1-like, and VR-2332-like strains at five recombination breakpoints: nsp1α (nt 641, nsp3 (nt 5141, nsp10 (nt 9521, open reading frame 3 (ORF3 (nt 12,581, and ORF4 (nt 13,021. The genomic data of SCcd17 will be helpful for understanding the role of genomic recombination in the evolution of PRRSV.

  18. A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Kees.

    1990-01-01

    Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs

  19. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, Manaspong; Wongphanit, Pitikarn; Palaga, Tanapat; Puthong, Songchan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Komolpis, Kittinan

    2013-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved for the treatment of infections in animals. Because of the side effects to consumers of animal products, the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of enrofloxacin in animal tissues for consumption are regulated. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against enrofloxacin was prepared and characterized for the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The obtained mAb, Enro44, was highly specific for enrofloxacin and had a 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 1.99 ng/ml in a competitive ELISA, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.50 ng/ml. The cross-reactivity of the mAb with other quinolones and fluoroquinolones was lower than 0.01%. The subclass of the mAb Enro44 was identified as IgG1. The antigen (Ag)-captured direct competitive ELISA using the mAb Enro44 was tested on different spiked samples, including chicken muscle, cattle milk, and cattle urine, and the assay demonstrated recoveries of 82-112%, 80-125%, and 78-124%, respectively. Furthermore, the quantitation of enrofloxacin obtained from the ELISA and from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was in good agreement, with the linear regression coefficient between 0.933 and 1.056. The cDNAs encoding a heavy-chain Fd fragment (VH and CH1) and a light chain of the mAb Enro44 were cloned and sequenced. Taken together, the results obtained reveal a potential use of this mAb in an ELISA for the detection of enrofloxacin in food samples. The information of amino acid sequence of this mAb will be useful for further modification and production of the mAb in a bioreactor.

  20. Characterization of radiation-induced Apoptosis in rodent cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Min; Chen, Changhu; Ling, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    For REC:myc(ch1), Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we determined the events in the development of radiation-induced apoptosis to be in the following order: cell division followed by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, loss of adhesion and the uptake of vital dye. Experimental data which were obtained using 4 He ions of well defined energies and which compared the dependence of apoptosis and clonogenic survival on 4 He range strongly suggested that in our cells both apoptosis and loss of clonogenic survival resulted from radiation damage to the cell nucleus. Corroboratory evidence was that BrdU incorporation sensitized these cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we concluded that radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we concluded that radiation-induced apoptosis contributed to the overall radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis during late S and G 2 phases reduced the relative radioresistance observed for clonogenic survival during late S and G 2 phases. 30 refs., 8 figs

  1. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 Strain Is Suitable for the Manufacture of Naturally GABA-Enriched Bioactive Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; O'Callaghan, Tom F; O'Connor, Paula M; Ross, R P; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yogurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yogurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen) widely used in the dairy industry. Both yogurts showed comparable pH curves [ΔpH/Δ t = 0.31-0.33 h -1 ], viscosity [0.49 Pa-s], water holding capacity [72-73%], and chemical composition [moisture (87-88%), protein (5.05-5.65%), fat (0.12-0.15%), sugar (4.8-5.8%), and ash (0.74-1.2%)]. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yogurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yogurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid.

  2. The oncogenic potential of BK-polyomavirus is linked to viral integration into the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan, Daniel J; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Singh, Harsharan K; Nickeleit, Volker

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that BK-polyomavirus is linked to oncogenesis via high expression levels of large T-antigen in some urothelial neoplasms arising following kidney transplantation. However, a causal association between BK-polyomavirus, large T-antigen expression and oncogenesis has never been demonstrated in humans. Here we describe an investigation using high-throughput sequencing of tumour DNA obtained from an urothelial carcinoma arising in a renal allograft. We show that a novel BK-polyomavirus strain, named CH-1, is integrated into exon 26 of the myosin-binding protein C1 gene (MYBPC1) on chromosome 12 in tumour cells but not in normal renal cells. Integration of the BK-polyomavirus results in a number of discrete alterations in viral gene expression, including: (a) disruption of VP1 protein expression and robust expression of large T-antigen; (b) preclusion of viral replication; and (c) deletions in the non-coding control region (NCCR), with presumed alterations in promoter feedback loops. Viral integration disrupts one MYBPC1 gene copy and likely alters its expression. Circular episomal BK-polyomavirus gene sequences are not found, and the renal allograft shows no productive polyomavirus infection or polyomavirus nephropathy. These findings support the hypothesis that integration of polyomaviruses is essential to tumourigenesis. It is likely that dysregulation of large T-antigen, with persistent over-expression in non-lytic cells, promotes cell growth, genetic instability and neoplastic transformation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Spectroscopic and immunochemical characterization of left-handed Z RNA under physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, D.A.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Limited chemical brominination of poly[r(C-G)] results in partial modification of guanine C8 and cytosine C5 producing a mixture of A and Z RNA forms in 110 mM NaCl buffer at 37 0 C. 1 H NMR of Br-poly[r(C-G)] shows a 1:1 mixture of A and Z RNAs. Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments permit complete assignments of GH8, CH6, CH5, GH1' and CH1 resonances in both the A and Z forms. Distance estimates obtained from GH8 to GH1' NOEs demonstrate that even unbrominated guanine residues in these polynucleotides undergo a transition to the syn conformation (Z form). The Z form of Br-poly[r(C-G)] in 110 mM NaCl has a guanine Raman scattering band at 643 cm -1 in agreement with the band in the Z form of poly[r(C-G)] stabilized by 6 M NaClO 4 . In A RNA the band is at 671 cm -1 . The corresponding shift in DNA is from 682 cm -1 (B DNA) to 625 cm -1 (Z DNA). This suggests different glycosidic torsion angles in Z RNA and Z DNA. Inoculating rabbits with Br-poly[r(C-G)] produces polyclonal antibodies specific for the Z forms of RNA and DNA (i.e., poly[d(br 5 C-G)] or poly[d(io 5 C-G)] as judged by radioimmunoassay in 100 mM NaCl buffers. Phosphate buffer or certain high ionic strength conditions affect the recognition of Z RNA and Z DNA by anti-Z RNA or anti-Z DNA IgGs suggesting that one determinant recognized by these antibodies is the zig-zag phosphodiester backbone

  4. In vitro circumvention of cisplatin resistance by the novel sterically hindered platinum complex AMD473.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, J.; Sharp, S. Y.; Murrer, B. A.; Abrams, M.; Kelland, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    A novel sterically hindered platinum complex, AMD473 [cis-aminedichloro(2-methylpyridine) platinum (II)], has been selected for phase I clinical trials due to commence in 1997. AMD473 was rationally designed to react preferentially with nucleic acids over sulphur ligands such as glutathione. This report documents the in vitro circumvention of acquired cisplatin resistance mechanisms in human ovarian carcinoma (HOC) cell lines by AMD473. In a panel of 11 HOC cell lines, AMD473 showed intermediate growth inhibition potency (mean IC50 of 8.1 microM) in comparison to cisplatin (mean IC50 of 2.6 microM) and carboplatin (mean IC50 of 20.3 microM). AMD473 showed only a 30.7-fold increase in IC50 value from the most sensitive to the most resistant HOC cell line, whereas for cisplatin it was 117.9-fold and for carboplatin 119.7-fold. AMD473 also showed significantly (P or = 14 h for AMD473) after equitoxic doses were exposed to HOC cells for 2 h. AMD473 ICLs in the CH1 HOC cell line were slowly formed and showed no visible signs of being repaired 24 h after removal of drug. This was paralleled by a slower, longer lasting induction of p53 protein by equitoxic doses of AMD473 in HOC cell lines with wild-type p53. This new class of sterically hindered platinum compound, selected for clinical trial in 1997, may therefore elicit improved clinical response in intrinsically and acquired cisplatin-resistant tumours in the clinic. Images Figure 9 PMID:9472630

  5. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 Strain Is Suitable for the Manufacture of Naturally GABA-Enriched Bioactive Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yogurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yogurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen) widely used in the dairy industry. Both yogurts showed comparable pH curves [ΔpH/Δt = 0.31-0.33 h-1], viscosity [0.49 Pa-s], water holding capacity [72–73%], and chemical composition [moisture (87–88%), protein (5.05–5.65%), fat (0.12–0.15%), sugar (4.8–5.8%), and ash (0.74–1.2%)]. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yogurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yogurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid. PMID:27920772

  7. Myocardial iodine concentration measurement using dual-energy computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, Virgile; Legou, Francois; Ridouani, Fourat; Damy, Thibaud; Tacher, Vania; Kobeiter, Hicham; Luciani, Alain; Rahmouni, Alain; Deux, Jean-Francois

    2018-01-01

    To measure myocardium iodine concentration (MIC) in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Twenty-two patients with CA, 13 with non-amyloid hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (CH) and 10 control patients were explored with pre-contrast, arterial and 5-minute DECT acquisition (Iomeprol; 1.5 mL/kg). Inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness, blood pool iodine concentration (BPIC), MIC (mg/mL), iodine ratio and extra-cellular volume (ECV) were calculated. IVS thickness was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in CA (17 ± 4 mm) and CH (15 ± 3 mm) patients than in control patients (10 ± 1 mm). CA patients exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) higher 5-minute MIC [2.6 (2.3-3.1) mg/mL], 5-minute iodine ratio (0.88 ± 0.12) and ECV (0.56 ± 0.07) than CH [1.7 (1.4-2.2) mg/mL, 0.57 ± 0.07 and 0.36 ± 0.05, respectively] and control patients [1.9 (1.7-2.4) mg/mL, 0.58 ± 0.07 and 0.35 ± 0.04, respectively]. CH and control patients exhibited similar values (p = 0.9). The area under the curve of 5-minute iodine ratio for the differential diagnosis of CA from CH patients was 0.99 (0.73-1.0; p = 0.001). With a threshold of 0.65, the sensitivity and specificity of 5-minute iodine ratio were 100% and 92%, respectively. Five-minute MIC and iodine ratio were increased in CA patients and exhibited best diagnosis performance to diagnose CA in comparison to other parameters. (orig.)

  8. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition: 1 visual contact (V; 2 chemical contact (Ch; 3 chemical and visual contact (Ch+V; 4 no sensory contact (Iso - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning and gonadosomatic index (GSI of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test, induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition, and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test. Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  9. Core fracture analysis applied to ground water flow systems: Chickamauga Group, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, E.; Dreier, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate hydrologic properties with detailed geologic fabrics and to investigate the influence of a complex geologic setting on ground water systems. The Chickamauga Group (CH) located in Bethel Valley on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation is comprised of limestones and interbedded shales. Five core holes (CH 1-5), oriented across strike, provide a cross section of the CH and were mapped for fracture density, orientation and cross-cutting relationships as well as lithologic variations. Correlation of structural and lithologic features with downhole geophysical logs and hydraulic conductivity values shows a relationship between lithology, fracture density and increased permeability in an otherwise low-permeability environment. Structures identified as influential in enhancing hydraulic conductivity include contractional bedding plane and tectonic stylolites and extensional fractures. Three sets of extensional fractures are indicated by cross-cutting relationships and various degrees of veining. Hydraulic conductivity values (K) for the five wells indicate two ground water flow systems in the valley. A shallow system (up to 150 feet deep) shows a range in K from 10E-4 centimeters per second to 10E-6 centimeters per second. Shallow horizons show more open fractures than are observed at depth, and these fractures appear to control the enhanced K in the shallow system. A subhorizontal interface that is not defined by pre-existing structures or a stratigraphic horizon separates the two flow systems. The deeper system ranges in K values from 10E-9 centimeters per second to 10E-5 centimeters per second. The higher K values at depth correspond to increased fracture density at lithologic contacts, zones of tectonic stylolitization and partially veined extension fractures. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy [Argicultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Henry T. [Texas Tech Univ., Department of Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock TX (United States)

    2001-03-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F{sub 2} mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  11. Der Geist des Rechts in Jherings »Geist« und Jherings »Zweck«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Rückert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 years of glory and respect for two great books like Jhering’s »The Spirit of Roman Law« (1852 sqq and »Law as a Means to an End« (1877 sqq call for a small celebration in 15 stages. The familiar quotations from Jhering’s vigorous texts on »the last causes of law« are still used in the present debate. Hence the reason for a celebration seems to be clear (Ch. 1.. A view into Jhering’s time and his environment reveals the problems (in 2. and 3.. The idealistic systems had fallen. Empiricism, realism, positivism etc. obscured and disquieted jurisprudence. The dogmatic Jhering quite easily copes with this challenge without a real turning point and new methods (4.. His ambitious fundamental works have some difficulty. Jhering’s way of looking at problems must be emphasized in advance. He has to find a way between the cult of logic and the cult of fact (5.. He tries to mediate and to save the »ethical system of planets« (Spirit and to combine freedom and necessity, reason and nature and God for the sake of jurisprudence. Therefore he speeds up the old metaphysics of substance to a graded development (6.. Which steps for what? He builds a grandly planned but flawed »General theory of law« (7.. Problem and solution are dependent on their time (8.. Notwithstanding this, a view of the rich concrete themes in Spirit and Means amply repays all the effort (9.–15., in: Rg 6 [2005] forthcoming.

  12. Heavy-fermion behaviour and superconductivity of UPt3-based compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprang, M. van.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the low-temperature properties of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 and some related compounds, by measuring new properties or extending the variation of external parameters. In ch. 1 detailed information on the crystallographic structure of UPt 3 is presented. In ch. 2 the theory of the single-impurity Kondo effect is described, including the predictions for the physical properties and the parameters involved with it. The theoretical implications are extended to the case where the amount of magnetic impurities is so large that one cannot speak anymore of single-impurity (non-interacting) systems. The interactions lead to a state with quite different properties and can eventually lead to a coherent state when the magnetic moment distribution has the lattice periodicity. This is believed to be the case for UPt 3 , since the magnetic moments are present in very unit cell. Ch. 3 offers basic information on the experiments: sample preparation, characterization and measuring techniques are discussed. Ch. 4 deals with the thermal properties. The results of specific heat and thermal expansion experiments on UPt 3 , U(Pt 1-x Pd x ) 3 and UPt 3 B x are presented. With the use of the results the Grueneisen analysis is applied. The consequences for the interpretation in terms of the Kondo model are discussed. Ch. 5 discusses the transport and magnetic properties of the normal state. Results for UPt 3 as well as for the alloyed systems are presented and are, if possible, compared with the results obtained in the Kondo model. Ch. 6 deals with the superconducting state. Resistivity experiments are used to obtain the superconducting transition temperature; the influence of added impurities is investigated. Pd atoms (replacing Pt) are used as impurity, but also boron and carbon are interstitially alloyed. (author). 136 refs.; 105 figs.; 15 tabs

  13. Analysis of the structural and functional roles of coupling helices in the ATP-binding cassette transporter MsbA through enzyme assays and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Tadaomi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Minoru

    2014-07-08

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are constructed from some common structural units: the highly conserved nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which work as a nucleotide-dependent engine for driving substrate transport, the diverse transmembrane domains (TMDs), which create the translocation pathway, and the coupling helices (CHs), which are located at the NBD-TMD interface. Although the CHs are believed to be essential for NBD-TMD communication, their roles remain unclear. In this study, we performed enzyme assays and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the ABC transporter MsbA and two MsbA mutants in which the amino acid residues of one of the CHs were mutated to alanines: (i) wild type (Wt), (ii) CH1 mutant (Mt1), and (iii) CH2 mutant (Mt2). The experiments show that the CH2 mutation decreases the ATPase activity (kcat) compared with that of the Wt (a decrease of 32%), and a nearly equal degree of decrease in the ATP binding affinity (Km) was observed for both Mt1 and Mt2. The MD simulations successfully accounted for several structural and dynamical origins for these experimental observations. In addition, on the basis of collective motion and morphing analyses, we propose that the reverse-rotational motions and noddinglike motions between the NBDs and TMDs are indispensable for the conformational transition between the inward- and outward-facing conformations. In particular, CH2 is significantly important for the occurrence of the noddinglike motion. These findings provide important insights into the structure-function relationship of ABC transporters.

  14. Applications of heavy-ion reactions on hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes various aspects of 'inverse' reactions between the lightest nuclides, hydrogen and deuterium, and heavy ions in the range from carbon to phosphorus. The reactions studied in this thesis always result in one light ejectile and one excited heavy nucleus. Coincidence experiments have been performed in which both the emitted light particle and the gamma radiation emitted by the excited heavy nucleus produced, are detected. Ch. 1 describes the system built for the acquisition of data obtained in such coincidence experiments. Ch. 2 describes precision measurements of nuclear lifetimes and stopping powers. Coincident Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) experiments were performed with the reaction 2 H( 31 P,pγ) 32 P at E( 31 P 7+ )=50 MeV and thin Ti 2 H targets on Au, Ag and Cu backings. Mean lifetimes of the E x =513, 1150, 1323 and 1755 levels were determined with experimental stopping powers of Forster et al. These lifetimes were used as input in further analysis of the experimental data and of an additional experiment with a target on Mg backing to determine a consistent set of stopping power data for P ions with a velocity in the range 0-8(c/137) in the four materials mentioned. Ch.'s 3 and 4 deal with narrow resonances in reactions of nitrogen and fluorine beams with hydrogen targets. In Ch. 3 a method is described for the calibration of analyzing-magnet systems of heavy-ions accelerators. Ch. 4 describes an experiment to investigate the hydrogen concentration in silicon nitride films using a resonant inverse nuclear reaction. This method turns out to be a very suitable one for determining hydrogen concentration profiles with a good depth resolution over a large depth. 69 refs.; 23 figs.; 7 tabs

  15. Three-dimensional polymer scaffolds for enhanced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrangi, Swati; Nair, Prabha; Khanna, Aparna

    2017-08-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising avenue for the treatment of liver diseases and as drug metabolism and toxicity models in drug discovery and development. The in vitro simulation of a micro-environmental niche for hepatic differentiation remains elusive, due to lack of information about crucial factors for the stem cell niche. For generation of functional hepatocytes, an in vivo three-dimensional (3D) micro-environment and architecture should be reproduced. Towards this, we fabricated three scaffolds as dextran-gelatin (DG1), chitosan-hyaluronic acid (CH1) and gelatin-vinyl acetate (GEVAC). Hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was induced by culturing hUC-MSCs on these scaffolds. The scaffolds support hepatic differentiation by mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) micro-environment and architecture to facilitate 3D cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The expression of hepatic markers, glycogen storage, urea production, albumin secretion and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity indicated the hepatic differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The differentiated hUC-MSCs on the 3D scaffolds formed hepatospheroids (3D hepatocyte aggregates), as illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy and cytoskeleton organization. It was observed that the 3D scaffolds supported improved cell morphology, expression of hepatic markers and metabolic activities, as compared to Matrigel-coated plates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of a well-characterized scaffold (GEVAC) for enhanced differentiation of hUC-MSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Expression of various sarcomeric tropomyosin isoforms in equine striated muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamalima Dube

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the training and athletic activity of horses, we must have complete understanding of the isoform diversity of various myofibrillar protein genes like tropomyosin. Tropomyosin (TPM, a coiled-coil dimeric protein, is a component of thin filament in striated muscles. In mammals, four TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 generate a multitude of TPM isoforms via alternate splicing and/or using different promoters. Unfortunately, our knowledge of TPM isoform diversity in the horse is very limited. Hence, we undertook a comprehensive exploratory study of various TPM isoforms from horse heart and skeletal muscle. We have cloned and sequenced two sarcomeric isoforms of the TPM1 gene called TPM1α and TPM1κ, one sarcomeric isoform of the TPM2 and one of the TPM3 gene, TPM2α and TPM3α respectively. By qRT-PCR using both relative expression and copy number, we have shown that TPM1α expression compared to TPM1κ is very high in heart. On the other hand, the expression of TPM1α is higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Further, the expression of TPM2α and TPM3α are higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Using western blot analyses with CH1 monoclonal antibody we have shown the high expression levels of sarcomeric TPM proteins in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Due to the paucity of isoform specific antibodies we cannot specifically detect the expression of TPM1κ in horse striated muscle. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first report on the characterization of sarcmeric TPMs in horse striated muscle.

  17. Identification of an NADP/thioredoxin system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppe, H. C.; Picaud, A.; Buchanan, B. B.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.

    1991-01-01

    The protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system, NADP-thioredoxin reductase (NTR) and thioredoxin h, have been purified and characterized from the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analysis of this system confirms that photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas cells resemble leaves in having both an NADP- and ferrodoxin-linked thioredoxin redox system. Chlamydomonas thioredoxin h, which is smaller on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than thioredoxin m from the same source, cross-reacted with antisera to thioredoxin h from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris L.) but not with antisera to m or f thioredoxins. In these properties, the thioredoxin h resembled a thioredoxin from Chlamydomonas, designated Ch1, whose sequence was reported recently (P. Decottignies et al., 1991, Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 505-512). The differential reactivity of thioredoxin h with antisera was used to demonstrate that thioredoxin h is enriched outside the chloroplast. The NTR was purified from Chlamydomonas using thioredoxin h from the same source. Similar to its counterpart from other organisms, Chlamydomonas NTR had a subunit size of approx. 36 kDa and was specific for NADPH. Chlamydomonas NTR effectively reduced thioredoxin h from the same source but showed little activity with the other thioredoxins tested, including spinach thioredoxin h and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Comparison of the reduction of Chlamydomonas thioredoxins m and h by each of the endogenous thioredoxin reductases, NTR and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, revealed a differential specificity of each enzyme for thioredoxin. Thus, NTR showed increased activity with thioredoxin h and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase with thioredoxins m and f.

  18. The Formation of the Solar System: Theories Old and New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, Michael

    ch. 1. Theories come and theories go -- ch. 2. Measuring atoms and the universe -- ch. 3. Greek offerings -- ch. 4. The shoulders of giants -- ch. 5. A voyage of discovery to the solar system -- ch. 6. The problem to be solved -- ch. 7. The French connection -- ch. 8. American Catherine-Wheels -- ch. 9. British big tides -- ch. 10. Russian could capture-with British help -- ch. 11. German vortices-with a little French help -- ch. 12. McCrea's floccules -- ch. 13. What earlier theories indicate -- ch. 14. Disks around new stars -- ch. 15. Planets around other stars -- ch. 16. Disks around older stars -- ch. 17. What a theory should explain now -- ch. 18. The new Solar Nebula theory: the angular momentum problem -- ch. 19. Making planets top-down -- ch. 20. A bottom-up alternative -- ch. 21. Making planets faster -- ch. 22. Wandering planets -- ch. 23. Back to top-down -- ch. 24. This is the stuff that stars are made of -- ch. 25. Making dense cool clouds -- ch. 26. A star is born -- ch. 27. Close to the maddening crowd -- ch. 28. Close encounters of the stellar kind -- ch. 29. Ever decreasing circles -- ch. 30. How many planetary systems? -- ch. 31. Starting a family -- ch. 32. Tilting-but not as windmills -- ch. 33. The terrestrial planets raise problems! -- ch. 34. A British Bang theory: the earth and Venus -- ch. 35. Behold the wandering moon -- ch. 36. Fleet Mercury and warlike Mars -- ch. 37. Gods of the sea and the nether regions -- ch. 38. Bits and pieces -- ch. 39. Comets-the harbingers of doom! -- ch. 40. Making atoms with a biggish bang -- ch. 41. Is the capture theory valid?

  19. Automated online measurement of N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4 emissions based on a gas-flow-soil-core technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tingting; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xunhua; Sun, Yang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Chen, Nuo

    2013-11-01

    The gas-flow-soil-core (GFSC) technique allows to directly measure emission rates of denitrification gases of incubated soil cores. However, the technique was still suffering some drawbacks such as inadequate accuracy due to asynchronous detection of dinitrogen (N2) and other gases and low measurement frequency. Furthermore, its application was limited due to intensive manual operation. To overcome these drawbacks, we updated the GFSC system as described by Wang et al. (2011) by (a) using both a chemiluminescent detector and a gas chromatograph detector to measure nitric oxide (NO), (b) synchronizing the measurements of N2, NO, nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and (c) fully automating the sampling/analysis of all the gases. These technical modifications significantly reduced labor demands by at least a factor of two, increased the measurement frequency from 3 to 6 times per day and resulted in remarkable improvements in measurement accuracy (with detection limits of 0.5, 0.01, 0.05, 2.3 and 0.2μgN or Ch(-1)kg(-1)ds, or 17, 0.3, 1.8, 82, and 6μgN or Cm(-2)h(-1), for N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4, respectively). In some circumstances, the modified system measured significantly more N2 and CO2 and less N2O and NO because of the enhanced measurement frequency. The modified system distinguished the differences in emissions of the denitrification gases and CO2 due to a 20% change in initial carbon supplies. It also remarkably recovered approximately 90% of consumed nitrate during incubation. These performances validate the technical improvement, and indicate that the improved GFSC system may provide a powerful research tool for obtaining deeper insights into the processes of soil carbon and nitrogen transformation during denitrification. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Histone h1 depletion impairs embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhe; Cooke, Marissa; Panjwani, Shiraj; Cao, Kaixiang; Krauth, Beth; Ho, Po-Yi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Berhe, Dawit T; Pan, Chenyi; McDevitt, Todd C; Fan, Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are known to possess a relatively open chromatin structure; yet, despite efforts to characterize the chromatin signatures of ESCs, the role of chromatin compaction in stem cell fate and function remains elusive. Linker histone H1 is important for higher-order chromatin folding and is essential for mammalian embryogenesis. To investigate the role of H1 and chromatin compaction in stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, we examine the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that are depleted of multiple H1 subtypes. H1c/H1d/H1e triple null ESCs are more resistant to spontaneous differentiation in adherent monolayer culture upon removal of leukemia inhibitory factor. Similarly, the majority of the triple-H1 null embryoid bodies (EBs) lack morphological structures representing the three germ layers and retain gene expression signatures characteristic of undifferentiated ESCs. Furthermore, upon neural differentiation of EBs, triple-H1 null cell cultures are deficient in neurite outgrowth and lack efficient activation of neural markers. Finally, we discover that triple-H1 null embryos and EBs fail to fully repress the expression of the pluripotency genes in comparison with wild-type controls and that H1 depletion impairs DNA methylation and changes of histone marks at promoter regions necessary for efficiently silencing pluripotency gene Oct4 during stem cell differentiation and embryogenesis. In summary, we demonstrate that H1 plays a critical role in pluripotent stem cell differentiation, and our results suggest that H1 and chromatin compaction may mediate pluripotent stem cell differentiation through epigenetic repression of the pluripotency genes.

  1. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the US Department of Energy.

  2. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of stalagmitic floors of the Caune de de L'Arago at Tautavel (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Teles, M.M.; Rossi, A.; Zuleta, E.; Yokoyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The geological radiation dose to the stalagmites of various stratigraphic levels of the Caune de L'Arago at Tautavel has been measured by Thermoluminescence (TL) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). In all samples the TL natural spectrum a well developped 280 0 C peak and a subordinate 350 0 C peak, while the ESR line spectrum may present the h 1 , h 2 and h 3 radiative lines of Yokoyama et al.) or only h 2 . All TL peaks and ESR lines do increase with the laboratory applied radiation (β or γ) doses. The activated h 2 line is visibly unstable in laboratory conditions as well as apparently the h 3 line in one sample. Within the experimental precision, the geological doses determined from the 280C peak and h 3 line on one band and the 350 0 C peak and h 1 line (after thermal treatment of the later, see Yokoyama et al. on the other hand are identical. When the 280C natural peak is visibly affected by natural fading as shown by the plateau test, so is h 3 , and the geological doses of the 280 0 C-h 3 peaks are lowered by the same factor as compared to those of the 350 0 C-h 1 peaks. Annealing experiments show that the relationships between the TL and ESR peaks may be difficult to analyse in some samples due to the possible occurence of non radiative components in some ESR lines. Such components appear clearly at temperatures above approx. 180-200 0 C and might possibly be present below. This may have important implications for the selection of samples to be dated by ESR. (Author) [pt

  3. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.

    2017-05-01

    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995<|c_h|<1. We have analyzed a more general diagonalization of gauge boson mass matrices, then we show that the ratio of the tangents of the W-W' and Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.

  4. The Coldest Discoveries of Backyard Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Kuchner, Marc; Logsdon, Sarah; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Meisner, Aaron; Schneider, Adam; Gagne, Jonathan; Caselden, Dan

    2018-05-01

    Over the past five years, our view of the local solar neighborhood has changed drastically thanks to the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Not only did WISE redefine the five closest systems to the Sun with the discovery of Luhman16AB and WISE0855, but it also revealed the Sun's closest fly by and it defined an entirely new class of extremely cold and close compact objects: the Y dwarfs. At present, all but two of the Y dwarfs were discovered through a WISE single epoch photometric identification. As a whole, these objects are of critical importance to identifying the efficiency of star formation at the lowest masses. As individuals, each of these objects represents a unique probe into the complex chemistry present in the coldest photospheres produced in the Universe. Every single Y dwarf discovered is an observational treasure. In February 2017, we launched a citizen science project called Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 with the intention of scanning the entire sky using not just photometric information but positional as well to identify the coldest, closest, and fastest moving objects near the Sun. In this Spitzer Cycle 14 proposal, we have identified 65 tantalizingly fast moving objects that appear to be extremely cold hence potentially among the Sun's nearest neighbors. We ask for 26.8 hours with Spitzer to obtain critical ch1 and ch2 photometry as well as astrometric information (to confirm motion) which will allow us to characterize these new cold brown dwarf neighbors. The coldest objects discovered through this proposal will be important follow-up targets for JWST spectroscopy.

  5. Bose and Fermi walk configurations on planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, D K; Bhatti, F M; Essam, J W

    2012-01-01

    The number, f C n (H), of n-walk configurations of type C is investigated on certain two-rooted directed planar graphs H which will be always realized as plane graphs in R 2 . C may be Bose or Fermi as defined by Inui and Katori. Both types of configuration are collections of non-crossing walks which follow the directed paths between the roots of the plane graph H. In the case of configurations of Fermi type each walk may be included only once. The number f Bose n (H) is shown to be a polynomial in n of degree n max − 1 where n max is the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration. The coefficient of the highest power of n in this polynomial is simply related to the number of maximal Fermi walk configurations. It is also shown that n max = c(H) + 1 where c(H) is the number of finite faces on H. Extension of these results to multi-rooted graphs is also discussed. When H is the union of paths between two sites of the directed square lattice subject to various boundary conditions Kreweras showed that the number of Bose configurations is equal to the number of n-element multi-chains on segments of Young’s lattice. He expressed this number as a determinant the elements of which are polynomials in n. We evaluate this determinant by the method of LU decomposition in the case of ‘watermelon’ configurations above a wall. In this case the polynomial is a product of linear factors but on introducing a second wall the polynomial does not completely factorize but has a factor which is the number of watermelon configurations on the largest rectangular subgraph. The number of two-rooted ‘star’ configurations is found to be the product of the numbers of watermelon configurations on the three rectangular subgraphs into which it may be partitioned. (paper)

  6. Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Pesce, Stéphane; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 strain is suitable for the manufacture of naturally GABA-enriched bioactive yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Linares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic dairy foods. Yoghurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic agent. Here we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yoghurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (250 mg in a standard yoghurt volume of 125 ml, a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yoghurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yoghurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen widely used in the dairy industry. Both yoghurts showed comparable pH curves ΔpH/Δt = 0.31-0.33 h−1, viscosity 0.49 Pa.s, water holding capacity 72-73%, and chemical composition moisture (87-88 %, protein (5.05-5.65 %, fat (0.12-0.15 %, lactose (4.8-5.8 % and ash (0.74-1.2 %. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yoghurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yoghurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid.

  8. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism [Stewart (1976). Acta Cryst. A32, 565-574; Hansen & Coppens (1978). Acta Cryst. A34, 909-921] in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1988), A44, 6-7]. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily for l ≤ 4 [Hansen & Coppens, 1978; Paturle & Coppens, 1988; Coppens (1992). International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, Reciprocal space, 1st ed., edited by U. Shmueli, ch. 1.2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Coppens (1997). X-ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding. New York: Oxford University Press]. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle-Coppens (Paturle & Coppens, 1988) method in the Wolfram Mathematica software to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  9. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F 2 mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  10. Functional characterization of two CITED3 homologs (gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b in the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Richard MK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CITED proteins belong to a family of non-DNA-binding transcriptional co-regulators that are characterized by a conserved ED-rich domain at the C-terminus. This family of genes is involved in the regulation of a variety of transcriptional responses through interactions with the CBP/p300 integrators and various transcription factors. In fish, very little is known about the expression and functions of CITEDs. Results We have characterized two closely related but distinct CITED3 genes, gcCited3a and gcCited3b, from the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp. The deduced gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins share 72% amino acid identity, and are highly similar to the CITED3 proteins of both chicken and Xenopus. Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA expression of gcCited3a and gcCited3b is strongly induced by hypoxia in the kidney and liver, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gene promoters are activated by gcHIF-1. Further, ChIP assays comparing normal and hypoxic conditions reveal differential in vivo binding of gcHIF-1 to both gene promoters in kidney and liver tissues. HRE-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins inhibit gcHIF-1 transcriptional activity, and GST pull-down assays confirmed that both proteins bind specifically to the CH1 domain of the grass carp p300 protein. Conclusion The grass carp gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b genes are differentially expressed and regulated in different fish organs in response to hypoxic stress. This is the first report demonstrating in vivo regulation of two closely-related CITED3 isogenes by HIF-1, as well as CITED3 regulation of HIF-1 transcriptional activity in fish. Overall, our findings suggest that unique molecular mechanisms operate through these two gcCITED3 isoforms that likely play an important regulatory role in the hypoxic response in the grass carp.

  11. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

    1997-10-01

    Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC.

  12. GLISSANDO: GLauber Initial-State Simulation AND mOre…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowski, Wojciech; Rybczyński, Maciej; Bożek, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    , 2007, http://root.cern.ch[1

  13. [Old English plant names from the linguistic and lexicographic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Hans; Krischke, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 1350 Old English plant names have come down to us; this is a relatively large number considering that the attested Old English vocabulary comprises ca. 24 000 words. The plant names are not only interesting for botanists, historians of medicine and many others, but also for philologists and linguists; among other aspects they can investigate their etymology, their morphology (including word-formation) and their meaning and motivation. Practically all Old English texts where plant names occur have been edited (including glosses and glossaries), the names have been listed in the Old English dictionaries, and some specific studies have been devoted to them. Nevertheless no comprehensive systematic analysis of their linguistic structure has been made. Ulrike Krischke is preparing such an analysis. A proper dictionary of the Old English plant names is also a desideratum, especially since the Old English dictionaries available and in progress normally do not deal with morphological and semantic aspects, and many do not provide etymological information. A plant-name dictionary concentrating on this information is being prepared by Hans Sauer and Ulrike Krischke. In our article here, we sketch the state of the art (ch. 1), we deal with some problems of the analysis of Old English plant names (ch. 2), e.g. the delimitation of the word-field plant names, the identification of the plants, errors and problematic spellings in the manuscripts. In ch. 3 we sketch the etymological structure according to chronological layers (Indo-European, Germanic, West-Germanic, Old English) as well as according to the distinction between native words and loan-words; in the latter category, we also mention loan-formations based on Latin models. In ch. 4 we survey the morphological aspects (simplex vs. complex words); among the complex nouns, compounds are by far the largest group (and among those, the noun + noun compounds), but there are also a few suffix formations. We also briefly

  14. MRI-guided stereotactic amygdalohippocampectomy: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Z

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zdenek Vojtěch,1 Hana Malíková,2 Lenka Krámská,3 Roman Liščák,4 Vilibald Vladyka41Department of Neurology, 2Department of Radiodiagnostics, 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: This paper presents our experience of stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy performed for intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.Methods: The article describes the cases of 61 patients who were treated during the period from 2004 to 2010. Mean postoperative follow-up was 5.3 years. Neuropsychological results were obtained for a subset of 31 patients.Results: At their last postsurgical visit, 43 (70.5% patients were Engel class I, six (9.8% class II, nine (14.8% class III, and three (4.9% class IV. The surgery was complicated by four intracranial hematomas. One of them caused acute hydrocephalus and was treated by shunting and resolved without sequelae, while another caused transitory aphasia. The remaining hematomas were asymptomatic. There were two cases of meningitis which required antibiotic treatment. One patient committed suicide due to postoperative depression. After the procedure, we performed open epilepsy surgery and rethermolesions in three and two patients, respectively (8.2%. Patients showed increases in their mean full scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient (IQ scores of 4, 3, and 4 IQ points, respectively (P<0.05. Five (17.2%, four (13.8%, and four (13.3% patients improved their full scale, verbal, and performance IQ scores, respectively. No significant changes were found in memory performance, with a mean increase of 1, 3, and 0 memory quotient points in global, verbal, and visual memory, respectively (P<0.05. Global memory improved in three (10.3% patients, verbal memory in one (3.4%, and one patient (3.3% showed deterioration in visual memory.Conclusion: Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy offers a

  15. Structure-antiproliferative activity studies on l-proline- and homoproline-4-N-pyrrolidine-3-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and their nickel(ii), palladium(ii) and copper(ii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, Aliona; Platzer, Sonja; Bacher, Felix; Milunovic, Miljan N M; Dobrov, Anatolie; Spengler, Gabriella; Enyedy, Éva A; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2016-09-14

    Two water-soluble thiosemicarbazone-proline (H2L(1)) and thiosemicarbazone-homoproline hybrids (H2L(2)) were synthesised. By reaction of H2L(1) with NiCl2·6H2O, PdCl2 and CuCl2·2H2O in ethanol, the series of square-planar complexes [Ni(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·1.3H2O (1·1.3H2O), [Pd(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·H2O (2·H2O) and [Cu(H2L(1))Cl]Cl·0.7H2O (3·0.7H2O) was prepared, and starting from H2L(2) and CuCl2·2H2O in methanol, the complex [Cu(H2L(2))Cl2]·H2O (4·H2O) was obtained. The compounds have been characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray crystallography (H2L(1), 1, 2 and 4). As a solid, 1 is diamagnetic, while it is paramagnetic in methanolic solution. The effective magnetic moment of 3.26 B.M. at room temperature indicates the change in coordination geometry from square-planar to octahedral upon dissolution. The in vitro anticancer potency of ligand precursors H2L(1) and H2L(2) and metal complexes 1-4 was studied in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1 and SW480) and in noncancerous murine embryonal fibroblasts (NIH/3T3), and the mechanism of cell death was also assayed by flow cytometry. Clear-cut structure-activity relationships have been established. The metal ions exert marked effects in a divergent manner: copper(ii) increases, whereas nickel(ii) and palladium(ii) decrease the cytotoxicity of the hybrids. The antiproliferative activity of H2L(1) and metal complexes 1-3 decreases in all three tumour cell lines in the following rank order: 3 > H2L(1) > 1 > 2. The role of square-planar geometry in the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity of the metal complexes studied seems to be negligible, while structural modifications at the terminal amino group of thiosemicarbazide and proline moieties are significant for enhancing the antiproliferative activity of both hybrids and copper(ii) complexes.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, Lowell D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Focsan, A Ligia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Konovalova, Tatyana A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence, Jesse [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowman, Michael K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Molnar, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deli, Jozsef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond

  17. A neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroidism covered 266 401 cases in Tianjin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Peihua; Lv Mei; Huang Guangyu; Yuan Chengyun; Xu Jing; Yang Qingyan; Wang Xiuying; Ma Xiancheng; Liu Geli; Chen Kunming; Zhang Moling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the incidence, the curative rate and the long term prognosis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) newborns detected by screening program in Tianjin area initiated at the beginning of 1982. Methods: Primarily, the T 4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) of dried blood sample on filter paper developed in our laboratory were used. The TSH RIA was replaced by a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (Tr-FIA) in 1998. The primary T 4 RIA was replaced by a commercial kit for T 4 RIA in 1999. SPECT imaging on thyroid was performed after intravenous administration of 99 Tc m O 4 - 11.1-18.5 MBq. Results: A total of 266 401 neonates was screened for CH in our laboratory in Tianjin area. 36 cases of permanent CH were confirmed in the program. The incidence of CH was 0.014%; 22 cases of CH here were kept in treatment . Of the 22 cases, 19 cases were recalled in 2000, 18 of them (94.7%) showed currently with normal growth and development in the check-up. Imaging on thyroid ( 99 Tc m ): among 19 patients with CH, 1 case was found with normal gland, 1 with a hypogenetic thyroid, 3 cases with enlarged thyroid, 7 with ectopic gland, and the remaining 7 cases didn't show any image of thyroid. The bone age of 20 CH children was evaluated with the X ray radiography. In 6 cases of them, the bone age was normal, and 7 cases had progressed from development delay to normal. So far, retarded bone age of the remaining 7 CH patients didn't show any renewing yet. The bone age renewal was found in 3 younger children of them, but for the other 3 cases (9-12 years old) of CH patients with thyroid gland absence, the renewal of bone age was slower. Intelligence quotient (IQ) in 16 cases was measured. The scores of IQ in 13 cases of them (81.3%) were 80-119, 2 cases 72-77, 1 case 60. IQs of 6/16 cases of CH patients with thyroid absence were lower. May be it related to that, their hypothyroidism during fetal life was severer. Conclusions: Neonatal

  18. Difference of polymorphism VEGF-gene rs699947 in Indonesian chronic liver disease population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneng Ratnasari

    Full Text Available The VEGF gene polymorphism rs699947 related to clinical pathology, mortality, and recurrence of HCC. Few studies mentioned an association between VEGF gene polymorphisms with illness progression in chronic liver disease. We aimed to explore differences of VEGF gene polymorphism rs699947 in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Indonesian population.A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling and without matching was performed during a 3 years period (2011-2014 at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Blood DNA was sequenced from 123 subjects with chronic liver diseases [39 chronic hepatitis (CH, 39 liver cirrhosis (LC, and 45 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC]. 59 healthy subjects also participated. Using isolated VEGF genes for specific primers for rs699947, blood samples were examined by targeting DNA sequences with Applied Bio systems. All data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0 with significance level at P0.05. HBV was the dominant etiology in HCC, LC, and CH besides HCV and non HBV-HCV (PC vs. C>C, and genotypes distribution. Proportion of SNP -2578 A>C vs. C>C CH 1.8:1; HCC 1.4:1; healthy 1.7:1; but its proportion in LC was inversed (1:1.2. Genotype A was low in all subjects (5%-11%. Significant difference of allele distribution was found in healthy vs. LC, and HCC; CH vs. LC. Based on HWE analyses, distribution of allele C was dominant. There were not significant differences in deletion, insertion-deletion at -2547 until -2526, and haplotype (Ht CCGACCCC (P>0.05. The OR analyses of allele and SNP showed that allele A can be a predictor of disease progression in LC to HCC (OR 2.26 and healthy to LC (OR 1.65; and SNP A>C also can be a predictor in healthy to HCC (OR 1.41 and CH (OR 1.14.The occurrence of allele A and SNP A>C VEGF gene (-2578 might predict illness progression from healthy to CH, LC or HCC and LC to HCC.

  19. Global Warming Estimation from MSU: Correction for Drift and Calibration Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz), made in the nadir direction from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA morning satellites (NOAA 6, 10 and 12 that have about 7am/7pm orbital geometry) and afternoon satellites (NOAA 7, 9, 11 and 14 that have about 2am/2pm orbital geometry) are analyzed in this study to derive global temperature trend from 1980 to 1998. In order to remove the discontinuities between the data of the successive satellites and to get a continuous time series, first we have used shortest possible time record of each satellite. In this way we get a preliminary estimate of the global temperature trend of 0.21 K/decade. However, this estimate is affected by systematic time-dependent errors. One such error is the instrument calibration error. This error can be inferred whenever there are overlapping measurements made by two satellites over an extended period of time. From the available successive satellite data we have taken the longest possible time record of each satellite to form the time series during the period 1980 to 1998 to this error. We find we can decrease the global temperature trend by about 0.07 K/decade. In addition there are systematic time dependent errors present in the data that are introduced by the drift in the satellite orbital geometry arises from the diurnal cycle in temperature which is the drift related change in the calibration of the MSU. In order to analyze the nature of these drift related errors the multi-satellite Ch 2 data set is partitioned into am and pm subsets to create two independent time series. The error can be assessed in the am and pm data of Ch 2 on land and can be eliminated. Observations made in the MSU Ch 1 (50.3 GHz) support this approach. The error is obvious only in the difference between the pm and am observations of Ch 2 over the ocean. We have followed two different paths to assess the impact of the errors on the global temperature trend. In one path the

  20. Viabilidad económica de la producción de espárrago en la Región del Maule, Chile Economic viability of asparagus production in the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán L Andrade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de viabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. en Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos fueron tomados de los registros históricos de un predio localizado en la zona de Linares, Región del Maule, Chile. Los indicadores de viabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN, razón beneficio-costo (RBC, y período de recuperación del capital (PRC. Los indicadores de eficiencia económica fueron el costo medio total (CMET, margen unitario ponderado (MUP y la rentabilidad sobre capital (RSC. Como unidad de análisis se consideró una hectárea. Para productores con tierra, los resultados obtenidos en la situación estándar fueron: Ch$1,52 millones (VAN, 12,1% (TIR, 0,3 (IVAN, 1,1 (RBC y 10 años (PRC. Para la etapa de producción se proyectó un CMET mínimo de Ch $317,8 kg-1, un MUP máximo de Ch$407 kg-1 y una RSC de 20,3%. La principal conclusión es que el cultivo de espárrago en la región del Maule, en Chile, es viable para los productores con tierra.Viability and economic efficiency indicators for asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. production in Chile were evaluated. Technical parameters were obtained from an historical farm located in Linares area, Maule Region, Chile. Viability was assessed by means of net present value (VAN, internal rate of return (TIR, net present value index (IVAN, cost-benefit ratio (RBC, and investment recovery period (PRC. Economic efficiency was assessed through production average cost (CMET, weighted unit margin (MUP, and return on equity (RSC. The analysis was based upon one hectare. Results for producers who own their land were US$ 2,529 ha-1 (VAN, 12.14% (TIR, 0.25 (IVAN, and 1.1 (RBC. The minimum CMET was estimated at US$ 0.53 kg-1 the maximum MUP at US$ 0.68 kg-1, and RSC until 20.3%. The main conclusion is that asparagus production in the

  1. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, Lowell D.; Focsan, A. Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A.; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K.; Dixon, David A.; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car ·+ ) but also neutral radicals ((number s ign)Car · ) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5(prime), and possibly 9 or 9(prime) and 13 or 13(prime). Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car # center d ot# + which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid π-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity (Lycopene (III) versus 8(prime)-apo-β-caroten-8(prime)-al (IV)); hydrogen bonding (Lutein (V) versus III); host (silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve); and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H + from the 5(5(prime)), 9(9(prime)) or 13(13(prime)) methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1 Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I # center d ot# + ...Chl # center d ot# - ), lower in

  2. Efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral na quebra de dormência e producão do pessegueiro-'Flamecrest' Effect of the application of hidrogen cyanamid and mineral oil on dormancy breaking and peach production, cv. Flamecrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMAR ARDUINO BETTIO MARODIN

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de aumentar a produção e qualidade de frutos do pessegueiro- 'Flamecrest', de alta exigência em frio, realizou-se um experimento no Município de Farroupilha-RS, no ano de 2000, com o uso de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral. Estudou-se o efeito de duas diferentes épocas de aplicação dos tratamentos (15-7 e 2-8 sobre a brotação, floração, frutificação, produção e antecipação de colheita. Foram testados os efeitos dos seguintes tratamentos: cianamida hidrogenada (C.H. 1,22; 2,45; 3,675 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com óleo mineral (O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1; O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 isolado e testemunha (sem pulverização. Os tratamentos não anteciparam a brotação das gemas floríferas, porém C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com O.M. a 10 g de i.a.L-1 proporcionaram plantas com maior brotação das gemas vegetativas. Não houve efeito marcante dos tratamentos sobre a floração e a porcentagem de frutos vingados nas duas épocas. O número de frutos raleados por planta foi superior para os tratamentos com C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 quando aplicados na segunda época. Já, para o número e massa total dos frutos colhidos, destacaram-se, na primeira época (15-7, os tratamentos com C.H. 1,22 e 3,675 g de i.a.L-1 + O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 e, na segunda época (2-8, os tratamentos com C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 + O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1. Os tratamentos da segunda época resultaram em produções médias superiores à primeira. A massa média dos frutos não foi alterada de forma clara pelos tratamentos, assim como o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a resistência de polpa.With the objective of increasing yields and fruit quality of cv. Flamecrest peaches, a cultivar with high chilling units demand, the present experiment was conducted in an orchard near to the Farroupilha city, in the year 2000. The hidrogen cyanamid and mineral oil were applied in two different times: middle of July and begining of August. The Dormancy breaking, flowering, fruit set, yield, and antecipation of harvest were evaluated from plants of the folllowing treatments: 1,22; 2,45; 3,675 or 4,90 g of i.a.L-1 hydrogen cyanamid together with 10 g i.a L-1 of mineral oil or a single application of 10 g i.a L-1 mineral oil. The Control plants were not sprayed with the dormancy breaking treatment. None of the treatments resulted in sprouting antecipation of flowering buds however, plants treated with 1,22 or 4,90 g i.a L-1 hydrogen cyanamid mixed with 10 g i.a L-1 mineral oil, had a higher number of sprouted vegetative buds. There was no significant effect of the period of application on flowering and fruit set. The number of fruits thinned out from each plant was higher for the treatments with 2,45 or 4,90 g i.a L-1 of hydrogen cyanamid mixed with 10 g i.a L-1 of mineral oil. When applied to peaches trees in july, the treatments with 1,22 and 3,675 g i.a. L-1 of hydragen cyanamid and 10 g i.a. L-1 of mineral oil resulted in a higher number of fruits and total yield per plant. All the treatments, in the second apllication period, produced higher yields. The Average fruit weight, total soluble solids and pulp firmness were not influenced by the treatments.

  3. L'utilisation de la polarimetrie radar et de la decomposition de Touzi pour la caracterisation et la classification des physionomies vegetales des milieux humides : le cas du lac Saint-Pierre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Gabriel

    Wetlands fill many important ecological functions and contribute to the biodiversity of fauna and flora. Although there is a growing recognition of the importance to protect these areas, it remains that their integrity is still threatened by the pressure of human activities. The inventory and the systematic monitoring of wetlands are a necessity and remote sensing is the only realistic way to achieve this goal. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute and improve the wetland characterization using satellite polarimetric data acquired in L (ALOS-PALSAR) and C (RADARSAT-2) band. This thesis is based on two hypotheses (Ch. 1). The first hypothesis stipulate that classes of plant physiognomies, based on plant structure, are more appropriate than classes of plant species because they are best adapted to the information content of polarimetric radar data. The second hypothesis states that polarimetric decomposition algorithms allow an optimal extraction of polarimetric information compared to a multi-polarized approach based on the HH, HV and VV channels (Ch. 3). In particular, the contribution of the incoherent Touzi decomposition for the inventory and monitoring of wetlands is examined in detail. This decomposition allows the characterization of the scattering type, its phase, orientation, symmetry, degree of polarization and the backscattered power of a target with a series of parameters extracted from an analysis of the coherency matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The lake Saint-Pierre region was chosen as the study site because of the great diversity of its wetlands that are covering more than 20 000 ha. One of the challenges posed by this thesis is that there is neither a standard system enumerating all the possible physiognomic classes nor an accurate description of their characteristics and dimensions. Special attention was given to the creation of these classes by combining several data sources and more than 50 plant species were grouped into nine

  4. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    , as a response for a more interdisciplinary science approach to understanding the coastal Everglades ecological system, the SOFL-GCC hydrology project was integrated into the “Dynamics of Land-Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate” study (Smith and others, 2002). Data from the ongoing study has been useful in providing an empirical hydrologic baseline for the greater Everglades ecosystem restoration science and management needs. The hydrology network consisted of 13 hydrologic gaging stations installed in the southwestern coastal region of Everglades National Park along three transects: Shark River (Shark or SH) transect, Lostmans River (Lostmans or LO) transect, and Chatham River (Chatham or CH) transect (fig. 1). There were five paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Shark transect (SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5) and one stage gaging station (BSC) in the Big Sable Creek; four paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Lostmans transect (LO1, LO2, LO3, and LO4); and three paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Chatham transect (CH1, CH2, and CH3). Both surface-water and groundwater levels, salinities, and temperatures were monitored at the paired gaging stations. Rainfall was recorded at marsh and open canopy gaging stations. This report details the study introduction, method, and description of data collected, which are accessible through the final instantaneous hydrologic dataset stored in the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) South Florida Hydrology Database website, http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/sfl_hydro_data/location.html#brdlandmargin.

  5. Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Dobson

    2003-01-01

    these software packages is discussed in Sections 3 and 6.1.1. The steps involved in numerical grid development include: (1) defining the location of important calibration features, (2) determining model grid layers and fault geometry based on the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Integrated Site Model (ISM), and definition of HGUs, (3) analyzing and extracting GFM and ISM data pertaining to layer contacts and property distributions, (4) discretizing and refining the two-dimensional (2-D), plan-view numerical grid, (5) generating the 3-D grid, with finer resolution at the proposed repository horizon and within the Paintbrush nonwelded (PTn) and ch1 (Uppermost Calico Hills Formation (Table 11)) hydrogeologic units, and (6) formulating the dual-permeability mesh. The products of grid development include a set of one-dimensional (1-D) vertical columns of gridblocks for hydrogeologic-property-set inversions, a 2-D UZ Model vertical cross-sectional grid for fault hydrogeologic-property calibrations, and a 3-D UZ Model grid for additional model calibrations and generating flow fields for Performance Assessment (PA)

  6. Climate Products and Services to Meet the Challenges of Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    existing federal climate products and services and the needed federal climate products and services which will address these weather thresholds. Just as important, as we work to meet the needs, a robust education and outreach program is essential to take full advantage of new products, services and capabilities. To ascertain what climate products and services currently exist to address weather thresholds relative to surface transportation, what climate products and services are needed to address these weather thresholds, and how to bridge the gap between what is available and what is needed, the OFCM surveyed the federal meteorological community. Consistent with the extreme events highlighted in the IPCC report, the OFCM survey categorized the weather thresholds associated with surface transportation into the following extreme event areas: (a) excessive heat, (b) winter precipitation, (c) summer precipitation, (d) high winds, and (e) flooding and coastal inundation. The survey results, the gap analysis, as well as OFCM's planned, follow-on activities with additional categories (i.e., in addition to surface transportation) and weather thresholds will be shared with meeting participants. 1 The OFCM is an interdepartmental office established in response to Public Law 87-843 with the mission to ensure the effective use of federal meteorological resources by leading the systematic coordination of operational weather and climate requirements, products, services, and supporting research among the federal agencies. 2 http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap4-7/final-report/sap4-7-final-ch1.pdf 3 http://www.gcrio.org/ipcc/ar4/wg1/faq/ar4wg1faq-3-3.pdf

  7. OBTENCIÓN DE BIOCOMBUSTIBLES PRODUCTO DE LA PIROLISIS RÁPIDA DE RESIDUOS DE PALMA AFRICANA (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. OBTENÇÃO DE BICOMBUSTÍVEIS POR PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA DE RESÍDUOS DE PALMA DE DENDÊ (Elaeisg uineensis Jacq. BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BY FAST PYROLYSIS OF PALM OIL WASTES (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. ARTEAGA V.

    2012-12-01

    de 2.72 % vol. para o CO2, 0.706 % vol. para o H2, 1.289 % vol. para o CH4. A composição restante foi de N2. A maior quantidade de gases foi obtida quando o processofoifeito a 700 ºCembora o rendimento do bio-oilfoi de 14.9 % em peso. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura no reator é um parâmetro importante na composição dos gases e no rendimento do bio-oil. Uma fase posterior consistiria na avaliação dos custos e os benefícios para re-configurar o reator a fim de otimizar o rendimentonaprodção do bio-oil, assim como de avaliar a possibilidade de usar a fração gasosa como fonte energética para levar a cabo o processo de pirólise.Biofuels were obtained by fast pyrolysis of palm oilwastes (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in a free fall reactor. Previously, palm oil wastes were dried and sieved and then were fed to the reactor. As pyrolysis products, char, non-condensable gas and bio-oil, a condensed liquid composed by alcohols, carboxylic acids, alkanes and aromatics, were obtained. The experiments were carried out at temperature range 500-700°C. The highest bio-oil yield, 23.3%, was obtained at 600°C. The gas compositional analysis showed CO2,720%, H0,703 % , CH1,289%, CO 22 4 2,472 % and N2 for the non-condensable gas produced at 600°C. The highest gas yield was obtained at 700°C but bio-oil yield was 14.9%. Results indicate that temperature has an important effect on the product yields and composition. A future step will be an economical analysis in order to evaluate the possibility of using non-condensable gas as energy source for pyrolysis reactor.

  8. I. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of novel 6pi-electron ligands. II. Improvement of student writing skills in general chemistry lab reports through the use of Calibrated Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Wilson Ngambeki

    Abstract I. The goal of this study was to synthesize and characterize a set of coordination complexes containing 6pi-cationic ligands. These compounds could be extremely useful as catalysts for the polymerization of olefins that are widely used in the synthetic polymer industry. The original strategy was to synthesize the 6pi-cationic ligands using (Ph2P) 3CH (1) and (Me2P)3CH (10) as precursors; however, both precursors 1 and 10 were found to be highly reactive leading to the fragmentation products (Ph 2P)2CH2 and (Me2P)2CH 2 respectively. In trying to control the reactivity, precursor 1 was coordinated to the group 6B metal carbonyl in two modes, Mo(CO)3(C 2H5CN)(Ph2P)2CHPPh2 and W(CO) 3(C2H5CN)(Ph2P)2CHPPh 2. In these novel compounds, two of the three phosphorus atoms are chelated to the metal. These complexes were isolated and characterized by X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, NMR and infrared spectroscopy. When these metal complexes were reacted with B(C6F5)3, the complexes were stabilized, and no molecular fragmentation was observed. Instead, a second mode of coordination was observed by 31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy, where all three phosphorus atoms are bonded to the metal in a tridentate fashion, yielding the novel product EtCNB(C6F 5)3, which was characterized by X-ray analysis. However, because there was no hydride abstraction from the tertiary carbon in either compound, further studies will be required to develop a strategy for hydride abstraction to produce a cationic ligand. Another strategy for the synthesis of 6pi-cationic ligands was to directly synthesize the halogenated version of the tertiary carbon atom of compound 10. Fractional recrystallization of the crude product yielded two compounds of 2,4,6-trimethypyridinium bromide and (PMe2)3CBr. (PMe2)3CBr was determined to be pure as revealed by 31P{1H} NMR. It is expected that oxidation of the bromide should yield the 6pi-cationic ligand. In the next strategy, density function theory calculations (DFT

  9. Effect of the intervention program "Paralympic School Day" on attitudes of children attending international school towards inclusion of students with disabilities [Vliv intervenčního programu "Paralympijský školní den" na postoje dětí navštěvujících mezinárodní školu vůči začlenění studentů s postižením

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Xafopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that the "Paralympic School Day" had on the attitudes of children attending the International school in Ostrava, Czech Republic, toward the inclusion of peers with a disability in general physical education classes. METHODS: Students (71, including 42 boys and 29 girls, with a mean age of 12.70 and 11.67 years respectively, originating from 5 countries, participated in the program. All participants completed the questionnaire "Children's Attitude Toward Integrated Physical Education-Revised" (CAIPE-R (Block, 1995 and the Adjective checklist (Siperstein, 1980 before and after the implementation of the program. The CAIPE-R questionnaire examines two areas (subscales - general attitudes and sport specific attitudes. RESULTS: Results indicated significant differences only in general attitudes among girls measured by the Adjective checklist. Other changes were non significant. Among boys there were slight non significant positive changes in the adjective checklist (t = 0.75, p = 0.46 and in attitudes toward inclusion in PE (t = 0.61, p = 0.55 and non significant negative changes in attitudes toward the modification of sport rules (t = -0.25, p = 0.81. Among girls we found non significant negative changes in attitudes toward inclusion in PE (t = -0.64, p = 0.53 and non significant negative changes were also found in attitudes toward the modification of sport rules (t = -1.26, p = 0.22. [CÍL: Cílem této studie bylo prošetřit, jaký má "Paralympijský školní den" vliv na postoje dětí navštěvujících 1. mezinárodní školu v Ostravě vůči začlenění spolužáků s postižením do hodin tělesné výchovy. METODIKA: Programu ze zúčastnili studenti z 5 zemí (71, z toho 42 chlapců a 29 dívek průměrného věku 12,70, respektive 11,67 let. Všichni účastníci vyplnili dotazník "Postoj dětí vůči integrované tělesné výchově - revidovaná verze" (CAIPE-R (Block

  10. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    ambiente y tipo de suelo de la estepa herbácea, que aún se mantienen por el escaso tiempo transcurrido desde la implantación del bosque. Se generaron dos modelos de regresión lineal que evidencian la relación entre MO CH y MO PI para distintos tipos de vegetación: Plantación de pino ponderosa y estepa herbácea MO PI (% = 1,37 x MO CH (% + 0,81 (R² = 0,86; n = 40 Estepa arbustiva, arbustal, y bosque denso de ciprés MO PI (% = 1,19 x MO CH (% + 1,58 (R² = 0,93; n = 60 Las ecuaciones generadas permiten comparar datos de contenido de MO obtenidos por los distintos métodos analíticos.The determination of organic matter (OM content is key for the knowledge of agricultural and forestry soil productivity. This study evaluated the relationship between OM content determined by weight loss-on ignition (OM WLOI and Walkley-Black wet oxidation method (OM WO in soils of the Patagonian Andean Region. The relation was evaluated for volcanic soils with and without amorphous components and with different vegetation types: Pinus ponderosa plantations, herbaceous steppe, shrubly steppe, shrubs and Austrocedrus chilensis forests. One hundred sampling sites were selected and composed samples were obtained from horizon A. Data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance and simple regressions. OM WO was always lower than OM WLOI. This is expectable since OM WLOI includes the total OM, whereas MO WO discriminates the strongly condensed carbon forms. Although differences in the relationship between the analytical methods for soils with and without amorphous components were not detected, a great relationship between these components and organic matter content was found. The relationship between the analytical methods varied according to the vegetation type. Soils with herbaceous steppe and pine plantations presented the greatest differences between the analytical methods. OM WO was in average 37% lower than OM WLOI for these types of vegetation, being significantly greater than

  11. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion. The third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2011-06-01

    Primary objective of this lecture note is to provide a basic text for the students to study plasma physics and controlled fusion researches. Secondary objective is to offer a reference book describing analytical methods of plasma physics for the researchers. This was written based on lecture notes for a graduate course and an advanced undergraduate course those have been offered at Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. In ch.1 and 2, basic concept of plasma and its characteristics are explained. In ch.3, orbits of ion and electron are described in several magnetic field configurations. Chapter 4 formulates Boltzmann equation of velocity space distribution function, which is the basic relation of plasma physics. From ch.5 to ch.9, plasmas are described as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid. MHD equation of motion (ch.5), equilibrium (ch.6) and diffusion and confinement time of plasma (ch.7) are described by the fluid model. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss problems of MHD instabilities whether a small perturbation will grow to disrupt the plasma or will damp to a stable state. The basic MHD equation of motion can be derived by taking an appropriate average of Boltzmann equation. This mathematical process is described in appendix A. The derivation of useful energy integral formula of axisymmetric toroidal system and the analysis of high n ballooning mode are described in app. B. From ch.10 to ch.14, plasmas are treated by kinetic theory. This medium, in which waves and perturbations propagate, is generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It may absorb or even amplify the wave. Cold plasma model described in ch.10 is applicable when the thermal velocity of plasma particles is much smaller than the phase velocity of wave. Because of its simplicity, the dielectric tensor of cold plasma can be easily derived and the properties of various wave can be discussed in the case of cold plasma. If the refractive index becomes large and the phase velocity of the

  12. ІСТОРІЯ ФІЛОСОФСЬКО-АНТРОПОЛОГІЧНОЇ ДУМКИ В УКРАЇНІ НА ПОЧАТКУ ХХІ СТОЛІТТЯ/ HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор СКАКУН

    2017-11-01

    stanovlennya gumanitarno-naukovoyi paradygmу» [The Influence of the Humanization and Humanization Processes on the Formation of the Humanitarian-Paradigm], Naukovij visnik ChNU. Zb. nauk. prats'. Filosofiya [Scientific Journal of the ChNU. Zb sciences works. Philosophy]. Chernivtsi: Chernivets'kij natsional'nij universitet, Vyp. 462–463, 2009, P, 74–79. 10 Kisel'ov M. «Kontseptsiya yedynoyi naukу: filosofs'ko-metodologichnij aspect» [Concept of unified science": philosophical and methodological aspect], Filosofs'ki dialogi'2010 [Philosophical Dialogues 2010], Filosofs'ko-antropologichni chуtannya: tvorcha spadshyna V.I. Shinkaruka ta s'ogodennya [Philosophical-anthropological readings: the creative heritage of V.I. Shinkruk and the present], Vyp. 4, Ch. 1, K., 2010, P, 122–138. 11 Bistrуts'kуj Ye. Metafizуka suspil'nogo, sho sumirna lyudуni [Metaphysics of the public, which is compatible with a person], Kontseptsiya mul'tikul'turalizmu [The concept of multiculturalism], K., 2005, P, 43–51. 84 Скакун І., Цуркан І. Історія філософсько-антропологічної думки в Україні… history. Philosophical and anthropological space in Ukraine have specific characteristics associated with the natural, social, ethnic and geopolitical aspects. The specifics of the theme predisposed application of compcomprehensive approach to the research methodologies, among which there should be mentioned such as: philosophical, general scientific and special methods. Phenomenological method contributed to the substantiation of humanity of scientific knowledge. The dialectical approach in the study of man made it possible to reveal the bases of its positioning in the measurement of the permanent changes in historical realities. Scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of the idea of personality and principle of anthropocentrism, shapes their actualization in classical and post-classical paradigms of knowledge and

  13. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  14. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    listing of external factors (colonization, invasions) originating in the Near East and the Aegean as sequential narrative history, and the descriptive, systemic analysis of 'materiality, production, trade, migration and colonization which have for long been the cornerstones of Cypriot archaeology' (p. 11). In contrast, he turns his attention towards the internal processes within the island society of Bronze Age Cyprus, which shape its insularity and give it a distinctive identity at this specific period, processes that lead to contextual history and formative tradition. 'To study how any society changes, at any time, it is crucial first to look at internal rather than external factors' (p. 1). Defining the concept of insularity is his aim; therefore, he begins with a number of very apposite rhetorical questions (p. 13) and identifies several individual parameters (connectivity, islandscape, social identity, ethnicity, migration, acculturation, hybridization) to which he assigns collective and individual meanings. The eight chapters that follow may be assigned, broadly, to three general units: in the first of these (ch. 1-2), Knapp offers a synthesis of these parameters in the form of a 'theory of insularity'. In the second (ch. 3-7) he formulates his revised narrative of the prehistory and social identity of the island, which involves a presentation of social and economic, rather than stylistic categories, on the basis of the parameters laid down in his theoretical scheme. Finally, in the third unit (ch. 8), he records his overall conclusions, the new cognitive experiences and concerns that have emerged from the application of his theory, both to Cyprus and to insular archaeology in the Mediterranean and on a world scale. Knapp's synthesis of the theory of insularity in the first unit is a major contribution to Mediterranean archaeology, and makes this book a seminal work. Continuing and broadening Broodbank's (2000) reasoning about the Cyclades, Knapp, with Cyprus as his

  15. Selective Photonic Disinfection; A ray of hope in the war against pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2016-06-01

    Scattering of Light by Crystals New York Wiley citation> 18 citation publication-type="other"> See, for example, www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/understand/ionize_nonionize.html citation> 19 citation publication-type="journal"> Cadeta J Sageb E Doukia T 2005 Ultraviolet radiation-mediated damage to cellular DNA Mutat. Res. 571 3 17 3-17 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2004.09.012 citation> 20 citation publication-type="journal"> Chan H L Gaffney P R Waterfield M D Anderlec H Matthiessen H P Schwarz H P Turecek P L Timms J F 2006 Proteomic analysis of UVC irradiation-induced damage of plasma proteins: serum amyloid P component as a major target of photolysis FEBS Lett. 580 3229 3236 3229-36 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.05.002 citation> 21 citation publication-type="journal"> Michnik A Michalik K Drzazga Z 2008 Effect of UVC radiation on conformational restructuring of human serum albumin J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 90 170 178 170-8 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2007.12.007 citation> 22 citation publication-type="other"> Segelstein D J 1981 The complex refractive index of water MS thesis University of Missouri-Kansas City (for a review, see http://omlc.org/spectra/water/) citation> 23 citation publication-type="journal"> Ainslie M A McColm J G A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103 1671 1672 1671-2 10.1121/1.421258 citation> 24 citation publication-type="book"> Myers A B Mathies R A 1987 Biological Applications of Raman Spectroscopy (vol 2) Resonance Raman Spectra of Polyenes and Aromatics Spiro T G New York Wiley ch 1 citation> 1 citation publication-type="book"> Tsen K T Dykeman E C Sankey O F Tsen S W D Kiang J G 2009 Inactivation of viruses with femtosecond laser pulses Contemporary Trends in Bacteriophage Research Adams H T Hauppauge, NY Nova Science Publishers 151 77 151-77 citation> 2 citation publication-type="journal"> Dykeman E C Sankey O F 2010 Atomistic modeling of the low-frequency mechanical modes and Raman spectra of icosahedral virus capsids Phys